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**Auxiliary Elevations and Auxiliary Plans
**

So far, we have been able to draw four different views of the same block using the principal planes.

In most engineering drawings, these are sufficient to solve many graphic problems. However to

solve problems involving inclined (slanted) surfaces other views are necessary, perhaps drawn on

auxiliary (additional) planes to clarify a particular point.

1. Surfaces

A surface is a finite portion of a plane or the outer face of an object bounded by an identifiable

perimeter. It is a geometric entity having no thickness but have an area but not volume. The fender

of an automobile and the aeroplane wing are example of complex 3-D surfaces.

Just as a line represent the path of a moving point, a surface represents the path of a moving line,

called a generator. The path that the generator travels is called the directrix. A directrix can be a

point, a straight line, or a curved line. Figure 1 illustrates the shapes.

The shape of a surface is determined by the constraints place on the moving line used to generate

the surface. Surfaces are generally classified as planer, single curved, double-curved, warped, and

freeform.

Line (Generator)

Let us first consider the problems involving planer surfaces

of the object, which are inclined (slanted) to planes of

projections (Vertical, Profile and Horizontal planes).

1.2 Planer surface.

Depending on the inclination of the surface with plane of

projection, three types of inclined surfaces could be

identified

They are categorized as Normal Surface, Inclined Surface,

and Oblique Surface.

Directrix

Figure 1

1.2.1. Normal Surface.

A normal surface is a plane surface that is parallel to a plane of projection. It appear in true size

and true shape on the plane to which it is parallel, and as a vertical or a horizontal line on adjacent

planes of projection.

1.2.2. Inclined Surface.

An inclined surface is a plane surface that is perpendicular to one plane of projection but inclined to

adjacent planes of projection. An inclined surface will project a straight line on the plane to which

it is perpendicular and will appear foreshortened on planes to which it is inclined.

1.2.3. Oblique Surface.

An oblique surface is a plane that is oblique to all planes of projection. It is not perpendicular to

any principle plane of projection. It will always appear as a foreshortened surface in all views. It

will never appear as a line or true size and shape plane in any principal view

1

The Advanced Technological Institute, Labuduwa, Academic Year 2013

and these surfaces appear as a line in the other two views. When a surface is inclined or sloped in only one direction.Engineering Drawing 2. then that surface is not seen in its true shape in Width of A the plan.ME 1102 . It describes the object better than the views at figure 2. Inclined plane in multi view projection If the surface of an object lays horizontal or a vertical position. Labuduwa. Where an inclined surface has important features that must be shown. Academic Year 2013 . or side view. 2 The Advanced Technological Institute. a view on a plane parallel to the inclined surface (top surface of the flange) as at figure 3 does show its true size and shape. In the plan and side views. B True length of A B B A Figure 1 Figure 2 shows another example where a view other than a Front view or an End view is needed to show very important features of a flanged pipe. The true length of surfaces A and B in figure 1 is seen in A the front view only. clearly and without distortion. Side view Front view Plan view Figure 2 However. the surface appear in their A true size and shape in one of the three views. These extra elevations are called auxiliary views (elevations) (AV) or auxiliary plans (AP). only the width of the surfaces A and B appears in its true size. as a normal surface. front. an auxiliary or helper view must be used. The B length of these surfaces is foreshortened.

3 The Advanced Technological Institute. The auxiliary plane is unfolded through an angle of 90° along the hinge MN as shown in the figure. Auxiliary view showing the face of the flanged pipe. or depth is taken from another regular view. it is hinged on the top view and its primary reference is the height. The primary reference is the depth (D). Therefore. Each is developed by projecting from on of the three regular views using as a primary reference. A V D N P D H V Figure 4 The first primary auxiliary view.1 The front auxiliary view Hinged to front view M Figure 3. Academic Year 2013 . 3. It is a view looking directly at the inclined surface in a direction perpendicular to it. There are three primary auxiliary views. P 3. width. Labuduwa. Kinds of auxiliary views Auxiliary views are classified according to which of the three principal (regular) planes they are developed from.ME 1102 .2 Top auxiliary view The second auxiliary view is the top auxiliary view. The true profile of the inclined surface is projected to the auxiliary plane. the front auxiliary view is shown at Figure 4.Engineering Drawing An auxiliary view is a projection on an auxiliary plane that is parallel to an inclined (slanting) surface. 3.The inclined surface is perpendicular to the vertical plane but not perpendicular to the profile plane (side plane) and horizontal plane. A dimension height. shown in figure 5. The inclined surface is perpendicular to the Horizontal plane.

A Hinged to Right side H N W A M V P V Figure 6 In the previous examples the three principal planes always show the auxiliary plane as an inclined line (MN) 4. If a true view is required for this surface. it is hinged on the right side view and its primary reference is the width. Since the oblique surface is not perpendicular to the viewing planes. it cannot be parallel to them and consequently appears foreshortened. The inclined surface is perpendicular to the Profile plane. In this example right side is selected as the side view. it will appear as a surface in all three views but never in its true shape.Oblique surfaces When a surface is sloped so that it is not perpendicular to any of the viewing planes. W P V Surface A (Oblique) Top Front Side A A A Figure 7 Oblique surface not true shape in any of the three views 4 The Advanced Technological Institute. a primary and a secondary view is needed to be constructed.3 Side auxiliary view The third auxiliary view is the side auxiliary view. Academic Year 2013 . two auxiliary views. Labuduwa.ME 1102 . shown in figure 6. Therefore. Figure 7 shows an oblique plane obtained by cutting a peg from a corner of a cuboids. This is referred to as an oblique surface.Engineering Drawing Hinged to top View H N H Partial view A P M V V H H A Figure 5 3.

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