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PLASTIC

PACKAGING
COS TA LES

LE CHA GO

CRUZ

PA S CUAL

E S CA LANTE

T E ODORO

INTRODUCTION
LECHAGO, HARVEY

Polymer Chemistry
CRUZ, ANTHONY

TYPES OF PLASTIC Thermoplastics Thermosetting Plastic .

which weaken rapidly with increased temperature. that becomes pliable or moldable above a specific temperature and solidifies upon cooling ◦ associate through intermolecular forces.Thermoplastic ◦ is a plastic material. yielding a viscous liquid . polymer.

Thermoplastic 2 classifications by structure: ◦ Crystalline Polymers ◦ Amorphous Polymers .

Have an ordered arrangement of molecule chains. Shrink more than Amorphous. . Reinforcement with fibers increases the load-bearing capabilities considerably. causing a greater tendency for deformation.Thermoplastic Crystalline Polymers: Have a relatively sharp melting point. Fiber reinforcement significantly decreases deformation. Usually produce opaque parts due to their molecular structure. Generally require higher temperatures to flow well when compared to Amorphous.

chains can lie in any direction. Do not flow as easily in a mold as Crystalline Polymers. . Shrink less than Crystalline Polymers. water-clear parts. Have a random orientation of molecules. Generally yield transparent.Thermoplastic Amorphous Polymers: Have no true melting point and soften gradually.

Curing: ◦ Heat (above 200 °C) ◦ Chemical reaction ◦ Suitable radiation .Thermosetting Plastic ◦ Also known as thermoset ◦ Is a prepolymer material that cures irreversibly ◦ made up of lines of molecules which are heavily cross-linked.

Energy and/or catalysts are added that cause the molecular chains to react at chemically active sites Results to a rigid. 3-D structure. resulting in a material with a higher melting point. Yields a molecule with a larger molecular weight.Thermosetting Plastic Curing process: transforms the resin into a plastic or rubber by a cross-linking process. .

Thermosetting Plastic Properties: ◦ Generally stronger than thermoplastic ◦ Suited to high temperature applications ◦ Good chemical resistance ◦ More brittle ◦ Not recyclable .

Classifications of Plastics PVC .

Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) The most common thermoplastic polymer Used in fibers for clothing. lightweight. and easy to recycle May exist as an amorphous or as a semi-crystalline polymer . container for liquids and foods Inexpensive.

mouthwash bottles ◦Peanut butter containers ◦Salad dressing and vegetable oil container . water.Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) ◦Softdrink.

Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Condensation Polymerization: esterification .

Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Properties: ◦Stiffness and strength ◦Resilient to deformation ◦Naturally colourless ◦Lightweight ◦Fair moisture barrier .

◦ Simplest polymer ◦ Addition polymerization of ethylene CH2= CH2 Variation: ◦High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) ◦Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) .Polyethylene ◦ is a thermoplastic polymer consisting of long hydrocarbon chains.

High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) ◦Catalyzed by organometallic compounds at moderate pressure (15 to 30 atm) ◦Polymer chains are in great length ◦Linear molecules ◦Crystalline structure .

High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Found in: ◦ Milk jugs ◦ Juice bottles ◦ Bleach. detergent. and household cleaners ◦ Shampoo bottles ◦ Trash and shopping bags .

High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Properties: ◦Strong ◦Opaque ◦Naturally white in color ◦Can withstand higher temp (above 100 °C) ◦Carries a low risk of leaching ◦Rigid ◦Good chemical resistance .

Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) ◦ Prepared under very high pressures (about 350 MPa) and high temperatures (about 350°C) ◦ Uses oxygen as initiator ◦ Yields a hydrocarbon chains with side short and long side branches ◦ Branches hinders the closely packing of molecules ◦ Amorphous structure .

frozen food.Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) Found in: ◦Squeezable bottles ◦Bread. dry cleaning and shopping bags .

Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) Properties: ◦Translucent ◦Lightweight ◦Flexible ◦Less strong ◦Lower melting point (75°C) ◦Less chemical resistance .

Polyvinyl Chloride ◦ Third most used kind of plastic ◦ Vinyl Chloride monomer is produced by combining ethylene with Chlorine ◦ Addition polymerization of monomers to PVC ◦ Amorphous structure .

Polyvinyl Chloride Found in: ◦Window cleaner and detergent bottles ◦Shampoo bottles ◦Wire jacketing ◦piping .

Polyvinyl Chloride Properties: ◦ Fire retarding properties ◦ Ignition temperature of 455°C ◦ Chemically stable ◦ Resistant to oxidation (durable) ◦ Chemical resistant to almost all chemicals except for aromatics ◦ Flexible physical properties depending on additives ◦ Not safe with food use .

Polypropylene ◦Addition polymerization of propylene ◦One of the most versatile thermoplastic available commercially .

Polypropylene Found in: ◦Yogurt containers ◦Syrup bottles ◦Ketchup bottles ◦Caps ◦Straws ◦Medicine bottles .

Polypropylene Properties: ◦Stronger ◦Stiffer ◦Harder ◦High melting point (170°C) ◦Prone to oxidation .

Polystyrene ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Is a synthetic aromatic polymer Can be solid or foamed Formerly foamed with chlorofluorocarbon Addition polymerization of styrene Long chain hydrocarbon where alternating carbon center are attached to phenyl group crystalline .

Polystyrene Found in: ◦Disposable plates and cups ◦Meat trays ◦Egg ◦Cartons ◦Carry out containers ◦CD cases .

Polystyrene Properties: ◦Solid PS is transparent ◦Hard and brittle ◦High gas permeability and good water vapor transmission ◦Chemical resistant to acid and bases ◦Good insulator .

PLASTICS MANUFACTURING PASCUAL. JOHN RYAN TEODORO. AREEYA KYRA .

RAW MATERIALS Resins ◦ Natural Resins ◦ Synthetic Resins Additives ◦ Plasticizers ◦ Fillers ◦ Stabilizers ◦ Pigments and Dyes ◦ Blowing Agents ◦ Catalysts ◦ Accelerators ◦ Fire-retardants ◦ Anti-oxidants .

soluble in ether. alcohol. organic substances that usually hardens into brittle.Gum Resins .Oils from seeds . liquid. and other solvents -Derived from plants or vegetable matter .Starch derivatives -Three classifications: .Hard Resins . amorphous.Oleoresins .Resins -are group of sticky. solid substances upon exposure to air -Insoluble in water.

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odorless. . Dragon’s Blood. which is a stick. Amber. and tasteless resins that exhibit a glasslike fracture -Ex.Resins Hard Resins -hard. -Ex. brittle. sandarac Oleoresins -obtained by distillation of oleoresin turpentine. copals. Copaiba. Balsam. amorphous semisolids that contain essential oils.

Gum Resins -Mixtures of both true gums and resins -Occur naturally as a form of “tears” on plants and trees .

Distillation of Crude oil to produce Naphtha . coal.Usually in the form or pellets and granules .Naphtha cracking . and natural gas (crude oil) .Resins Petrochemical Resins (synthetic) -Derived from oil.breaking down of naphtha into smaller molecules .

Distillation of Crude Oil .

Naphtha Cracking .

-It is an organic liquid chosen to increase flexibility of the plastic. .Additives -are ingredients added to the resin to produce a more stable plastic -are often used in plastics to produce some desired characteristics Plasticizer -Plasticizer is the most important additive.

Pigments and Dyes -Pigments and dyes are added to give color to the plastic.Additives Filler -Fillers or extenders are added usually to thermosetting plastics to make them less brittle and to reinforce mechanical strength. .

Additives Stabilizers -To counteract decomposition during manufacture Blowing Agents -Commonly found in foamed plastics wherein self-generated or external heat converts blowing agents into gas bubbles expanding the resins into foam plastics Catalysts -A catalyst. either a chemical or simply applied heat. helps to start the chemical reaction of polymerization .

. Anti-oxidants -The effect of oxygen on some plastics during manufacture can cause degradation that is why anti-oxidants are incorporated to the process.Additives Fire-retardants -Fire-retardants are added to the mixture to produce fire-retarding grades of plastics.

POLYMER SYNTHESIS Polymerization -is the process of building up continuous molecular chains from individual identical monomer units Two main methods: -Addition Polymerization -Condensation Polymerization .

Addition Polymerization -Occurs when an unsaturated monomer molecule opens a double/triple bond to free a valence -Head to tail linking of monomers -Produces thermoplastics such as polyethylene. polypropylene. and polystyrene .

.Condensation Polymerization -is the process linking up monomer molecules of different compounds that can result with the loss of some simple molecules like water or HCl -produces both thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics such as polyesters and nylon.

Thermoplastic and Thermoset Processing Methods Extrusion Extrusion Blow Molding Calendering Rotational Molding Film Blowing Compression Molding Injection Molding Casting Blow molding Thermoforming Expanded Bead Blowing .

At the end of the heated chamber. As the plastic is extruded from the die. or powder. . the molten plastic is forced out through a small opening called a die to form the shape of the finished product. The plastic is melted by the mechanical work of the screw and the heat from the extruder wall. it is fed onto a conveyor belt for cooling or onto rollers for cooling or by immersion in water for cooling. is first loaded into a hopper and then fed into a long heated chamber .Extrusion Plastic material as granules. pellets.

Extrusion .

Calendering is used for high output and the ability to deal with low melt strength. cold rolls to create sheet. The still warm extrudate is chilled on polished. The thickness is well maintained and surface made smooth by the polished rollers. .Calendering An extension of film extrusion.

Calendering .

The diameter of the tube depends on the plastic being processed and the processing conditions.Film Blowing This process continuously extrudes vertically a ring of semi-molten polymer in an upward direction. The tube can be processed to form saleable bags . The tube is cooled by air and is nipped and wound continuously as a flattened tube. A bubble of air is maintained that stretches the plastic axially and radially into a tube many times the diameter of the ring.

Film Blowing .

. In injection molding plastic material is fed into a hopper. An extruder screw pushes the plastic through the heating chamber in which the material is then melted. The high pressure is needed to be sure the mold is completely filled. the mold opens and the finished product is ejected.Injection Molding This process can produce intricate three-dimensional parts of high quality and great reproducibility. which feeds into an extruder. At the end of the extruder the molten plastic is forced at high pressure into a closed cold mold. It is predominately used for thermoplastics but some thermosets and elastomers are also processed by injection molding. Once the plastic cools to a solid.

Injection Molding .

. or allowing it to expand freely into the shape of a hemisphere.Blow Molding Blow molding is a simple process where compressed air is introduced underneath a warmed sheet of thermoplastic material forcing the material into a mold cavity.

Blow Molding .

The closed mold is heated to soften the plastic and the gas expands or blowing agent generates gas. dissolved in the plastic.Expanded Bead Blowing This process begins with a measured volume of beads of plastic being placed into a mold. . usually pentane. such as expanded polystyrene cups. The beads contain a blowing agent or gas. The result is fused closed cell structure of foamed plastic that conforms to a shape.

Expanded Bead Blowing .

The plastic material is first extruded as a tube shape into an open die.Extrusion Blow Molding This is a combination of extrusion and blow moulding Used where the article to be made has a narrow neck. such as a bottle. The die is then closed to seal the ends of the tube and air is blown in forcing the plastic tube to take up the shape of the die cavity. .

Extrusion Blow Molding .

Solid or liquid resin is placed within the mold and heat is applied. . This process is used to make hollow configurations. Rotation distributes the plastic into a uniform coating on the inside of the mold then the mold is cooled until the plastic part cools and hardens.Rotational Molding Consists of a mold mounted on a machine capable of rotating on two axes simultaneously.

Rotational Molding .

Compression Molding This process has a prepared volume of plastic placed into a mold cavity A second mold or plug is applied to squeeze the plastic into the desired shape. .

Compression Molding .

often just pouring. addition of liquid resins to a mold.Casting This process is the low pressure. Catalyzed thermoset plastics can be formed into intricate shapes by casting. .

Casting .

The finished parts are cut from the sheet and the scrap sheet material recycled for manufacture of new sheet. Parts are thermoformed either from cut pieces for thick sheet or from rolls of thin sheet.Thermoforming Films of thermoplastic are heated to soften the film Then the soft film is pulled by vacuum or pushed by pressure to conform to a mold or pressed with a plug into a mold. .

Thermoforming .

JOHN .Rigid Plastic Packaging ESCALANTE.

pharmaceutical products and edible oils. PET is one of the most common consumer plastics used. cosmetics. Examples include soft drinks. alcoholic beverages.PET Bottles Polyethylene terephthalate is used as a raw material for making packaging materials such as bottles and containers for packaging a wide range of food products and other consumer goods. . detergents.

PET Bottles Advantages Much cheaper than other alternatives Lightweight Recyclable .

the deposit is partly or fully refunded to the redeemer.PET Bottles Recycling When the PET bottles are returned to an authorized redemption center. flexible plastics such as those used for bags (generally low density polyethylene). or to the original seller in some jurisdictions. objects made out of other rigid plastics such as PVC. polypropylene. In both cases the collected post-consumer PET is taken to recycling centers known as materials recovery facilities (MRF) where it is sorted and separated from other materials such as metal. glass. drink cartons. and anything else which is not made out of PET. HDPE. .

PET Bottles .

As a food packaging. agricultural films and chemical containers. motor oil containers. Its use for packaging has increased because of its low cost. HDPE is most commonly associated with milk. . ability to withstand the sterilizing process. oil. and juice bottles. flexibility. and pails. durability. crates. paper bag liners.HDPE Packaging High density polyethylene (HDPE) was first developed for packaging as a film before being introduced as a bottle for milk in 1964. bags. Non-food packaging uses include supermarket bags. cleaning product containers. and resistance to many chemicals. drums.

HDPE Packaging .

Plastic Pallets These are HDPE plastic molds used mainly for storage and transportation of goods. Plastic pallets can be made using virgin or recycled resin. .

Stackable pallets allow for the safe double stacking of multiple pallets with product on them during the shipping process. . these pallets allow for a very steady platform. allowing the pallets to sit safely on top of each other when the pallets are empty. Since they have a consistent bottom deck.Plastic Pallets .Stackable pallets Stackable pallets are pallets that include bottom runners or picture frame bottoms.

Since stackable pallets are generally a very durable style of pallet. it should be noted that empty stackable pallets can take up a lot of space in storage. it should be taken into consideration that the shipping process to the manufacturer for the first use or on a back haul to the shipper can result in higher costs.Stackable pallets Although there are many benefits for their use. they are most often considered for use in a closed loop or returnable type of environment. In addition.Plastic Pallets . .

Rackable pallets are pallets that include bottom runners or picture frame bottoms. These configuration variations include: Three-runner Picture frame Picture frame with a crossbar in the center of the base .Rackable pallets Rackable pallets . ultimately saving space. The bottom deck of a rackable pallet can consist of many different configurations. allowing for the pallets to sit safely on top of a rack. Rackable plastic pallets allow for storing the unit load above the floor.Plastic Pallets .

rackable plastic pallets are also stronger pallets. .Rackable pallets Rackable pallets are usually “heavy duty” in nature due to their load capacities and weigh more due to the additional structure on the underside of the pallet.Plastic Pallets . As a result of this increased structure and stability.

Plastic Pallets - Nestable pallets
Nestable pallets - An alternative to a stackable pallet is a nestable pallet. Nestable
pallets fit together when empty and reduce the amount of space needed for storage.

Plastic Crates/Baskets/Bins
Plastic Crates/Baskets/Bins – a container used for storage or
shipping of goods

Plastic Crates/Baskets/Bins Collapsible Crates
Collapsible Crates - Collapsible plastic crate were originally developed for the
automotive industry years ago to carry Original equipment manufacturer (OEM) parts to the
assembly lines.
These crates are collapsible in order to save on space in both the warehouse or in
transit. They include access doors for easy accessibility to any of your parts or other materials.

and other food processing environments. Rotomolded bins are the toughest plastic bins on the market making it economically viable for customers. . poultry. meat.Plastic Crates/Baskets/Bins Rotomolded Plastic Bins Rotomolded Plastic Bins . Now. they are used in many other different applications such as recycling and bulk storage.rotomolded plastic bins were originally designed for seafood.

and transportation of produce from the field to the packaging shed.Plastic Crates/Baskets/Bins Plastic Crates for Agriculture Plastic Crates for Agriculture . storage. .They were developed for harvesting. cooling. They are available in different sizes depending on the produce that you are harvesting.

. Plastic hopper bins have been recognized for their durability and ease of sanitation. seeds. resins etc. grains. They are reusable and designed to be stacked and lifted by a forklift.Plastic Crates/Baskets/Bins Plastic Hopper Bins Plastic hopper bins are extremely popular in areas of processing products in bulk such as: nuts.

Attached lid containers are the workhorse of the distribution industry. These containers are used widely in retail distribution to ship small packaging to and from distribution centers and stores. .Plastic Crates/Baskets/Bins Attached lid containers Attached lid containers . The attached lid containers can nest when the lids are opened making them efficient for return freight.

Hand held plastic crates Hand held plastic crates .Plastic Crates/Baskets/Bins . Hand held plastic crates . .are high quality stackable/nestable handheld containers that can be used in supermarkets or your home.are high quality stackable/nestable handheld containers that can be used in supermarkets or your home.

Plastic Liquid Containers Plastic liquid containers – are containers used as an intermediate or final packaging for products/materials in liquid form. .

this round.Plastic Liquid Containers . dairy.Pails Pails . cleaning. and food processing. . open-head pails made from injection molding technology. are engineered to satisfy the stringent requirements of many industries such as chemicals.

. these injection-molded plastic drums are extremely strong and rigid allowing for easy handling and a low shipping cost.Made from high-density polyethylene.Plastic Liquid Containers .Drums Drums .

Flexible Plastic Packaging COSTALES. ELIJAH .

wrappings. sacks.Flexible Plastic Packaging Flexible plastic packaging is a major group of materials that includes plastic films that can be used to make labels. pouches and sealed or unsealed bags. packs. .

. Handling convenience for both processors and customers. Adds very little weight to the product which reduces transport costs.Flexible Plastic Packaging Ability to protect foods and extend the shelf-life. Tough and durable to withstand rough handling during transport and distribution.

• Mostly inert and unreactive • Good barrier properties to moisture and air.Flexible Plastic Packaging • Easily printed on as labels to inform customers about the product • Fit closely around the product which reduces space for transport • Attractive appearance to the mass consumers. .

. etc. micro-organisms.Flexible Plastic Packaging Barrier Properties Barrier properties are the resistance that a package has to moisture. puncturing. the more permeable the material is to moisture or air. Two Factors: • Water Vapor Transmission Rate (WVTR) • Oxygen Transmission Rate (OTR) The higher the value of WVTR or OTR. It gives an indication of the amount of protection that is given to a food by a particular packaging material. light. air.

Flexible Plastic Packaging The polymers that are most commonly used for flexible plastic packaging are low density polyethylene (LDPE) and linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE). .

Frozen Fish . • It has very low barrier properties • It has poor resistance to oils • Susceptible to damage by sunlight which leads brittleness and opaqueness • It is used as single layer to pack products requiring low protection like: Frozen vegetables.Polyethylene (PE) films • It is the oldest thermoplastic film • It is the cheapest and most used plastic films used for food packaging. • Excellent heat sealability • It allows moisture and air to pass through at a higher rate than many films.

Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) films .

Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) films • Poor barrier properties to moisture and air. • Poor resistance to puncturing. • Does not protect foods against mechanical damage. . LDPE should not therefore be used to package fatty foods (including cooking oils. • Inert. thus. • It has low melting point which makes it easily heat sealable. cheese or biscuits) for long periods of time. the plasticizers used to make the film flexible can be absorbed by fats in foods and may be linked to nerve damage to eyes and development of cancers. although it does not tear easily. However. require outer cartons or boxes for transport and distribution. butter.

Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) films .

it is more slippery than jute. It is a strong film that gives a strong heat seal Ability to withstand puncturing. Stronger. Good barrier against moisture. Use as sacks for rough handling. paper or other natural fibres • Poor resistance to sunlight . tearing and stretching. air and odours. It has a higher softening temperature (121°C). less flexible and more brittle than LDPE.High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) films • • • • • • • • Thick Polyethylene . However.

dried fruits and cereal products) . pulses. pasta. transparent and sparkling film. • It is strong. air and odours • It is not damaged by sunlight nor affected by drying out by low temperatures. • Suitable for larger heavy duty packs or as stronger packages( e.Polypropylene (PP) films • A clear. • It does not stretch as much as Polythene • It has good barrier properties to moisture. heat sealable and withstands puncturing and tearing.g. glossy.

However it is more expensive than polythene. • Allow moisture and air to pass through the weave (in contrast to HDPE sacks) and they are therefore more useful for fresh produce or for foods that do not require protection against these factors. glossy appearance and better barrier properties. • PP sacks are very tough and resist puncturing. it is replacing polyethylene in many applications. • Polypropylene is also woven into sacks for bulk transport of both fresh and processed foods. • It has a higher sealing temperature than polyethylene • Because of its attractive.Polypropylene (PP) films • There is no movement of plasticizers into fatty foods unlike polyethylene. tearing and stretching. .

but still must be printed in flexo • Not used as laminating layer .Cast Polypropylene (CPP) films • Better machinability properties than PE • Thickness range between 20μ to 40μ • It is transparent with a more crystal-like view than PE • It has very low protection barrier • Better printability properties than PE.

Bi-Oriented Polypropylene (BOPP) films • • • • • • • • It is the most used thermoplastic film Thickness range: 15μ to 40μ (most between 20μ-30μ) It can be : transparent.or laminated layer Used in snacks. opaque. pasta. biscuits. lacquered. pearly It has very low heat sealing properties Better barrier properties than PE or CPP Excellent printability in flexo or rotogravure Used as simple. dish was powders. white. metallized. frozen food .

Flexible Plastic Packaging Innovations Metalized Films -application of a layer of aluminum to a polymer’s surface -Lower cost and tare weight makes metalized films a popular choice in the food and confectionary fields -resistant to both water and oxygen transmission as well as providing a metallic and glossy appearance Based on Erin Hoppe’s “Flexible Packaging: Innovations and Developments” University of Wisconsin-Stout 2009 .

Flexible Plastic Packaging Innovations Smart packaging employed in plastic films: Active packaging Intelligent packaging Based on Erin Hoppe’s “Flexible Packaging: Innovations and Developments” University of Wisconsin-Stout 2009 .

and carbon dioxide absorbers -controls and reacts to outside influences that occur inside of the package: light water. oxygen‐scavenging. preservative releasers. microbial and chemical contamination Based on Erin Hoppe’s “Flexible Packaging: Innovations and Developments” University of Wisconsin-Stout 2009 .Flexible Plastic Packaging Innovations Active Packaging Films -employs moisture absorbers. oxygen. temperature control packaging.

slows down natural deterioration.Flexible Plastic Packaging Innovations Modified Atmosphere Packaging Films -it modifies the internal environment of the package. preserves the product’s fresh state for a longer period of time -Controls the transmission rate of oxygen and carbon dioxide as well as the quantity of oxygen both inside and outside of the package Based on Erin Hoppe’s “Flexible Packaging: Innovations and Developments” University of Wisconsin-Stout 2009 .

Flexible Plastic Packaging
Innovations
Intelligent Packaging Films

-involves a ‘smart’ material that is capable of detecting a change in its
environment through any combination of indicators, sensors, and processors
-an automatic response takes place resulting in neither the product, package,
or consumer being compromised.

Based on Erin Hoppe’s “Flexible Packaging: Innovations and Developments”
University of Wisconsin-Stout
2009

Flexible Plastic Packaging
Innovations
Intelligent Packaging Films

-Antimicrobial films capable of controlling the growth of microorganisms in food
-conductive polymers and the light‐emitting properties they posses
-it could be possible for the film to produce advertisements or signal lights

Based on Erin Hoppe’s “Flexible Packaging: Innovations and Developments”
University of Wisconsin-Stout
2009

Future Innovations for Flexible Plastics
An ongoing trend in the packaging market is the development of materials which posses
high‐barrier properties.

There is continuing research regarding biodegradable/compostable films and the push to make
them more widely available and utilized.
A recent application of “food‐grade flavor molecules” added to polymer structure has resulted
in the development of a film that releases odors/aromas on the inside or outside of a package
(Byrne).

Based on Erin Hoppe’s “Flexible Packaging: Innovations and Developments”
University of Wisconsin-Stout
2009

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