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# ME 1102 - Engineering Drawing

Auxiliary Elevations and Auxiliary Plans
So far, we have been able to draw four different views of the same block using the principal planes.
In most engineering drawings, these are sufficient to solve many graphic problems. However to
solve problems involving inclined (slanted) surfaces other views are necessary, perhaps drawn on
auxiliary (additional) planes to clarify a particular point.
1. Surfaces
A surface is a finite portion of a plane or the outer face of an object bounded by an identifiable
perimeter. It is a geometric entity having no thickness but have an area but not volume. The fender
of an automobile and the aeroplane wing are example of complex 3-D surfaces.
Just as a line represent the path of a moving point, a surface represents the path of a moving line,
called a generator. The path that the generator travels is called the directrix. A directrix can be a
point, a straight line, or a curved line. Figure 1 illustrates the shapes.
The shape of a surface is determined by the constraints place on the moving line used to generate
the surface. Surfaces are generally classified as planer, single curved, double-curved, warped, and
freeform.
Line (Generator)
Let us first consider the problems involving planer surfaces
of the object, which are inclined (slanted) to planes of
projections (Vertical, Profile and Horizontal planes).
1.2 Planer surface.
Depending on the inclination of the surface with plane of
projection, three types of inclined surfaces could be
identified
They are categorized as Normal Surface, Inclined Surface,
and Oblique Surface.

Directrix
Figure 1

1.2.1. Normal Surface.
A normal surface is a plane surface that is parallel to a plane of projection. It appear in true size
and true shape on the plane to which it is parallel, and as a vertical or a horizontal line on adjacent
planes of projection.
1.2.2. Inclined Surface.
An inclined surface is a plane surface that is perpendicular to one plane of projection but inclined to
adjacent planes of projection. An inclined surface will project a straight line on the plane to which
it is perpendicular and will appear foreshortened on planes to which it is inclined.
1.2.3. Oblique Surface.
An oblique surface is a plane that is oblique to all planes of projection. It is not perpendicular to
any principle plane of projection. It will always appear as a foreshortened surface in all views. It
will never appear as a line or true size and shape plane in any principal view

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