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IAL

CHEMISTRY
Unit 1
Revision Booklet

By Md. Kamrul Alam Khan


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Atomic Structure:
The atom is composed of the following subatomic particles. Complete the table with their
following properties.
Name

Relative Mass

Relative Charge

Proton

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Neutron

In an electric field both protons and ________


would be deflected but _________ would not be.
The Atomic Mass is defined as the number of
_______ in the nucleus. In an atom this is also the
number of ________.
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Atomic Mass:

Complete the following definitions.

Relative Atomic Mass (Ar): the _______ mass of 1


______ of atoms relative to 1/12 the mass of 1 mole
of ___________.
Relative Isotopic Mass: the mass of 1 _____ of
an _______ relative to 1/12 the mass of the mass of
1 mole of ___________.
Relative Molecular Mass (RMM): the _______ mass
of 1 mole of compound relative to 1/12 the mass the
mass of 1 mole of ___________. It is the sum of all
the Relative ______ masses of its constituent
______.
Molar Mass: is the ______ of one mole of the
substance (gmol-1)
The number of neutrons in an atom is:
No. of Neutrons = Mass Number Atomic Number

-3-

Complete the following table:


Protons Neutrons Electrons Atomic Atomic
Number Mass

14

16

Symbol

15

10

35

36

16

79

30

27Al

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3+

Isotopes are atoms of the same ______ which


have the same number of ______ but different
number of ______. The Relative ______ Mass must
be calculated from the _________ and Relative
Isotopic Mass of every isotope.
RAM = Sum of (Isotopic Mass x % Abundance)
100
Qu 1) For Boron there are two isotopes with their
abundances in the brackets. Calculate the Relative
Atomic Mass.
10.0 (18.7%)

11.0 (81.3%)

10.8

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Mass Spectrometer:
The mass spectrometer measures the relative
abundance and relative mass of a sample.
1)A ________ sample is first bombarded with
_______, from a heated _______, to form positive
ions. The very fast ________ strike the sample
removing an electron.
X(g)
X+(g) + eNa(g)

Na+(g) + e-

Br2(g)

Br2+(g) + e-

2)These _______ ions are accelerated by a


________ plate and form a beam.
3)The beam is then deflected by a ________ field
and recorded.
4)The magnetic field strength is _______ to record
all possible masses and their relative abundances.
The spectra can be used to calculate both the
Relative Atomic Mass and the Relative Molecular
Mass.
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Qu 2) Calculate the Relative Atomic Mass of Neon


from the following spectra.

-7-

Electron Configuration:
Successive ___________ Energies provide
evidence for the existence of quantum shells. i.e.
that ________ exist in energy levels with distinct
energy.
The variation in 1st Ionisation Energies provide
evidence for the existence of characteristic energy
levels consisting of s, p and d orbitals.
An orbital is an area in which there is a high
probability of locating an electron. Each orbital can
hold a maximum of _____ electrons.
Below draw diagrams to represent the shapes of:
a) an s orbital

b) a p orbital

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Energy Level
1
2
3
4

s
1
1
1
1

3
3
3

Total electrons
2
8
18
8

The order of filling orbitals is in order of energy.


1s

2s

2p

3s

3p

4s

3d

e.g. Calcium (20 electrons)


1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2
Complete the following:
1) Potassium
2) Carbon
3) Iron (NB 3d is written before 4s)

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4p

The electronic configurations of Chromium and


Copper are unique because the 3d and 4s orbitals are
so close in ______ it is possible to promote an
electron to achieve a more ______ configuration. A
half-full or full d orbital is much more stable.
Cr 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d5 4s1
Cu 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s1

The electronic configurations can also be


expressed using the electrons-in-boxes notation.
Complete the following table to show the electronic
configuration of Nitrogen (NB electrons are unpaired
where possible).
Orbital
N

1s

2s

2px

2py

2pz

The Periodic Table has three main areas


depending upon the energy sub-level in which the
outer electron is situated.
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The chemical properties of an element are


governed by the ________ configuration and in
particular the number of outer electrons. Those
elements with similar __________ (i.e. in the same
group of the Periodic Table) will form compounds
with similar _______.
Transition metals first lose the ___ electrons
before the ___ electrons. Because of the close
proximity in energy of the energy levels it is possible
for the transition metals to form a number of
different ions (i.e. they can have ions with more than
one valency).

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Atomic Mass:

Complete the following definitions.

Relative Atomic Mass (Ar): the _______ mass of 1


______ of atoms relative to 1/12 the mass of 1 mole
carbon-12 _____.
Relative Isotopic Mass: the mass of 1 _____ of
an _______ relative to 1/12 the mass of 1 mole
carbon-12 atom.
Relative Molecular Mass (Mr): the _______ mass
of 1 mole of compound relative to 1/12 the mass of 1
mole of _______-12 atoms. It is the sum of all the
Relative ______ Masses of its constituent ______.
The term Relative Formula Mass (Mr) is used for
Ionic Compounds.
Molar Mass: is the ______ of one mole of the
substance (gmol-1)

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The Mole:
This is the number of particles in 12g of Carbon-12.
(Avogadros number)
The number of particles is _________ and is called
_________ Number.
The number of particles in any given substance can
be calculated by:
No of Particles = No. of Moles x _________ Number
Calculate the number of particles in the following:
1) 0.5 moles of magnesium

2) 0.1 moles of sulphur

3) 0.125 moles of oxygen

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Empirical and Molecular Formulae:


The Empirical Formula is the ________ ratio of
elements in a compound:
The Molecular Formula is the ________ ratio of
elements in a compound:
e.g. Benzene:
Molecular Formulae: C6H6
Empirical Formulae: CH
To calculate the Empirical Formula you either need
the ________ reacted or the ___________ masses.

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Follow the same steps every time to calculate the


empirical formula.
1 Write down the mass of each element.
2 Divide the mass by the relative atomic mass of the
element.
3 Divide numbers by the smallest number to get the
ratio of elements.
4 These numbers give the empirical formula.
A compound has 24 g of carbon and 64 g of oxygen.
What is its empirical formula?
Element Symbol

Mass of element

24

64

Mass Relative
Atomic Mass

12

16

Divide by the
smaller number
Ratio

The empirical formula of this compound is CO2.

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1.

A compound is made from 72 g of carbon and


12 g of hydrogen. Work out its empirical
formula.

2. A common salt is analysed and is found to


have 52.9 g of sodium and 81.7 g of chlorine.
What is its empirical formula?

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3. Aluminium ore may consist of 156 g of


aluminium and 278 g of oxygen. Is its
empirical formula AlO2 or AlO3?

4. A commercial paint thinner has the following


composition: carbon 25.2 g; hydrogen 8.5 g;
oxygen 33.7 g. What is its empirical formula?

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Molecular Formulae:
Once you have found the Empirical Forumla e.g CH2 then
you can find the Molecular Formula using the Mr of the
compound.
Er is like Mr but for the Empirical Formula
Mr / Er this should be a whole number
Molecular Formula = Mr / Er x Empirical Formula
e.g. 42/14 x CH2 = C3H6
1. a) Calculate the empirical formula of the compound
found to contain 40.0% carbon, 6.7% hydrogen and
53.3% oxygen.

b) Find its molecular formula given that its Mr is 180.

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2. a) Work out the molecular formula of the following


compounds given the information below?
i) empirical formula = P2O5 Mr = 284

ii) empirical formula = CH2

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Mr = 56

Writing equations:
It is important when writing equations to do it
methodically:
1. Write a word equation
2. Write the formulas for each of the species.
3. Balance the equation.
A full equation shows the full formulae of the species
involved.
An ionic equation shows only those ions/molecules that
change in the reaction.
Write full equations for the following reactions:
a)

sodium + oxygen sodium oxide

b)

aluminium + chlorine aluminium chloride

Write an ionic equation for the following reaction


c) calcium + hydrochloric acid

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calcium chloride +
hydrogen

Concentration, Volume and Moles:


In solutions the number of moles is often quoted as the
concentration either in mol/dm3 or M.
Number of moles = Concentration x Volume
n = c x v
NB Volume is often quoted in cm3 and must first be
changed into dm3 by dividing by 1000.
Calculate the following:
a)

Number of moles in 2 dm3 of 0.05 mol dm-3 HCl

b)

Concentration in 0.400 moles of HCl in 2.00 litres


of solution

c)

Volume of 0.00500 moles of NaOH from 0.100 mol


dm-3 solution.

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Reacting Masses Calculations:


In order to calculate the mass of a reactant needed or
product formed, volumes of products or perhaps a
titration calculation you might need more than one step.
The MRA approach:
1. Moles:
Calculate the initial number of moles of one of
the species using either:
n=m/Mr (solids)
n=c x v (solutions)
Pv = nRT (gases)
2. Ratio:
Calculate the number of moles of the other
species using the ratio from the equation:
3. Answer:
Calculate your answer now that you have the
number of moles of the species required.

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The reaction below is known as the Thermitt reaction, which is


used to form molten iron to mould train tracks
together. What mass of aluminium powder is needed to react with
8.00 g of iron (III) oxide?

2Al + Fe2O3 Al2O3 + 2Fe

25.0 cm3 of 0.0400 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution reacted


with 20.75 cm3 of sulphuric acid in a titration. Find the
concentration of the sulphuric acid.

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Percentage Yield:
% yield =

mass of product obtained

x 100

______________________________________________________________

maximum theoretical mass of product

The theoretical maximum mass of product must first be


calculated using the reacting masses method:
Titanium can be extracted from titanium chloride by the following
reaction. TiCl4 + 2 Mg Ti + 2 MgCl2
a)

Calculate the maximum theoretical mass of titanium that can


be extracted from 100 g of titanium chloride .

b) In the reaction, only 20 g of titanium was made. Calculate the


percentage yield.

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Pecrentage Atom Economy:


% atom economy

= mass of desired product

x100

_____________________________________________

total mass of reactants

1) Calculate the atom economy to make sodium from sodium


chloride. 2NaCl 2 Na + Cl2

2) Calculate the atom economy to make hydrogen from the


reaction of zinc with hydrochloric acid. Zn + 2 HCl ZnCl2 + H2

3) Calculate the atom economy to make iron from iron oxide in the
Blast Furnace. Fe2O3 + 3CO 2Fe + 3CO2

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Types of Bond:
1) Ionic
This is the _________ attraction
between oppositely charged ions.
Cation:- ________ ion due to the
loss of electrons
Anion:- _______ ion due to the gain
of electrons
2) Covalent
This is the _______ of a pair of
electrons in which both species
donate ____ electron.
3) Dative Covalent
This is the ______ of a pair of
electrons in which _____ electrons
come from the same species
4) Metallic Bond
The attraction between _______
ions and the sea of _________
electrons.
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Ions:
i)

ii)

iii)

Cations have a radius ______ than their


atomic radius. The greater the number of
electrons _____ the smaller the radius.
Anions have a radius ______ than their
atomic radius. The ionic radius increases
down the group.
Cations with a _____ radius and/or _____
charge have a ______ charge density, and
so are very ________. Anions with a
________ radius are very polarisable. If
either the cation is very polarising or the
anion is very polarisable, the outer
________ in the anion will be pulled
towards the ______ and the bond will have
some ______ character.

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Electronegativity:
i)
The electronegativity of an element is a
measure of the attraction its atoms has for a pair of
________ in a covalent bond.
Metals usually have _____ electronegativities.
Non-metals have _____ electronegativities.
If there is a very ______ difference in
electronegativity then the bond will be more _____
than covalent but all ionic bonds show some _______
character.
If a covalent bond is formed between two
different elements then there will be an _______
sharing of the electrons. Therefore a _____ bond is
formed.

However due to the _______ of some molecules


they do not have a ________ dipole because the
polar bonds cancel.
e.g.
No overall dipole.

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There are various types of intermolecular bond that


occur because of the attraction between dipoles.
i) Van der Waals: This _____ attraction occurs
between an ________ dipole in one molecule
and an ______ dipole in an adjacent molecule.

ii) Permanent Dipole: This attraction occurs


between two molecules that have a
permanent dipole. Are _______ than Van der
Waals for molecules with similar mass.
iii) Hydrogen Bond: This is a fairly ______
interaction that occurs between two
molecules that have a permanent ______
involving ________ (non-metal with the
lowest electronegativity)

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Properties:
The properties of a substance depend upon the
structure and bonding of a substance.
a) Ionic:
1. Have
a
very
regular
threedimensional arrangement of ions
(ionic _______). The crystals are
very _______.
2. Have very high _______ points due
to the strong attraction.
3. Conduct electricity when ______ or
in aqueous solution because they have
free moving _____.
4. Most ionic solids are water-soluble
because the ______ required to
separate the ______ is compensated
for by the exothermic nature of
hydration. The strong ionic bonds are
replaced by _________ to the polar
water molecules.

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b) Covalent:
Covalent compounds vary and can be separated into
four distinct groups:
i)
giant atomic e.g. diamond, graphite, quartz
(SiO2)
a. Have very high _______ points
because they have a ______
number of covalent bonds and
this requires a lot of ______
to break them.
b. Diamond
and
quartz
are
______ structures due to the
________ of the covalent bond.
c. Graphite can _____ electricity
due to the presence of
delocalised _______.
d. Graphite is a good _______
because the layers can easily
slide over each other.

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ii)

simple molecular e.g. I2 and many other


organic substance.
a. Usually have ___ boiling points
due to the ______ of the Van
der Waals forces.
b. As the molecule increases in
____ the Van der Waals forces
become ______.

c. Iodine is a solid at room


temperature but ______ when
heated as little energy is
needed to overcome the forces.
d. Do not conduct _______
because the ________ are
tightly held in the covalent
bond.
e. Do not _______ in polar
substances
because
their
molecules are not attracted to
the polar molecules.

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iii)

hydrogen-bonded molecular e.g. Ice and


ethanol
a. Have unusually high ________
points because of the fairly
strong
_________
Bond
between molecules.
b. Can _______ in polar solvents
because of the attraction
between molecules.
c. Ice has a ______ density than
water because the ________
bonds in solid ice, which hold
the molecules together, are in
_______ positions and lead to
an open structure. In water the
hydrogen bonds are constantly
being ______ and made.

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iv)

non-crystalline
e.g.
polymers
like
polyethene.
a. Are generally ________ with
high melting points because of
the strong Van der Waals
forces between the molecules.
b. Some polymers form crosslinks between the strands and
therefore
cannot
be
_________.

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Melting Point:
When a solid is heated from room temperature
until ______.
The particles
_______ more.

(ions,

molecules

or

atoms)

As the temperature rises the vibrations


________ until they become so great that the
_______ between the particles are overcome,
and the regular arrangement in the lattice
breaks up.
The substance is then a ______.
The ________ the forces between the particles
the ________ the amount of energy required
and therefore the _______ the melting point.

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Boiling Point Trends:


i)

Noble Gases:

The boiling point ________ down the group. As the


number of electrons ________ the Van der Waals
forces increase in _______ therefore more energy
is required.

ii)

Group 5,6and 7 Hydrides:

The first member of the series has a higher than


usual _______ point due to the presence
of
_________ bonding. After the drop to the second
member there is a steady _______ as the number of
_______ increases and so therefore does the
_______ of the Van der Waals force.

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Molecular Shapes:
These are explained by the Valence Shell
Electron Pair Repulsion Theory:
i)

ii)

The _______ pairs arrange themselves


as far apart from each other as
possible in order to _______ the
repulsion.
The repulsion between ____ pairs is
greater than that between a lone pair
and a _____ pair, which is greater than
that between two _____ pairs.

lp-lp > lp-bp > bp-bp


iii)

iv)

The number of bond pairs of


electrons and lone pairs in the molecule
should be counted.
Any bond pairs should be ignored
when working out the shape of a
molecule.
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The structures are based upon the following.


2 Bond pairs
Linear
Bond Angle
180

3 bond pairs
Triangular
Planar
Bond Angle
120

4 Bond Pairs
Tetrahedral
Bond Angle
109.5

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5 Bond Pairs
Trigonal
Bipyramidal
Bond Angle
90 and 120

6 Bond Pairs
Octahedral
Bond Angle
90

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However the shape will differ if any of the pairs


are lone pairs because of the greater repulsion.
e.g. Ammonia
(Bond Angle 107)

Pyramidal

Water
(Bond Angle 104.5)

Non-linear

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You should be able to draw shapes of the following:


i)

HCl (Linear)

ii)

CO2 (Linear)

iii)

SO2 (Trigonal Planar)

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iv)

SO32- (pyramidal)

v)

CO32- (trigonal planar)

vi)

NO3- (trigonal planar)

vii)

NH4+ (tetrahedral)

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Metallic Bonding:
The metallic bond is the _________ between
the regularly arranged positive _______ and the sea
of _________ electrons.

Metals are very good __________ of electricity


because of the mobility of their delocalised
________.

Metals have _____ melting points and boiling


points due to the _____ attraction. The greater the
______ on the cation the ______ the metallic bond
and therefore the _______ the melting point.

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Periodicity:
Elements are classified as s, p or d depending upon their
position in the Periodic table.
Atomic Radius:
Across the Period from Na Ar the atomic radius
________. This is because as the _________ charge
increases the electrons are all in the same ________ level.
Therefore the electrons have the same _____________
and so the attraction to the outer electrons is stronger.
This means the radius of the atom will be
_____________.

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Melting Point:
As we go across the period the melting point initially
________. This is because the metal ions have greater
__________ and therefore the attraction to the sea of
delocalised electrons is __________.
In group 4 Silicon is _______________ and therefore
has a very high melting point.
In groups 5,6, and 7 the elements are ___________ with
small ______________ (P4, S8 and Cl2). They have _____
intermolecular forces and therefore _____ melting points.
Argon is a ___________ element and therefore has very
weak ______________ forces between its atoms.

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Ionisation Energies:
First Ionisation Energy: The _______ change
when 1 m____ of electrons is removed from 1
m_____ of atoms in the ________state.
X(g)

X+(g) + e-

Second Ionisation Energy: The _______ change


when 1 m____ of electrons is removed from 1
m_____ of singly charged p________ ions in the
________state.
X+(g)

X2+(g) + e-

Qu 3) Write an equation to show the following:


a) 1st I.E. of Mg

b) 2nd I.E. of Mg

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Trends:
1) Across a Period the Ionisation Energy
________ as the nuclear charge ________. The
electrons are in the same energy _____ and
therefore the _________ to the outer electron is
_______ and more energy is required to remove it.
2) Down a group the Ionisation Energy _______
as the outer electron is _______ from the nucleus.
Although there is a greater nuclear ______ the
inner electron shells _______ the valency electron
and therefore the attraction is _______ and less
_______ is required to remove it.
3) Successive Ionisation Energies are always
greater than the previous as there are fewer
________ and therefore greater ________. A very
large jump in the value indicates the electron is
being removed from an ______ shell.

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Exceptions to the general rule are:


Al < Mg
This is because the electron is
removed from a _______ energy sub-level. The full
s-orbital _______ the outer electron and therefore
the _________ is weaker.
N<O
This is because the ________
between the paired electrons in a p-orbital makes it
_______ to remove one of them.

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Introduction to Organic Chemistry:


Empirical Formula:

the s_________ ratio of elements in


a molecule.
e.g C2H4 CH2

Molecular Formula:

the a_______ number of atoms of


each element in a molecule.

Structural Formula: This shows the unique arrangement


of atoms in a molecule without
showing all the bonds.
e.g CH3CH2CH3
Displayed Formula:

This shows every atom and every


bond in the molecule.

e.g.

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Homologous Series: A family or organic compounds, with


the same f________ group, but
different c_______ chain length.
Functional Group:

A r________ group within a molecule.

Structural Isomerism:

Molecules that have the same


m_______ formula but different
s_______ formula. The can be
positional isomers, functional
group isomers or chain isomers.

a) Draw the structural formula of pentane.

b) Draw the displayed formula of methylpropane.

c) To which homologous series does Butene belong?

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d) Give an example
chloropropane.

of

two

positional

isomers

of

e) Give two examples of functional group isomers of C5H10

f) Give two chain isomers of C4H10

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Naming compounds:
The main part of the name is defined by the number of
carbon atoms in the longest possible chain
Generally functional groups are given suffixes (-ane, -ene,
-ol) except the haloalkanes which are given prefixes
(chloro, bromo, iodo).
Branches are also given prefixes e.g. methyl, ethyl.
Name the following molecules:

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Alkanes:
Alkanes are s____________ hydrocarbons
Petroleum is a m_________ consisting mainly of alkane
hydrocarbons
Different components (fractions) of this m__________
can be drawn off at different levels in a f____________
column because of the t_____________ gradient
C____________ involves the breaking of CC bonds in
alkanes
T_________

c_________

takes

place

at

high

p________ and high t___________ and produces a high


percentage of a_________
C__________ cracking takes place at a slight p________,
high t___________ and in the presence of a z________
catalyst and is used mainly to produce motor fuels and
a___________ hydrocarbons

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a)

What are the economic reasons for cracking?

Alkanes are used as f______s. Their combustion can be


c___________ or i_________.
b)

What are the products when hydrocarbons are burned


in excess oxygen?

c)

What are the procuts when a hydrocarbon is burned


in a limited supply of oxygen?

d)

What other polluntant can be produced by the


internal combustion engine?

e)

What polluntant is caued by the main impurity in fossil


fuels?

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Pollutants caused by the internal combustion engine can be


removed using c___________ c____________.
S__________ d________ can be removed from flue
gases by reacting it with C________ o_________.
f)

Write a word equation for this reaction?

The combustion of fossil fuels (including alkanes) results


in the release of c________ d________ into the
atmosphere
C_______ d________, m________ and water vapour are
referred to as g_________ gases and that these gases
may contribute to global _________.

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MD. KAMRUL ALAM KHAN,


B.Sc Honors in Chemistry (SUST),
M.Sc in Chemistry (SUST), CCNA
(All through first class),
CELL: 8801557704046

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