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Forced Harmonic Oscillator

UNDAMPED

DAMPED

Undamped Forced Oscillator :


Effect of external force on the oscillator.
Force applied : End of the spring + Spring moves
(y=y0coswt)

y=y0coswt

x
Change in the length of the spring = x - y
(Equilibrium Position)

Eqn. of motion without friction

mx k ( x y)
Substituting for y

ky0
F0
x 0 x
cos t cos t
m
m
2

ky0
F0
x 0 x
cos t cos t
m
m
2

F0 cost = Driving force


F0
= Amplitude

= Driving frequency

Very special form of driving force !!!

Examples of such forced oscillators in Nature :


1. Response of a bound electron to an EM field
2. Tidal response of a lake to the periodic force of the
moon or sun.

Guess

x A cos t
Why ?
RHS of eqn. has cos(wt)

Therefore
LHS of eqn. must have cos(wt)

x A cos t

Substituting

In LHS of eqn.

F0
x 0 x cos t
m
2

Fo
A
2
k m

Fo
1
A
2
2
m o

The solution

F0
1
x
cos t
2
2
m 0
Correct, Not complete

No arbitrary
constants

Must able to
specify x0 and v0

Complete solution

F0
1
x
cos t B cos(0t )
2
2
m 0
Steady state solution General solution

x 0 x 0
2

Motion : Free undamped oscillator

For a damped system

F0
1
x
cos t B cos(t )
2
2
m 0

B : Decreases exponentially

Steady state solution

Amplitude of oscillation vs driving frequency

F0
1
A
m 0 2 2

0.010

0.005

0.000

A0

-0.005

-0.010
0

20

40

60

80

100

0 A

A finite at

Resonance

Fo
1
A
2
2
m o

A 0; 0
A ; 0

0.005

A 0; 0

0.010

0.000

-0.005

-ve A ?

-0.010
0

20

40

60

80

100

0
Displacement 180 degree out of phase with driving force

Mathematically

Amplitude Negative
Force cos t
Displacement cos t cos(180 t )

0
Displacement in phase with driving force

Phenomenon of resonance :
(+) ve and () ve aspects

- ve aspects :
Avoid motions of large amplitude in the springs of an automobile

To reduce response at resonance dissipative friction


force is needed :
Analysis of the Forced Damped Harmonic Oscillator

Forced damped harmonic oscillator


Motion of the oscillator = - bv
Retarding force (Viscous)
FTot = Fspr + Fvis + Fdriving
= -kx - bv + F0 cost

mx kx - bv F0 cost

mx kx - bv F0 cost

F0
b
k
x
x
x
cost
m
m
m
2
x x o x

Fo

cost
m

Will x =A cos t satisfy this differential equ.?


No!

The velocity term gives sin t

2
x x o x

Fo

cost
m

How to find the solution?


Write the above equation in complex form

F0 it
z z 0 z e
m
i

t
Solution will be of the form z = zo e
2

t
zo e gives the solution to

Real part of z =
Forced damped harmonic oscillator

Substituting z

t
zo e in complex equation

F0 it
z z 0 z
e
m
2

F0 it
z0e ( i 0 ) e
m
F0
1
z0
m 0 2 2 i
it

F0
1
z0
2
m 0 2 i
Put zo in cartesian form by multiplying the
numerator and denominator by the complex
conjugate of the denominator

F0 (0 2 ) i

m (0 2 2 )2 ( )2
2

F0 (0 ) i
z0
2
m (0 2 ) 2 ( ) 2
2

z0 Re i

In
polar
form

R z0 z0

F0

1
2
2 2
2
(0 ) ( )

tan 2
2
0
1

1
2

The complete solution is z = zo eit


i it

z Re e

Re

i t

Real part x R cos(t )


Fo
1
A R
m 2 2 2 2
o

tan 2
2
o
1

1/2

Phase difference between


the driving force
and the displacement

Fo
1
A R
m 2 2 2 2
o

dA
0
d

At = max

0 1
2
2Q

1
2

1/2

Fo
1
A R
m 2 2 2 2
o

1/2

For light damping, A is maximum for =


and the amplitude at resonance is:

Fo
A(o )
mo

Behavior of A and as functions of ,


depends on the ratio / o

Fo
1
A
m 2 2 2 2
o

1/2

1
0
0
1
Q

0 1
2
2Q

1
2

Fo
1
A
m 2 2 2 2
o

1/2

0 1
2
2Q

1
0

As increases, the maximum amplitude occurs at a


frequency less than the resonant frequency

1
2

tan 2
2
o
1

Undamped FHO

Damped FHO
Fo
1
A
m 2 2 2 2
o

Fo
1
A
m o2 2
0.010

0.005

0.000

-0.005

-0.010
0

20

40

60

80

100

tan 2
2
o
1

1/2