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sophisticated binary sensors are

collectively known as proximity switches

More

often called microswitches


activation causes electrical contacts to either
break (normally closed or NC switch) or
make (normally open or NO switch) - or
both NC and NO

variety of sensors are available that give


ON/OFF (or yes/no) binary outputs
Mechanical limit switches

Proximity and Limit Switches

Standard Basic Switches

Standard Basic Switches

Standard Basic Switches

COM2

COM1

COM

COM

COM

NC1
NO1
NC2
NO2

NO

NC

Double pole,
double throw (DPDT)

Single pole,
double throw (SPDT)

Single pole, single throw (SPST)


Normally Closed (NC)

Single pole, single throw (SPST)


Normally Open (NO)

Switch Contact Configurations

Contacts

Mercury puddle

Mercury Switch

Current
limiting
resistor

VS

VS

VOUT ~

Small current flows


through transistor

Photoelectric Proximity Sensor

VS

VS

VOUT ~

No current

Sense resistor

Photoelectric Sensor - Blocked

~ 1.2-1.7 V

i ~10-30 mA

Current limiting
resistor usually
"small"

VS

(cathode)

(anode)

VS

(emitter)

(collector)

Sense resistor
usually large
10K: to
100K:

Photoelectric Sensor - Design

http://www.manufacturing.net/ctl/article/CA204923

There are three basic types of photoelectric sensors. Transmitted beam,


or through-beam, requires a sender and a receiver. Retroreflective senses
light returning from a reflector. Both types switch an output when the
beam is broken. Diffuse sensors sense light returning from the object to
be detected and switch the output when it senses

http://www.warnernet.com/smartcat/warnerweb/PDF/P-1201-WE_sensors-pg03-11.pdf

Thru-Beam Photoelectric

from Warner

Automatic Door Opener

from Warner

Case Sorting - By Size

from Warner

Production Counting

http://www.westernextralite.com/resources/basicsensor.htm

This type of sensor utilizes a special reflector to return the


beam directed at it from the sensor. An object between the
sensor and reflector is senses when it interrupts the beam.
Medium sensing range.

Reflective Photoelectric

http://www.sick.es/es/es0/sensores/es.toolboxpar.0004.file.tmp/Sensick_Industrial%20Sensors_C_EN_8007755_0703.pdf

Coil of wire forms inductor, L

Inductive Proximity Sensor

from Sick

Inductive Sensor Considerations

High frequency (200 kHz) sound waves reflect from object

Ultrasonic Proximity Sensing

(Speed of sound in air) * 'T


Distance =
2

'T

Ultrasonic Proximity Sensing

Targets
Any
Any
Magnet
Opaque

Nonporous,
large

Sensor

Limit switch

Mercury switch

Reed switch

Photo-electric

Ultrasonic

0.1 to 50 m,
depends on
target shape
30 mm to 10 m

0 (physical
contact req'd)
0 (physical
contact req'd)
20 mm

Sense Distance
(typ. max)

50 Hz

100-1000 Hz

500 Hz

3 Hz

3 Hz

Switch Rate
(typ. max)

Industrial Automation by D.W. Pessen, Wiley Interscience

Proximity Switches

Targets
Conductive
material
Most solids,
liquids
Ferromagnetic
Magnet
Magnet

Sensor

Inductive

Capacitive

Magnetic
inductance

Hall effect

Wiegand
effect

50 mm
(depends on
target mass)
20 mm

Ferrous:50
mm, Nonferrous: less
30 mm

Sense
Distance
(typ. max)

100 kHz

100 kHz

300 Hz

500 Hz

300-5000 Hz

Switch Rate
(typ. max)

Industrial Automation by D.W. Pessen, Wiley Interscience

Proximity Switches

Ultrasonic

Photo-electric

Reed switch

Dust, dirt,
ambient light
Noise, air
motion

Temperature
moisture
Vibration,
mounting
angle
Vibration

Limit switch

Mercury switch

Environmental
Sensitivities

Sensor

Good
resolution

Simple,
inexpensive
Low contact
resistance,
sealed unit
Small size,
inexpensive

Advantages

Poor
resolution
large target

Physical
contact, arcing
Physical
contact, SPST
contacts only
Contact
arcing, magnet
actuator

Disadvantages

Industrial Automation by D.W. Pessen, Wiley Interscience

Proximity Switches

Other nearby
sensors
Humidity,
temperature
Other nearby
sensors
Temperature

Inductive

Capacitive

Magnetic
inductance
Hall effect

Wiegand
effect

Environmental
Sensitivities

Sensor

Good
resolution
Simple,
inexpensive

Usually fails
ON, good
resolution

Advantages

Complex
circuitry, false
triggering
Collects debris,
no static sense
Poor resolution,
needs magnet
No static sense,
magnet

Disadvantages

Industrial Automation by D.W. Pessen, Wiley Interscience

Proximity Switches

use the limit switch as a mechanical


stop (use another component)
Use cam surfaces to allow gradual actuation
Don't apply side forces to the switch roller
or lever (will wear bearings quickly)
Use appropriate switch actuator for type of
force/motion applied
Don't switch excessive currents through the
switch contacts

Don't

Limit & Proximity Switch Applications

of output signal (high/low voltage?


high/low current?, DC or AC?, relay or
triac?)
Is mechanical contact with sensed object
OK?
Available space
Environmental conditions
Nature of target: size, shape, material,
surface

Type

Factors in Selecting Limit &


Proximity Switches

distance (max and min)


Positional accuracy required
Speed of target (will it remain in sensing
area long enough?)
Switching rate - how often will inputs be
presented to the sensor? Can it recover
quickly?
Reliability and life expectancy - can you
detect a failure?

Sensor-to-target

Factors in Selecting Limit &


Proximity Switches

Proximity Sensor

NPN output
or
Open-Collector output
or
Current "sinking" output

Prox Sensor Output - NPN

Proximity Sensor

VOUT

VS

External
sense
(or load)
resistor

Typically +5V, +12V or +24V

Prox Sensor Output - NPN

Proximity Sensor

PNP output
or
Current "sourcing" output

Prox Sensor Output - PNP

Proximity Sensor

VOUT

VS

External
sense
(or load)
resistor

Typically +5V, +12V or +24V

Prox Sensor Output - PNP

Both NPN and PNP outputs