How Digital Signal Processing Techniques are used in RF systems

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How Digital Signal Processing Techniques are used in RF systems

© All Rights Reserved

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Processing in

RF Applications

Part II

Thomas Schilcher

07 June 2007

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

RF applications

Outline

1. signal conditioning / down conversion

2. detection of amp./phase by digital I/Q sampling

I/Q sampling

non I/Q sampling

digital down conversion (DDC)

3. upconversion

4. algorithms in RF applications

feedback systems

cavity amplitude and phase

radial and phase loops

adaptive feedforward

system identification

07 June 2007 2

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

T. Schilcher

RF applications

given tolerances to accelerate a charged particle beam

few MHz / ~50 MHz (cyclotrons) analog / digital / combined

– 30 GHz (CLIC) amplitude/phase versus IQ

control

required stability: control of

10-2 – 10-4 in amplitude single cell/multicell cavity

(1% - 0.01%), with one RF amplifier

1° - 0.01° (10-2 – 10-4 rad) in phase (klystron, IOT,…)

(0.01° @ 1.3 GHz corresponds to 21 fs) string of several cavities

with single klystron

(vector sum control)

often: additional tasks required like

exception handling, built-in pulsed / CW operation

diagnostics, automated calibration, … normal / superconducting

cavities

CAS, Sigtuna, Sweden

07 June 2007 3

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

T. Schilcher

RF applications

Analog/Digital LLRF comparison – Flexibility (ALBA)

Analog:

Digital:

a new PCB design.

be a matter of reprogramming the digital

processor.

H. Hassanzadegan (CELLS)

07 June 2007 4

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

T. Schilcher

RF applications

basic feedback loop:

r: setpoint

y: plant output

n: measurement noise

w: output disturbance

e: control error

u: plant input

C: controller

G: plant

(klystron, cavity, …)

hold function of DAC)

task:

model the plant

to find G(s) and

transform it into Z-space

CAS, Sigtuna, Sweden

07 June 2007 5

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

T. Schilcher

RF applications

T S

complementary sensitivity

sensitivity function function

T+S=1

eT = r – y (tracking error)

for output y :

measurement error n behaves like a trade-off

change in the setpoint r T should be small

between

(e.g. I/Q sampling error…)

(robustness)

performance

output y should be insensitive for low and

frequencies output disturbances w S should be small robustness

(→high gain with the controller to get GC>>1) (performance)

CAS, Sigtuna, Sweden

07 June 2007 6

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

T. Schilcher

RF applications

LTI feedback: Bode integral theorem - waterbed effect

• if GC has no unstable poles and there are two or more poles than zeros:

(continuous: no poles in the right hand plane; discrete: no poles outside unity circle)

continuous: discrete:

G. Stein

IEEE Conf. on Decision on Control,

1989

sensitivity at some higher frequencies “waterbed effect”

CAS, Sigtuna, Sweden

07 June 2007 7

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

T. Schilcher

RF applications

representation of RF cavity (transfer function / state space)

simplified model: LCR circuit

driven LCR circuit:

bandwidth:

ampl.:

detuning:

detuning

angle:

CAS, Sigtuna, Sweden

07 June 2007 8

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

T. Schilcher

RF applications

(slowly: compared to time period of RF oscillations)

(notation:

real and imaginary parts

instead of I/Q values)

z transformation (continuous → discrete with zero order hold):

ω12 ⎡ω12 − Δω ⎤ ⎛ ω12 z −1 ⎞ let matlab

H ( z) = 2 . −⎜ 2 . ⎟⎟

Δω 2 + ω12 ⎢⎣Δω ω12 ⎥⎦ ⎜⎝ Δω 2 + ω12 z 2 − 2 zeω T . cos(ΔωTs ) + e 2ω

12 s 12Ts

⎠

do the job

⎧⎪⎛ ⎡ω - Δω ⎤ ⎞ ω T ⎡Δω ω12 ⎤ ⎫⎪

.⎨⎜⎜ ( z − eω T . cos(ΔωTs )).⎢ 12

12 s

⎥ ⎟ - e .sin( ΔωTs ).⎢

⎟

12 s

⎥⎬ for you!

⎪⎩⎝ ⎣Δω ω12 ⎦ ⎠ ⎣− ω12 Δω ⎦ ⎪⎭

07 June 2007 9

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

T. Schilcher

RF applications

cavity behaves like a I/Q are coupled

first order low pass filter

(20 dB roll off per decade)

I/Q (or amplitude and phase)

are decoupled

if Δω=Δω(t)

cavity models are time variant,

control is more complex

CAS, Sigtuna, Sweden

07 June 2007 10

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

T. Schilcher

RF applications

superconducting cavity: QL=3·106 Δω=0 Hz fS=10 MHz

f0=1.3 GHz ω1/2=216 Hz

open loop transfer function

td=1 μs

ctrl.+cav.+delay

controller cavity

loop delay

PID:

fNyquist=5 MHz

td=1 μs

cavity +(continuous)

cavity (discrete)

loop delay

rule of thumb:

Gain margin at least between 6 and 8dB

Phase margin between 40° and 60°

CAS, Sigtuna, Sweden

07 June 2007 11

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

T. Schilcher

RF applications

superconducting cavity: QL=3·106 tD= 1 μs fS=10 MHz

f0=1.3 GHz ω1/2=216 Hz

complementary sensitivity function

closed loop:

open loop:

fNyquist=5 MHz

phase

margin!

CAS, Sigtuna, Sweden

07 June 2007 12

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

T. Schilcher

RF applications

superconducting cavity: QL=3·106 tD= 1 μs fS=10 MHz

f0=1.3 GHz ω1/2=216 Hz

sensitivity function

bandwidth=47 kHz

• dominant disturbance

frequencies are suppressed

• no dangerous lines show up

in the range where the Kp=300

feedback can excite Ki=0.1

be spoiled by sensor

noise due to increasing loop

gain

CAS, Sigtuna, Sweden

07 June 2007 13

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

T. Schilcher

RF applications

superconducting cavity: QL=3·106 Δω=0 Hz fS=10 MHz

ω1/2=216 Hz sensitivity function

variation of the loop delay

(boundary condition:

keep gain margin constant at 8 dB; Ki=0.1)

tD Kp loop bandwidth

(-3 dB)

5 μs 87 11.9 kHz

3 μs 145 20.6 kHz

2 μs 223 32.2 kHz

1.5 μs 278 40.3 kHz

1.0 μs 436 63.6 kHz

0.75 μs 539 78.6 kHz

0.5 μs 832 121 kHz

0.3 μs 1303 190 kHz

parameter; keep it as small as possible!

CAS, Sigtuna, Sweden

07 June 2007 14

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

T. Schilcher

RF applications

so far: loop analysis done for fixed detuning (Δω=0) only!

things get much more complicated if Δω= Δω(t) pulsed operation of

time varying control superconducting cavity

with high gradient

strong Lorentz forces

cavity detunes during the pulse

remember:

guaranteed under these parameter changes!

this might limit the feedback gain in contrast to the simple analysis !

design of “optimal” controller under study at many labs…

CAS, Sigtuna, Sweden

07 June 2007 15

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

T. Schilcher

RF applications

cavities

superconducting normal conducting

QL : ~few 105 - 107 QL : ~10 – 105

cavity time constants cavity time constants

τcav = QL/(πfRF): ~few 100 μs τcav: ~few μs

bandwidth bandwidth

f1/2 = fRF/(2QL): ~few 100 Hz f1/2: ~100 kHz

feedback loop delay small feedback loop delay in the

compared to τcav order of τcav

QL=2·104

loop latency limits high feedback gain fRF=324 MHz

for high bandwidth cavities!

systems are not sufficient

analog/digital hybrid system might be an alternative !?

07 June 2007 16

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

T. Schilcher

RF applications

LLRF: J-PARC linac

(RFQ, DTL, SDTL)

400 MeV proton linac

pulsed operation; rep. rate:

12.5/25 Hz;

pulse length: ~500-650 μs

vector sum control

normal conducting cavities;

QL~8’000-300’000

τcav~100 μs

requirements / achieved:

amplitude: < +-1％ / < +-0.15%

phase: < +-1° / < +-0.15°

S. Michizono (J-PARC)

combined performance:

DSP/FPGA loop delay: 500 ns bandwidth: ~100 kHz

board gains: proportional~10, integral~0.01

07 June 2007 17

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

T. Schilcher

RF applications

Outline

1. signal conditioning / down conversion

2. detection of amp./phase by digital I/Q sampling

I/Q sampling

non I/Q sampling

digital down conversion (DDC)

3. upconversion

4. algorithms in RF applications

feedback systems

cavity amplitude and phase

radial and phase loops

adaptive feedforward

system identification

07 June 2007 18

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

T. Schilcher

RF applications

booster synchrotrons:

capture and adiabatically rebunch the beam and accelerate to the desired

extraction energy.

Beam Control System B[T] user

task: control of

RF frequency during the ramp ···

(large frequency swings of up to a factor of ten, 0 1.2 2.4 ··· t[s]

usually from several 100 kHz to several 10 MHz)

Typical LEIR commissioning cycle.

cavity amplitude and phase

(ampl. can follow a pattern during acceleration)

mean radial position of the beam

phase between beam and cavity RF deviations from ΦS will lead to

(synchronous phase ΦS) synchrotron oscillations

synchronization to master RF phase

(to synchronize the beam transport to other accelerator rings)

power supply ripples, … required

CAS, Sigtuna, Sweden

07 June 2007 19

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

T. Schilcher

RF applications

beam phase loop

damps coherent synchrotron

oscillations from

1) injection errors (energy, phase)

2) bending magnet noise

3) frequency synthesizer phase

noise

radial loop

keeps the beam to its design

radial position during acceleration

cavity amplitude loop

1) compensates imperfections

frequency program: in the cavity amplifier chain

1) calculate frequency based on the B field, desired radial 2) amplitude has to follow a

position ramping function

2) optimize the freq. ramp to improve injection efficiency synchronization loop (not shown)

3) generate dual harmonic RF signals for cavities locks the phase to a master RF

(bunch shaping)

CAS, Sigtuna, Sweden

07 June 2007 20

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

T. Schilcher

RF applications

in ’80s: DDS/NCO replace VCO

(VCO:

lack of absolute accuracy,

stability limitations if

freq. tuning is required

over a broad range)

fully digital

beam control system

digitize RF signals (I/Q, DDC)

all control loops are purely digital

feedback gains: function of the

beam parameters (keep the

How do we setup the control loops? same loop performances

model required through the acceleration cycle)

07 June 2007 21

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

T. Schilcher

RF applications

beam dynamics delivers the differential equations transfer functions

transfer functions without derivation:

RF freq. (NCO output) to phase deviation of the beam

from the synchronous phase

model of the system: depend on the beam energy

b=b(E,ΦS): function of energy,

synchronous phase

since energy varies along the ramp

time varying model !

LPV: linear parameter varying model

design of the controller: parameters have to be adjusted over time to meet the

changing plant dynamics (guarantee constant loop performance and stability)

CAS, Sigtuna, Sweden

07 June 2007 22

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

T. Schilcher

RF applications

implementation example (test system for LEIR): PS Booster @ CERN

programmable

proportional gain

phase-to-freq. conversion

cut-off: 10 Hz

AC coupling

M.E. Angoletta (CERN) (SDDS)

fS=fMDDS • cavity control

=9.6 - 27.9 MHz frev=0.599-1.746 MHz (2 harmonics)

(inj. / ext.)

CIC: 1st order, R=1 • RF signal for diagnostics

group delay: 1.67 - 0.57 μs

loop bandwidth: 7 kHz

CAS, Sigtuna, Sweden

07 June 2007 23

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

T. Schilcher

RF applications

implementation example (test system for LEIR): PS Booster @ CERN

phase-to-freq. conversion

different parameters

at injection/extraction

(synchr. freq. changes!)

master DDS

slave DDS

M.E. Angoletta (CERN) to generate RF drive

geometry fS=fMDDS=9.6 - 27.9 MHz output to cavities

scaling fout=0.15 – 0.44 MHz CIC: 1st order, R=64

factor group delay: 107.2 - 36.6 μs

CAS, Sigtuna, Sweden

07 June 2007 24

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

T. Schilcher

RF applications

Outline

1. signal conditioning / down conversion

2. detection of amp./phase by digital I/Q sampling

I/Q sampling

non I/Q sampling

digital down conversion (DDC)

3. upconversion

4. algorithms in RF applications

feedback systems

cavity amplitude and phase

radial and phase loops

adaptive feedforward

system identification

07 June 2007 25

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

T. Schilcher

RF applications

Adaptive Feedforward

goal:

suppress repetitive errors by feedforward in order to disburden the feedback

cancel well known disturbances where feedback is not able to (loop delay!)

adapt feedforward tables continuously to compensate changing conditions

warning:

adding the error (loop delay corrected)

to system input does not work!

(dynamics of plant is not taken into account)

we need to calculate the proper input which generates output signal –e(k)

07 June 2007 26

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

T. Schilcher

RF applications

in reality: model for plant not well known enough

system identification model

measure system response (e.g. by step response measurements)

τk=tk+ τd

loop delay

system system test inputs

output response matrix

→

in successive measurements: apply Δu(tk) and measure response Δy

results in R (with some math depending on the test input)

invert response matrix T=R-1 (possible due to definition of sampling time τk=tk+ τd)

07 June 2007 27

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

T. Schilcher

RF applications

pulsed superconducting 1.3 GHz cavity:

works fine in principle

but:

remeasure T when operating

point changes (amplitude/phase)

(non-linearities in the loop)

response measurement could not

be fast enough

robust adaptive feedforward

algorithm!

CAS, Sigtuna, Sweden

07 June 2007 28

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

T. Schilcher

RF applications

developed for FLASH,

in use at FLASH/tested at SNS

works only for pulsed systems

not really understood but it forward power (I/Q)

works within a few iterations!

A. Brandt (DESY)

recipe:

record feedback error signal e(t)

time reverse e(t)→e(-t)

lowpass filter e(-t) with ωLP

reverse filtered signal in cavity

time again amplitude/phase (I/Q)

shift signal in time (ΔtAFF) to

compensate loop delay best results: ωLP ≈ closed loop bandwidth

add result to the previous FF table ΔtAFF ≈ loop delay

CAS, Sigtuna, Sweden

07 June 2007 29

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

T. Schilcher

RF applications

Outline

1. signal conditioning / down conversion

2. detection of amp./phase by digital I/Q sampling

I/Q sampling

non I/Q sampling

digital down conversion (DDC)

3. upconversion

4. algorithms in RF applications

feedback systems

cavity amplitude and phase

radial and phase loops

adaptive feed forward

system identification

07 June 2007 30

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

T. Schilcher

RF applications

goal: design (synthesis) of high performance cavity field controllers

is model based;

mathematical model of plant necessary

θ: parameter set

model required for efficient feedforward

system identification

cavity

record output data with proper input signal (step, impulse, white noise)

choose model structure

grey box (preserves known physical structures with a number of unknown free parameters)

black box (no physical structure, parameters have no direct physical meaning)

validate model with a set of data not included in the identification process

CAS, Sigtuna, Sweden

07 June 2007 31

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

T. Schilcher

RF applications

example:

pulsed high gradient superconducting cavities with Lorentz force detuning

LPV: linear parameter varying model

07 June 2007 32

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

T. Schilcher

RF applications

example: identification of Lorentz force detuning in high gradient cavity

differential measure OE(1,1,0):

equation for cavity ampl./phase;

OE(1,2,0):

cavity ampl./phase derive dV/dt, dφ/dt

(polar coordinates) loop delay

order of denominator polynomal in transfer function

order of numerator polynomal in transfer function

(e.g. ω1/2, shunt impedance R, …);

solve remaining equation for Δω

derived data: Δω

(grey box model)

M. Hüning (DESY)

07 June 2007 33

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

T. Schilcher

RF applications

Conclusion/ Outlook

performance is very often dominated by systematic errors and non-

linearities of sensors and analog components

digital LLRF does not look very different from other RF applications

(beam diagnostics…) common platforms?

extensive diagnostics in digital RF systems allow automated

procedures and calibration for complex systems

(finite state machines…)

digital platforms for RF applications provide playground for

sophisticated algorithms

07 June 2007 34

DSP – Digital Signal Processing

T. Schilcher

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