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Background

The physical properties of titanium and its alloys are summarised in Table 1, from which it can
be seen that there is little variation from one alloy to another. For example, coefficients of
thermal expansion range from 7.6x10-6 K-1 to 9.8x10-6 K-1.
Table 1. Physical properties of titanium and titanium alloys.
Alloy

Density
(g.cm-3)

Melt
Range
(C15)

Spec.
Heat
(J.g-1.K-1)

Elec.
Resist.
(.cm)

Commercially Pure

ASTM
Grade 1

4.51

1670

0.54

56

Commercially Pure

ASTM
Grade 2

4.51

1677

0.54

56

Commercially Pure

ASTM
Grade 3

4.51

1677

0.54

56

Commercially Pure

ASTM
Grade 4

4.54

1660

0.54

61

Ti-3%Al-2.5%V

ASTM
Grade 9

4.48

1704

124

Ti-0.8%Ni-0.3%Mo

ASTM
Grade 12

4.51

0.54

51

Ti-3%Al-8%V-6%Cr-4%Zr-4%Mo

Beta C

4.81

1649

Ti-15%Mo-3%Nb-3%Al-0.2%Si

Timetal 21 S

4.90

0.49

135

Ti-6%Al-4%V

ASTM
Grade 5

4.42

1649

0.56

170

Ti-2.5%Cu

IMI 230

4.56

70

Ti-4%Al-4%Mo-2%Sn-0.5%Si

IMI 550

4.60

160

Ti-6%Al-6%V-2%Sn

4.54

1704

0.65

Ti-10%V-2%Fe-3%Al

4.65

1649

Ti-15%V-3%Cr-3%Sn-3%Al

4.76

1524

0.50

147

Ti-8%Al-1%Mo-1%V

4.37

1538

198

Ti-11%Sn-5%Zr-2.5%Al-1%Mo

IMI 679

4.84

163

Ti-5.5%Al-3.5%Sn-3%Zr-1%Nb-0.3%Mo-0.3%Si

IMI 829

4.54

Ti-5.8%Al-4%Sn-3.5%Zr-0.7%Nb-0.5%Mo-0.3%Si

IMI 834

4.55

Ti-6%Al-2%Sn-4%Zr-2%Mo

4.54

1649

0.42

191

Ti-6%Al-2%Sn-4%Zr-6%Mo

4.65

1635

Ti-6%Al-5%Zr-0.5%Mo-0.2%Si

IMI 685

4.45

Ti-6%Al-3%Sn-4%Zr-0.5%Mo-0.5%Si

Ti 1100

4.50

180

Table 1 (cont.). Physical properties of titanium and titanium alloys.


Alloy

Commercially Pure

ASTM
Grade 1

Therm.
Cond.
(W.m-1.K-1)

Therm.
Exp. Co-eff
0-100C
(10-6 K-1)

Therm.
Exp. Co-eff
0-300C
(10-6 K-1)

Beta
Transus
(C15)

16.3

8.6

9.2

888

Commercially Pure

ASTM
Grade 2

16.3

8.6

9.2

913

Commercially Pure

ASTM
Grade 3

16.3

8.6

9.2

921

Commercially Pure

ASTM
Grade 4

16.3

8.6

9.2

949

Ti-3%Al-2.5%V

ASTM
Grade 9

7.6

7.9

935

Ti-0.8%Ni-0.3%Mo

ASTM
Grade 12

22.7

9.5

888

Ti-3%Al-8%V-6%Cr-4%Zr-4%Mo

Beta C

8.4

9.4

9.7

793

Ti-15%Mo-3%Nb-3%Al-0.2%Si

Timetal 21 S

7.62

4.4

4.9

785

Ti-6%Al-4%V

ASTM
Grade 5

7.2

8.8

9.2

999

Ti-2.5%Cu

IMI 230

16.0

9.0

9.1

895

Ti-4%Al-4%Mo-2%Sn-0.5%Si

IMI 550

7.9

8.8

9.2

975

Ti-6%Al-6%V-2%Sn

7.2

9.0

9.4

946

Ti-10%V-2%Fe-3%Al

9.7

796

Ti-15%V-3%Cr-3%Sn-3%Al

8.1

9.7

760

Ti-8%Al-1%Mo-1%V

6.5

8.5

9.0

1038

7.1

8.2

9.3

950

Ti-11%Sn-5%Zr-2.5%Al-1%Mo

IMI 679

Ti-5.5%Al-3.5%Sn-3%Zr-1%Nb-0.3%Mo-0.3%Si

IMI 829

9.45

9.77

1015

Ti-5.8%Al-4%Sn-3.5%Zr-0.7%Nb-0.5%Mo-0.3%Si

IMI 834

10.6

10.9

1045

Ti-6%Al-2%Sn-4%Zr-2%Mo

6.0

9.9

996

Ti-6%Al-2%Sn-4%Zr-6%Mo

7.1

9.4

10.3

932

Ti-6%Al-5%Zr-0.5%Mo-0.2%Si

IMI 685

4.8

9.8

9.5

1025

Ti-6%Al-3%Sn-4%Zr-0.5%Mo-0.5%Si

Ti 1100

6.6

8.8

9.5

804

Density
The density of an alloy is dependent upon the amount and density of the alloying constituents.
For example, an alloy containing aluminium as an alloying element is likely to be substantially
lighter than one containing an appreciable amount of tin. Generally, beta alloys are heavy
because they contain alloying constituents such as molybdenum which has a relatively high
density. Where weight is important, it may be worthwhile to compare specific properties of
alloys, e.g. the specific strength.

Strength
In Table 2 the specific strengths of some titanium alloys are compared with those of other
structural metals.
Table 2. Strength of some titanium alloys at room temperature, normalised by density,
compared with other structural metals.
Material

Yield Str/Density
(x106N.m.kg-1)

Tensile Str/Density
(x106N.m.kg-1)

107 Cycle Fatigue


Str/Density
(x106N.m.kg-1)

Commercially Pure

ASTM
Grade 2

78

107

54

Ti-6%Al-4%V

ASTM
Grade 5

206

226

135

Ti-6%Al-2%Sn-4%Zr-2%Mo

202

223

123

225

247

136

Ti-10%V-2%Fe-3%Al

264

282

155

Maraging Steel

170

202

121

FV 520 B Steel

153

165

105

13% Cr Stainless Steel

95

105

68

18/8 Stainless Steel

68

75

40

Ti-4%Al-4%Mo-2%Sn-0.5%Si

IMI 550

Thermal Conductivity
The thermal conductivity of all titanium alloys is relatively low for a metal, although recent
work has indicated that the value for commercially pure titanium is actually 21.6 W m-1.K-1,
about 32% higher than the value quoted in Table 1. The titanium alloys generally have even
lower thermal conductivities than the commercially pure material.

Electrical Resistivity
As may be expected from this, electrical resistivity is relatively high. Specific heat does not
show any obvious trend, ranging from about 400 to 600 J.kg-1.K-1.

Magnetic Properties
Commercially pure titanium and all the titanium alloys are non magnetic. The permeability of
commercially pure titanium is 1.00005-1.0001 at 955 H.m-1.

Elastic Modulus
Values of elastic (Young's) modulus typically range from 80 to 125 GPa, but this depends to
some extent on the working process used to produce the material and on the directionality of
the test material. There is, however, a general tendency for high aluminium containing

materials to have a somewhat higher modulus than other alloys.

Poissons Ratio
It is difficult to give a reliable value for Poisson's ratio for titanium alloys since anisotropy
leads to small differences in both elastic and shear moduli which, when taken together to
calculate Poisson's ratio can lead to values varying from 0.287 to 0.391 for annealed ASTM
Grade 5 (Ti-6%Al-4%V) sheet. However, the generally accepted value for commercially pure
titanium is 0.36 and that for ASTM Grade 5 is 0.31.
The Effect of Temperature on the Physical Properties
The effect of temperature on the physical properties of commercially pure titanium is given in
Table 3. The alloys follow a similar pattern although the thermal conductivity tends to increase
more at elevated temperature, most of the alloys showing increases of 60 to 80% between
ambient and 500C. Other properties follow more closely the trends for commercially pure
titanium.
Table 3. Effect of temperature on the physical properties of comeercially pure titanium.
Temp.
(C)

Therm. Exp. Co-eff


20-TC (x10-6K-1)

Therm. Cond.
(W.m-1.K-1)

Elec.
Resist.
(.cm)

Spec.
Heat
(J.g-1.K-1)

Magnetic
Suscept.
(x10-6)

Elastic
Mod.
(GPa)

20

17

0.48

500

3.4

110

100

7.6

16

0.65

550

3.5

101

200

8.9

15

0.83

580

3.6

92

300

9.5

15

1.00

595

3.7

85

400

9.6

15

1.15

605

3.9

78

500

9.7

15

1.29

615

4.0

72

600

16

1.41

Tensile Strength
The tensile strength of titanium and its alloys at ambient temperature ranges from 240 MPa for
the softest grade of commercially pure titanium to more than 1400 MPa for very high strength
alloys. Proof strengths vary from around 170 to 1100 MPa according to grade and condition.
Details are given in Table 4.
Table 4. Guaranteed properties of titanium alloys.
Alloy

0.2%
Proof
(MPa)

Tens.
Str.
(MPa)

Fatigue
Limit
(% of Tens.
Str)

Elong.
(%)

Red. Of
Area
(%)

Elastic
Modulus
(GPa)

Commercially Pure

ASTM
Grade 1

172

241

50

25

35

103

Commercially Pure

ASTM
Grade 2

276

345

50

20

35

103

Commercially Pure

ASTM
Grade 3

379

448

50

18

35

103

Commercially Pure

ASTM
Grade 4

483

552

50

15

30

104

Ti-3%Al-2.5%V

ASTM
Grade 9

483

621

15

91

Ti-0.8%Ni-0.3%Mo

ASTM
Grade 12

345

483

18

25

103

Ti-3%Al-8%V-6%Cr-4%Zr-4%Mo

Beta C

1104

1172

19

103

Ti-15%Mo-3%Nb-3%Al-0.2%Si

Timetal
21 Sa

750

792

10b

74

Ti-6%Al-4%V

ASTM
Grade 5

828

897

55-60

10

20

114

Ti-2.5%Cu

IMI 230

400

540

16

35

Ti-4%Al-4%Mo-2%Sn-0.5%Si

959

1104

50-60

38

114

Ti-6%Al-6%V-2%Sn

966

1035

50-60

15

Ti-10%V-2%Fe-3%Al

1104

1241

50

103

Ti-15%V-3%Cr-3%Sn-3%Al

966

1000

103

Ti-8%Al-1%Mo-1%V

828

897

10

20

117

990

850

125

Ti-6%Al-2%Sn-4%Zr-2%Mo

862

931

50-60

114

Ti-6%Al-2%Sn-4%Zr-6%Mo

1069

1172

10

20

114

Ti-6%Al-5%Zr-0.5%Mo-0.2%Si

IMI 550

IMI 685

Ti-5.5%Al-3.5%Sn-3%Zr-1%Nb0.3%Mo-0.3%Si

IMI 829

820

960

50

10

120

Ti-5.8%Al-4%Sn-3.5%Zr-0.7%Nb0.5%Mo-0.3%Si

IMI 834

910

1030

120

a = Solution treated, b= typical value


At elevated temperatures each grade of titanium exhibits characteristic tensile properties. The
alloy grades, particularly the high strength materials, retain both proof and tensile strengths up
to much higher temperatures than the commercially pure grades. This is shown clearly in
Figures 1 and 2. Ductility normally increases with increasing temperature, as shown in Figure
3. However, there is a slight irregularity with the commercially pure grades in that ductility
increases consistently up to a temperature of between 200C and 300C but thereafter
decreases until at 400 to 450C values are very similar to those at room temperature.

Figure 1. Typical values of tensile strength for titanium and its alloys

of a heat treatment.
Figure 4 illustrates the approximate relationship between the hardness of commercially pure
titanium and its tensile strength.

Figure 4. Approximate relationship between hardness and tensile strength for commercially
pure grades of titanium.

Creep
There is little published information on the creep properties of commercially pure titanium,
mainly because current applications have not normally required detailed knowledge of this
property. Generally, creep values for the material to 0.1% plastic strain in 100,000 hours are
approximately 50% of the tensile strength at temperatures up to 300C.
Design codes for chemical plant allow the use of tensile information for equipment operating
at up to 150C, and this covers most of the current uses of commercially pure titanium in the
chemical industry. At temperatures above this, titanium is normally used as a lining supported
by steel. Chemical plant design codes also refer to stress rupture values and information on

these is given in Figures 5 and 6.

Figure 5. 10,000 hour stress rupture curves for commercially pure titanium sheets (LarsonMiller interpolation).

Figure 6. 100,000 hour stress rupture curves for commercially pure titanium sheets (LarsonMiller interpolation).
Clearly, some applications require the use of material having a good resistance to creep and
titanium alloys have been developed over the years to fulfil this requirement. They generally

fall into three main categories:


Alpha-beta alloys. These contain sufficient beta stabilising elements to allow some beta
phase to be retained at room temperature. They are heat treated in the alpha-beta phase field
and their structure consists of primary alpha and transformed beta. The maximum operating
temperature under creep conditions for these materials would normally be 300-450C;
Near alpha alloys heat treated in the alpha-beta phase field. By optimising alpha and beta
stabilising elements, alloys have been developed which have improved creep resistance at
temperatures in the range 450-500C;
Near alpha alloys heat treated in the beta phase field. A significant further improvement in
creep properties is obtained by heat treating near alpha alloys in the beta phase field and such
materials are suitable for use at up to 600C.

Fatigue
The high cycle fatigue strengths of titanium alloys are generally good in comparison with their
tensile strengths. Although the S-N fatigue curves do not show a sharp knee as they do with
some metals, they tend to flatten out at about 107 cycles and the fatigue limit thus defined is
between 40 and 60% of the tensile strength. The effect of notches is less than could be
expected from the stress concentration factors and fatigue crack propagation rates, and residual
static strengths of cracked samples compare favourably with those of steels and aluminium
alloys. Comparison of specific fatigue strengths of titanium alloys with other high strength
materials is included in Table 2.
As with other materials, the fatigue properties of titanium vary with surface finish, notched
specimen tests giving substantially lower values than those with unnotched samples. Thus,
care is required in design and manufacture to avoid stress concentrators. Poor surface finish,
sharp sectional transitions, unblended radii and corners are conditions that should be avoided.
The low cycle fatigue properties of titanium alloys are of relevance to rotating components in
aircraft applications. Most data have been generated under constant load, zero minimum stress
conditions where it has been established that the fatigue strength of the alloys is closely related
to strength and ductility.

Fracture Toughness.
The toughness of titanium alloys is dependent upon strength, composition, microstructure and
texture, which properties are interrelated. However, in general terms, the toughness of titanium
alloys varies inversely with strength in the same way as that of steels or aluminium alloys. For
example, the plain strain fracture toughness of the alpha-beta alloys drops from a value of
between 60 and 100 MPa.m- at proof stress levels of 800 MPa, to 20 to 60 MPa.m- at proof
stress levels of 1200 MPa. In general, the heat treatments that are normally used with titanium

were originally developed to give optimum tensile properties rather than to improve fracture
toughness. However, it has been established that for certain alpha-beta alloys it is possible to
increase fracture toughness significantly by simple changes in heat treatment procedure or by a
minor variation in alloy chemistry, for example, by reducing the oxygen level in the Ti-6%Al4%V alloy to produce the extra low interstitial (ELI) grade. Such improvements are generally
only associated with small decreases in tensile and fatigue strengths. Other alloy types such as
the beta heat treated near alpha alloys have better fracture toughness levels than the alpha-beta
types.