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Transient Simulation of Synchronous Generators Using Time-Stepping FEM


Luo Yingli Zhang Xinli Meng Liang Li Weili Shen Jiafeng


North China Electric Power University Beijing 102206, China

2. Harbin University of Science and Technology

AbstractThis paper presents a time-stepping finite element

model of a turbo-generator connected to infinite bus via a
transformer with delta-star wiring, in which the core saturation,
variation of speed and effect of AVR are taken into account.
Using this model, various transient process are simulated
including short-circuit fault occurrence near the transformer
terminal or on the transmission line, clearance of the fault and
reclose. The simulation using three generator models, the
time-stepping finite element model, linear Park equations and
saturation Park equations are compared in the three-phase short
circuit fault simulation. The result shows that the power angle
stability is increased using the FEM model compared with the
other two models.


Fig.1. Simulation model of a synchronous generator connected

with power system via a /Y0 transformer.


Power system stability has been a great concern with the

increase of capacity. Generator models play an important role
in stability analysis. However, it is hard to describe generators
performance because of multi-factor effects including iron
saturation, eddy current and field distortion. Based on different
tools, [1] point out that generator parameters vary with the
change of external conditions and the values of d- and q-axis
mutual reactance differ greatly and one reactance could be a
two times value of the other when generator is in the
abnormal states.
Many experts have research on developing accurate
generator models. Based on FEM, generator models are
developed in [2]-[3]. FEM models describe the generator
performance more accurately for the consideration of complex
interior magnetic field. But these models only concentrate on
generator models and have not combined with the power
system to take further transient analysis.
The time-stepping finite element model of a synchronous
generator connected to infinite bus via a transformer with
delta-star wiring is developed. The transformer model is
coupled via an electric circuit. Various transient simulations
using FEM are compared with simulations using linear Park
equations and saturation Park equations.

The structure of time-stepping FEM simulation model

shows in Fig.1. The quantities in the figure will be found in [4].
According the structure, three models are applied to describe
The internal magnetic field calculation can be solved as
two-dimension problem and FEM is applied in the first method.
The eighth-order linear Park equations are another method to
describe the generator. The third method is to fit the no-load
characteristics to establish the model considering the iron

1-4244-0320-0/06/$20.00 2006 IEEE


According to the Fig.1, various transient processes of three

generator models are simulated.
When FEM model applied, the direct current and
alternating current in field current both decay more quickly
than the simulation using other two methods as shown in

Fig.2 Field current during a three-phase short circuit at

transformer terminals
[1] Zhou J, Liu X F, Luo Y L et al, A Study on the Operation Behaviors of
Saturated Synchronous Generator Considering the Effect of Multiple Factors,
International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems
2001(ICEMS2001), Shen Yang, China, 2001 August 18-20:156-159.
finite-element/state-space modeling of turbo generators in the ABC frame of
reference-the no-load case[J]. IEEE Trans no EC, 1995, 10(1): 56-62.
[3] R. Escarela-Perez, D.C. Macdonald. A novel finite- element transient
computation of two-axis parameters of solid-rotor generator for use in power
systems[J]. IEEE Trans on EC, 1998, 13(1): 49-54.
[4] Simulation of a synchronous generator connected via delta-star transformer by
time-stepping finite element method. Power System Technology [J].

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of P.R.

China. 50277011
This work is also supported by Key Laboratory of Power System Protection
and Dynamic Security Monitoring and Control under Ministry of Education. ,
North China Electric Power University