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Political science resources
accessed 9/9/2014
accessed 9/9/2014
Keck, M. and Sikkink, K. 1998, Activists beyond borders: advocacy networks in
international politics, Cornell University Press, Ithaca.

Lopez, G., Pagnucco, R., Smith, J. 1998, 'Globalizing human rights: the work of
transnational human rights NGOs in the 1990s', Human Rights Quarterly, vol. 20
(2), pp. 379 - 412.
defining international human rights norms, developing institutional mechanisms
to ensure adherence to international norms, and monitoring national and local
human rights practices.
international human rights movement relies heavily on what are called "insider"
tactics, or activities that demand some formal access to political institutions
outsider tactics, such as public demonstrations and boycotts.
generally seeks to strengthen legal institutions for the increased protection of
human rights.
showed more extensive efforts towards public education
Three-fourths of all NGOs indicated that they had contact with the UN Human
Rights Centre in Geneva or with the UN Human Rights Commission
devote a great amount of their attention towards working with international
influencing national institutions. Using international institutions clearly is part of
their strategy to improve national human rights practices
Collingwood, V. 2006, 'Non-governmental organisations, power and legitimacy in
international society',Review of International Studies, vol. 32 (3), pp. 439 - 454.

the non-governmental sector has become larger, more visible, better organised,
and more sophisticated in its relations with political institutions and the media.
An important feature of the transnational non-governmental sectors expansion
has been growing awareness on the part of many NGO staff of the advantages to
be gained from greater engagement with policymakers and private corporations
on questions of global governance
presenting global social movements as distinct alternatives to the current
The hallmark of this more cooperative approach is working within the system,
attempting to persuade key actors within government and the private sector to
change the rules for the better.
The effectiveness of transnational NGOs engagement with private corporations
and policymakers depends, of course, on many factors: the extent to which the
NGO is able to harness the pressure of the media and public opinion to its cause,
the extent to which the government or organisation involved is prepared to make
concessions, the corporations vulnerability to attempts to undermine its image,
the extent to which agreements are enforceable, and so forth.
Companies that voluntarily adopt the CCCs code and allow independent
monitoring are rewarded with a more ethical public image.
some transnational NGOs work closely with individual governments, accepting
funding and acting as advisors to governmental agencies. The World Bank and
various national governments employ NGOs to undertake development projects,
for instance. Liaising with governmental institutions gives transnational NGOs a
voice within policy making institutions, while from the governmental perspective,
transnational NGOs are attractive on the grounds that they can offer specialised
skills and knowledge.
The obvious danger for NGOs is that
their partners benefit from association with ethical actors while avoiding
significant concessions