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Simon Lloyd Asayas Arciaga

Presented to the
Faculty of the Humanities
In Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of
Master of Arts in Humanities

University of Asia and the Pacific
Pasig City, Philippines

May 2015

I dedicate this work to my beloved grandparents – Armando, Elsa, Vilma and
Estelito – whose love has left me eternally indebted to them.

It is in this light that this paper tackles mystery as a defining component of talinghaga. It is in this manner that the concept of talinghaga is analyzed alongside with the concept of metaphor. As a literary technique that originated in our pre-colonial tradition.ABSTRACT This thesis looks into the concept of talinghaga. This study is an attempt to situate talinghaga in contemporary times. Spanning centuries of age. It is this gradual evolution of the meaning of this concept that partly explains the various notions that people have of this literary technique nowadays. talinghaga was also used by Filipino writers in the craft of poetry. talinghaga developed from the riddles and proverbs of our ancestors. the concept of talinghaga has undergone some developments through the years. This study specifically explores the distinction between the two. Eventually. The meanings are so varied that this resulting plurality accounts for the confusion of what talinghaga really means. . This concept is discussed in this paper based on how it was used in Mike Bigornia’s poems which can be found in his Palanca-award-wining-collection called Puntablangko (1985).

... 71 C..................... Mystery in Far-Fetched Comparisons.................................. Mystery in Extension.............................................. 50 D.......................................................................................... Unraveling the Mystery............ Synthesis......................TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface Chapter A....................................................................................... Sensory-Based Metaphor............................................. Master List of Metaphors used in Puntablangko C....................................... 86 Works Cited Appendices A.......... 77 B....... 41 B...... 14 Significance of the Study....................... D..................................................................................................... Genus-Based Metaphor....... 47 C....................................... 16 Conceptual Framework......... Conclusion...................... Recommendations................... 64 D................ 73 D........... Clarity in Cohesion and Relatability....................... 53 Chapter Four: Terse Talinghaga A................................................................. 20 Review of Related Literature..................................... 28 Chapter Three: Ordinary Metaphor A....................... Action-Based Metaphor.... Clarity in Vividness......................... Synthesis.... 67 B.............................. 17 Methodology.................................................................................................................................................. C................ English translation of an excerpt from Abiso B.......65 Chapter Five: Extended Talinghaga A......................................... G............................ F.. 61 C.........................................75 Chapter Six: Conclusion A..................... 54 B............ E........ 14 Scope and Limitation of the Study. One: Introduction Background of the Study..................................... Synthesis......................................................................................................................................... B............................................................................................................. 21 Chapter Two: Talinghaga in Ambush............ 5 Statement of the Problem.......................................... Poems in Puntablangko . Unraveling the Mystery...

it will still end up in the church) applies to many other things in life. Hearing it for the first time. She taught me some of the good manners which I still try to practice up to now. Arciaga 2015. It was normal for her to incorporate some Filipino proverbs into her sermons. don’t talk when your mouth is full. It was from her that I learned the importance of saying po and opo when addressing people who are older than me. It was during these get-togethers with her that I learned many things about life. Her persistent reminders about doing the customary greeting of pag-mamano when meeting my older relatives was a norm that eventually became part of me. I remember vividly the countless times when she had to cut my talking just to say “Hijo. her style of giving sermons awakened my fascination with language at an early age.   .1   PREFACE My first encounter with talinghaga happened in one of my conversations with my grandmother when I was still in grade school. Nevertheless. I was amazed at how the statement “Pagkahaba-haba man ng prusisyon. I think one of her favorite lines is “Kung anong puno. siya ring bunga” (The tree ©Simon Lloyd A.” Lessons from my grandmother go beyond these good manners. She was also quite emphatic in reminding me about some table etiquette. sa simbahan din ang tuloy” (Even though the procession is long. All rights reserved. She also taught me some profound lessons in life which were incomprehensible to me at that time.

I was in grade 6 when I became fond of solving and eventually making my own riddles. revealing insights with such unexpected forcefulness. Obscure as they are. After those motherly sermons from my lola. Who would have thought that the statement “Dalawang batong itim.2   determines the fruit). I instantly fell in love with them because I enjoyed solving mysterious and obscure statements. In explaining the scriptures. All rights reserved. It was as if words started becoming magical.   . Arciaga 2015. these riddles reinforced even more my experience that words could be magical. the mind simply delights in seeing how all the clues point to the answer. When I first got introduced to riddles. Nonetheless. I remember being enthralled as a kid simply because I could not believe how the older ones managed to associate different meanings to simple and ordinary things and activities such as the procession and tree. the speaker in that gathering referred to ©Simon Lloyd A. Just like the proverbs of my lola. While it is true that proverbs and riddles gave me a taste of what talinghaga is. I encountered talinghaga once again in the form of riddles. malayo ang nararating” (Two black stones that reach very far) actually refer to the eyes? The process of answering these riddles could be grueling. it was in a prayer meeting that I actually first heard about the term. Some people even refer to our bugtong (riddles) as the “invention of the devil”. Yet the pleasure of solving the mystery is worth the effort. I did not really understand her lines most of the time since I was still in grade school back then.

this poem employs several metaphors to convey the importance of a religious book in guiding a person who is going through a rough patch. he was referring to how Christ made use of parables as a way of communicating a lesson to his listeners. cane and lifesaver. talinghaga persists in the Tagalog poems of today. In different verses.S. Arciaga 2015. light. As a seed.3   biblical passages as matalinghaga. it is one of the tiniest but when it grows. Claiming that a religious book is similar to these various things is part of the mystery that gives the whole poem that sense of wonder and magic that very much characterizes talinghaga. Eliot where I first saw how talinghaga was used in a Tagalog poem. The sense of wonder in this case lies in how Christ was able to use the mustard seed to demonstrate the kind of faith that we should have. Far from being forgotten.   . To prove his point that Tagalog poetry also possesses depth. the author compared this book to a weapon. It was in an elective class that covers poems of Dante Alighieri and T. May Rilim (1605) whose author is anonymous. One example that proves my point is Mike Bigornia’s collection of ©Simon Lloyd A. the example of the parable of the mustard seed through which Christ exhorts his disciples to have a faith that is similar to this seed. Known to be one of the earliest Tagalog poems. All rights reserved. my professor read to us a poem entitled May Bagyo Ma’t. Take for instance. Specifically. it proves to be among the biggest of shrubs. My encounter with talinghaga in the context of poetry only happened on my senior year in college.

My mentor therefore suggested to me to study talinghaga instead of metaphor. All rights reserved.4   poems entitled Puntablangko (1985). Indeed. My doubts were resolved when I consulted my mentor about it. Nevertheless. I was not sure if metaphor was what I really wanted to study. When he carefully explained to me his understanding of talinghaga. I had some inklings that there was something else in his poems that I wanted to study. To be honest. The reason being that the real charm of this collection is found in its ability to draw out profound lessons from ordinary things. I immediately came to like his works. Arciaga 2015. Furthermore.   . I did not really know that this style of writing is what is referred to as talinghaga. I also mentioned that I was thinking of studying his use of metaphor. Bigornia’s poems had plenty of metaphors. ©Simon Lloyd A. Driven by the need to specify what I am going to study in this collection. This concept captures what I intend to explore in Bigornia’s poems. Reading his poems for the first time. I initially planned to examine Bigornia’s use of metaphor. I told him that I am interested in studying Mike Bigornia’s Puntablangko. it dawned on me that what I really wanted to study is precisely that.

It is worth mentioning that this flowery language is often used by a person who is trying to court his or her lover through the use of enchanting words. This way of speaking refers to a manner of articulating something with such depth that it makes the speaker’s statement obscure to many people. Arciaga 2015. Almario identifies this particular usage of language as the reason why many people nowadays understand talinghaga to mean sweet-talking or pambobola as we say in Tagalog. Nowadays. All rights reserved. Phrases like “susungkitin ang mga bituin sa langit” (I will pluck the stars from heaven) and “mga matang kasing ningning ng mga bituin” (eyes that shine like stars) are some examples that exhibit this kind of language. It is a manner of speaking that is pleasant to hear but is often perceived as deceiving (Almario 145). Hence. One common notion of talinghaga pertains to flowery language characterized by a person’s use of elaborate and literary words and phrases.   . The fact that these phrases are heard up to now indicates that talinghaga continues to be part of our language and culture.” “Nananalinhaga nanaman siya. Background of the Study “Matalinghaga ang kanyang pananalita. As a ©Simon Lloyd A. Another notion of talinghaga is a kind of speech that is mysterious.” These are some remarks which Filipinos still make nowadays. talinghaga is understood in different ways.5   CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION A.

Based on this notion. talinghaga carried a different meaning. There is also another notion of talinghaga which asserts that it is not only found in literature but also in our idioms. All rights reserved. Almario thinks that this is what made many of us associate talinghaga with mystery. This understanding of talinghaga extends the meaning of this concept to figurative speech which Filipinos use everyday. Moreover. ©Simon Lloyd A. Pedro de San Buena Ventura in his dictionary called Vocabulario de Lengua Tagala: El Romance Castellano Puesto Primero (1613). It is so perplexing that it veils more than reveals what the person is really saying. this also explains why a good number of people think of poetry as a creation of the gods. phrases like “nagdilang anghel” and “di-makabasag pinggan” can be considered as examples of talinghaga (Torres Yu and Antonio ix). Furthermore. In the Tagalog-Spanish dictionary made by Francisco de San Antonio called Vocabulario Tagalo (1624).6   consequence. One of the earliest Spanish missionaries to define this concept was Fr. talinghaga is the use of language in which what was composed or invented by someone is presented as true (San Buena Ventura 176). Talinghaga in Old Tagalog-Spanish Dictionaries A number of old Tagalog-Spanish dictionaries have something to say about talinghaga.   . He defined talinghaga as a verse that tells a lie. It is no wonder that poets have been described as “genius” or “gods” in the course of our history (Almario 145). Arciaga 2015.

talinghaga was defined as words that contain a great sense of mystery.7   Rather than referring to deceptive statements. This definition still retains the notion of talinghaga presented in Noceda and Sanlucar’s dictionary which associates talinghaga with misterio and metafora. Juan Noceda and Pedro Sanlucar also came up with their own definition of talinghaga in their dictionary called Vocabulario de la lengua tagala (1860). The beginnings of talinghaga in Philippine Literature can be ©Simon Lloyd A. In addition. In the nineteenth century. In addition. this mystery is found in the words of a preacher who talks about religious teachings (San Antonio 256). This Tagalog-Spanish dictionary was produced to help the foreign priests and missionaries assigned in Tagalog provinces (Lumbera 1). The notion of Talinghaga continues to change as the years go by. Pedro Serrano Laktaw’s Diccionario Tagalog-Hispano (1914) also has an entry on the word talinghaga. talinghaga is both misterio and metafora (Noceda and Sanlucar 320). To be exact. According to this document. Arciaga 2015. Talinghaga in Tagalog Poetic Tradition The history of the concept of talinghaga dates as far back as the Folk Tradition of Literature in the Philippines. It first manifested itself through the riddles and proverbs that were recorded in Vocabulario de la lengua tagala by Noceda and Sanlucar. talinghaga is a visual representation of ideas (Laktaw 1252). Laktaw included the notion of representation as part of the meaning of talinghaga.   . All rights reserved.

  . examine how this riddle alludes to a sleeping mat: Bongbong cong liuanag Con gab-i ay dagat. The one who composed the riddle tries to describe the sleeping mat but does so by abstracting some of its qualities. After abstracting these qualities. for one has to make sense of the clues given by the couplet and see what thing or concept fits the description. new connections are made between the sleeping mat and bamboo and the sea respectively. As a case in point. he chose to isolate two qualities of the sleeping mat: One is its being like a vertical tube during day and the other is its being spread out at night. A riddle can be considered metaphoric in that it is concerned with the “point of convergence between the object literally described and the object actually referred to” (Lumbera 3). It is from this indirect speech of the riddles that talinghaga started to bud. As a result. All rights reserved. In this case. It is indeed a test of wit. the author of this riddle makes use of other realities like bamboo and sea to describe the sleeping mat.8   attributed to the metaphoric way of speaking in which the riddles and proverbs were articulated (Lumbera 3 and 9). we can see the makings of what eventually became talinghaga. at night a sea) From this example. Arciaga 2015. (Lumbera 3) (a bamboo tube by day. ©Simon Lloyd A.

In terms of purpose. Although manifestations of talinghaga were already present in the riddles and proverbs at that time. To be exact. Nevertheless. Arciaga 2015. the term itself was first used in the context of Tagalog poetry. Notice how this particular proverb figuratively articulates the importance of patience: Ang marahang bayani nagsasaua nang huli. All rights reserved. Tanaga is a quatrain that is composed of seven syllables per line. it shows the success of a patient fisherman who ends up catching plenty of fish. there is an important distinction between the two that I have to point out here. particularly in short poems known as tanaga. riddles only describe whereas proverbs educate.9   As for the proverbs from that tradition. “It is full of metaphors only in the sense that it revolves around a single metaphor which establishes an analogy between human experience and an aspect of man’s environment (Lumbera 12). the two are similar when it comes to their form in that the proverbs were written in couplets as well. it is worth noting that they share some similarities with riddles. It exemplifies the virtue of patience in a very natural way by not talking about it directly. Instead.   . (Lumbera 10) (The man who is careful catches plenty of fish) The example above exhibits how the proverb is able to teach a lesson by talking about a very particular situation.” This kind of metaphor is what is referred to as ©Simon Lloyd A.

10   talinghaga. once it snaps at the bobbin. Notice also how this poem is able to describe this particular experience indirectly. It must be understood as a style or technique which can be used in any genre. This proves faithful to what the text is saying since it starts out by referring to a human subject (Alas for me). my friend. solitary is the piece of thread. The emergence of this technique in pre-colonial literature was primarily driven by the desire of the poets to convey their message with more clarity and impact. it ends up tangled in the heddle) In this tanaga. is not a literary genre. the poet tries to establish a similarity between weaving and a very particular human experience. (Lumbera 13) (Alas for me. It makes us see how the tangled thread could also be applied to a person who ends up ruined after isolating himself from the rest. unlike riddles. proverbs and tanaga. the poet is able to depict solitariness in a very vivid way. See how this tanaga makes use of the chore of weaving as its talinghaga: Ang aba co capatir nagiisa ang sinulir cun sa gayon napatir sa papan malilibir. All rights reserved. Arciaga 2015. Through these lines. It bears pointing out that talinghaga.   . This makes talinghaga as one of the components that may comprise a literary piece. ©Simon Lloyd A.

(Lumbera 20) This further explains why our folk poets drew inspiration from ordinary things and activities that they encounter in their day-to-day life. the prevalence of talinghaga in our pre-colonial literature can be explained by the aversion that folk poets had towards abstractions. it does not talk of loneliness. For instance.11   The centrality of the talinghaga to early Tagalog poetry seems to have been dictated by an instinctive recognition of the complexity of human experience which verbalization does not always capture. Certainly. it speaks of a piece of thread severed from the bobbin. Arciaga 2015. folk poems have done well in doing away with generalities that readers may find hard to relate with. Words can give name to the experience. Poets of old ©Simon Lloyd A. they had to find situations in life or objects in Nature that produced in the poets effects similar to what they wanted to express. it talks about a coconut tree towering above other trees but hollowed by a pest burrowing within the trunk. it was not enough to use language in giving utterance to feelings and thoughts. As a result.   . All rights reserved. poets made use of concrete images that represented the idea that they wanted to convey. (Lumbera 13) In addition. but the poet has to depend on analogues in order to suggest the unnameable aspects of experience…For the early Tagalog poets. It does not deal with pride as an idea.

the field or the river. dawag na matinik.” Talinghaga in Modern Criticism of Tagalog Poetry Virgilio Almario – one of the foremost poets and critics in the Philippines – studied and tackled talinghaga in many of his writings. the metaphorical form is just one of the manifestations of talinghaga. His conception of talinghaga is not just limited to its relationship with metaphor.   .12   have done so in order to connect with their audience well. Arciaga 2015. talinghaga is the inner force of a poem that shapes even the very arrangement of the words and the overall form of a poem (Almario 157). Sa isang madilim. To demonstrate how talinghaga works in this way. ay walang pagitan (In a dark and murky forest. chores in the kitchen. Essentially. These lines were taken from Balagtas’ masterpiece Florante at Laura. Tagalog folk poetry abounds with images that have to do with “household tools and utensils. has no gap) Almario points out that Balagtas could have simply written the first line in the most conventional way of putting it: “Sa isang madilim at mapanglaw ©Simon Lloyd A. All rights reserved. As a result. gubat na mapanglaw. Almario brings up some lines of Francisco “Balagtas” Baltazar in his own discussion. flora and fauna common in the countryside (Lumbera 18). It is to be expected that their people would be able to understand them better if they make use of metaphors that consist of things that the people are very much familiar with. thorny wilderness. For him.

talinghaga can very well influence how the poem would look like. thus achieving more impact in terms of establishing these two adjectives that bring with them some affective resonances. For him.   . His choice for not doing this however. was influenced by talinghaga. Such use of the poetic ©Simon Lloyd A. (Almario 153154) Almario also asserts that talinghaga is beyond the sequencing of the words in a poem.13   na gubat”. as evidenced by this poem: tinitigan ng palabang buwan ang kuwago sa kalansay na kamay ng punong kapok. Balagtas is able to put more emphasis on the two descriptions “madilim” and “mapanglaw”. we instantly get how each subject is isolated from the rest of the scene. Arciaga 2015. All rights reserved. By physically separating the different things described in the scene. (Almario 155) (the fierce moon looks at the owl in the skeleton hands of the tree) The silence that the poet wants us to feel is made even more pronounced by the visual arrangement of the words. By choosing to write the lines in this particular way.

I wish to limit my study to that set of poems – 16 in total – from Puntablangko which Bigornia submitted to Don Carlos Palanca Memorial Awards for Literature and won the first prize in the poetry category. this study looks into what makes talinghaga different from an ordinary metaphor. Arciaga 2015. Statement of the Problem My study will attempt to explain Mike Bigornia’s talinghaga in his book entitled Puntablangko (1985). Scope and Limitation of the Study My study will focus only on the concept of “talinghaga” in selected poems of Mike Bigornia’s Puntablangko (1985).   . What kinds of talinghaga are there in Puntablangko? Given that talinghaga is a special kind of metaphor. Another concern that this study will look into is discerning some patterns in examples of talinghaga in order to classify them accordingly. How is talinghaga different from a metaphor? 2. I do not intend to cover all the poems in this book for there are hundreds of them. this study is interested in finding out those specific poems that have talinghaga. All rights reserved. Considering that I am studying an entire collection of poems. C. Thus it will attempt to answer the following questions: 1. B.14   form to articulate a complex idea is also attributed to talinghaga (Almario 155). In this study. Which poems in Puntablangko have talinghaga? 3. ©Simon Lloyd A.

  . As far as I am concerned. Hence. my study is only concerned with the talinghaga that comes to us in the form of a metaphor. While it is true that a lot is to be gained if my thesis were to be written in Filipino. my decision to write my thesis in English needs to be explained. ©Simon Lloyd A. I would like to alert my readers that my study will only focus on metaphorical talinghaga. talinghaga can be manifested not just through a metaphor but also by means of word arrangement and structure. Arciaga 2015. by writing my thesis in English. I do not intend to give definitive interpretations of the poems in Puntablangko. I expect my paper to be more accessible to academicians and students alike. Moreover. In terms of content. since my primary aim in this paper is to study talinghaga. All rights reserved. Another reason that made me write this paper in English is my intention to address a wider audience from the academe considering that the English language is used as the standard means of instruction in universities here in the Philippines. I know that I have not reached the level of Filipino writing needed to discuss what I intend to study in this paper. However. my study only demands that I locate talinghaga in the poems and explain why such metaphors can be considered special. As mentioned in my introduction.15   Given that talinghaga is a Tagalog concept and that Puntablangko is a collection of Tagalog poems. my choice to write my paper in English was primarily determined by my inability to write an academic paper in Filipino.

All rights reserved. not many scholars have taken the task of looking at his works with the rigor that is needed to point out the true merits of his poems comprehensively. As such. Arciaga 2015. close attention should be given to how poets belonging to the modern times have used this creative technique. my paper is also significant for its discussion on talinghaga. Significance of the Study Given his achievements as a poet such as being the former president of Galian sa Arte at Tula (GAT) and winning the grand prize in Don Carlos Palanca Memorial Awards for Literature in 1986 and 1991. Given that the use of talinghaga started as early as pre-colonial times.16   D. it will be my privilege to be one of the first scholars to examine his poems more closely so as to identify the reasons for which we consider this poet to be one of the best in the Philippines. The importance of studying Mike Bigornia’s Puntablangko becomes even more obvious when we take into account that very few people have studied his works.   . Apart from the poet and the poems to be studied. Despite being one of the most decorated poets in the Philippines. studying the concept of talinghaga as used in the poems of a ©Simon Lloyd A. Mike Bigornia is one of those poets who exemplified the use of this device (Osorio 23). Puntablangko is one of his collections that won the prestigious first-place in Palanca. Therefore. studying the poems in this collection will surely be worth our while. the significance of studying Mike Bigornia’s poetry cannot be ignored. Thus.

To be more exact. one could speak of talinghaga as a metaphor for it is a “statement that one thing is something else. The beginnings of talinghaga in Philippine Literature can be attributed to the metaphoric way of speaking in which the riddles and proverbs were articulated (Lumbera 3 and 9). Hopefully. which. it is not (Kennedy and Gioia 121). the metaphor consists in establishing “an analogy between human experience and an aspect of man’s environment (Lumbera 12). Conceptual Framework This study will revolve around the concept of talinghaga as exhibited in Mike Bigornia’s Puntablangko. As such.17   twentieth century poet like Bigornia should prove to be beneficial to Philippine literature as a whole. a clear definition of talinghaga is needed to provide a basis for my discussion throughout this paper.” In the case of talinghaga. Hence. in a literal sense. it can be said that comparison is at the very heart of talinghaga.   . For this reason. this more informed reading would enable readers to develop more interest in reading Tagalog poems. This study is all the more significant for enhancing our appreciation of Tagalog poetry. E. Elucidating the use of talinghaga in Bigornia’s poems is one way by which people can have a better appreciation of Tagalog poetry.” ©Simon Lloyd A. Talinghaga as Metaphor Talinghaga originated from our pre-colonial literature. Arciaga 2015. All rights reserved. this study will bring the importance of talinghaga into the awareness of people.

  .18   In order to properly analyze a metaphor. being immovable and difficult to deal with Talinghaga as Mystery Although talinghaga and metaphor are closely related.” Defining “mystery” in the context of talinghaga is not easy given that no one among the Filipino scholars has formulated any fixed notion about this concept. Arciaga 2015. it must be emphasized that talinghaga is a special type of metaphor for it goes beyond the definition of a simple metaphor. Below is an example that shows how these terms are used (Knowles and Moon 9). Context Vehicle Tenor Grounds Be prepared for a mountain of paperwork Mountain A large amount Ideas of size. All rights reserved. tenor and grounds respectively. Talinghaga is also associated with “mystery. The closest to having a definition of mystery for now is Noceda and Sanlucar’s definition of talinghaga. phrase or a longer stretch of language. Traditionally these key aspects of a metaphor have been referred to as vehicle. Last is the connection which is the relationship between the literal and the figurative meaning of the metaphor. three things have to be examined. obscurity and parabolic speech (Lumbera 12). One definition they gave to ©Simon Lloyd A. First is the metaphor itself. The metaphor could be a word. Second is the meaning of the metaphor which is described as what the metaphor refers to figuratively.

they had to find situations in life or ©Simon Lloyd A.   . Arciaga 2015.” It is important to note that talinghaga is not meant to be mysterious. it was not enough to use language in giving utterance to feelings and thoughts. the emergence of this technique in pre-colonial literature proves that the use of talinghaga was primarily driven by the desire of the poets to convey their message with more clarity and impact. As a matter of fact. it bears mentioning that talinghaga eventually leads to clarity. All rights reserved.19   talinghaga is speaking or writing in a mysterious or obscure manner (320). By employing talinghaga. Clarity in Talinghaga Despite being mysterious. but the poet has to depend on analogues in order to suggest the unnameable aspects of experience…For the early Tagalog poets. It can be deduced from this statement that the mystery in a talinghaga has something to do with the difficulty that readers or listenters experience in comprehending talinghaga. The centrality of the talinghaga to early Tagalog poetry seems to have been dictated by an instinctive recognition of the complexity of human experience which verbalization does not always capture. Words can give name to the experience. writers who have used this technique – like the poets from our folk tradition – gave their poems “an element of mystification which gives way to insight when unraveled by a perceptive audience (Lumbera 20).

I would like to use Lumbera’s notion of talinghaga as my basis for analyzing the poems of Bigornia. Thus. I will then make a master list of all the metaphors in Bigornia’s collection. three things are essential: (1) that the lines in a poem should contain a metaphor. In the process of analyzing each poem. and imagery. My analysis of the metaphors will consist in examining them based on their vehicle. All rights reserved. Based on his discussion. I will identify all the metaphors that Bigornia uses in Puntablangko.   . Methodology In order to study talinghaga in Puntablangko. By applying this kind of reading. This means reading the poems in a formalistic way. Once this is done. meter. I hope to be able to identify the important elements of the poems such as rhyme. in order to spot talinghaga in the poems of Bigornia. (2) that this metaphor should be mysterious and (3) that the metaphor should lead to clarity. In this way. talinghaga can be defined as a metaphor whose mysterious comparison between human experience and an aspect of man’s environment leads to clarity. I can analyze each metaphor more efficiently. I will first immerse myself in the poems individually. tenor and grounds. (Lumbera 13) With all these considerations in mind. F.20   objects in Nature that produced in the poets effects similar to what they wanted to express. Arciaga 2015. ©Simon Lloyd A.

Review of Related Literature There is not much literature written about talinghaga. In his essay Mga Anyo’t Talinghaga ng Panawagan: Tungo sa Morpolohiya ng Tinig sa Tulang Palabas (1990). Arciaga 2015. These classifications will be treated separately in this paper to see their distinctive features. I will examine them in order to classify them as either ordinary metaphor (nontalinghaga) or talinghaga. The examples of talinghaga will be further analyzed in order to discern some patterns. This will allow me to know if talinghaga can be further classified into different kinds. I will attempt to look into the issue of clarity. Apart from verifying whether clarity is present or not. he claims that poets and scholars have given too ©Simon Lloyd A. After discussing the mystery in these talinghaga. All rights reserved.   . G. This distinction is important in order to prove that talinghaga is not just like any ordinary metaphor but is a special type of it.21   Once I have listed down all the metaphors in Puntablangko. I will try to probe into this matter to see if clarity is really present in a talinghaga. Metaphors that can be understood easily shall be classifed as ordinary whereas metaphors that will strike me as mysterious shall be treated as talinghaga. National Artist Virgilio Almario explains this by asserting that the coming of the Spaniards influenced scholars to lose sight of the value of this concept. I shall also explain how clarity is achieved in the poems when applicable.

metonymy and synecdoche than imagery and talinghaga (136). for it is only in ©Simon Lloyd A. Another way of explaining this scarcity of sources on talinghaga is the emergence of a literary movement in the Philippines called Balagtasismo. Throughout this essay. Arciaga 2015. these critics and poets confined themselves to the poem’s form without really going into what the poem is actually saying.22   much importance to apostrophe (panawagan) during Spanish colonization. All rights reserved. Lumbera points out that talinghaga was lost for a time because of the rhetorical devices that are prevalent in the poems of Francisco “Balagtas” Baltazar. As a consequence. In Baltazar’s Florante at Laura. Almario describes this movement in poetry as a group of conservative followers of the Balagtas tradition which placed too much importance to rhyme and meter.   . This explains why most of the scholars miss out on talinghaga. In this book. Lumbera notes that there are more apostrophe. Almario makes use of many examples of apostrophe to illustrate how this kind of poetry fettered the imagination and reason of native poets. personification. This theory is supported by Bienvenido Lumbera’s book called Tagalog Poetry 1570 – 1898: Tradition and Influences in its Development (1986). Almario discusses this extensively in his book Balagtasismo Versus Modernismo: Panulaang Tagalog sa Ika-20 Siglo (1984). thus making them incapable of producing poems that exhibit the same creativity and depth found in our pre-colonial poems (177).

Iñigo Regalado offers a very interesting insight as to why talinghaga is not discussed by our scholars. He laments about the lack of scholarship on Talinghaga throughout history. Regalado goes through the history of Tagalog poetry. Among other things. He points out that talinghaga had failed to reach audience from later generations simply because when it was still in vogue. he claims ©Simon Lloyd A. In his essay entitled Albania Hangaang Bataan: Mga Anyo ng Talinghaga ni Balagtas (1990). as seen in the times of our folk poets.23   reading the text closely that this concept could be studied in depth (Almario 93). A good majority of them were not really put into writing (Regalado 26-27). Some of those who did talk about talinghaga in their writings discussed this concept in a rather superficial manner. is one of the few scholars who had some discussions on talinghaga. those talinghaga were only recited in public gatherings and contests. As regards his discussion of talinghaga. he acknowledges that this is a very crucial aspect of Tagalog poetry. Interestingly enough. He explains that one reason is the fact that only a handful of these poems that exhibit talinghaga have been written down and transmitted to the succeeding generations. Medina links the development of talinghaga with the country’s historical development. he tries to verify whether there is already Tagalog poetry even before the advent of the Spaniards. Arciaga 2015. A scholar named Buenaventura Medina Jr.   . All rights reserved. In his book called Ang Panulaang Tagalog (1947).

Hinaing at Pag-ibig ng isang Makata (1990). he succinctly states the different examples of talinghaga that have been used over the years: the Albania of Balagtas. she focuses on the poems written by Bienvenido Ramos. Certainly. This superficiality can also be observed in Rustica Carpio’s Talinghaga. ©Simon Lloyd A. perdido Eden of Rizal. Similar to Medina’s work. All rights reserved. Furthermore.24   that the kind of talinghaga that is produced by a writer is a fruit of the situation and circumstances of the times. she adds that the merit of this poet lies in his rich usage of talinghaga (243). this essay of Carpio assumes that the readers already have a basic understanding of talinghaga.   . tierra adorada of Jose Palma. At some point in this essay. it is noticeable that the concept is not tackled extensively. However. his essay provides many examples of this talinghaga. “ibong nagnanais makaalpas” of Jose Corazon de Jesus and “baying api” of Ben Ruben. he does not really discuss the notion of talinghaga as such. the discussion lacks a more thorough examination of this concept. In this essay. It is as if the author is assuming that his readers understand what talinghaga is. She picks some of Ramos’ best poems to justify that this author is worth our attention. Even if talinghaga forms part of Medina’s discussion. Arciaga 2015. Lupang Tinubuan of Bonifacio. Medina claims that these examples of talinghaga all pertain to the suffering motherland that longs to be set free from abuses. Once again.

This comes as a result of the writer’s attempt to convey ideas that are often abstract using realities that are more tangible and familiar both to him and to his intended audience. It bears mentioning that apart from establishing talinghaga as a metaphor. It is her belief that talinghaga is like a mirror that shows a reflection of the writer’s environment which in turn. One of them is Elizabeth Morales-Nuncio. In this book.25   There are a few scholars who haved looked into talinghaga more closely.   . All rights reserved. He talks about this at length in his book Taludtod at Talinghaga: Mga Sangkap ng Katutubong Pagtula (1991). This is why she decided to dwell on the talinghaga that can be gleaned from the works of these children. Arciaga 2015. It is in forging these connections between two or more distinct and non-related realities that a ©Simon Lloyd A. Almario provides an insight that explains the cause of mystery that makes talinghaga different from an ordinary metaphor. Her book called Mga Talinghaga sa Laylayan (2005) is a compilation of poems written by unprivileged children. Morales-Nuncio intends to bring out the world in which these children live through their poems. we can deduce that she understands talinghaga as a metaphor that establishes a relationship between the writer’s environment and his experiences. explains his experiences (Morales-Nuncio 17). From this insight. He asserts that the source of talinghaga’s mystery is found in the writer’s ability to see similarities between two or more entirely different realities. Almario also thinks that talinghaga can be considered as a metaphor.

In her analysis of this poem. hints at this as he analyzes the poems in Puntablangko. we are given the privilege of knowing ourselves better (Osorio 23). Osorio points out that Bigornia is able to discuss the quest of knowing oneself. Works that tackle Bigornia’s poems suggest the use of talinghaga in Puntablangko. Through this metaphor. Bigornia’s way of writing remains to be very imaginative and full of wonder (Baquiran 102). Arciaga 2015. She does explain. ©Simon Lloyd A. This task strikes us as a quest that we have to conquer by entering through the many doors.   . She never really explains why “pinto” can be considered a talinghaga. Bigornia. he also notes that despite having ordinary realities as subjects. Romulo Baquiran’s thesis entitled Sa Sining ng Paninimbang: ang panahong 1969-1996 at ang pagtula ni Mike L. Baquiran points out the poet’s tendency to talk about ordinary realities. however. Commenting on the style of Bigornia. Her main objective in this thesis is to tackle poems that speak of the “labyrinth”. More importanly. All rights reserved. As we enter through these doors. Another MA thesis that considers a poem of Bigornia is that of Anna Osorio.26   poet is able to give his poem that sense of wonder and mystery characteristic of talinghaga (Almario 156). she singles out a poem of Bigornia called Pinto. that Bigornia used the image of the door as a metaphor for knowing oneself. she explicitly mentions that Bigornia is making use of “pinto” as a talinghaga. Interestingly enough.

Fortunately. In addition. the right choice of words painted the exact picture that Bigornia wants us to have of the city. He lauds the poet for his vivid depiction of the subject matter. All rights reserved. Based on this survey of related literature.27   Roberto Añonuevo singled out Bigornia’s poem entitled Siyudad for its remarkable style.   . it becomes clear that there are many reasons that explain the lack of discussion on the concept of talinghaga. In this thesis. According to him. the superficial treatment of this topic brings to light the urgency to further study talinghaga in order to have a better grasp of this concept. Añonuevo notes the brilliant choice of words on the part of Bigornia. ©Simon Lloyd A. Arciaga 2015. This presents a good opportunity for me to examine talinghaga more closely as it is used by Bigornia. Añonuevo also highlights Bignoria’s remarkable technique in depicting the city both as attractive and at the same time dreadful (“Panukalang Pagdulog sa Pag-unawa ng Tula”). a number of scholars have suggested the use of talinghaga in Puntablangko. The poet is able to capture the dreadful state of the city. Referring to the poem’s subject matter which is the lifetyle in the city. I shall endeavor to enhance our understanding of talinghaga by further studying its aspect of mystery which makes it a special metaphor.

  . Bigornia uses the metaphor of hunting throughout the poem in order to tackle this subject matter. In the beginning of the poem. He started by warning poets about the need to have enough preparation for this undertaking: Kailangang sapat ang paghahanda Sa pagtunton ng talinghaga Sa dawag at bundok ng hiwaga. Bigornia makes clear that he is writing about the experience of a poet who is looking for talinghaga. I wish to elaborate on Bigornia’s own perception of talinghaga as can be gleaned from Ambush in order to complement what I have already taken up regarding talinghaga from the previous chapter. (1-3) ©Simon Lloyd A. All rights reserved. Analyzing this poem is worth our while for it could enhance our understanding of talinghaga based on my discussions from the previous chapters. Ambush revolves around the concept of talinghaga. Bigornia specifically talks about talinghaga. This poem has only one verse.28   CHAPTER TWO TALINGHAGA IN AMBUSH In his poem Ambush. As a matter of fact. It was written in free verse that spans for 24 lines all in all. Arciaga 2015. The poem details some of the things that a hunter encounters in this kind of quest.

Apart from the fact that this quest is difficult. Bigornia even goes as far as saying that it is even deadly for the poet: Espesyal ma’t malakas ang armas. this undertaking proves to be quite arduous. All rights reserved. the poet does not just settle for any talinghaga that he encounters in the wilderness. Bigornia is already hinting at the difficulty and seriousness of this quest. the poet hopes to find the right talinghaga that will enable him to express the concept or experience that he wants to convey to his readers.   . Ultimately. For this reason. Just like any hunter. Ang pangangaso sa kordilyera Ay lubhang peligroso’t nakatatakot Pagkat kapanalig ng tinutugis Ang mga hayop at elemento. He is looking for something specific. This alerts us to the danger that talinghaga poses to the ©Simon Lloyd A. (5-8) (No matter how special and strong one’s weapons are Hunting in the kordilyera Is very scary and dangerous Because the one being hunted is allied With the animals and the elements) The reason he gives is that talinghaga allies itself with the animals and other elements. Arciaga 2015. He attempts to further clarify this by comparing this experience with hunting.29   (Sufficient preparation is necessary to look for talinghaga in the wilderness and mountain of wonder) In this stanza.

All rights reserved. All that we know is that talinghaga is not alone as it wrestles with the poet. The peculiar thing about this is that the trap is not just an ordinary trap. In the case of poetry. it is deliberately thinking of ways to hide from its enemy by allying itself with other forces. by qualifying it to be that of an enchantress (engkantada). talinghaga defends itself from the poet through other means: May lalang na engkantadang patibong Ang paligid at di dapat malingat O mag-antok ang ulirat (9-11) (An enchanted trap has been deviced by the environment and one should not be unobservant nor should his consciousness become sleepy) In this case.   . On the contrary. Arciaga 2015.30   poet. We cannot really identify these obstacles for there is nothing in the lines that could help us make a definitive statement. we are given a stronger weapon that talinghaga employs against the poet. We picture talinghaga to be something that is not just passively waiting to be found by the poet. something of this ©Simon Lloyd A. This could be interpreted to mean that talinghaga sends obstacles in order to thwart the poet’s plan of finding the right talinghaga. Aside from the animals and elements. we perceive that this could be interpreted to mean that the trap is comparable to that of a beautiful woman who puts someone under a spell. Bigornia speaks of a trap at this point.

Arciaga 2015. Such description suggests that the poet goes through the different levels. Bigornia’s reference to the height of the plateau makes us see that vision is also important. Interestingly enough. the poet is looking for the talinghaga that is deep and complex enough to be able to capture the idea he has in mind. It is a kind of depth which lends him the ability to describe ideas and concepts in a more comprehensive and thus. these descriptions bring to mind the poet’s struggle to find the right talinghaga that affords him the appropriate depth of insight. In the case of the poet.” (Every depth of the cliff / and height of the plateau has a level) It is quite interesting that Bigornia emphasizes both depth and height in the experience that a hunter goes through in his adventure. What strikes us once more in this discussion is Bigornia’s mention of the different levels of the plateau. In other words. Our ©Simon Lloyd A. Bigornia provides more descriptions of the experience of a hunter that help us better grasp the difficulty of this undertaking.31   kind happens when the poet could be distracted from pursuing the right talinghaga when he loses his focus in the process. better way. Depth is not the only consideration that a poet has when looking for the right talinghaga. He thus describes the place as follows: “May antas bawat lalim ng bangin / At tarik ng talampas (12-13). All rights reserved.   . Bigornia mentions different levels of a cliff. hoping to find that particular level of the cliff which would enable him to express things in a way that matches the depth of the particular concept or experience that he is dealing with.

Bigornia is saying that the poet finds himself in a position where he has to choose from two possibilities.32   own experience of hiking helps us imagine that each level of the plateau affords a person a unique view of the landscape. It weighs on the poet to look for that particular level which would afford him that specific view that he wants to have. He seems to be comparing the view at the bottom with the view that we get from the top of the mountain. There is a kind of metaphor to which the view from the bottom corresponds.   . When applied to the poet. this means that the poet has to look for the right talinghaga that contains the right imagery that the poet needs in order to express his idea with more accuracy and precision. the view at the bottom of the mountain is limited in that we only see a limited portion of the landscape. Each level corresponds to a view that is distinct. Bigornia is pointing out to us a meaningful contrast between the depth of a cliff and the height of the plateau. Nevertheless. All rights reserved. In writing poetry. In poetry. Having to reckon with these two conditions of the necessary depth and clarity is perhaps one of the greatest challenges that befall any poet. the advantage of being at the bottom is that we get to pay attention to the details of the things around us. Bigornia is saying that there is a metaphor whose purpose is to help us see a particular detail of something clearly. ©Simon Lloyd A. Moreover. As our very own experience tells us. Arciaga 2015.

Similarly. Bigornia further describes the place where the poet hunts for the right talinghaga by saying that every turn in the mountain is snake-like (15). we now understand that the poet has to choose a particular type of metaphor if his goal is to help us see things in a more encompassing manner. Literally.” The mention of slippery slopes gives us a graphic representation of the struggle that the poet has to go through in looking for the right talinghaga. One can just imagine a person who wants to go up the mountain but is deterred by the slippery slopes. Hence. There is that temptation to simply settle with talinghaga that is easy to find but does not have the depth and clarity needed to convey his message more effectively.33   In contrast. However. All rights reserved. metaphors that come close to the view from the top are those which give us a broader view of the landscape. This reading is so obvious that it makes us think that the line could mean much ©Simon Lloyd A. obstacles such as slippery slopes make it difficult for him to proceed and achieve his goal. The terrain in the mountain is further described as follows: “madulas ang mga dalisdis (14). the challenge of looking for the right talinghaga is a task that could be so arduous as to discourage the poet to remain true to his goal. In this case. it is not the details of the things around us that we are after but rather the overall picture of our surrounding. this line means that every turn in the mountain forms a curve. Arciaga 2015.   . A hunter may have the desire to look for his prey in the wilderness.

This highlights the helplessness of the poet in that the difficulty of the search for the right metaphor is further accentuated by the fact that he is surrounded by other metaphors which do not really suit his needs. Bigornia also claims that having a strong and agile guide is still not enough (17). the aid of his mentor will not guarantee his success in looking for the right talinghaga. He may have the privilege of being guided by other people but in the final reckoning. these unwanted metaphors are precisely the ones that seem to be forcing themselves upon him. Arciaga 2015. one could apply this in the case of the poet who is betrayed by the very talinghaga that he uses. Analyzing this more carefully. only he himself knows what he is looking for. This highlights even more the need for the poet to look for the best suitable talinghaga for his poem. The mention of “sapot-halimaw bawat baging” (16) (each vine is a monstrous web) makes us see that the poet is surrounded by false metaphors. but the ©Simon Lloyd A. Instead of allowing him to express things with more clarity. inappropriate talinghaga further confuses readers which defeats the very purpose of using it.34   more. All rights reserved. It is as if Bigornia is claiming that the poet would have to discover the right talinghaga for himself. His mentor may be able to give some pieces of advice on how to go about it. Even if the poet were to be guided by his teacher who is more learned and experienced. Furthermore. The reference to snake brings to mind its connotation which speaks of treachery. Further on in the poem.   .

education does not guarantee success in finding the right talinghaga.35   achievement of his goal is personal. For this reason. Nevertheless. Only he himself would be able to judge whether what he has found is the right one. Arciaga 2015. the possibilities for talinghaga are infinite. not everything has been said about looking for the right talinghaga because each pursuit is a unique encounter that brings with it a new and unexpected panorama. the way that metaphor fits in those two poems will surely be different. Nonetheless. Two different poems may be using the same thing as a metaphor. The gamut of available things outside the poet may be limited. the pursuit of talinghaga is particular. education could help a poet in his attempt to find the right talinghaga. Nevertheless. Bigornia points out in his poem that not even education would suffice to emerge as a victor in this pursuit. Certainly. ©Simon Lloyd A. The discernment of the right talinghaga is defined by the particular concept or experience that is expressed in a particular way. These nuances are what the poet would have to deal with in order to look for the talinghaga that fits his particular situation. each talinghaga is unique and unrepeatable.   . This means that relying solely on the help of his mentor would not guarantee that the poet would find what he is looking for. Furthermore. His exposure to other poems may give him some ideas on the mechanics of metaphor in the context of poetry. In this sense. Obviously. All rights reserved.

There is always an extremely silent pass. The Amazonian talinghaga. And she will destroy you) Bigornia’s description of the poet’s actual encounter with talinghaga catches us by surprise. Throughout the poem. Looking for talinghaga is not a rigid process composed of precise number of steps which ©Simon Lloyd A. waiting for the perfect timing for her surprise attack. Bigornia sets us up into thinking that the poet is the one actively seeking for the right talingahga. Laging may pasong sakdal-tahimik. His descriptions prior to the lines that I just quoted were framed in such a way that it would hardly cross the mind of the readers that it is not the poet who finds the right talinghaga but rather the other way around. Sa ganito kaselang misyon. Bigornia’s claim in this poem is that it is the talinghaga that finds the poet. Arciaga 2015. Bigornia also says that this quest is deadly not primarily for the roughness of the mountain which the previous lines bring to our mind. (19-24) (In a mission as delicate as this one. All rights reserved. At ikaw ay pasasabugin. At dito dapat alisto: Sasalakay ang mailap na pakay. And here you must be alert: The elusive pray will launch her attack. Ang Amasonang talinghaga. this mission is fatal because of the extremely silent pass in the mountain around which the Amazonian talinghaga is secretly hiding. and it is waiting for you. Nanambang.36   Moreover.   .

Once that mission is neglected. It is meant to help the poet express himself better. like lightning striking a tree. it could very well mean the destruction of the poet himself. we cannot help but feel disturbed by the very last line of this poem.   . Just like Lumbera and Almario. Naturally. Offhand. the talinghaga is something that just comes to us. Bigornia wants to make the point that although there is a lot of thinking behind the choice of a particular talinghaga. All rights reserved. Bigornia also sheds more light on the concept of talinghaga itself. It just hits us all of a sudden. It must be remembered that metaphor in poetry serves a purpose. One way to explain this is to examine the experience of a poet who loses sight of his goal and limits his pursuit to simply looking for a metaphor for the sake of having one. It is worth pointing out ©Simon Lloyd A. Talinghaga comes to us by surprise and in a very swift and powerful way. Bigornia posits the idea that “mystery” is at the very heart of the concept. Having read the ending of this poem. there is that immediate reaction to think that the word “pasasabugin” (to destroy) is exaggerated in this context. To come up with one just for the sake of it will ruin the poet’s true mission. “Sa dawag ng bundok ng hiwaga”. we find ourselves asking this question: “How can a metaphor destroy a poet?” The question is admittedly difficult. Arciaga 2015.37   will eventually give the poet what he wants. hence the line. Apart from considering the difficulty of this pursuit. The answer lies in describing what we mean exactly when we say “to destroy the poet”.

He gives us more details to help us get that feeling of mystery that we are confronted with whenever we encounter talinghaga.   . This particular image of the “Amazon” is quite ©Simon Lloyd A. “Pagkat kapanalig ng tinutugis / Ang mga hayop at elemento (78). the poem seems to contain some more ideas about talinghaga which can be considered as his own contribution to a better understanding of this concept. One specific description that is quite new to this discussion is his comparison of talinghaga with an Amazon.” (Because the one being hunted / is allied with the animals and elements) The mention of elemento pertains to spiritual entities which are said to be allied with talinghaga. Although Bigornia is simply echoing what scholars previous to him have said about talinghaga with regard to its being mysterious.38   that Bigornia specifically mentions that talinghaga can be found in this wilderness and mountain of wonder. “May lalang na engkantadang patibong (9). All rights reserved. We are perplexed by how the adventures of a hunter could correspond to what the poet has to go through when looking for talinghaga.” (An enchanted trap has been deviced) The whole mystery here is created by Bigornia’s use of these words which are often associated with the supernatural. Arciaga 2015. Apart from the kind of words that Bigornia used in the poem. Another detail that brings out the mystery in this poem is the line. what adds to the element of mystery in this poem is his comparison between a poet and a hunter.

The first is that this image captures the violence that talinghaga possesses. It can be considered violent because of the harm that it may inflict on the readers on account of its being mysterious. Nonetheless. we should not forget that he used “Amazon” as a metaphor. This violence alludes to the very mystery that envelops any talinghaga. it is not too mysterious to the point of making any comprehension impossible to achieve. one might ask: Is Bigornia therefore saying that talinghaga is useless because it is something that we cannot really understand in the end? This is where the genius of Bigornia’s metaphor can be fully realized. He does say that talinghaga is violent.   . talinghaga is violent. Arciaga 2015. This feminine aspect softens the violence that the metaphor carries. This goes against the principle of clarity which any form of communication should uphold. Talinghaga is mysterious but it should be something that we can understand although not without much difficulty. In this case. we cannot take away its feminine aspect. Indeed. All rights reserved. Nevertheless. the poet wants to convey a message to his readers and to say it in a totally obscure way is definitely not the best way of going about it.39   interesting for our discussion because of two reasons. ©Simon Lloyd A. At the end of the day. One risk that talinghaga always brings with it is the danger of being too mysterious that the readers will find it difficult to understand what the poem is trying to say. While an Amazon is warrior and thus violent.

©Simon Lloyd A. All rights reserved. Arciaga 2015. we can identify three additional notions that Bigornia contributed to our understanding of talinghaga. One is his description of our encounter with talinghaga as something that surprises us. Nevertheless. the feminine quality of the Amazon suggests that talinghaga is not all too mysterious for us to comprehend.   . It only makes sense that talinghaga. This violence is accounted for by the mystery that makes it difficult for readers to understand the poem. he was able to bring our attention to the violence that talinghaga possesses. despite being mysterious. By using this image. This comes out in the way he expresses the idea that it is the talinghaga that finds the poet. The other contribution of Bigornia is his use of an “Amazon” as a metaphor for talinghaga.40   Based on Ambush. should be understandable.

I have decided to make use of these classifications as a guide to divide this chapter into different sections. Arciaga 2015. Genus-Based Metaphor The first kind of ordinary metaphor is a comparison of two entities whose similarity is based on their common genus. In my analysis of these ordinary metaphors. A. We see some examples of this in Abiso. In addition. This poem is a fitting introduction to the collection for it talks ©Simon Lloyd A. I discovered in the process of analyzing these metaphors that I can further classify them into three kinds. I consider it important to discuss some of the metaphors in this same collection which can be classified as non-talinghaga or ordinary. All rights reserved. depending on what aspect of the metaphor facilitates the apprehension of the comparison.   . The findings of this chapter will be used as a basis to understand the difference between an ordinary metaphor and the special kind called talinghaga.41   CHAPTER THREE ORDINARY METAPHOR Before I begin my analysis of talinghaga in the other poems in Puntablangko. it appears that what makes them different from talinghaga as described in my conceptual framework is the ease with which the readers make sense of the comparison. These metaphors make it easy for the readers to establish the similarity between the two things that are being compared.

ang pagpipitagan ko’y nasa pagsasabi ng tapat. Written in free verse. the persona already establishes the relationship between the poet and the reader by comparing them to a host and his visitor respectively. Arciaga 2015. the persona is more explicit in expressing this comparison: Ngunit dahil ikaw ay naging panauhin.   . The poem begins as follows: Rumirikit ang talulot ng aking dangal sa iyong pagdulog sa Puntablangko. the persona talks about Puntablangko as a place that the reader visits. All rights reserved. Throughout the poem. (1-4) (The petal of my dignity is beautified with your visit to Puntablangko) At the very start of the poem. Later on in the poem. nasa iyong palad ang bukas na aklat. (47-58) ©Simon Lloyd A. this poem is composed of 183 lines unequally divided into 7 stanzas. Essentially. In this encounter between the two.42   about the concept of Puntablangko. it is a place where the reader meets the poet and enters into a dialogue with him. we are told that Puntablangko is the meeting place.

both of them are attributed to the same genus which is the human person. we can understand why this poem talks about the whole collection as a place where the poet and the reader interact with one another. it can be said that what accounts for the ease with which we comprehend this particular metaphor is the “closeness” or “familiarity” of the two entities that are being compared. This poem talks about the journey of a person as he gets to know himself. This closeness is to be expressed in terms of the similarity that the two have in common based on their genus or kind.43   (But because you have become a visitor in your hand is an open book my way of showing reverence is in being honest) The comparisons involving the poet and the host as well as the reader and the visitor are examples of an ordinary metaphor. Indeed. Analyzing the comparison further. there is an example of this kind of ordinary metaphor that is worth discussing. We understand right away the connection between the two entities that are being compared. Although “poet” and “host” are two distinct titles. The poet is like a host in the sense that he owns the collection of poems which the reader somehow “visits” whenever the latter reads the poems.   . Arciaga 2015. It compares this journey ©Simon Lloyd A. Establishing the similarity in these comparisons is easy because it is just a matter of figuring out how one function of a human being can be applied in another function. The same is true for the comparison between a reader and a visitor. All rights reserved. In another poem entitled Pinto.

All we need to do to make sense of the metaphor is to figure out how a person entering a building can be a tourist which is not that difficult because we are all familiar with tourists. the person exploring the building is also like a tourist who receives a warm welcome as he makes his way inside the building. Arciaga 2015. the poem brings up an example of an ordinary metaphor: Pakiwari’y isang turista o balikbayan na inaalok ng limonada o mainit na sabaw sa bawat kanto o abenida. Secondly. the person exploring the building is compared with a tourist.44   with the adventure of someone who wants to discover what is inside a building and decides to go inside it by accessing many doors. All rights reserved. Our comprehension of this metaphor is facilitated by the fact that the poem is comparing a person with another entity that is also a human person but nuanced by his being a tourist. (It is as if one is a tourist or a homecoming citizen who is being offered a lemonade or a hot soup in every corner or avenue) In this stanza. Written in free verse. Firstly.   . In lines 6165. the poem is composed of 137 lines divided into 6 stanzas. he is like a tourist because he is visiting a place where he does not originally belong. ©Simon Lloyd A.

he refers to the city as a “Palangke ng busina at karburador.   . / Gusali. torero at burikak (13). Bigornia makes use of many ordinary metaphors whose comparisons are based on the nature of the city as a place. Right away. / Building. as both of them are examples of a place. the persona in the poem compares the city with a “Paraiso ng bugaw. it is not very difficult for us to think of the city as a market. carburetor. In the first stanza of the poem. ©Simon Lloyd A.” (Paradise of pimp. In the second stanza of the poem. All rights reserved. pustiso at bundyclock (7-8). denture and bundyclock) Although the city and the market are two distinct places. Arciaga 2015. takong. Our awareness that the two entities being compared are places make it easy for us to imagine a city as a market composed of all sorts of things which are enumerated in the lines that I just quoted.45   In his other poem called Siyudad. heels. This facility in apprehending the metaphor can be explained by proximity of these concepts on account of their genus.” (Market of car horn. the metaphor brings to mind the hustle and bustle that we find in the market which the poem uses to express the clutter that the city has. The use of this metaphor is meant to help us understand how the city has become an ideal place for pimps and prostitutes to conduct their immoral business. torero and prostitute) This metaphor does not strike us as something difficult to comprehend because both of its vehicle and tenor are places to begin with.

As mentioned. ito’ng sumpa ng malupit. What the notion of kingdom adds in this case is the nuance of a territory that has power and authority over the people within that designated area. This poem is about the catastrophe that the rain is ushering in to the city. this is the curse of the harsh kingdom of the city) In this stanza. Although this is implied by the notion of the city.   . this poem uses another place with which the city is compared. This catastrophe is symbolic of the punishment that the city brings upon its people on account of their greediness for material prosperity. This poem is written in 7 stanzas with each stanza having 6 lines except for the last one. the poem follows a strict meter with each line comprising 16 syllables. Although there is no discernible rhyme in this case. we cannot deny the fact that this is better expressed by the notion of a kingdom. This metaphor is easily understood because both of its vehicle and tenor are examples of territories. reynong lunsod.46   Destiyero ng Ulan is another poem in Puntablangko that makes use of an ordinary metaphor whose similarity is based on the nature of the city as a place. This metaphor is found in the fourth stanza of the poem which starts as follows: Itinapon tayo rito sa siyudad na may salot Upang kitlin ang pangarap sa daigdig ng dagitab: Ito’ng hatol. Arciaga 2015. With the help ©Simon Lloyd A. the city is described as a kingdom. (19-21) (We were dumped in this plagued city in order to shatter our dream in the universe of electricity This is the judgment. All rights reserved.

the persona describes himself as follows: Isip ko’y may pakpak. B. An example of this kind of metaphor is found in his poem Ako at Di-Ako. each stanza is composed of four lines.47   of this metaphor. This poem is about a person who doubts whether he really knows himself as he is. the city turned into a kingdom becomes more authoritative in inflicting punishment to its subordinates. The rhyming pattern is a uniform vowel sound that concludes each line. (32-35) (My mind has wings it does not seem to have time to touch the land and for me to go barefoot) ©Simon Lloyd A.   . Wala yatang oras Sa lupa’y sumayad At ako’y magyapak. This poem follows a strict meter. Action-Based Metaphor Another kind of ordinary metaphor is a comparison whose similarity is based on the action suggested by the metaphor itself. All rights reserved. Arciaga 2015. In the process of expressing his initial perception of himself. This poem has 25 stanzas all in all. The poem explores the tension between one’s initial perception of himself and his eventual recognition of the kind of person that he really is. Except for the first two stanzas. with each line containing 6 syllables.

This poem has 6 stanzas and was written in free verse. It is rather easy to make sense of this metaphor because the similarity between the mind and the flying entity is already established by the act of flying that is suggested by the metaphor itself. In another poem called Bisikleta Sa Buwan. the mind is compared with something that is capable of flying. In the fifth stanza of the poem. the mind is like any flying entity that scales the heights of the heavens as it probes into matters that are rather lofty and profound. There are a total of 81 lines that make up this poem. as it features a person who fondly reminisces his younger days when he was still biking.48   In this stanza. Bigornia makes use of an ordinary metaphor of this same kind. In a sense. the persona brings to mind the memory of his younger days as follows: Ang bisikleta at tag-araw ay laket ng kapusukang adolesente na di-sinasadyang nahalungkat sa lumang drower o bulsa ng gunita. This poem is nostalgic for the most part. Arciaga 2015. (56-65) ©Simon Lloyd A. All rights reserved.   .

it is the experiences from the past which it keeps and makes accessible to the person anytime. “Kamayharing pumipirma sa karimlan ang dagitab. In the case of memory. In describing the storm that is taking place in that city.” (Lightning signs on the dark sky as if it were the king’s hand / the dagger strikes the sidewalk and streets of the city) Lightning in this case. Perhaps. this metaphor specifically brings to mind a pair of pants with pockets in different areas. there is one more example of this type of metaphor that is worth mentioning. Arciaga 2015. In Destiyero ng Ulan. This insight is facilitated by the action nahalungkat (rummaged) which leads us to think that the similarity between memory and a pair of pants has something to do with their capacity to store things. / Binabayo ng balaraw ang banketa’t kalyeng lunsod (5-6). is compared with a hand. we figure out that memory is like a pair of pants with pockets. We can understand this metaphor quickly because of the action that is suggested in the lines that contain this metaphor. All rights reserved.   . the persona gives us more details to consider. We are told that the memories of his biking days are contained in a locket that is kept inside the pocket of memory.49   (Bicycle and summer is a locket of impetuous adolescence which was accidentally found in the old drawer or pocket of memory) The persona in this poem compares memory with something that has pockets. The similarity between the two is easily established because the action pumipirma (signing) hints to ©Simon Lloyd A. Immediately.

The hand obviously does this whenever it signs something on a piece of paper. isang simula.   . In characterizing Puntablangko as a place.50   us that the semblance in this metaphor has something to do with action of marking a surface. the persona in the poem describes it as follows: Dito. Likewise. the end is a beginning. In Abiso. Sensory-Based Metaphor The last type of ordinary metaphor is a comparison whose similarity is based on the sensible qualities that we perceive in the metaphor. Bigornia makes use of this kind of metaphor. ngunit namamalikmata ma’y di ko ipapayong magbuhol ng panyo. Arciaga 2015. All rights reserved. but despite your disillusionment I do not advice you to tie a handkerchief Every experience is beeswax and cocklebur of the times.) ©Simon Lloyd A. C. bawat karanasan ay pagkit at amorseko ng panahon. lightning resembles this action whenever it marks the dark surface of the sky with its strokes of light. (66-74) (Here. ang wakas ay laging tabula rasa.

We understand immediately how an experience can be like a cocklebur because of what we know about this plant. it is not very difficult to make sense of this comparison. This kind of comparison is repeated in the second to the last stanza of the poem. Accursed one! Accursed one!) In this case. All rights reserved. the wind of the storm is compared with a siren. we can say that the sense of touch that we attribute to cockleburs is what facilitates our comprehension of the metaphor. This time. An experience in Puntablangko is said to be like a cocklebur because it is something that sticks to the person and stays with him for a long time. (34-36) ©Simon Lloyd A. “hangin naman ay sirenang / Nagkakalkal ng basura’t mga layak. the joint voices of the people are said to be like the siren: Libong tinig nating api’y magsisilbi nang sirena Na lulunod sa palalong nagdudulot nitong salot. In a storm. a sound that is both loud and threatening.   . it is not hard to imagine the sound of the wind as resembling that of the siren. The reason is that we immediately grasp that the point of connection between the wind and the siren is the sound. Salot! Salot! (3-4)” (wind is a siren / rummaging the trashes and litters.51   We are told that the experiences in Puntablangko are like amorseko (cocklebur). We know from our experience that the fruits of this plant easily stick to whatever touches them. In Destiyero ng Ulan. Isang muhon ng pag-alsa sa kamao ng dagitab. Therefore. Arciaga 2015.

All in all. All rights reserved. This poem is about a person who finds himself being haunted by a ghost in his room. Arciaga 2015.52   (Our thousand voices will serve as a siren that will drown the proud who is causing this plague a mark of revolt against the fist of electricity) Again. Among the poems in Puntablangko. the person realizes that the apparition was a reminder of a vow that he failed to keep. There is no fixed meter and rhyme for the poem was written in free verse. Clearly. this one stands out because of its unusual form. Bigornia employs this kind of metaphor in his other poem called Multo sa Kuwarto. this metaphor is quite accessible because the sound of the siren immediately registers to us. Bigornia is experimenting with the language of visual form in poetry in this case. The eyes of the ghost are described quite vividly in this poem. The unusual placement of the words and lines make it difficult to determine the partition for the stanzas. The thousand voices sound like a siren because of their loudness which makes the overall effect powerful. Eventually. the poem is composed of 60 lines. The persona narrates the incident as follows: B i g l a s-u-sut-sot ang kisame Pagsuling doon Nasa butiki ang mata ng batang babae Nanlilisik na rubi! (37-40) (Suddenly the ceiling hisses to me and upon looking up there the eyes of the young girl are in the lizard glaring red!) ©Simon Lloyd A.   .

are being compared with a ruby. ©Simon Lloyd A.53   The graphic description of the eyes makes the whole incident more haunting. Although there is still comparison involved. it is worth noting that an ordinary metaphor is easy to understand. Arciaga 2015. This metaphor immediately makes us understand that the eyes of the ghost are like a ruby because of the color of the stone. The eyes of the ghost. All rights reserved. Synthesis To conclude this chapter. there are three factors that make an ordinary metaphor easy to access. establishing the similarity between the two entities at hand is facilitated by something in the metaphor itself that already provides the starting point for seeing where the connection between the two lies.   . As seen in this section. D. Our knowledge of a ruby allows us to easily pick up that it is the redness of the stone that makes the eyes similar to it. in this case. The point of similarity in an ordinary metaphor could be immediately hinted at by the genus. action or sensory quality that the vehicle and the tenor of the metaphor have in common.

Both Almario and Lumbera assert that talinghaga is beyond the usual metaphor because of the mystery that envelops it (Almario 156 & Lumbera 20). In the case of terse talinghaga.   . It is precisely this mystery which makes the whole process of comprehending talinghaga arduous. In this sense.54   CHAPTER FOUR TERSE TALINGHAGA In the previous chapter. examples of talinghaga are rather difficult to understand. it must be noted that the source of mystery is coming from the very comparison that the metaphor is trying to make. A. Arciaga 2015. I focused my analysis on the ordinary metaphors that I identified in the poems of Bigornia. ©Simon Lloyd A. There are two kinds of talinghaga that I discovered in this study. Mystery in Far-Fetched Comparisons Unlike ordinary metaphors. I have established that what makes a metaphor ordinary is the ease with which we comprehend it. I shall proceed with the discussion on the special kind of metaphor called talinghaga. All rights reserved. we can consider these comparisons far-fetched. Henceforth. There are some comparisons which do not seem to make sense because the vehicle and tenor of a metaphor appear to have no relation at all such that establishing a similarity between the two is simply impossible. The first one is called terse talinghaga which will be the focus of this chapter.

55   I coined the term “terse talinghaga” to highlight the source of mystery in this kind of talinghaga. It is enough to read the part of the poem which expresses this comparison to discern the mystery which this kind of talinghaga elicits in us. Ang Amasonang talinghaga. At ikaw ay pasasabugin. All rights reserved. There is always an extremely silent pass. And she will destroy you) The description of talinghaga as an Amazon is not easy to understand. Bigornia makes use of this to express his notion of talinghaga. and it is waiting for you. he describes talinghaga as follows: Sa ganito kaselang misyon. Laging may pasong sakdal-tahimik. Arciaga 2015. Nanambang. Towards the end of the poem. And here you must be alert: The elusive pray will launch her attack. (19-24) (In a mission as delicate as this one. In the poem Ambush. The Amazonian talinghaga. We can rightly call this talinghaga “terse” because the sense of mystery that it evokes in us is coming from the comparison itself which can be done in a few words or in one line. At dito dapat alisto: Sasalakay ang mailap na pakay. The reason for such difficulty is the apparent non-relatedness of the comparison that is being presented to us. Talinghaga and Amazon are just ©Simon Lloyd A. Puntablangko is teeming with examples of such talinghaga.   .

ng talampakan. ng elisi at proa. Ito’y balwarteng nakaligtas sa sunog at lindol.56   too far from each other such that establishing a similarity between the two becomes problematic. talinghaga is such an abstract concept and our knowledge of it is limited by what the books tell us about it. ang Puntablangko’y isang paso o rutang dapat iwasan ng gulong. In another poem called Abiso. Bigornia employs terse talinghaga to describe the concept of Puntablangko. All rights reserved. The persona in the poem uses different places to describe this rather complex concept: Sa karaniwang manlalakbay. isang puwertong ligid ng muralya at kanyon ngunit di maapuhap ang kasaysayang dapat iulat ©Simon Lloyd A. The whole thing becomes all too mysterious when this concept is compared with an Amazon which does not seem to have anything to do with it.   . To begin with. Arciaga 2015.

©Simon Lloyd A. area. Sinagoga ito sa isang templo o moske na mahirap tukuyin ang himaymay ng sampalataya. oasis and laboratory. port. isang laboratoryong nakasilid sa nebera o pugon at bawat milagrong matuklasa’y walang numero ang timpla. Ito’y pansamantala o huwad na oasis ng destiyero sa disyerto ng paniniwala.57   sa taalarawan ng gunita. All rights reserved.   . synagogue. Bigornia comes up with multiple terse talinghaga. Arciaga 2015. (18-46) (See appendix for English translation) In this stanza alone. Puntablangko is compared with different places including a route. Each comparison is indeed an example of terse talinghaga because we are left wondering as to what these places have to do with Puntablangko.

doubtful. One turning point in the poem is when the person gets surprised by seeing an ugly flower which frustrated his expectations of experiencing good things: Mangyari pa’y sabik itong bubuksan at naroon ang di-kariktang mapaghinala. isang pumpon ng mga talulot na sandaling masaling ay nagmamakahiyang tumitiklop at ayaw palimi ang itinatago. which the moment it is touched. meekly folds.   . mapaglihim. deceptive. All rights reserved. not wanting to show what is being kept inside. As this poem talks about the adventure of a person as he enters a building which the poet uses as a metaphor for knowing oneself.) Our awareness that this adventure is about the quest of a person knowing himself leads us to recognize the comparison that the poem is making at this point. (77-85) (And it happens that it will be opened excitedly and the ulgy boquet of petals is there. secretive. The abstract nature of ©Simon Lloyd A. mapanlinlang. it tells us about the different things that the person encounters.58   Pinto is one other poem that uses terse talinghaga. The self is being compared with an ugly flower which can be considered as an example of terse talinghaga. Arciaga 2015.

Ikaw na pulang bampira at mama-san. the persona addresses the city as if it were a person in the following manner: Sinasamba kita. (9-16) (I worship you.   . It is certainly not easy to look for a similarity ©Simon Lloyd A. Sagala ng pulubi. Sagala of the poor. Beerhouse. torero and prostitute. All rights reserved. nightclub at motel. One thing that catches our attention in this stanza is the comparison of the city with a red vampire (pulang bampira). Siyudad. Kurtesano real ng karimlan. This poem talks about the moral corruption that is associated with the lifestyle of the people who live in the city. Primera klaseng bakla. Courtesan of darkness You who are a red vampire and mama-san First class hermaphrodite Paradise of pimp. Bigornia uses terse talinghaga once again in his poem Siyudad. torero at burikak.59   “self” makes it difficult for us to relate it with an ugly flower thereby making the comparison far-fetched. loiterer and wasted Cantharides of casa and sauna. Kantaritas ng kasa at sauna. Arciaga 2015. palaboy at patapon. nightclub and motel) This stanza is studded with titles used to address the city. City. Paraiso ng bugaw. In the second stanza of the poem. Beerhouse.

He compares “guess” with deadly things such as poison. Arciaga 2015. All rights reserved. knife and storm. (4-6) (The poison of guess is a knife and storm But my kisses shall never be lacking Even if my finger and tongue do not express it) It is interesting to point out the comparison that the persona is trying to make in this poem. a more careful reading of the poem will lead us to realize that this poem is actually about the love of a man for his country which he expresses in terms of a romantic relationship. Bigornia resorts to terse talinghaga in conveying some of his points. This poem is composed of 6 stanzas with each stanza having 3 lines except for the last stanza. the city and the red vampire are so different that they do not seem to show any relation at all.   . At first glance. The second stanza is an attempt to express visually the persona’s love for his country. It strictly follows a fixed meter of 12 syllables per line and a defined rhyming pattern with the first and third line of each stanza both ending with the vowel “a”. Ngunit hinding-hindi babahaw ang halik Hindi man ihayag ng daliri’t dila. Establishing a similarity in this comparison is not easy to achieve because of the abstract nature of the metaphor’s tenor ©Simon Lloyd A. the poem seems to be talking about the love of a man for a woman. However. He thus manifests this love as follows: Patalim at unos ang lason ng hula. In the poem Hindi Man Ihayag ng Daliri’t Dila. Off hand.60   that will link up the city with a red vampire.

Unraveling the Mystery Undoubtedly. In this case. B. a good starting point for us readers is to consider that Bigornia is using Amazon as a vehicle to say something about its tenor which is talinghaga. the vehicle is always something concrete and tangible. In all of the examples that we have seen. Yet even if these metaphors may seem too overwhelming and beyond our comprehension. On the other hand. Then. For this reason. it is the vehicle of the metaphor that the poet is using to say something about the metaphor’s abstract tenor. In the case of the talinghaga of the Amazon that was used in Ambush. The key in unveiling the mystery in a terse talinghaga is to focus on the vehicle of the metaphor. it is the tenor that is always abstract. Indeed. After all. we do not really have a firm grip of this concept. It even becomes more mysterious that guess is being compared with these deadly things. this is another example of a far-fetched comparison that always brings with it that mystery that is characteristic of talinghaga. Arciaga 2015. the mystery is solved when we try to think of a way to relate the vehicle to the tenor. their mystery can still be unraveled when we carefully reflect upon them. the examples of terse talinghaga that I just presented are difficult to understand. it helps to remember that it is the Amazon that is describing talinghaga.61   which is “guess”.   . In other words. the whole affair becomes a matter of figuring out ©Simon Lloyd A. it will facilitate our thinking process if we start examining the vehicle of the metaphor. All rights reserved. As such.

I have to say that it is rather difficult to justify how Puntablangko could be similar with a pass. All the places that were enumerated had defects which the poem expresses with such emphasis. the key to unraveling the mystery of this talinghaga is figuring out how the ugly flower can be applicable and relevant to the concept of self. it is important to examine the descriptions of the places and figure out what they may be saying about the concept of Puntablangko. I already mentioned in an earlier chapter that this violence might be referring to the effect of talinghaga which can be described as making the comprehension on the part of the reader difficult because of its mystery. With this in mind. we now arrive at the conclusion that the Amazon becomes a talinghaga for talinghaga because it embodies violence (warrior) and femininity (woman). area. To make some sense of these comparisons. synagogue and a laboratory. one possible interpretation is that the hidden ©Simon Lloyd A. its femininity makes us realize that the mystery is not too obscure that it already eliminates the possibility of comprehension. there are two aspects of it that are worth bringing up: warrior and woman.   . All rights reserved. Concerning the talinghaga of the ugly flower as a metaphor for oneself which we find in Pinto. In this case. Arciaga 2015. Nevertheless. One thing that can be said is that Puntablangko is not an attractive place to visit for ordinary travelers. port.62   what it is in an Amazon that may be saying something about talinghaga. Thinking about what an Amazon is. As regards the examples of terse talinghaga in Abiso.

it is crucial to first analyze these things with which guess is compared. Keeping in mind that it is the red vampire that is describing the city. the lifestyle in the city is like a vampire since it sucks out the life from its people due to its immoralities. Regarding the portrayal of guess as a poison. It is important to keep in mind that the poem is talking about the relationship of a man with a woman. knife or a storm insofar as it is capable of harming the ©Simon Lloyd A. the talinghaga of the red vampire used in Siyudad proves to be one of the most powerful metaphors in this collection. our understanding of the concept of “guessing” has to be based on its effect in a relationship. Therefore. When comprehended. knife and storm in the poem Hindi Man Ihayag ng Daliri’t Dila. Perhaps. Arciaga 2015.63   part of the flower might be alluding to the rotten side of the person where all his dark secrets are kept. One thing that these three have in common is that they are all harmful to us. With this in mind.   . in this case. one way to make sense of this terse talinghaga is to reason out how the lifestyle in the city can be a vampire. All rights reserved. A vampire is a mythical creature known for sucking the blood of people. These dark secrets might be referring to the person’s imperfections and defects which he does not want to admit let alone allow others to notice them. it now becomes clear that a guess is like a poison. It is this insight which can be related with the concept of “guessing”. The adjective “red” might have been used to further emphasize “blood” as the target of the vampire.

Indeed. It is in concretizing something that was originally abstract that a terse talinghaga is able to manifest a different kind of clarity. As a consequence. Once again. This clarity is not the same as the clarity that we see in a philosophical discourse in which every syllogism is supported by sufficiently argued premises. C. the image of the red ©Simon Lloyd A. the poet chooses to express his ideas regarding the lifestyle in the city in terms of imagery instead of plain words. Arciaga 2015. This kind of clarity is also achieved in the poem Siyudad where the lifestyle in the city is compared with a red vampire. Clarity in Vividness Although making sense of this terse talinghaga is difficult.64   relationship between two people who resort to guessing and speculating instead of solving issues by talking to each other. it bears mentioning that the clarity which it eventually leads to is quite remarkable. one must keep in mind that the tenor of the metaphor – which is the notion of talinghaga itself – is abstract. His concern is not so much making a discourse on talinghaga as it is presenting it visually. this lack of communication can eventually lead to misunderstanding that can end the relationship of two people. Bigorina is able to express his point with more vividness. By describing it as an Amazon.   . Going back to the example of terse talinghaga in Ambush. The clarity that this terse talinghaga exhibits can be expressed in terms of the vividness of the poem’s message. All rights reserved.

more time is required to figure ©Simon Lloyd A. This mystery explains why unlike an ordinary metaphor. In order to make sense of a terse talinghaga.   .65   vampire becomes an embodiment of the moral corruption that the persona in the poem accuses the city of. Unlike an ordinary metaphor where both the tenor and vehicle are concrete for the most part. I have established that it is the mystery that envelops a talinghaga that makes it a special kind of metaphor. it is important to start with the concrete vehicle and see how it can be related to the abstract tenor. In the case of terse talinghaga. Synthesis In this chapter. This explains the gap which makes the comparison seem far-fetched. it is always the case that the vehicle is something concrete and that the tenor is something abstract. the lack of firm hold on the abstract tenor in a terse talinghaga prevents us from immediately establishing a connection between the vehicle and the tenor. D. All rights reserved. In the metaphors that we have seen so far. Arciaga 2015. The comparison itself strikes us as mysterious because of the opposite natures of the metaphor’s vehicle and tenor. The examples that we have seen allow us to realize that part of the difficulty in analyzing a terse talinghaga is that the abstract nature of the metaphor’s tenor prevents us from perceiving its connection with the vehicle immediately. it is the comparison itself that accounts for this sense of mystery. talinghaga is difficult to understand. Because of its abstract nature.

66   out how the vehicle can be similar with it. I have established in this chapter that terse talinghaga eventually leads to clarity. Terse talinghaga is more effective in this sense because it makes use of the language of the image rather than the language of words. In this way. This is far different from the similarity that is established in an ordinary metaphor where the point of connection is more accessible and immediate because it is based on something that is more noticeable such as the common genus. This clarity is to be expressed in terms of the vividness that the metaphor provides. Arciaga 2015. All rights reserved. ©Simon Lloyd A. the message is always conveyed with more impact. action or sensorial quality.   . In spite of the difficulty.

Mystery in Extension One example of extended talinghaga is the poem Ambush. This talinghaga is what I would like to call henceforth as “extended” which shall be the central topic of this chapter. These are talinghaga that are contained in a few words or in just one line.67   CHAPTER FIVE EXTENDED TALINGHAGA In the previous chapter. the poem is an attempt to compare the search for talinghaga with hunting. As we have seen in chapter 2. Apart from the comparison itself. there is another factor that accounts for the mystery that we see in talinghaga. It is enough to know what the poet is comparing to detect the mystery that these metaphors have. A. I tackled the type of talinghaga which I call “terse”. (1-3) (Sufficient preparation is necessary to look for talinghaga in the wilderness and mountain of wonder) ©Simon Lloyd A. The other source of mystery in the poems of Bigornia is coming from the way he extends an ordinary metaphor. The poet communicates this to us with the opening lines of the poem: Kailangang sapat ang paghahanda Sa pagtunton ng talinghaga Sa dawag at bundok ng hiwaga. Arciaga 2015. All rights reserved.   .

My analysis in chapter 2 shows that Bigornia is not just describing the quest of hunting. no talinghaga is yet to be found. In my chapter on ordinary metaphor. the mystery is not coming from Bigornia’s comparison of hunting for an animal with looking for talinghaga. I classified this one as an action-based metaphor because the verb pagtunton (to look for) already provides the connection between the animal and the talinghaga both of which can be a target in a hunt. What I would like to add at this point of my analysis is how the mystery in the poem is created by extending the ordinary metaphor that Bigornia uses at the beginning of this poem. readers are given more details to interpret which prove to be difficult. In that chapter. The mystery is rather made evident by his elaboration on hunting.68   It bears mentioning that at this point of the poem. As a matter of fact. ©Simon Lloyd A. the metaphor that we are presented here is quite ordinary. All rights reserved. As the poem elaborates on hunting. Talinghaga is only introduced in this poem when it starts talking about the quest in a detailed manner. In Ambush. This is where the extended talinghaga of the poem is coming from. I have demonstrated how the descriptions of the quest of hunting correspond to the experience of a poet who is looking for the right talinghaga.   . My chapter 2 already provides an analysis of the whole poem. Each detail about the quest is meant to say something about the process of looking for the right talinghaga. Arciaga 2015.

Moreover. All rights reserved. the author expands the ordinary metaphor by informing us about where these doors are to be found within oneself. these lines also help us imagine that the “self” that we are trying to enter is not just a room that has many doors. It is more of a building that is composed ©Simon Lloyd A. from the winding stairs of thought to the rooms of personhood there are doors that have to be opened) In these lines. (3-8) (From the steps of the skin to the floors of the flesh.   .” (There are so many doors to open / in entering oneself) This is one of the ordinary metaphors I classified as action-based because the word pagpasok (to enter) leads us to see that the similarity with the vehicle of the metaphor (enclosed structure) and its tenor (self) is that we can enter and access both. Arciaga 2015. Just like Ambush. this poem starts with an ordinary metaphor: “Kayraming binubuksang pinto / sa pagpasok sa sarili (1-2). may mga pintong binubuksan. mulang palikaw-likaw na hagdan ng diwa hanggang mga silid ng katauhan.69   Bigornia uses extended talinghaga once again in his poem Pinto. The use of extended talinghaga becomes evident when the poem describes in greater detail what happens in the building as the person enters it: Mulang mga baitang ng balat hanggang mga palapag ng laman.

walang kandado. It is interesting to find out that these doors are somewhat unusual in that they are not like those typical doors that have a latch. walang susi. we begin to understand that the human person is much more complicated than what we think. ©Simon Lloyd A. All rights reserved. are protecting the private independence) The metaphor of the building is further expanded by describing the doors in greater detail. Bigornia describes the doors as follows: mga pintong may kanya-kanya ri’t sariling pinto. (9-13) (doors that have their own door doors which even if they have no latches no locks. no keys. we are now aware that this building can be accessed easily since the doors are not heavily guarded. ay nag-iingat ng pribadong kasarinlan. mga pintong bagaman walang trangka. the poem provides more details about the doors that we find inside this building. apart from knowing that this building can be accessed through doors. Arciaga 2015. After giving us a clearer picture of this “building”. Through these lines. With this further description of the door.70   of many rooms and several floors. a lock and a key.   .

the metaphor at the start of the poem helps us realize that the descriptions of the building are saying something about the process of knowing oneself which is the main topic of ©Simon Lloyd A. To do this. In the case of Pinto. it is crucial to keep in mind that the poem is about entering oneself. He may be literally talking about a building and its many doors. All rights reserved. Given this difficulty.   . Bigornia used the metaphor of entering a building through doors to talk about this topic. Arciaga 2015. analyzing an extended talinghaga calls for a special approach which can aid the readers in interpreting the poem well. the readers are asked to interpret these details with much precision as possible. it is important for us to go back to the metaphor that the poem has introduced at the start. As we have seen. it is important to note that the stanza above asserts that the rooms are not empty. The poem does not explicitly say who or what is found in that room. This helps us stay in context and interpret the lines accordingly. Unraveling the Mystery The difficulty that extending a metaphor brings with it poses a big challenge to the readers. This interpretation consists in analyzing how the elaborate descriptions of the vehicle of the metaphor correspond to the aspects of the tenor that can be considered parallel to them. Each time a poet extends a metaphor by introducing new details. We are told that each door in that building protects the privacy of whoever is staying inside that room. B.71   Moreover.

we are not assured that we can know ourselves completely. This complexity is communicated to us through the many floors. Arciaga 2015. By describing the ©Simon Lloyd A. This could possibly mean knowing his own different character traits that define him as a person. It is as if the poem is saying that a person is composed of several layers and getting to know him will take a long time. all interpretations in the poem have to be in line with what the poem is fundamentally about. doors. there is a kind of knowledge of the human person that involves knowing himself thoroughly. these lines give us a picture of the complexity of a person. All rights reserved. There is a kind of knowledge that is very external. this kind of knowledge is not easy to attain because it requires a lot of time. The detailed description of the doors in lines 9-13 is also saying something more about the process of knowing oneself. The further description of the “self” as a building in lines 3-8 is meant to help us grasp the difficulty of knowing oneself. Such is the complexity of the human person. this involves knowing the physical attributes of a person. Indeed. But apart from this. This kind of self-knowledge is acquired by reflecting on how we behave and by processing what people tell about us.   . Far from being just a poetic verbiage. These lines also suggest that there are different levels of knowledge with regard to a person. Thus. Perhaps. It is not something that we can attain in an instant. Even then.72   the poem. rooms as well as the winding stairs found in the building.

Clarity in Cohesion and Relatibility Even if extended talinghaga may appear difficult to deal with. In the entire poem. C. Arciaga 2015. This cohesion adds to the beauty of the overall poem because it demonstrates the fittingness of a metaphor. The vehicle of the metaphor is so apt for its tenor that the poet can further extend it in order to talk about the tenor in a more comprehensive manner. This cohesion is also present in the extended talinghaga used in Pinto. The doors will always open for him if he wants to enter. This clarity can be expressed in terms of the poem’s cohesion and relatability. In the case of Ambush. Perceiving this sense of fittingness between the metaphor’s vehicle and tenor is indeed a source of delight for the readers. cohesion can be found in the way the topic was presented to the readers. Bigornia was quite consistent in using the metaphor of the building in discussing the process of knowing oneself. the poem might be suggesting that nothing is preventing the person from knowing himself. it still has a very distinct version of clarity to offer.73   doors as being easily accessible.   . the poet only used one language to talk about the process of looking for the right talinghaga: the language of hunting. ©Simon Lloyd A. The poem explores the things that could be found there as well as the experiences that can take place in a building in order to expound on the process of attaining self-knowledge. All rights reserved.

This relatability is also found in the poem Pinto. It even describes to us the characteristics of the mountain including its slopes and its cliffs. All rights reserved. For many of us. touch. Because of this. we are able to relate ©Simon Lloyd A.   . This relatability does not mean that we can easily understand this talinghaga. It talks about the things that a hunter encounters in the wilderness such as animals and vines. it will be easier to relate with a poem that talks about this experience rather than a poem that talks about the concept of talinghaga as such. it takes us quite some time to make sense of the elaboration. We experience this for ourselves when reading Ambush. hear and taste. smell. While the process of knowing oneself might be too abstract for many of us.74   There is also clarity in the poem’s relatability provided by the extended talinghaga. It is easier for us readers to process descriptions that refer to things we can see. Relatability in this case refers to the ease with which we follow the elaboration insofar as it is tangible and concrete. the experience of exploring a building is something we are more familiar with. This kind of clarity is even better demonstrated in this poem because it talks about the experience of going through doors in a building which is a phenomenon that we experience practically everyday. This also works to the advantage of the poet who finds it easier to describe things that he can sense as opposed to abstract ideas that are found only in the mind. Arciaga 2015. On the contrary. It is easier for us to follow the flow of the poem because it talks about very concrete things.

it is important that the reader’s interpretations are made in light of the basic metaphor from which the extension is coming.   . Arciaga 2015. we have seen some examples of extended talinghaga. In this way. D. more details of the vehicle are provided which the readers have to analyze and interpret in order to see how they relate to the tenor of the metaphor. the distinct clarity of an extended talinghaga is experienced. Once the mystery is unraveled.75   better to what the poem is saying even though we know that it is talking about something very abstract. In order to analyze an extended talinghaga properly. Synthesis In this chapter. The purpose for expanding the vehicle of the metaphor is to expound more on its tenor. This kind of talinghaga relies on an ordinary metaphor which it tries to expand in the poem. This gives the poem a sense of wholeness which conveys its message with more impact. ©Simon Lloyd A. the readers are guided as to how the further elaboration on the vehicle of the metaphor can be related with the metaphor’s tenor. This clarity is expressed in terms of the poem’s cohesion insofar as it is consistent in using the same metaphor to tackle its topic. As the poet extends the metaphor. The mystery in this talinghaga is coming from the extension of the ordinary metaphor. All rights reserved.

  . All rights reserved. ©Simon Lloyd A. In this way. Bigornia uses an extended talinghaga. the concrete nature of the vehicle will make it easier for the readers to better follow and process the elaboration on the abstract concept. Arciaga 2015.76   An extended talinghaga can also exhibit clarity in terms of making the whole poem relatable. In order to lessen the alienation that readers might experience in reading a poem about an abstract reality.

A pivotal part of this study was differentiating talinghaga from an ordinary metaphor. All rights reserved. talinghaga is different from an ordinary metaphor because the latter can be understood easily. it is the kind of mystery that will eventually lead to clarity.   . These poems are Ambush. This poem tells us about how Bigornia understands talinghaga. action or sensory quality which the metaphor outrighly exposes. Siyudad and Maagang Gabi. there are six poems in Puntablangko that have talinghaga. From the list of metaphors that I came up with in this study. Indeed. The reason for this facility is the explicit similarity that is contained in this ordinary metaphor. talinghaga is not really something that is found. Hindi Man Ihayag ng Daliri’t Dila. Pinto. Arciaga 2015. Talinghaga is essentially mysterious. the mystery that ©Simon Lloyd A. Of the six. Abiso. His other descriptions of talinghaga reinforce what has already been said by previous scholars such as Almario and Lumbera. On the contrary. CONCLUSION In conclusion. Essentially. At the same time. This similarity can be established based on the common genus. it is the talinghaga that finds the poet and thereby surprising him. Ambush occupies a special place in this collection because it specifically talks about talinghaga itself. I was able to identify which of these can be considered talinghaga based on Lumbera’s criterion that it should be mysterious.77   CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS A. For poets.

Examples such as “person as star”. I coined the term terse talinghaga to refer to this kind of talinghaga. “city as red vampire” and “night time as period of suffering” demonstrate how there could be a huge gap between the vehicle and the tenor which makes it difficult for us to establish a similarity between the two. are already mysterious. There are certain comparisons which. Analyzing the poems of Bigornia helped me probe into this matter further. “woman as country”. Once the connection has been established. “door as monster”. All rights reserved. readers realize for themselves how the initial mystification was worth it in that it eventually leads to a better grasp of the poet’s message. These are special kinds of metaphors which are found in a few words or in a ©Simon Lloyd A. there are two reasons why a metaphor can be mysterious. this is only apparent for. as we have seen. the overall context of the poem helps us solve these puzzles. The most significant contribution of my study is how it sheds more light on the aspect of “mystery” in talinghaga. One is the very nature of the things that the poet compares. The reason for this is the non-relatedness between a metaphor’s vehicle and its tenor. Based on my analysis of his poems. This gap is better understood when we take into account that the comparison requires establishing a similarity between something concrete (vehicle) and something abstract (tenor).78   talinghaga has refers to the difficulty that the readers experience in comprehending this special metaphor. in themselves. Arciaga 2015. Obviously.   .

Arciaga 2015. Bigornia is able to introduce more aspects of the vehicle of the metaphor which are intended to explain further the parallel aspects of the tenor. What accounts for the mystery is the manner by which these simple metaphors are extended and elaborated. as we have seen in some of the poems in Puntablangko. Ultimately. talinghaga helps the poet achieve clarity. It is a device that Bigornia often uses to concretize abstract ideas and concepts. The connection between the vehicle and the tenor may be easy to perceive but as the poet extends this comparison.79   line of a poem. Furthermore. These metaphors usually consist of comparisons that are easy to comprehend. the purpose for using terse talinghaga is to look for an image that will embody the point of the poet. The other reason why a metaphor becomes mysterious is the manner by which it is extended throughout the poem. some of the examples are “poet as a hunter” and “self as a building”. This is where the mystery of such talinghaga comes from. In these comparisons. In this sense. In Puntablangko. This kind of talinghaga is what I call extended talinghaga. we perceive right away the connection between the vehicle and the tenor of the metaphors. In extending the overarching metaphor. the readers are given more things to comprehend. All rights reserved.   . this kind of talinghaga serves the purpose of intensifying an effect. These metaphors give the readers something concrete to think about thereby aiding their comprehension of whatever the poet is saying. Extending a metaphor is like ©Simon Lloyd A.

Consequently. Based on the poems of Bigornia that use terse talinghaga. In order to express the inarticulate. he is able to articulate his thoughts easier.80   giving the readers more puzzles to solve thereby creating that sense of mystery in the poem. In the case of Bigornia. by comparing these abstract concepts with things that we are more familiar with. Talinghaga is a mysterious metaphor whose comparison between an abstract idea or experience and a concrete object in reality leads to clarity. as readers. Hence. clarity is achieved through cohesion and relatabiliy. a poet resorts to talking about something that is more familiar both to him and to his readers. In extended talinghaga. The clarity that is achieved through extended talinghaga is different from that of terse talinghaga. Poets who discuss abstract concepts find it difficult to express their thoughts about them. Cohesion means the wholeness of the poem which is achieved by using only one metaphor throughout the poem to talk about something. I consider it necessary to present my definitive formulation of the meaning of talinghaga. he resorts to ©Simon Lloyd A. find it easier to follow and understand what the poet is trying to express. Arciaga 2015. After having analyzed talinghaga in the poems of Bigornia. we. Relatability in this case means familiarity with the concepts used. clarity is achieved through vividness.   . All rights reserved. The point that he tries to get across is done so powerfully because of the image that he uses.

comparisons with the hope that the vehicle of the metaphor is concrete
enough to express the intangible aspects of the tenor.
The mystery in a talinghaga can be defined as a quality of a metaphor
which makes comprehension on the part of the readers difficult. As proven
by my analysis of the poems in Puntablangko, this difficulty also has to do
with making a comparison between an abstract idea and a concrete object.
The lack of firm hold on this abstract idea makes establishing its similarity
with a concrete object problematic.
There are some concepts that are quite complex that the poet sees the
need to look for the right metaphor that will match the complexity of the
concept. More often than not, such complex concepts are proven to be
difficult to express that the poet has to rely on a very particular thing to
express his thoughts clearly. It is often the case that expressing these
concepts could only be done in a very specific way. The metaphor that the
poet finds fitting for his idea is very special that it brings with it the
unwanted result of being mysterious. This explains the difficulty with which
we comprehend terse talinghaga. The vehicle that the poet finds fitting to
describe the concept is already too far from the tenor. This is precisely what
Almario was talking about when he said that the mystery in talinghaga is the
result of the creativity of the poet who is able to see connections between
two entirely different realities. This sensibility to one’s surroundings is

©Simon Lloyd A. Arciaga 2015. All rights reserved.  

something that ordinary people do not have which explains why they find
such comparisons mysterious (Almario 156).
Some poets who want to talk about an abstract idea or experience at
length are hindered by the limitations posed by its abstract nature. This is
why it is often the case that poets employ metaphors to have something
concrete to work with. There are cases when an ordinary metaphor would
suffice. Nevertheless, it cannot be avoided that extending such metpahors
will in turn, make the whole poem mysterious. When extending a metaphor,
poets usually go into the minute details which form part of the reality they
are describing. Interpreting such lines will prove to be not easy for readers.
Therefore, we can say that mystery in talinghaga comes as a result of the
poet’s attempt to stretch comparisons in two ways. The first way is
stretching it by comparing two entirely different realities. The other is
stretching it by literally extending the metaphor to elaborate on an abstract
In this sense, we can say that using talinghaga is always a risk that
the poet takes. The comparisons that talinghaga uses are often too stretched
that it tends to make the poet’s expression obscure to readers. The two
things that are being compared are too different that linking them in a poem
seems too far-fetched. It could also happen that obscurity lies in how a
metaphor is extended such that more details about it are given in the poem.
However, it is important to note that this obscurity is not intended by the
©Simon Lloyd A. Arciaga 2015. All rights reserved.  

poet. Certainly, a poet does not make use of talinghaga in order to confuse
the readers. We can be sure that where there is talinghaga, clarity is also
present. As Lumbera himself puts it, talinghaga gives the poem “an element
of mystification which gives way to insight when unraveled by a perceptive
audience” (20). This helps us see that talinghaga is primarily used to achieve
clarity. If anything, the obscurity that it brings with it is a “necessary evil”
that it has to play around with. It may prove to be difficult to comprehend at
the beginning, but once the connection is established, the message of the
poem is conveyed with more clarity and impact. Indeed, the risk that
talinghaga carries is worth the clarity that it eventually leads to.
One might ask: If talinghaga is obscure, how does one unravel its
mystery? Admittedly, talinghaga is not easy to understand. What I did in this
thesis is a testament to how difficult it is to make sense of a talinghaga. This
explains why all of my interpretations of the poems in Puntablangko are
expressed with such tentativeness. It is an actual proof of how much I had
to stuggle to deal with the mysteries that Bigornia presents to us. In the
case of terse talinghaga, the mystery can be unraveled by first analyzing the
concrete vehicle. Readers should figure out a way to relate the vehicle with
the concept of the tenor.
When it comes to extended talinghaga, the mystery of talinghaga is
brought to light with the help of the context of the poem. In a sense, the
ordinary metaphor presented at the start of the poem guides us in our
©Simon Lloyd A. Arciaga 2015. All rights reserved.  

thinking process as we try to make sense of the talinghaga. It even limits
possible interpretations in the poem since the way we make sense of the
talinghaga has to be in line with what the poem as a whole is saying.
The clarity that talinghaga achieves may be expressed in different
ways. In expressing abstract ideas and concepts, the poet is not only after
saying them in a poem. Driven by the desire to communicate himself well,
the poet uses talinghaga to convey his message better. Sometimes,
conveying one’s message would mean expressing his ideas vividly so that it
penetrates the minds of the readers more deeply. Certainly, anything that is
presented to us which is clothed with sensorial forms registers to our minds
more quickly.
At other times, communicating one’s message well would mean
elaborating on a concept in greater detail. A poet who intends to do this
makes use of talinghaga because of the facility that it provides. An extended
talinghaga presents clarity by way of cohesion. This is achieved by using the
language or vocabulary of just one metaphor to talk about something. This
sense of wholeness accounts for this clarity.
There is another kind of clarity that an extended talinghaga offers. It is
way easier for us to describe things that we see, hear, touch, feel and smell.
Our vocabulary in talking about what we experience sensorially is wider.
Hence, the poet borrows from this experience to talk about abstract ideas.

©Simon Lloyd A. Arciaga 2015. All rights reserved.  

While this mystery may be an obstacle in understanding the poem. Once the mystery is unraveled. To sum it all up. Talinghaga contributes to this beauty by giving us a sense of fittingness which we perceive as we see the connection between the metaphor’s vehicle and tenor. Poetry is first of all a fine art. a poem is to be judged not only for its meaning but also in terms of how this meaning was brought out in the poem. talinghaga is a mysterious metaphor whose comparison between an abstract idea or experience and a concrete object in reality leads to clarity. the clarity that is achieved is expressed in terms of the relatability of the descriptions that he provides. the real power of talinghaga is laid bare in terms of how it communicates the message with such vividness. the use of talinghaga by poets is demanded by the very essence of poetry. relatability and beauty. cohesion. We delight in realizing that the metaphor captures very well the idea that the poet is trying to express. As such.85   In this case. this mystification is eventually solved by what the poem is saying as a whole. Arciaga 2015. Ultimately. All rights reserved. The mystery that surrounds it is an inevitable consequence of the poet’s attempt to look for a way to bridge the nonmaterial world of ideas with the material world where we find ourselves in. its end goal is to achieve beauty. ©Simon Lloyd A. It is precisely because of this that a poet is not just supposed to say something. At the end of the day.   .

this analysis can add more categories to the kinds of talinghaga that Bigornia uses. All rights reserved. In this paper. RECOMMENDATIONS I mentioned in my conclusion that Maagang Gabi is one of the poems that has talinghaga. Just to cite an example. here’s a portion from the poem Pinto which presents a very interesting way of breaking the lines: Mangyari pa’y sabik itong bubuksan at naroon ang di-kariktang ©Simon Lloyd A.86   B. I mentioned in the introduction of this paper that talinghaga is manifested in different ways. My study made me realize other related topics which scholars might want to look into.   . In the poems of Bigornia. talinghaga is also expressed in how the words were arranged in the poem. Apart from metaphors. Arciaga 2015. Nevertheless. there are many examples that scholars can study in order to explore this kind of talinghaga. I only studied the metaphoric talinghaga in Bigornia’s poems. The whole mystery is coming from the story about the street children who are working amidst the harshness of the night and the rain. Questions such as why the poet said this line in this particular way and why this word was placed in that position lead us to study the talinghaga that influenced the poet to write his poem in a very particular way. the mystery that this poem has is quite remarkable. Once explored. This poem was not included in my discussions because it cannot be classifed as either terse or extended talinghaga.

Explaining this kind of talinghaga will help us have a broader understanding of the concept.) Scholars might find it interesting to explain why Bigornia seems to isolate the words mapaghinala. Arciaga 2015. All rights reserved.   . which the moment it is touched. One of the poems in Puntablangko called Multo sa Kuwarto can serve as an example for this: ©Simon Lloyd A. mapanlinlang. mapaglihim. meekly folds.87   mapaghinala. talinghaga also influences the poet to construct his poem in such a way that its very appearance is already part of the message. doubtful. deceptive. isang pumpon ng mga talulot na sandaling masaling ay nagmamakahiyang tumitiklop at ayaw palimi ang itinatago. (77-85) (And it happens that it will be opened excitedly and the ulgy boquet of petals is there. not wanting to show what is being kept inside. mapaglihim and mapanlinlang in this stanza. secretive. As I explained in my conceptual framework. Another manifestation of talinghaga that could be an interest for scholars is the appearance of the text.

it would also be of benefit for us to know how this can be considered talinghaga.   . In total. his entry for the Palanca amount to 16 poems only. The entire collection is acutally composed of hundreds of poem. I highly recommend that scholars consider studying the entire collection. Arciaga 2015. Scholars can examine what the visual arrangement does to the poem. In order to have a more complete understanding of the talinghaga in Puntablangko. Furthermore. Scholars might find it beneficial to see the other ©Simon Lloyd A.88   Mananaog ang isang batang babae Payat humahagkis ang buhok Gulanit ang damit (22-30) (A young girl appears A thin girl whose hair is all pointing up Her clothes are ragged) Bigornia arrests our attention with such visual arrangement. The scope of this study only covers the poems from Puntablangko which Bigornia submitted to Palanca. All rights reserved.

89   talinghaga in those other poems. This might even open up new discussions about talinghaga in terms of its other kinds. structures and purposes in the context of Tagalog poetry. ©Simon Lloyd A. All rights reserved.   . Arciaga 2015. This will surely help us in getting a better understanding of talinghaga.

  . A port that is surrounded by ramparts and cannons but its history that should be recorded in the diary of memory cannot be found. It is a synagogue in a temple or mosque. It is a temporary or a false oasis of an exiled man in a desert of belief. English Translation of an excerpt from Abiso To an ordinary traveler Puntablangko is a pass or a route that should be avoided by tires. whose fibers of faith are hard to identify. It is an area that survived fire and earthquake. proa and foot. propellers. ©Simon Lloyd A. Arciaga 2015. All rights reserved.90   APPENDICES A. A laboratory inside a refrigerator or fireplace and each miracle that is discovered has no measurement.

Master List of Metaphors used in Puntablangko 1.91   B. Arciaga 2015. ng talampakan [20-23] Ito’y balwarteng nakaligtas sa sunog at lindol [24-26] Isang puwertong ligid ng muralya at kanyon [2728] Sinagoga ito sa isang templo o moske [33-34] Ito’y pansamantala o huwad na oasis ng destiyero [3739] Isang laboratoryong nakasilid sa nebera o pugon [41-23] Pulpito [30] Vehicle Flower Tenor Dignity Grounds Being enhanced Classification Ordinary Metaphor Visitor Reader Reader does not own the collection Ordinary Metaphor Pass/route Puntablangko Puntablangko as a destination Talinghaga (Terse) Certain Area Puntablangko Puntablangko as a special place Talinghaga (Terse) Port Puntablangko Puntablangko as a special place Talinghaga (Terse) Synagogue Puntablangko Puntablangko as a special place Talinghaga (Terse) Oasis Puntablangko Puntablangko as a special place Talinghaga (Terse) Laboratory Puntablangko Puntablangko as a special place Talinghaga (Terse) Pulpit Puntablangko Bulwagang plenaryo [51] Ngunit dahil ikaw ay naging Plenary Hall Puntablangko Visitor Reader Puntablangko as a special place Puntablangko as a special place Reader does not own the Talinghaga (Terse) Talinghaga (Terse) Ordinary Metaphor ©Simon Lloyd A.   . ng elisi at proa. ABISO Context Rumirikit ang talulot ng aking dangal [1-2] sa iyong pagdulog sa Puntablangko [3-4] isang paso or rutang dapat iwasan ng gulong. All rights reserved.

[138-141] Bilang propitaryo hayaang magsuot ako ng tunika [159-160] Nipa Hut Puntablangko Uranium Lens Puntablangko Beeswax Experience Cocklebur collection Puntablangko as a special place Talinghaga (Terse) Puntablangko allows us to see things in a very specific way Experience stays with us Talinghaga (Terse) Experience Experience stays with us Ordinary Metaphor Place Puntablangko Meeting place for the poet and his reader Talinghaga (Extended) Star Person ? Talinghaga (Terse) Sacred Water Person Purified Talinghaga (Terse) Workshop Puntablangko Place where Talinghaga language and (Terse) thought are being developed Proprietor Poet Poet owns the collections of poems Ordinary Metaphor Vehicle Wilderness Tenor Hiwaga Classification Ordinary Metaphor Animal/person Talinghaga Grounds Hiwaga is a rich source for things to write Talinghaga as Ordinary Metaphor 2. All rights reserved. Arciaga 2015.92   panauhin [52-53] Isang Bahay kubo o bahay na tisa [60-61] Isang Lenteng Uranyo [64] Bawat karanasan ay pagkit [72-73] Bawat karanasan ay amorseko [72-73] Sumisikat dito ang araw habang umuulan [75-76] At ikaw ay isa nang bituin [115-116] At ikaw ay sagradong tubig [123] Ang Puntablangko ay talyer ng wika at diwang magtatanghal sa sarili bilang tao. AMBUSH Context Sa dawag at bundok ng hiwaga [3] Kailangang Ordinary ©Simon Lloyd A.   .

has many components Self is wellprotected.93   sapat ang paghahanda sa pagtunton ng talinghaga [1-2] Amasonang talinghaga at ikaw ay pasasabugin [2324] being hunted being sought after Metaphor Talinghaga (Terse) Amazon Talinghaga Talinghaga as violent because of its mystery Context Kayraming binubuksang pinto sa pagpasok sa sarili [1-2] Mulang mga baitang ng balat [3] Hanggang mga palapag ng laman [4] mulang palikawlikaw na hagdan ng diwa [5] Vehicle Enclosed Structure Tenor Self Grounds Classification The “Self” is not Ordinary readily Metaphor accessible. not readily accessible 3. could be in separate rooms Self is composed of many aspects. sturdy. All rights reserved. PINTO at ang sarili Mysterious home bilang misteryosong tahanan [14] o kastilyong Fortified Castle ligid ng ilog at balumbon ng tinik-aroma [1516] Pakiwari’y isang Tourist turista o balikbayan [61- Self Self Person discovering himself Talinghaga (Extended) Talinghaga (Extended) Talinghaga (Extended) Talinghaga (Extended) Talinghaga (Terse) Talinghaga (Terse) The person is not Ordinary familiar with the Metaphor place he is ©Simon Lloyd A. Doors are needed. Levels Several layers Levels/floors Several layers Spiral Stairs Steps going up hanggang mga silid ng katauhan [7] Residents Reside in a house Thick structure composed of several layers Thick structure composed of several layers It follows a path or process that could be complicated Resides in the person.   . Arciaga 2015.

AKO AT DI-AKO Context Isip ko’y may pakpak [32] Hindi yaong askad ng lipunang sugat [62-63] Vehicle Winged creature Tenor Mind Wound Society Grounds The mind soars when it thinks Ill Classification Ordinary Metaphor Ordinary Metaphor Grounds Memory stores experiences. Classification Ordinary Metaphor 5. thoughts from the past. MAAGANG GABI Context Pinaaga ng biglan ulan kangina ang gabi [9-10] Vehicle Night Tenor Period of suffering Grounds Period of suffering as harsh Classification Talinghaga (Special) ©Simon Lloyd A.) isang pumpon ng mga talulot [82] Petals of a flower visiting Self has a façade that hides what’s inside Self Talinghaga (Terse) 4.94   62] 17. All rights reserved. Arciaga 2015. BISIKLETA SA BUWAN Context nahalungkat sa lumang drawer o bulsa ng gunita [64-65] Vehicle Pants with pockets Tenor Memory 6.   . ANG MANGANGAHOY NA KUBA Context Katutubong Rebulto [2] Antigong Bathala [9] Vehicle Native Statue Tenor Farmer Antique god Farmer Grounds Farmer as Stationary Classification Ordinary Metaphor Fervent/Hardworking Ordinary Metaphor 7.

Posion and Storm Tenor Guess Grounds Guess can harm the relationship Classification Talinghaga (Terse) Jewelry Heart and Soul Ordinary Metaphor Snake Doubt Heart and Soul are precious “possessions” Doubt can harm the relationship Grounds The ticking of the clock can be felt when everything is silent Eyes can be red Classification Ordinary Metaphor Talinghaga (Terse) 9.95   8.   . Arciaga 2015. SIYUDAD Context Emperatris ng bangketa at bulebard [2] Sultana ng estero at ilawdagitab [3] Palengke ng busina at ©Simon Lloyd A. All rights reserved. MULTO SA KUWARTO Context Vehicle Hahaplusin ka Person’s Touch sa anit ng tiktik na orasan [15-16] Tenor Ticking of the clock Nanlilisik na Rubi! [40] Na naghangad lumaya kahit sugatan ang bagwis [54] Upang iligtas ang kaluluwa sa tiyak na pagkaagnas [58] Ruby Eyes Bird Peasant Material Thing Soul Vehicle Empress Tenor City Grounds City as ruler Classification Ordinary Metaphor Sultana City City as ruler Ordinary Metaphor Market City City as a place for many things Ordinary Metaphor Peasant seeks to be free just like the bird who seeks to fly Soul can also be corrupted Ordinary Metaphor Ordinary Metaphor Ordinary Metaphor 10. HINDI MAN IHAYAG NG DALIRI’T DILA Context Patalim at unos ang lason ng hula [4] Puso’t kaluluwa ay handang isangla [10] Kamandag ng duda [16] Vehicle Knife.

Dobolkros at rape [24] Paradise City Procession City Doña City First Lady City Seductive Lady City as infested with many prostitutes City sucks out the life from people City as infested with many homosexuals City as an ideal place Talinghaga (Terse) City as a place for beautiful people City is of a noble reputation City as well respected Ordinary Metaphor City City that gives pleasure but is a place for immorality Talinghaga (Terse) Refuge City Ordinary Metaphor Nest City City can be a place where people can seek refuge City can be a place where people can seek shelter Grounds Wind that blows so hard Classification Ordinary Metaphor Talinghaga (Terse) Talinghaga (Terse) Ordinary Metaphor Ordinary Metaphor Ordinary Metaphor Ordinary Metaphor 11. DESTIYERO NG ULAN Context hangin naman ay sirenang [3] Vehicle Siren Tenor Wind ©Simon Lloyd A. nikotina at alcohol [19] Matahari ng haragang tsapa. halang na gatilyo at taksil na balisong [20-21] Dulugan ng kontrabando. takong. torero at burikak [13] Sagala ng pulubi. Arciaga 2015. despalko at suhol [22-23] Pugad ng salvage. gusali. All rights reserved. pustiso at bundyclock [7-8] Kurtesano real ng karimlan [10] Pulang Bampira [11] Courtesan City Red Vampire City Primera klaseng bakla [12] First-Class Homosexual City Paraiso ng bugaw. lumpeng tato.96   karburador. palaboy at patapon [14] Donya Marijuana [18] Unang ginang ng baraha.   .

  . IYANG PAGLILINIS NG BAHAY Context Suyurin ng abyador na tingting ang Vehicle Pilot Tenor Broomstick ©Simon Lloyd A. ito’ng sumpa ng malupit. Arciaga 2015. binibitay ng berdugong alimuom. nanginginig.97   Kamay-haring pumipirma sa karimlan ang dagitab [5] Nagsabwatan ang habagat. [22] Monarkong alimuom [32] Executioner Rain stench City as a place where there is a ruler and the people subject to him Rain stench harms the people Monarch Rain Stench Ordinary Metaphor Libong tinig nating api’y magsisilbi nang sirena [34] Siren Thousand Voices Rain Stench can be dominating due to its widespread smell Thousand Voices can be capable of creating noise Grounds Broomstick reaching up as it tries to get rid of Classification Ordinary Metaphor Ordinary Metaphor Ordinary Metaphor Ordinary Metaphor 12. reynong lunsod [21] Signature Lightning Lightning is like a signature in the sky Ordinary Metaphor Criminals Rain and Clouds Ordinary Metaphor Snake Lightning Rain and clouds work together to bring about the storm Lightning strikes like a snake Living Being Window Window sways and shakes because of the strong wind Ordinary Metaphor Kingdom City Ordinary Metaphor Ako’t ikaw. nangangatog [11-12] Ito’ng hatol. ula’t ulap ng kilabot [7] Kambal-ahas na dagitab tumutuklaw sa bintanang nakapinid nitong lunsod [10-11] Bintanang nakapinid sa lunsod. All rights reserved.

13. UTANG Context Vehicle Kaming Wala ay Money uutang din ng buhay [18] Tenor Life Grounds Life – like money – is precious. All rights reserved. Arciaga 2015.   .98   sapot at agiw [21] webs and dust. Classification Ordinary Metaphor Tenor Country Grounds Classification Country is like a Ordinary car that moves Metaphor forward/advances 14. HARAYA SA HINAHARAP Context sumusulong ang bayan [76] Vehicle Kotse ©Simon Lloyd A.

Arciaga 2015. Di sapat maging ang napag-aralang taktika. Sapot-halimaw bawat baging. 5 10 15 20 24 ©Simon Lloyd A. Nananambang. Madulas ang mga dalisdis. Espesyal ma’t malakas ang armas. Poems in Puntablangko AMBUSH Kailangang sapat ang paghahanda Sa pagtunton ng talinghaga Sa dawag at bundok ng hiwaga. All rights reserved. Laging may pasong sakdal-tahimik. Ang Amasonang talinghaga. Ang pangangaso sa kordilyera Ay lubhang peligroso’t nakatatakot Pagkat kapanalig ng tinutugis Ang mga hayop at elemento.   . Di sapat ang giyang tipuno at liksi. Sa ganito kaselang misyon. Ulupong bawat liko.99   C. May antas bawat lalim ng bangin At tarik ng talampas. May lalang na engkantadang patibong Ang paligid at di dapat malingat O mag-antok ang ulirat. At ikaw ay pasasabugin. At dito dapat alisto: Sasalakay ang mailap na pakay.



ng propitaryo
ang panauhing


ng panauhin
sa ibang

Rumirikit ang talulot
ng aking dangal
sa iyong pagdulog
sa Puntablangko.
ang pagdampi ng labi
sa bagong lupa at damo
at mga tanong
na sintapang
ng katutubong alak.
Ang pasintabing sinambit
ay karapat-dapat
nitong pamatid-uhaw
na galing sa ugat
at inihaw na musang
na pagsasaluhan natin
sa harap ng siga.
Sa karaniwang manlalakbay,
ang Puntablangko’y
isang paso o rutang
dapat iwasan ng gulong,
ng elisi at proa,
ng talampakan.
Ito’y balwarteng
nakaligtas sa sunog
at lindol,
isang puwertong
ligid ng muralya at kanyon
ngunit di maapuhap
ang kasaysayang
dapat iulat
sa taalarawan ng gunita.
Sinagoga ito
sa isang templo o moske
na mahirap tukuyin
ang himaymay ng sampalataya.
Ito’y pansamantala
o huwad na oasis
ng destiyero








©Simon Lloyd A. Arciaga 2015. All rights reserved.  

sa disyerto ng paniniwala,
isang laboratoryong
nakasilid sa nebera
o pugon
at bawat milagrong
matuklasa’y walang
numero ang timpla.
bawat hunyangong diskurso
ng mag-aakalang
ito’y pulpito
o bulwagang plenaryo.
Ngunit dahil ikaw
ay naging panauhin,
nasa iyong palad
ang bukas na aklat,
ang pagpipitagan ko’y
nasa pagsasabi
ng tapat.
sa lunan
ng haraya

Ang Puntablangko’y
isang bahay-kubo
o bahay na tisa
sa gitna ng puting isla
sa kalawakang asul,
isang lenteng uranyo
sa pinilakang panginorin
Dito, ang wakas
ay laging tabula rasa,
isang simula,
ngunit namamalikmata ma’y
di ko ipapayong
magbuhol ng panyo;
bawat karanasan
ay pagkit at amorseko
ng panahon.
Sumisikat dito ang araw
habang umuulan,
at kahit sa hatinggabi’y
di lumulubog
upang makiniig sa buwan.
Ang buwan,
na higit kailanma’y










©Simon Lloyd A. Arciaga 2015. All rights reserved.  

maalamat na kaibigan,
ang papatnubay sa iyo
sa pagkilala’t pagtuos
sa bagay-bagay.
Sa oras ng paghihintay,
Paghihintay sa bunga
at pamumulaklak,
laging magtatagis
ang pag-big at poot
upang magsanib sa wakas
na tulad ng sabi ko’y
laging isang simula.
ang lunting lona ng parang,
ang ginintuang ani ng bukid,
ang usok at dagta ng kakahuyan,
ang sungayang hiwaga ng gubat.
ang abuhing abono ng wawa,
ang mineral at koryente ng ilog;
uliningin ang himig ng dahon,
ang titik ng talon,
lasapin ang tamis ng bukal
na huhugas sa katawan
at diwa.
ang langkay-langkay na arete,
ang mapagkandiling sierra,
at sa tuktok ng bundok,
iiwan mo ang dalangin
ng dila at teleskopyo
upang lapitan ng langit,
makikipag-usap sa iyo
ang kawalan at ikaw
ay isa nang bituin.
ang perlas at kabibe,
pukpuklo at ar-arosip
at sa suwelo ng dagat,
mauunawaan mo ang bugtong
sa hininga ng mga korales,
at ikaw ay sagradong tubig.









©Simon Lloyd A. Arciaga 2015. All rights reserved.  

walang renda’t suga sa pakikipagtalastas. pupukulin kita ng tanong 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 ©Simon Lloyd A. ikaw ay magiging dalubhasang tagasalin ng paligid at pangyayari. na dapat asahang tanging himagas at libangan dito. ang Puntablangko’y talyer ng wika at diwang magtatanghal sa sarili bilang tao. Wala ritong punong bo o burol sa tabing-ilog. Arciaga 2015. Sa unang hudyat ng tambuli. sinlaya ng hayop at ibong naglipana sa kadawagan. pagdamutan ang maganit na karne at magaspang na katas. Patakaran at pakinabang ng himagas Bilang propitaryo. All rights reserved. Mamaya’y sisimulan natin ang pagpapalitang-kuro. ngunit malaya mong isiping ganito ang Puntablangko. di ito merkado o bangkete. itong payak na hapunan ang tulay sa maluwat na sustento at tatag. kahit tubig na malinaw ay may ulap na dapat hawiin.   . hayaang magsuot ako ng tunika at susundan mo ang hubad kong yapak. di Castalia o Parnaso.103   Himagas sa pamamagitan ng laro Kaya magpakabusog. Pagkat higit sa lahat.

tayo’y magpapalit ng lugar at iinog pataas sa liseo ng buhay. Maaring simulang “Paano mamahalin ang kapwa?” at sasagutin ito habang nananalamin sa sariwang batis. bawat katotohana’y tumitimo sa pagitan ng mata at isip. Ang sariling prehuwisyo at panatismo ang magtatarak ng muhon sa lawak ng kalayaan.104   at gaganti ka ng tanong. All rights reserved.   . at ayon sa pagkakataon. Arciaga 2015. Sa Puntablangko. 165 170 175 180 ©Simon Lloyd A.

walang kandado. isang karaniwang estratehiya o pambihirang estilo ng pagbubukas. walang susi. mga pintong may kanya-kanya ri’t sariling pinto. o pahiwatig na paghawi sa kulapol ng budhi. walang sukat at tugma maaaring unahin yaong nasa palihan ng pandinig o yaong nasa bentanilya ng balintataw.   . Arciaga 2015. may tangang setro. 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 ©Simon Lloyd A. tuklasin ang kaloobang may sukob na lawrel. may langhap ng asido at kamanyang. ang nagbubunsod upang mausisa. walang batas o patakaran. mulang palikaw-likaw na hagdan ng diwa hanggang mga silid ng katauhan. at ang sarili bilang misteryosong tahanan o kastilyong ligid ng ilog at balumbon ng tinik-aroma. may mga pintong binubuksan. mga pintong bagaman walang trangka.105   PINTO Kayraming binubuksang pinto sa pagpasok sa sarili. gayunma’y wala ring sinusundang tiyak na anggulo. ay nag-iingat ng pribadong kasarinlan. Hindi mahalaga kung saan at kung aling pinto ang una at dapat buksan. Mulang mga baitang ng balat hanggang mga palapag ng laman. All rights reserved. maaaring isang tuwirang pagpihit sa button sa balbula ng puso.

40 45 50 Anu’t anuman. pangahas na hakbang. upang maunawa ang salimuot. alak at prutas.   .106   Pagkat ang mga pinto. kailangan ang mapaghamon. Mangyari pa’y sabik itong bubuksan at naroon ang di-kariktang mapaghinala. hinulmang plastik. at agad madarama ang katapatan ng init at ngiti ng pagsalubong. hindi magbabantulot ang nabuong interes at hindik upang pasukin ang pinto. All rights reserved. hinurnong asero o hinabing sutla--at upang mapasok. mapaglihim. ang bahaghari ng mga hiyas at salapi. nililok na kristal. kung pinto mang masasabi. Arciaga 2015. handang magsabit ng bulaklak. sumapit sa isang partikular na pinto 70 na mukhang mga bisig na handang yumakap. at sa kabila ng pintong ito’y tila naghihintay ang mga halik. Pakiwari’y isang turista o balikbayan na inaalok ng limonada o mainit na sabaw sa bawat kanto o abenida. 55 60 65 Ang unang tikim ng katapatan ang magbubukas sa pag-asang matapat ang iba pang pintong bubungaran. 80 ©Simon Lloyd A. 75 ang piging ng hamon. ay may samutsaring anyo--nilabrang mulawin. hanggang sa isang pagkakataon. ang unang pintong mabubuksan ay lagi’t tiyak na pintong nag-aanyaya.

at unti-unti. gayong sa isang banda’y kapritsong ipalutas sa bawat panauhin ang mga bugtong na pakana.107   mapanlinlang. All rights reserved. nakapanlalambot ng tuhod. Ang mga pinto. ay nakaaaliw sa simula. 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 ©Simon Lloyd A. ngunit habang lumalalim ang gabi. nilalabusaw ang hangin ng poot. ang mga pinto ay nagiging kakila-kilabot. isang pumpon ng mga talulot na sandaling masaling ay nagmamakahiyang tumitiklop at ayaw palimi ang itinatago. may putong na tunika at kulay-lila. may pintong bumabasag ng dilim ang katahimikan. mga aral at retablo ng kapangyarihang may hurisdiksyon ng katahimikan. Arciaga 2015. sang-angaw man o sanyuta. samakatuwid. nagdiriwang na panaginip na humahatak sa mapagsapalarang suwi ng pagkilala sa sarili. ang panauhin ay nagiging biktima at bilanggo sa heyopulitika ng nakabibinging mga wika. 85 May pintong tila ulo ng dambuhala at magong toro. na ang bawat singasing ay nagbabawal ng salita. katahimikang-batingaw na nag-uudyok na lumuhod sa mga di-maipaliwanag na bagay.   . Sa pinakabulwagan. at hihilinging ang pagbubukas at pagpasok rito’y isang paggising mulang bangungot.

saka naman mamamalayang nasa kalagitnaan ng pagbubukas o nasa bukana ng pagtatapos. Arciaga 2015. 125 130 135 AKO AT DI-AKO And the fire and the rose are one. at mapipilitang magpasiya na ituloy na ang pagtuklas hanggang sa pinakahuling pinto. kung kailan gustong magbalik sa minulan at limutin ang anumang karanasan na kaugnay ng mga pinto. 8 Tila ito sumpong Kapag nakukulong 12 ©Simon Lloyd A. 1 en ambos casos soy exactamente el mismo aunque parezca absurido soy el mismo 3 Kaylimit mag-ergo Ng Ako’t Di-Ako. kung kailan gustong tumigil.   . Kayhirap masino Ang talagang ako.108   Kung saka-sakali. laging ganito ang nangyayari. upang magimbal na ang bubuksang huling pinto ay yaong binuksang unang pinto. kung kailan gustong umurong. All rights reserved. 4 Tiyak sa simula Na Ako’y ako ‘Yon pala’y hinalang Saglit nasisira.

36 Hilig ko’y intriga.109   Sa predileksiyon Na ibig itanong. Demonyo mang gamit Ako’y naaakit. 24 Klas at simpatico. Ako yaong musmos Matapang na lubos Sugod lang nang sugod Kahit makalabos. 16 20 Dila ko’y matabil Matatas at sutil Kahit man putulin Daldal walang tigil. Maituturing mong Don o senyorito. Puti’t itim lamang Ang mundo at kulay. mabango. 40 Maselang-maselan Sa inumi’t ulam. Wala yatang oras Sa lupa’y sumayad At ako’y magyapak. All rights reserved. Purong hedonista.   . Arciaga 2015. 44 ©Simon Lloyd A. Madaling masuya Sa sobrang paraya. Makinis. 28 Isip ko’y may pakpak. Galang ko’y di sadya Sa uban at gatla. 32 Matalinong tinig Sa ‘ki’y nananaig. Kahit idealista’y Mukhang ateista.

  . Arciaga 2015. 64 At ito’y ilan lang Sa mga batayang Di man pagkukulang Ay nagiging utang. 68 Tiyak sa simula Na ako’y ako nga Pero haka-haka’y Agad nasisira 72 Pag nasok Di –ako. 52 Hindi nagpupugay Turing ma’y mayabang. Mahirap malugod. Hindi yaong askad Ng lipunang sugat. 48 Ako ang uniko At kosmopolito. Di mangungundiman.110   Sanay na mag-utos. Hindi ordinaryong Yuyukod sa tao. All rights reserved. Di magagayuma Ng landing pagsinta. Pagsuway sa batas O hangal na landas? 80 ©Simon Lloyd A. 60 Akin ang donselya’t Tahimik na ganda. 56 Akin ang matimyas Na awit ng galak. Bihirang sumunod. Alin ang totoo: Kaakuhang Ako? Tauhang Di-ako? 76 Wala naming hawak Na libro ma’t danas. Daming sinasagot. Kung may kasalanan.

Ngunit kadalasan.111   Laging nanggigising Kahit dating gising. Sa gitna ng angil. 16 ©Simon Lloyd A.   . At yaong Di-ako Ang tunay na ako. Mas nasusumpungang 88 Ang kilalang Ako Ay di pala ako. 1 Ilang kabilugan pa ng buwan Iyan nang patintero Ang larong lagi sa isip. 92 PATINTERO Kailan lamang ang panahon Ay simbata ng bahay-bahayan At biyola-kamatis. 4 Ngayon itong gabing may bituin Ang kalarong si Estela Ay nataya mo sa dibdib. 13 Ngayo’y hinihimas mo Ang balahibong-puso sa nguso At nagtataka kung bakit. All rights reserved. 7 Napatda siyang naiiyak Tumakbong pauwi sa bahay At di na nagbalik. Arciaga 2015. Kaya bang watasin? 84 Budhi nga’y tanghalan Ng ganoo’t ganyan. 10 Kailan lamang ang panahon Ay simoy ng hanging Walang sindalisay at tamis.

112   BISIKLETA SA BUWAN Minamahalaga ko ang buwan at ang dati nitong kahulugan habang may bisekleta at tag-araw. minsa’y manas o tisikong lobo. All rights reserved. paikot-ikot sa mga abenida ng bagong subdibisyon. may arogante. Humahagibis Ang ngiti at buhok. ang bisekleta at tag-araw ay iisa. posporesente sa masangsang at nagpipistang gabi. At naroon siyempre Si Rolando. gumugulong. Sangahan ang tag-araw at bisekleta. Arciaga 2015. Rumuronda Ang mga bisekleta. parehong may borlas na kulay-kahel.   . may dungo. Sa pelikula Ng tag-araw. Sa aking romantikong kabataan. minsa’y nikelado. 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 ©Simon Lloyd A. Naroon Si Benjamin Amoy-tsiko Namumungay Ang eskalartang mata.

40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 ©Simon Lloyd A. Angkas Si Consuelo Na pinamumukulan Ng dibdib.   . at biglang susulpot Si Delfin. Pumipidal Nang mabilis Patungo sa pisngi Ng buwan. Si Joven. May supalpal na sigarilyo At patuksong hinahagad Si Araceli Na padila-dila. Arciaga 2015.113   si Remedios. At naroon din Ako. Ang bisekleta At tag-araw Ay laket Ng kapusukang Adolosente Na di-sinasadyang Nahalungkat Sa lumang drower O bulsa Ng gunita. May bungang—araw At baling rayos. Pairap-irap Sa hangin. Bagong kolorete Sa ilalim ng anteyohos. tsato at kayumanggi. All rights reserved. Si Ilustre Pagiwang-giwang Na tikbalang. kasaliw ang sipol Ng init. May kakatwang himig Ng may lamat At agiwing gitara.

” aniya. 1983) May espiritung animo’y humuhugas Sa katauhan ko nang pinanonood Sa sinaunang sining ng paglalaga Ng tsaa. batas ng sho-gun. taglamig At tagsibol.   . walang busabos o kaya’y maharlika. “Mataas na Klase ang berdeng dahon sa maligamgam Na tubig. Iminwestra niya ang wastong paghawak At pag-inom saka ipinaliwanag Ang disenyo ng mangkok na ginagamit Lang tuwing tag-araw. naitatalagang patas-kilatis ang mga panauhin. batikan ang mahinay Na mga daliri sa pagsasaayos Ng maseselang mangkok at kapiteran Yaring porselena’t luad. Arciaga 2015. Pormal na pormal ang babaeng Nakakimono. At disiplina’t pag-ibig ng samurai. gaya Nitong sining ng paglalaga ng tsaa. Ipinatikim din niya Ang puto-sekong diumano’y bibingka Nila kung otonyo. Naisip ko: ang pinto’y munting salamin ng sistemang pangarap ng maliliit. Ngunit sa kabila nito’y nagulat ako sa itinuro niyang maliit na pintong tradisyonal na pasukan sa teahouse. mamamayani ang pagpapakumbaba. Dahil pagapang ang pagpasok dito. 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 ©Simon Lloyd A. All rights reserved. walang alila o kaya’y panginoon. at sinasabayan Ang bawat kilos ng kuwento’t alamat Ng magiting na bansa. taglagas.114   ANG RITWAL NG TSAA (alaala ng Ofukai Women’s University. di maunlad na bansa at ito namang teahouse ang kairalang walang mayaman at wala ring mahirap. Naalala ko ang mga kababayan At kamakatang lumilingon sa likod! Higit ako ngayong naniniwala na Kung sa ganitong pagsasaalang-alang. Dapat ngang buhayin kahit sa guinta Ang nalilimot o naglalaho. sa gayo’y maituturing nilang silay’y magkakapatid.

limang uhuging bata na may balikat na panggatong 5 9 13 17 21 ©Simon Lloyd A. masayang dadamba’t aawit ang mga putikang paa at botas sa sahig ng malamlam na kantina. nakadikit sa salamin ang himbing na mga kulisap. Matatag sa kanyang dalangin at misyon. Ang kaliligo’t pinilakang bahay ay pinalalabo ng gumagapang ng hamog na nakikiisa sa usok ng tsimniya. Arciaga 2015. Pinaaga ng biglan ulan kangina ang gabi. Ang mga balingkinitang pino ay rehas ng dalisdis. 3 6 Tinatanaw ko siyang isang antigong bathala Sa oras ng gamugamo at pagal na araw. Nagbuntong-hininga ang lagarian. Maya-maya. Samantala.   . Pagkat kahit umuungol pa ang langit at paminsan-minsang nagpupukol ng matalim na liwanag. All rights reserved. At gayong nasa lupa ang kinamadang kahoy Ay may anyo siyang baluktot at hukot Sa mas mabigat na mundong pasan sa likod 9 12 MAAGANG GABI Sa labas ng bintana.115   ANG MANGANGAHOY NA KUBA Isa siyang tanawing rural sa lungsod--Katutubong rebulto na yari sa luad At saglit na nakatirik sa tibag na burol Masinop nang nakatali ang mga kahoy Na panggatong at pampainit ng dampa. sangmilya na ang layo ng kidlat na nagtaboy sa patpating aso patungo sa ilalim ng punong alnus. Anupa’t walang mababakas na dusa at pait Sa kanyang mukha. liban sa butil ng pawis Na agad naming hinahawi ng likod ng palad.

Mutya. Tanging ikaw. Pumanhik sa kuwartong hindi kumakatok. All rights reserved. Kakatwa ang tila kirot-lamig na sumasagad sa buto. 7 Puso’t kaluluwa ay handang isangla Upang tubusin ka sa sungay at putik. 16 MULTO SA KUWARTO Lumigid kangina sa labas ang kilabot. Tanging ikaw. 10 Pagkat kapwa natin dinanas ang luha At bumangon tayo sa gitna ng pait. Arciaga 2015. Mutya. Samantalang ikaw’y nakadilat.116   ang bumabagtas sa giniginaw na daan. at gaya ng ulilang ibong nasa kampanaryo ng kapilya ay muli’t muling nagpapagpag ng basang pakpak. Lumulutang na sa paghilik ang lahat. Ngunit hinding-hindi babahaw ang halik Hindi man ihayag ng daliri’t dila. awit kong dakila. 24 27 HINDI MAN IHAYAG NG DALIRI’T DILA Hindi man ihayag ng daliri’t dila. inaalihan ng imahinasyong Di-mawari. awit kong dakila. awit kong dakila. Sa panahong ito na lipos ng lupit. awit kong dakila. Mutya.   . 13 Kamandag ng duda’y itakwil sa diwa Kung tibok ko’y bulong sa Musang katalik. ngayong maalinsanga’t malagihay ang panahon. Tanging ikaw. Mutya. Di alintana ang hiwaga ng panggabing halimuyak. Patalim at unos ang lason ng hula. Hindi man ihayag ng daliri’t dila. Tanging ikaw. Hindi man ihayag ng daliri’t dila. 4 Dantaong hilahil at bulag mang tala Ang alay sa atin ng nagluksang langit. 1 5 ©Simon Lloyd A.

Iiling. All rights reserved.   . Dapwat iba ang nanggigising. ikakatwirang ang pagtulog nang maaga Ay di-karaniwan sa taong may insomniya. bakit. Bigla 29 bakit?” 35 s-u-sut-sot ang kisame Pagsuling doon Nasa butiki ang mata ng batang babae ©Simon Lloyd A. bakit. Arciaga 2015. mga habla ng kuliglig Noong tiwangwang ang bintana at bulislis ang atip. Inililipad ang diwa’t gunita sa puno ng kalumpang Upang ihabilin sa daigdig ng impakto’t mambabarang 10 Hahaplusin ka sa anit Ng tiktik na orasan Tik tik tik tik 15 Klang klang klang May kadenang kaladkad Ang gagambang 18 Bulik sa sahig na marmol 21 Sa asogeng makaligwak Sa kuwadrong burilada’t kamagong Manana- 24 og ang isang batang babae Payat humahagkis ang buhok Gulanit ang damit May hawak na kandila Nahan ang sugat? Nakatitig 30 Duguan pawang puti ang bola ng mata: “Bakit mo kami iniwan? Bakit mo kami ipinagpalit? Ginamit mo kami.117   Gayong tiyak na walang hamog na sakay ang damo.

dinadayang balahibo’y di tumayo At waring sa sarili mismo’y may itinatago. Siyudad. Gusali. Pagkuha’y ililipaw ang mata sa nakahilerang aklat Sa estanteng hihinalaing aklatan ng pantas. takong. Sagala ng pulubi. nightclub at motel. Palengke ng busina at karburador. Mahan ng basura at imburnal. Sultana ng astero at ilaw-dagitab. Itinatakwil ang bukal ng lakas at puhunan. Primera klaseng bakla. Bawat gabing ganito’y mahirap dalawin antok.   . torero at burikak. at saglit na tutulala sa aranya. Siyudad. Huhugot ng isang manipis na tomo upang umaliw Diumano sa balisang isip na may sapot at agiw. palaboy at patapon. Sinasamba kita. Paraiso ng bugaw. May silbi kaya ang pagbabasa sa oras na ito. Ngayo’ tila nalimot ang simulai’t minulan. Beerhouse. Kantaritas ng kasa at sauna.118   Nanlilisik na rubi! 40 Kahit napaigtad. Emperatris ng bangketa at bulebard. Sa oras na may naghaharing multo sa kuwarto? Unti-unti. Kaluluwa at katauhang plastik. 45 50 55 60 SIYUDAD Sinasamba kita. pustiso at bundyclock. Ikaw na pulang bampira at mama-san. Ikaw na parakaleng hiyas. Tutungga ng sangkopitang brandi at kapsulang Pampatulog. matatanto ang panambitan ng pangitain Hinggil sa isang panatang nakaligtaang tuparin--Isa rin noong nagdidildil ng asin at anakpawis Na naghangad lumaya kahit sugatan at bagwis. 5 9 13 ©Simon Lloyd A. Kurtesano real ng karimlan. Arciaga 2015. All rights reserved. Karunungang itim kaya ang ipinangangahas Upang iligtas ang kaluluwa sa tiyak na pagkakaagnas? Tigib man ang kaban sag into at ngala’y mapabantog.

Nanghahagad. Ikaw na una’t huling dulugan Ng kontrabando. nikotina at alcohol. 1 5 10 15 ©Simon Lloyd A. Siyudad. hangin naman ay sirenang Nagkakalkal ng basura’t mga layak.119   Sinasamba kita. Pagkaraan. Alimuom. Ito na nga yaong salot Na darating: kulog. Binabayo ng balaraw ang bangketa’t kalyeng lunsod. despalko at suhol. nangangatog. Donya marijuana. Sa tikatig na kamandag.   . kambal-ahas na dagitab. Salot! Salot! Kamay-haring pumipirma sa karimlan ang dagitab. 25 21 29 DESTIYERO NG ULAN May paratang ang mensahe nitong biglang alimuom. Ihip-hangin ay hukom ding nag-aatas ng sirena Upang walang maglagalag sa pagdatal ng tagsalot. Unang Ginang ng baraha. naglaho man. langhap pa ri’y alimuom. ang sirena’y Pinaugong ng malakas. gumagapang ang kilabot. Tumutuklaw. kidlat. Nanginginig. Nagsabwatan ang habagat. lumpeng tato. All rights reserved. dobol-kros at rape. walang-humpay ang dagitab Sa hulo ma’t sa liwasa ng balisa’t abang lunsod. Tiyak na ako’y magbabalik sa narkotikong katedral Upang ulit-ulitin Ang isang nakaririmarim na pag-ibig At sambahin ang iyong ganggrenong kariktan At kamatayang diaboliko. 17 Sinasamba kita. Arciaga 2015. Ikaw at ikaw lamang ang aking amor brujo Itakwil man kita’t layasan. Halang na gatilyo at taksil na balisong. Siyudad. Matahari ng haragang tsapa. Tila mandi’y masigasig sa pagbanta ng kilabot Kahit walang katibayan. nandadakip. ula’t ulap ng kilabot Sa looka’t abenida. paglipas ng alimuom. Pugad ng salvage. sa bintanang nakapinid nitong lunsod.

Walang-awang alingasaw. Isang muhon ng pag-alsa sa kamao ng dagitab. Ako’y ikaw.   . Dugo na ring dumadaloy ang tilamsik ng kilabot At kulayong makabago ang hagulhol ng sirena: Bawat lugar ngang maunlad. 20 25 30 35 Paglaho ng alimuom. sedisyosong butiki at subersibong 5 10 15 ©Simon Lloyd A. reynong lunsod. Sa sandaling ito. Kaunlaran yata itong tamasa ng tagalunsod.120   Itinapon tayo rito sa siyudad na may salot Upang kitlin ang pangarap sa daigdig ng dagitab: Ito’ng hatol. Piliin ang martsa. All rights reserved. sabay laban sa monarkong alimuom At ibalik ang paglait na kalakip ng kilabot. 1 Sabi nga’y di pagdaan sa pasamano ng ilog. ilalim at sulok Para matuos kung alin ang dapat mauna at mahuli At kung anu-ano ang mahirap at madali Pagkaraa’y bigyan ng ultimatum ang mga kasambahay Na walang lalabas-papasok oras na ibagsak ang batas Na pampupupurga ng dumi at alikabok. Una’y imbestigahan ang lahat ng kanto. padre. kasabay din ang kilabot. Arciaga 2015. pilibusterong daga. IYANG PAGLILINIS NG BAHAY Di gawaing-bata ang maglinis ng bahay. umaatras sa gitna O di kaya’y mahilig lumingon sa likod. Ito’ng ganti. Walang lugar dito ang gapok-tuhod. dinadalaw nitong salot! Tayong lahat: destiyero ng delubyo at ng lunsod Ay tumindig. Insurektong langgaw. Libong tinig nating epi’y magsisilbi nang sirena Na lulunod sa palalong nagdudulot nitong salot. pero sa baguhan. ito’ng sumpa ng malupit. Di rin ito problema ng sanay. Liliwanag ang dagitab ng manigo’t bagong lunsod. Kailangan ang hilig at sistema para di nadudoble ang pagod. Makatutulong kahit paano ang nakakatulig ng tugtog. sa bulahaw nito’y tiyak na lalabas Sa lungga ang rebeldeng ipis. kabayaran sa biyaya ng dagitab. binibitay ng berdugong alimuom. salabusab na kilabot. Ay tutunog ang sirenang magwiwikang walang salot. Habang baha’y lumalalim at may daing ang sirena. Pangarap ng taganayon bilang munting alimuom.

rehas. dingding . Maniwala ka. Ngayo’y panahon na ng pagsosona ng mga muwebles. padre. Laya naming kapag inyong inuutang. Kahit ito’y maliit at masikip. dinidikdik . Duda kami sa landasin ng pag-unlad. Turing nami’y utang-loob na may lason. All rights reserved. Kung may pesteng libag at putik. ikalat ang hukbong-dagat ng trapo Sa mga hamba. Kapag mabigat at di magalaw. kasama ang mga teroristang gagamba at surot.121   Lamok. Iyang utang kapag aming naririnig. Pangwakas ang atake ng marinong lampaso. masarap matulog. atasan ang kumandong Plorwaks. Para kaming sinasakal. kapag malinis na ang bahay. Ngunit kaming wala’y takot na mangutang Pagkat ayaw na di kayo mabayaran. Bahala sa sahig ang sundalong walis-tambo. 1 Kung may bagay na palasak sa ’ming bansa.   . Arciaga 2015. Bukod-tangi itong utang na kataga. Higit pa ngang pipilii’y buhay-bundok Kaysa kami’y maligalig sa pagtulog. Pero huwag masyadong umasa na pagsapit ng bukas Hindi sasalakay uli ang impertinenteng alikabok. 20 25 30 UTANG Mabiag ti ruar Uneg ti matay. takpan na lamang Ng diyaryo o plastk para mailayo sa sira’t bulok. aparador at cabinet. Suyurin ng abyador na tingting ang sapot at agiw Sa kilo’t kisame. 3 Mapapera o ano mang ibang tulong. Kung magipit at pautang ay tanggapin Ay di pagkat ibig naming paalipin. Kaming wala ay uutang din ng buhay. 6 9 12 15 18 ©Simon Lloyd A. Iyong alok sabihin mang para bukas.

Mga alitaptap Sa gubat ng talahib O balag ng kalabasa. Pinag-aapoy Ang pulso. Bundok at gubat. Sa istakeyd. Sa kural at kamalig. Kayrikit na panahon! Kayrilag na pagkakataon! Malaya. All rights reserved. Sa troso at lagare. Sa alambreng may tinik.   . Nakaliliyo sa simula. Sa asete at gulong. Kapayakang mula sa banus At pilapil. Sama-samang layunin 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 ©Simon Lloyd A. Hinihimok na umawit Ang aking puso. Dalita. Malawak at kulay-dugo. Sa prinsa at baklad. Nabubuo Ang isang kapayakan. Mga patak-luningning Na nagiging tubig-dagat. Pagsasamantala. marawal na buhay.122   HARAYA SA HINAHARAP Nagdaraan Ang mga diklap. Ang paggawa ay inaaring ginhawa. Marahang nabubuo. Likas at dalisay. Sa abenida at kalyehon. Tinitingala ng mga pusong Pinipi. Nilumpo ng dahas. Isang mithi. Arciaga 2015. Patawid-tawid sa aking mata.

  . Tumutol kung may tututulan. Pagliliyahin ang aking dugo Upang lalong umibig. pawis at dugo. Ngunit Ang ginhawa’y karapatang Tinitigis sa luha. 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 ©Simon Lloyd A. Mga bisig at dibdib Ay handang yumakap Sa mga dating kaaway Na naging kapatid. Maglalamay Ang kadre ng aking mata at isip Sa tuwi-tuwina.123   Ang pagtatatag. Di sa kalayaang umidlip. Arciaga 2015. Ang pagbuo Ay nagkakaisang salita. Makihamok kung nararapat. Naglilinis ang mga niyurakan. Ang mga di-nabigyan ang namimigay. Nagtatatag. Umaawit din Ng bagong awit. Kamag-anak. Handang mag-abot Ang mga gusgusing kamay. Di sa kasarinlang managinip. Habang Sumusulong ang bayan. O kayluwalhati! Kayluwalhating pangitain! Nakaliliyo Ang mga diklap Na nagdaraan at nabubuo Bilang pag-asa Sa kapanatagan at ginhawa. Aawit ng panibagong awit. Dugo at alikabok. Paghulaw ng alimbukay-usok Alipato at tungayaw. All rights reserved. kaibigan.