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Protein synthesis and stem cell burger

,11337710, 11342838
College of Science, De La Salle University Manila, 2401 Taft Avenue, Manila
Abstract
Introduction
Currently the world is finding
meat alternatives due to the increasing
number of people every year and soon
enough there wont be enough land to
cater livestocks or there will be a
scarcity of poultry products due to the
amount of poultry is less than the
amount of people consuming poultry
products. In addition to the that poultry
products is the main providers of
animal protein and also there are
several animal activist such as PETA
and PAWS protesting that slaughtering
and consuming meat products is animal
cruelty therefore finding alternatives is
must, to benefit the human race and
one of the current solution is stem cell
burgers. According to Hogenboom
(2013) the stem cell burger can feed
people in an environmentally and
sustainable way in addition to the is
grown from stem cells taken from a
cow and stem cells defines as Stem
cells are an organism's master cells and
can be turned into any other cell type in
the body, i.e. blood, tissue, muscle, etc.
The stem cell burger started from the
idea of making stem cell burgers or
meat was first thought in 1920s by
Winston Churchill.
And In the
Netherlands, it was Willem van Eelen
in the early 1950s who independently
had the idea of using tissue culture for
the generation of meat products. But i n
2002 a study was published in which

the possibilities of culturing animal


muscle protein for longterm space
flights or habituation of space stations
were explored. For this, muscle tissue
from the common goldfish (Carassius
auratus) ranging was cultured in Petri
dishes. But currently Sergey Brin, cofounder of Google, underwrote the
250,000-euro ($330,000) project to
funded stem cell research. This paper
states the origin of the biochemical
process of proteins and everything
about stem cell burger in terms of its
production, its taste, on how the future
production the stem cell burgers and
the advantage and disadvantage of
stem cell burgers.
Theoretical Background
Stem cell burgers would not be created
without having a full understanding of
contents of the proteins and the protein
synthesis.
Meat Proteins:
There is 56-72% water, 15-22%
-protein, 5-34% -fat, and 3.5% of
soluble non protein substances such as
carbohydrates, organic salt, dissolved
nitrogen substances, minerals and
vitamins which comprises of the entire
chemical properties of poultry.
Protein muscles and solubility:
Muscle protein is divided into three
groups based on their solubility
properties and which are sarcoplasmic
protein, Myofibrilar and Stromal
proteins.

sarcoplasmic protein it comprises 30%


of the meat protein structure and
proteins are soluble in water and dilute
salt solution contained in the
sarcoplasmic. Between6-7 pH is the
isoelectric points and it composed of
hundreds of enzymes in cells for
energy, growth, etc. also it has a low
molecular weight (small) proteins. But
the main function of the sarcoplasmic
protein, one is Enzyme activity which
involves the calpain, the process
tenderizing the meat then postmortem
glycolysis that cause pH change in the
meat. And lastly the potential flavor
contributions from protein hydrolysis
to hydrolized proteins. Another
function of sarcoplasmic proteinis the
change of colour that produce the
myoglobin which is Responsible for all
meat color also myoglobin comprises
of conjugated protein and it consists
of a typical amino acid protein chain
and a non-protein heme molecule.
Myofibrilar protein is composed of
55% in the meat protein and it defines
as
protein-containing
structures
myofibril and is soluble in saline
solution with a concentration of 1.5%
or more. And it compose of the
following myosin (55%), actin ,
troponin , tropomyosin (25%)
and other proteins. But most
important part is myosin due to
its Long filamentous molecule
(similar to a 1 inch garden
hose that is 8 feet long) then
the amino acid composition
gives highly-charged, polar
molecule and lastly it presents
in large quantity in lean muscle
but the other proteins are
important too because some of

the proteins in the myofibilar is


charged into polar molecules
and also structural proteins can
have a large influence on
release of myosin/actin and
opening protein structure to
water.
Lastly the Stromal proteins it
composed of 15% of the
protein chemical compositions
and it is the main constituent
of connective tissue that is not
soluble in salt solutions but
soluble in alkali or acid
treatment. Also this is also
called the connective tissue in
addition to that it primarily
composed of collagen which is
the most abundant protein in
animal body that comprises 20
-25% of total body protein such
as the skin, sinews, tendons,
etc
.another
thing
it
is
designed to transmit force and
hold things together, therefore
these proteins are generally
tough and inert and also
content will vary according to
muscle function
Protein synthesis:
DNA provides the instructions for how
to build proteins; each gene dictates
how to build a single protein in
prokaryotes and sequencing of
nucleotides (AGCT) in DNA dictate
the order of amino acids that make up a
protein. The Protein synthesis occurs in
two primary steps, first on transcription
of the DNA to RNA which copy of a
gene
is
synthesized
the

Cytoplasm of prokaryotes
Nucleus of eukaryotes.

and

the second steps is the translation of


the RNA to protein which mRNA is
used by ribosome to build
protein also the Ribosomes
attach
to
the
mRNA and use its sequence of
nucleotides to determine the
order of amino acids in the
protein first the Cytoplasm of
prokaryotes and eukaryotes in
addition to that Some proteins
feed directly into rough ER in
eukaryotes.

Collect these strips into small pellets


and freeze until there are enough to
form a burger. Defrost the pellets and
put together just before cooking

Results and Discussion

Conclusion
References:

Methodology
The procedure in making the
stem cell burger first take some stems
cells from a cow. Put them in a large
dish and add nutrients and growth
promoting chemicals. Now leave to
multiply. Three weeks later there will
be more than a million stem cells. Put
these into smaller dishes to fuse into
small strips of muscle, a centimetre or
so long and a few millimetres thick.

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