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9/2/15

Digestion and Absorption
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Biochemically, you are what you eat is true!

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Food and fluid taken into the body is broken
down into smaller components so it can be
used by the body.

Digestion and
Absorption

Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Organ Systems of the Body

Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Overview of the Digestive System
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Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Digestion: process of breaking food into components
small enough to be absorbed by the body
Absorption: process of taking substances into the interior
of the body
Gastrointestinal tract: hollow tube consisting of the
mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine,
large intestine and anus
Transit time: amount of time it takes food to pass the
length of the GI tract
Feces: body waste, including unabsorbed food residue,
bacteria and dead cells

Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

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All rights reserved. All rights reserved. Inc. Inc. lubricates and protects the GI tract Enzymes: protein molecules that speed up chemical reactions. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Digestive Enzymes Digestion inside the GI tract is assisted by digestive secretions. Inc. 2 . All rights reserved. Inc. enzymes are not changed during reactions Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons. Digestive Secretions       Structure of the Gut Wall Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons. mucus moistens.9/2/15 Overview of the Digestive System Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons. Mucus: viscous material produced by goblet cells.

Chewing mechanically breaks food down. Pharynx and Epiglottis Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons.     Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons. Inc.9/2/15 Digestive Hormones Mouth   Cephalic phase     Sense of smell and sight The mouth is the entry point for food into the digestive tract. increasing the surface area in contact with digestive enzymes. Inc. Saliva contains salivary amylase. which helps to break down carbohydrates and lysozymes. 3 . All rights reserved. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons. Pharynx and Epiglottis Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. Inc. which help to inhibit bacterial growth in the mouth. Inc.

Stomach Stomach Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons.9/2/15 Esophagus Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Inc. Inc. Small Intestine Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons. Inc. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. 4 . All rights reserved. Inc. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. Digestion Nutrient Breakdown Gallbladder stores bile which is produced by the liver. Inc. Inc. All rights reserved. Inc. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons. Inc. Gallbladder. Pancreas secretes digestive enzymes and bicarbonate ions into the small intestine during digestion. Liver and Pancreas     Brain Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons.9/2/15 Segmentation Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons. 5 .

All rights reserved. All rights reserved.9/2/15 Nutrient Absorption Large Intestine         The large intestine can absorb water and some vitamins and minerals. All rights reserved. Inc. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Prebiotics Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons. Probiotics Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons. Inc. Water. 6 . Inc. Intestinal microflora are produced here. nutrients and fecal material may spend up to 24 hours in the large intestine. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons. The large intestine contains the colon and the rectum. Inc.

All rights reserved. Common Digestive Problems Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons. Inc. 7 . All rights reserved. Inc. Antacids: Getting the Drug Facts Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Inc. All rights reserved.9/2/15 GI Tract s Role in Immune Function       Common Digestive Problems The GI tract plays an important role in protecting the body from infection. Some cells of the immune system are present in the GI tract:       Phagocytes Lymphocytes Antibodies Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons. The GI tract limits the absorption of toxins and disease-causing organisms. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons. Inc.

All rights reserved. 8 . Inc. Inc. Metabolic pathways are a series of reactions needed to transform food into a final product that can be used by the body. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons. ATP is the energy currency of the cell. Inc. All rights reserved. Inc. All rights reserved. Catabolic pathways release energy trapped in chemical bonds.9/2/15 Alternate Feeding Methods   If an individual cannot take adequate food or fluid by mouth:     Transport of Nutrients Around the Body: The Cardiovascular System Enteral or tube feeding TPN: total parenteral nutrition Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. Energy from catabolic reactions is converted into ATP. Transport of Nutrients Around the Body: The Hepatic Portal Circulation Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons. Metabolism of Nutrients         Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons.

Inc. 9 . Inc.9/2/15 Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons. Inc. All rights reserved. Elimination of Metabolic Wastes: Body Organ System Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. Metabolizing Nutrients: Cellular Respiration Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons.