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The applicable JAA/FAA/EASA airworthiness standards for the certification of aircraft to be

internationally recognized are issued in accordance with the ICAO Annexes. Then, from a
practical
point of view, the certification process is based on these airworthiness
standards rather
than (directly) on the ICAO International Standards.
Annex 6. Operation of Aircraft. This Annex contains the standards and recommendations
relating to the operation of aircraft for international commercial air transport, including
the regulation for the certification of the operators. It also contains the technical and
operational regulations for general international aviation activities, including
maintenance.
Annex 8. Airworthiness of Aircraft. This Annex contains the standards defining the
minimum level of airworthiness for the development of the type certification
requirements
as a basis for the international recognition of the certificates of airworthiness
for aircraft (according to Article 33 of the Convention) in order to fly into and land in the
Contracting States. It also contains indications and provisions for the organization and
functions of the civil aviation authorities.
Annex 16. Environmental Protection. This Annex contains the standard applicable to
the aircraft noise certification in relation to different noise levels proportionate to the type
of aircraft (propeller-driven, jet-propelled, helicopters). It states with accuracy the test
procedures
for an effective and unequivocal measurement. The standard contained in this
Annex is normally used as proposed because it is directly applicable to all of the technical
requirements. The Annex also contains the standard relating to the aircraft engine
emission
certification with reference to the toxicity of some chemical components, such as
azoth oxide. This is a particularly discussed Annex at present, because it deals with a
sensitive
social matter, noise, for people living near aerodromes, and the conflict between the
sometimes opposing demands of economic development and the protection of citizens.

4.4 Advisory material


Some rules can be interpreted in different ways. This is the reason why the authorities
issue
advisory material for the explanation of the rule or, in certain cases, suggest suitable
procedures
to perform a demonstration of compliance to the same rule.

The FAA publishes Advisory Circulars (ACs) as documents separate from the standards,
while the JAA and EASA include similar documents at the end of the JAA/EASA standards.

If we look at the JARs, in Section 2, these standards contain the Advisory Circulars Joint
(ACJs)
that are Acceptable Means of Compliance, and Interpretations. 18 The ACJs provide a
means,
but not the only means, by which a requirement can be met.19 A numbering system is
adopted
in which the ACJ uses the same number as the paragraph of the JAR to which it is related.

By the same approach, the EASA Certification Standards (CS) contain the Acceptable
Means
of Compliance (AMC), with the same meaning as the ACJs.

For the Implementing Rules of the EASA, like Part 21, Part M, Part 145, etc., documents
containing
the Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC) and Guidance Material (GM) have been
issued.

The AMC have the meaning already defined, while the GM helps to illustrate the meaning
of
a specification or requirements.

Currently, the airworthiness codes are the following:


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

CS-Definitions. Derived from JAR 1.


CS-22 Sailplanes and Powered Sailplanes. Derived from JAR 22.
CS-23 Normal, Utility, Acrobatic and Commuter Aeroplanes. Derived from JAR 23.
CS-25 Large Aeroplanes. Derived from JAR 25.
CS-27 Small Rotorcraft. Derived from JAR 27.
CS-29 Large Rotorcraft. Derived from JAR 29.
CS-VLR Very Light Rotorcraft. Derived from JAR-VLR.21
CS-VLA Very Light Aeroplanes. Derived from JAR-VLA.

9 CS-E Engines. Derived from JAR-E.


10 CS-P Propellers. Derived from JAR-P.
11 CS-34 Aircraft Engine Emission and Fuel Venting. Derived from JAR 34.
12 CS-36 Aircraft Noise. Derived from JAR 36.
13 CS-APU Auxiliary Power Units. Derived from JAR-APU.
14 CS-ETSO European Technical Standard Orders. Derived from JAR-TSO.
15 CS-AWO All Weather Operations. Derived from JAR-AWO.
For the certification of parts of aircraft, the references are the following:
1 European Technical Standard Order authorization (ETSO) (Part 21 Subpart O).
2 Specifications written in the aircraft certification process.
3 Standard parts in accordance with officially recognized standards.