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Introduction 1 - 1

instructional materials for use with FEMA Publication 451, NEHRP Recommended

Provisions: Design Examples, in the form of PowerPoint slides with notes. These

training materials provide a means for gaining additional knowledge about

earthquake engineering as presented in the NEHRP Recommended Provisions for

Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures (FEMA 450). Also on

the CD is NONLIN, an educational program for dynamic analysis of simple linear

and nonlinear structures. The instructional materials can be presented to

engineers/architects by a qualified speaker with expertise in the practice of

earthquake engineering, can be used by an individual who wishes to enhance

his/her understanding of earthquake engineering, or can be applied by engineering

academics as the basis for classroom instruction on earthquake-resistant design.

The CD contains a series of topic folders. In each folder are pdf files for the

PowerPoint presentation, for the notes pages, and for student handouts. Also

included is a folder for NONLIN that contains zip files for this program and a file that

lists items referenced in the presentation.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this

instructional material publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the Federal

Emergency Management Agency. Additionally, neither FEMA nor any of its

employees make any warranty, expressed or implied, nor assume any legal liability

or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information,

product, or process included in this publication. The opinions expressed herein

regarding the requirements of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions, the

referenced standards, and the building codes are not to be used for design

purposes. Rather the user should consult the jurisdictions building official who has

the authority to render interpretation of the code.

Introduction 1 - 1

Instructional Materials (FEMA 451B)

These instructional materials

complement FEMA 451, NEHRP

Recommended Provisions: Design

Examples

Needed are copies of FEMA 451 and

FEMA 450, the 2003 NEHRP

Recommended Provisions for New

Buildings and Other Structures (Part 1,

Provisions, and Part 2, Commentary)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Introduction 1 - 2

In addition to the Design Examples volume, the training requires copies of FEMA

Publication 450, the 2003 NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic

Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures.

Introduction 1 - 2

Single copies of both publications are available

at no charge from the FEMA Publications

Center at 1-800-480-2520

(order by publication number)

Introduction 1 - 3

Individual copies of these publications can be obtained at no charge from the FEMA

Publications Center, 1-800-480-2520 (order by FEMA Publications number). If

multiple copies are needed for presentation of the training materials to a group, email bssc@nibs.org.

Introduction 1 - 3

Acknowledgments

FEMA 451 and 451B were developed for

FEMA by the Building Seismic Safety Council

(BSSC) of the National Institute of Building

Sciences (NIBS).

The BSSC also manages development and

updating of the NEHRP Recommended

Provisions.

For information about the BSSC and its

member organizations or to download FEMA

451 and 451B, see

http://bssconline.org

Introduction 1 - 4

This CD was developed by the Building Seismic Safety Council under Contract

EMW-1998-CO-0419 between the Federal Emergency Management Agency and

the National Institute of Building Sciences. For further information on the Building

Seismic Safety Council, see the Councils website www.bssconline.org or

contact the Building Seismic Safety Council, 1090 Vermont, Avenue, N.W., Suite

700, Washington, D.C. 20005; phone 202-289-7800; fax 202-289-1092; e-mail

bssc@nibs.org.

Introduction 1 - 4

Acknowledgments

FEMA and the BSSC are grateful to the following individuals for

their contribution to these instructional materials:

W. Samuel Easterling, Ph.D., P.E., Virginia Tech

James R. Harris, Ph.D., P.E., J. R. Harris and Company,

Denver, Colorado

Richard E. Klingner, Ph.D., P.E., University of Texas, Austin

James R. Martin, Jr., Ph.D., Virginia Tech

Steve Pryor, S.E., Simpson Strong Tie, Inc, Dublin,

California

Michael D. Symans, Ph.D., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Carin Roberts-Wollmann, Ph.D., P.E., Virginia Tech

Introduction 1 - 5

Much of this material was originally developed for the Multihazard Building Design

Summer Course offered at FEMAs Emergency Management Institute. Managing

the development of that course material for the Building Seismic Safety Council

(BSSC) was Advanced Structural Concepts, Inc., Blacksburg, Virginia (Finley A.

Charney, PhD., PE, President). Further, the course materials were developed in

association with the Center for Extreme Load Effects on Structures, Virginia Tech

(Finley A. Charney, PhD, PE, Director, and James R. Martin, Jr., Associate

Director)

Introduction 1 - 5

Minimize human death and injury

Minimize economic loss

Direct (collapse and damage)

Indirect (loss of use, business

interruption)

Maintain lifelines

Introduction 1 - 6

nation at risk.

Users of this document who are also interested in residential construction are

encouraged to consult FEMA Publication 232, Homebuilders Guide to EarthquakeResistant Design and Construction. This guide provides information on current best

practices for earthquake-resistant home design and construction for use by

builders, designers, code enforcement personnel, and potential homeowners. It

incorporates lessons learned from the 1989 Loma Prieta and 1994 Northridge

earthquakes as well as knowledge gained from the FEMA CUREE-Caltech Wood

Frame Project. It also introduces and explains the effects of earthquake loads on

one- and two-family detached houses and identifies the requirements of the 2003

International Residential Code (IRC) intended to resist these loads.

Introduction 1 - 6

Catastrophic Event

Dollar Losses by Year

Average of years 1986 to 1995

25

$ Billions

20

Northridge

15

Loma Prieta

10

5

0

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

Year

event that has property loss claims in

excess of $5 million.

Introduction 1 - 7

Natural hazards can be catastrophic to life and property. This slide indicates dollar

losses for all natural hazards in the United States for the past several years. The

Loma Prieta and Northridge earthquakes were matched in dollar damage by

hurricanes Hugo, Andrew and Iniki and all were surpassed by the damage caused

by Hurricane Katrina.

Introduction 1 - 7

Due to Earthquake

Dollar Losses by Type

Explosion/Fire

4.5%

Other

0.4%

Riot/Civil Disorder

1.0%

Earthquake

24.9%

Includes Flood

Hurricane/Tropical Storm

32.7%

Includes Flood

Wind/Hail/Tornado

36.5%

Introduction 1 - 8

Earthquakes are a significant hazard but generally cause less dollar damage than

wind, rain, and associated flooding. This slide does not break out flood damage,

however, it should be emphasized that floods are one of the largest sources of

losses due to natural disasters.

Nevertheless, mitigation actions to reduce the losses from these natural hazards

are cost-effective. In 2006, the National Institute of Building Sciences through its

Multihazard Mitigation Council completed a report to the Congress of the United

States on behalf of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) that presents

the results of an independent study to assess the future savings from hazard

mitigation activities. This study shows that money spent on reducing the risk of

natural hazards is a sound investment. On average, a dollar spent by FEMA on

hazard mitigation (actions to reduce disaster losses) provides the nation about $4 in

future benefits. In addition, FEMA grants to mitigate the effects of floods,

hurricanes, tornados, and earthquakes between 1993 and 2003 are expected to

save more than 220 lives and prevent almost 4,700 injuries over approximately 50

years. Recent disaster events painfully demonstrate the extent to which

catastrophic damage affects all Americans and the federal treasury.

http://nibs.org/MMC/mmcactiv5.html

Introduction 1 - 8

1933 Long Beach

1964 Alaska

1971 San Fernando Valley

1989 Loma Prieta

1994 Northridge

Introduction 1 - 9

These are but a few of the major earthquakes occurring in the United States during

the previous century. This presentation emphasizes the Loma Prieta and

Northridge earthquakes.

The Northridge earthquake, like the 1971 San Fernando Valley earthquake, was a

wakeup call to engineers and ultimately resulted in significant changes to building

codes. Much of the current emphasis on performance-based engineering is due to

the greater than expected damage that occurred as a result of the Northridge

earthquake.

Introduction 1 - 9

Fernando Valley of California

Earth dam located about 20 km from

the epicenter. Part of the upstream

face lost bearing strength and slipped

beneath the water.

Introduction 1 - 10

This slide emphasizes the fact that damage occurs to nonbuilding structures as well

as building structures.

Introduction 1 - 10

Soft story failure of the Olive View Hospital. The column

failure caused a collapse that pinned the ambulances under

the rubble, rendering them useless.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Introduction 1 - 11

Damage to the Olive View Hospital was particularly disturbing because the

structure was relatively new and was designed according to the modern code at

the time. The building was a complete loss and had to be demolished. Note that

the ambulance canopy in the foreground is a separate structure, and was also a

complete loss. Also significant is the fact that the ambulances were trapped in the

collapsed canopy and were not available for use.

During the 1994 Northridge earthquake, the new Olive View Hospital structure fared

rather well, but there were significant losses associated with nonstructural elements

and components.

Introduction 1 - 11

Oakland Bay Bridge failure.

Introduction 1 - 12

Losses of transportation structures are very dramatic and can be among the most

costly in terms of loss of life and property and indirect effects. This bridge was out

of service for several weeks after the earthquake requiring major rerouting of traffic.

The collapse of the Oakland Cyprus Street Viaduct (not shown) was responsible for

the loss of 42 lives. There were similar but less catastrophic failures of sections of

the Embarcadero Freeway in San Francisco.

The Loma Prieta earthquake killed more than 60 people, injured 3,700, and left

12,000 homeless.

Introduction 1 - 12

1994 Earthquake in

Northridge, California

Bull Creek Canyon Channel

Bridge on the Simi Valley freeway

near the epicenter to the north.

Shear failure of a flared column.

Introduction 1 - 13

Freeways in the Los Angeles area were not immune to damage during the

Northridge earthquake. Ironically, many of the bridges that failed were scheduled

for rehabilitation prior to the earthquake.

Approximately 60 people were killed by the quake.

Introduction 1 - 13

1994 Northridge

Earthquake

Gavin Canyon Undercrossing

on I-5

Introduction 1 - 14

Introduction 1 - 14

Outside the United States

1923 Tokyo

1927 China

1985 Chile

1985 Mexico City

1988 Armenia

1993 Hokkaido

1995 Kobe

1999 Turkey, Taiwan

2001 India

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Introduction 1 - 15

Earthquakes occur all over the world and often produce unimaginable destruction.

Codes and enforcement in developing countries are often decades behind those of

the industrialized world.

Introduction 1 - 15

Pino Suarez Towers looking north -- one of the few

steel frame buildings to collapse.

Introduction 1 - 16

The damage in Mexico City was due to an earthquake that occurred more than 350

km away from the city center. The main shock killed 10,000, left 50,000 homeless,

and caused $4 billion dollars damage.

The vast destruction was attributed in large part to dynamic amplification of seismic

waves through the soft soil in Mexico City. The dominant seismic waves had a

period of about 2.0 seconds, wreaking havoc on buildings in the 10- to 20-story

range.

Introduction 1 - 16

Damage to a stone bearing wall building. The floor planks

were not tied to the supporting bearing walls.

Introduction 1 - 17

adequate seismic design building code requirements and/or enforcement.

Many (almost complete destruction) precast concrete frame buildings collapsed

because of inadequate detailing. This earthquake killed at least 25,000 people, and

left 500,000 homeless. Dollar damage was estimated in excess of 13 billion.

Overall, 95% of the precast frame structures (5 to 12 stories) in Leninakan

collapsed or were damaged beyond repair.

Introduction 1 - 17

Earthquake

Distorted train tracks.

Introduction 1 - 18

The Kobe earthquake killed more than 5,000 people and injured 26,000 others.

More than 56,000 buildings were destroyed. Losses were estimated at more than

$2 billion. This is more than 10 times the dollar loss for the Northridge earthquake

which occurred exactly one year earlier in southern California. This slide was

selected to emphasize the point that loss to nonbuilding structures and lifelines can

have a significant effect on society. Further, it should be noted that a considerable

amount of business and industrial activities that moved from the area after the

earthquake never returned.

Introduction 1 - 18

Typical Cycle

Build (Rebuild)

Earthquake!

Learning

Research

Code Development

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Introduction 1 - 19

excellent proving ground. Damage occurring during earthquakes is extensively

studied and research is performed, ultimately leading to the development of

improved building codes.

However, it seems that no matter how diligently we react to earthquakes, we are

taught new and serious lessons when the next quake strikes. The damage

occurring to welded frame structures during the Northridge earthquake is an

excellent example.

Introduction 1 - 19

Who Is Involved in

Earthquake Hazard Mitigation?

Government

Construction

Insurance

Architecture

Sociology

Economics

Seismology

Buildings

Bridges

Dams

Lifelines

Other...

Research

Education

Geology

Engineering

Materials

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Introduction 1 - 20

Many disciplines are involved in earthquake hazard mitigation. All groups must

work together to provide the level of protection needed by society.

Introduction 1 - 20

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING

and

New buildings

Hazards associated with ground shaking

Force-Based approach of 2003 NEHRP

Examples presented in NEHRP

Recommended Provisions: Design

Examples (FEMA 451)

Probabilistic and deterministic based ground

motions

New concepts of performance-based

engineering

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Introduction 1 - 21

some information is provided for existing buildings, particularly as related to

performance-based engineering, and on nonbuilding structures and nonstructural

building components.

Further, these instructional materials concentrate on ground shaking, which is only

one of the many hazards associated with earthquakes (e.g. fault rupture,

liquefaction, landslides, flooding, and fire).

Introduction 1 - 21

for New Buildings

NEHRP Recommended

Provisions (FEMA 450)

IBC and IRC

ASCE 7

Earthquake

Introduction 1 - 22

Introduction 1 - 22

for New Buildings and Other Structures

Uses seismic hazard map (2%-50years) for

evaluation purposes

establish design forces

Deformations checked globally

Intended result (obtained somewhat implicitly):

Little or no damage for frequent earthquakes

Minor nonstructural damage for common earthquakes

Life-safety or collapse prevention for rare earthquakes

Introduction 1 - 23

Provisions. Performance is evaluated somewhat implicitly, meaning that local

deformations in members are not addressed. Before the Northridge earthquake, it

was thought that this methodology was sufficient. Many engineers are now moving

towards performance-based concepts, particularly in the rehabilitation of existing

buildings.

Introduction 1 - 23

Topic 1 Introduction to Course

Topic 2 Earthquakes Mechanics and Effects

Topic 3 Structural Dynamics of SDOF Systems

Topic 4 Structural Dynamics of MDOF Systems

Topic 5a Seismic Hazard Analysis

Topic 5b Ground Motion Maps

Topic 6 Inelastic Behavior of Materials and Structures

Topic 7 Concepts of Earthquake Engineering [FEMA 451, Ch. 1]

Topic 8a Introduction to the NEHRP [FEMA 451, Ch. 2]

Topic 8b Overview of Standards used in NEHRP Recommended Provisions

Topic 9 Seismic Load Analysis

Topic 10 Seismic Design of Structural Steel Structures [FEMA 451, Ch. 5]

Topic 11 Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures [FEMA 451, Ch. 6]

Topic 12 Seismic Design of Masonry Structures [FEMA 451, Ch. 9]

Topic 13 Seismic Design of Wood Structures [FEMA 451, Ch. 10]

Topic 14 Foundation Design [FEMA 451, Ch. 4]

Topic 16 Nonstructural Components [FEMA 451, Ch. 13]

Introduction 1 - 24

Topics 1 through 14 and 16 are the basic topics and include most of the concepts

required to understand how earthquake analysis and design procedures are

developed (Topics 1-7) and then how they are incorporated into the NEHRP

Recommended Provisions and/or ASCE-7. These topics could generally be

covered in a four- to five-day course with seven hours of instruction per day. If

presented in such a classroom setting, instructors should consider developing a

series of group exercises to help illustrate the concepts and to break up a long

series of lectures. One of the exercises should use the computer program NONLIN

that is included on the FEMA 451B CD.

The chapter numbers to the right of some of the topics refer to chapters in FEMA

451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples. In some cases, there

is direct correlation between the examples in the slide sets and the FEMA 451 CD.

For example, the topics in concrete and steel are related in this manner.

Introduction 1 - 24

Part 2: Advanced Topics

Topic 15-1

Topic 15-2

Topic 15-3

Topic 15-4

Topic 15-5a

Topic 15-5b

Topic 15-5c

Topic 15-6

Topic 15-7

Topic 15-8

Introduction

Performance Based Engineering

Seismic Hazard Analysis

Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering

Advanced Analysis, Part 1 of 3

Advanced Analysis, Part 2 of 3

Advanced Analysis, Part 3 of 3

Passive Energy Systems [FEMA 451, Ch. 6]

Seismic Isolation [FEMA 451, Ch. 11]

Nonbuilding Systems [FEMA 451, Ch. 12]

Introduction 1 - 25

separate four-day course. Note that there is considerable overlap between the

materials in Topics 5a and 15-3. As with the previous slide, the chapter numbers to

the right of some of the topics refer to chapters in the FEMA 451 volume.

Introduction 1 - 25

Ch. 1

Ch. 2

Ch. 3

Ch. 4

Ch. 5

Ch. 6

Ch. 7

Ch. 8

Ch. 9

Ch. 10

Ch. 11

Ch. 12

Ch. 13

Fundamentals

Guide to the Use of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions

Structural Analysis (including nonlinear analysis)

Foundation Design

Steel Structures

Reinforced Concrete Structures

Precast Concrete Structures

Composite Steel/Concrete Structures

Masonry Structures

Wood Structures

Seismically Isolated Structures

Nonbuilding Structures

Nonstructural Components

Introduction 1 - 26

The FEMA 451 CD contains 13 chapters as shown in this slide. The examples are

extremely detailed and should be worked into the coursework where possible.

Individuals pursuing earthquake engineering knowledge using these presentations

for self-study also are strongly encouraged to work through these examples after

working through with the presentation information.

Introduction 1 - 26

Structural engineering:

The art of using materials that

have properties which can only be estimated

to build real structures that

can only be approximately analyzed

to withstand forces that

are not accurately known

so that our responsibility to the

public safety is satisfied.

Introduction 1 - 27

Introduction 1 - 27

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 1

How earthquakes are measured

Earthquake effects

Mitigation strategy

Earthquake time histories

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 2

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 3

Plate Boundaries

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 4

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 5

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 6

North American

Plate

Pacific

Plate

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 7

Seismicity of Alaska

North American

Plate

Pacific

Plate

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 8

Epicenter

Rupture surface

Hypocenter

(focus)

Fault plane

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 9

Types of Faults

Strike slip

(left lateral)

Normal

Strike slip

(right lateral)

Reverse (thrust)

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 10

Time = 0 Years

New fence

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 11

Time = 40 Years

New road

Old fence

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 12

Time = 41 Years

New road

Old fence

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 13

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 14

(Body Waves)

Di

pr rec

op tio

ag n

at of

io

n

D

pr irec

op tio

ag n

at of

io

n

Compression wave

(P wave)

Shear wave

(S wave)

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 15

(Surface Waves)

Di

pr rec

op tio

ag n o

at f

ion

Di

pr rect

op ion

ag

ati of

on

Love wave

Rayleigh wave

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 16

P waves

S waves

Love waves

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 17

and Seismic Activity at Koyna Dam, India

Inflow

Reservoir level

Earthquake frequency

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 18

Fault rupture

Ground shaking

Landslides

Liquefaction

Tsunamis

Seiches

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 19

1971 Earthquake in San Fernando, California

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 20

Cause of Liquefaction

If a saturated sand is subjected to ground

vibrations, it tends to compact and decrease in volume.

If drainage is unable to occur, the tendency to

decrease in volume results in an increase in

pore pressure.

If the pore water pressure builds up to the point at

which it is equal to the overburden pressure, the

effective stress becomes zero, the sand loses its

strength completely, and liquefaction occurs.

Seed and Idriss (1971)

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 21

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 22

1993 Earthquake in Kobe, Japan

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 23

1989 Earthquake in Loma Prieta, California

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 24

Cause of Tsunamis

Tsunamis are created by a sudden vertical

movement of the sea floor.

These movements usually occur in

subduction zones.

Tsunamis move at great speeds, often 600

to 800 km/hr.

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 25

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 26

Earthquake in Northridge, California

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 27

Mitigation Strategies

Earthquake effect

Fault rupture

Tsunami/seiche

Landslide

Liquefaction

Ground shaking

Strategy

Avoid

Avoid

Avoid

Avoid/resist

Resist

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 28

Measuring Earthquakes

INTENSITY

Subjective

Used where instruments are not available

Very useful in historical seismicity

MAGNITUDE

Measured with seismometers

Direct measure of energy released

Possible confusion due to different measures

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 29

Developed by G. Mercalli in 1902 (after a previous

version of M. S. De Rossi in the 1880s)

Subjective measure of human reaction and damage

Modified by Wood and Neuman to fit

California construction conditions

Intensity range I (lowest) to XII (most severe)

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 30

I.

II.

III.

favorable circumstances.

Felt only by a few persons at rest, especially on

upper floors if buildings. Suspended objects may swing.

upper floors of buildings. Standing automobiles may

rock slightly. Vibration like passing truck.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 31

IV.

few. At night, some awakened. Dishes, windows,

doors disturbed; walls make creaking sound. Sensation

like heavy truck striking building. Standing automobiles

rocked noticeably. [0.015 to 0.02g]

V.

dishes and windows broken. Cracked plaster.

Unstable objects overturned. Disturbance of trees, poles

and other tall objects. [0.03 to 0.04g]

VI.

Some heavy furniture moved. Fallen plaster and

damaged chimneys. Damage slight. [0.06 to 0.07g]

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 32

VII.

VIII.

buildings of good design and construction, slight to

moderate in well built ordinary structures, considerable

in poorly built or badly designed structures. Noticed

by persons driving cars. [0.10 to 0. 15g]

Damage slight in specially designed structures,

considerable in ordinary construction, great in

poorly built structures. Fall of chimneys, stacks,

monuments. Sand and mud ejected is small

amounts. Changes in well water. Persons driving

cars disturbed. [0.25 to 0.30g]

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 33

IX.

structures, well designed frame structures thrown

out of plumb, damage great in substantial buildings

with partial collapse. Buildings shifted off foundations.

Ground cracked conspicuously. Underground pipes

broken. [0.50 to 0.55g]

X.

masonry and frame structures destroyed with

foundations badly cracked. Rails bent. Landslides

considerable from river banks and steep slopes.

Shifted sand and mud. Water splashed over banks.

[More than 0.60g]

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 34

XI.

Bridges destroyed. Broad fissures in ground.

Underground pipelines completely out of service.

Earth slumps and land slips in soft ground.

Rails bent greatly.

XII.

of sight and level distorted. Objects thrown into air.

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 35

Earthquake of May 31, 1897.

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 36

Isoseismal Map

For New Madrid

Earthquake of

December 16, 1811

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 37

Isoseismal Map

for 1886

Charleston

Earthquake

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 38

San Fernando Earthquake

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 39

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 40

RF = Rossi-Forel

JMA = Japan Meteorological Agency

MSK =Medvedez-Spoonheur-Karnik

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 41

Instrumental Seismicity

Magnitude (Richter, 1935)

Also called local magnitude

ML = Log [Maxumum Wave Amplitude (in mm/1000)]

Recorded Wood-Anderson seismograph

100 km from epicenter

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 42

A is wave amplitude

F(d,h) accounts for focal distance and depth

CS and CR, are station and regional corrections

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 43

MS Surface-wave magnitude (Rayleigh waves)

mb Body-wave magnitude (P waves)

MB Body-wave magnitude (P and other waves)

mbLg (Higher order Love and Rayleigh waves)

MJMA (Japanese, long period)

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 44

Moment Magnitude

Seismic moment = MO = AD

[Units = force times distance]

Where:

= modulus of rigidity

A = fault rupture area

D = fault dislocation or slip

Moment magnitude = MW = (Log MO-16.05)/1.5

(Units = dyne-cm)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 45

(Magnitude Saturation)

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 46

Approximate Relationship

Between Magnitude and Intensity

10

9

8

Magnitude

M L = 0.67 I 0 + 1

6

5

4

3

Richter (Local)

MbLg

1

0

1

10

11

12

Intensity

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 47

1E+28

1E+26

Energy, Ergs

1E+24

1E+22

1E+20

.

1E+18

31

1E+16

1000

1E+14

1E+12

0

10

Magnitude, Ms

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 48

1E+28

Nuclear bomb

1E+26

Energy, Ergs

1E+24

1E+22

1E+20

Atomic bomb

.

1E+18

1E+16

1E+14

1E+12

0

10

Magnitude, Ms

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 49

Sources:

NONLIN (more than 100 records)

Internet (e.g., National Strong Motion Data Center)

USGS CD ROM

Uses:

Evaluation of earthquake characteristics

Development of response spectra

Time history analysis

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 50

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 51

Effective peak acceleration and velocity

Fourier amplitude spectra

Duration (bracketed duration)

Incremental velocity (killer pulse)

Response spectra

Other (see, for example, Naiem and Anderson 2002)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 52

Corrections made primarily:

To account for base line shift

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 53

Acceleration, in/sec2

500

250

0

-250

-500

0

200

10

Velocity, in/sec

150

100

50

0

800

10

Displacement, in

600

400

200

0

0

10

Time, sec

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 54

600

400

200

0

-2 0 0

-4 0 0

-6 0 0

0

2

-463 cm/sec

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

600

400

200

0

-2 0 0

-4 0 0

-6 0 0

0

10 2

-500 cm/sec

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

600

400

200

0

-2 0 0

-4 0 0

-6 0 0

0

10

-391

cm/sec21 5

20

25

30

35

40

45

T im e (s e c )

Time, Seconds

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 55

Acceleration, cm/sec2

600

0.05g

400

200

0

-200

-400

-600

0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Time, Seconds

Bracketed duration

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 56

Acceleration, cm/sec2

600

400

Acceleration, cm/sec2

200

400

0

300

-2 0 0

-4 0 0

200

-6 0 0

0

100

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Time, Seconds

0

-100

-200

-300

-400

8

10

11

12

Time, Seconds

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 57

N /2

N /2

N /2

j =1

j =1

j =1

bj

j = arctan

aj

f 0 = df = 1 / Ndt

Acceleration, cm/sec2

A j = a 2j + b 2j

Normalized Fourier Coefficient

600

1.2

400

1.0

200

0.8

0.6

-2 0 0

0.4

-4 0 0

0.2

-6 0 0

0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

0.0

0

10

20

30

Frequency (Hz)

N points at timestep dt

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 58

50

40

30

20

10

0

-1 0

-2 0

-3 0

-4 0

-5 0

0 .0 0

0 .1 0

0 .2 0

0 .3 0

0 .4 0

0 .5 0

0 .6 0

0 .7 0

0 .8 0

0 .9 0

1 .0 0

T im e , S e c o n d s

12

10

Fourier Amplitude

Amplitude

8

6

4

2

0

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

F re q u e n c y , Hz.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 59

1.2

600

1.0

Fourier Amplitude

400

200

0

-200

-400

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

-600

0

10

20

30

40

50

0.0

0

10

600

20

25

30

20

25

30

Frequency (Hz)

1.2

15

1.0

F o u rie r Am p litu d e

400

200

0

-200

-400

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

-600

0

10

20

30

40

50

0.0

0

Time, Seconds

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

10

15

Frequency (Hz)

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 60

600

1.2

1.0

Fourier Amplitude

400

200

0

-2 0 0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

-4 0 0

-463 cm/sec2

-6 0 0

0

10

15

0.0

20

25

30

35

40

45

10

20

30

Frequenc y (Hz )

1.2

40

1.0

Fourier Amplitude

30

20

10

0

-1 0

-2 0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

-3 0

-30.7 cm/sec

-4 0

0.0

0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

10

45

20

30

Frequenc y (Hz)

1.2

15

11.0 cm

Horizontal displacement, cm

1.0

Fourier Amplitude

10

5

0

-5

-1 0

0.8

0.6

`

0.4

0.2

-1 5

0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

0.0

0

Time, Seconds

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

10

20

30

Frequenc y (Hz )

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 61

Response Spectrum

GROUND ACC, g

0.40

0.20

0.00

-0.20

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

6.00

DISPLACEMENT, in.

TIME, SECONDS

4.00

T=0.6 Seconds

2.00

0.00

-2.00

DISPLACEMENT, inches

16

-0.40

0.00

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

-4.00

0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

6.00

DISPLACEMENT, In.

PERIOD, Seconds

8.00

T=2.0 Seconds

4.00

0.00

-4.00

-8.00

0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

6.00

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 62

10

Structural Dynamics of

Linear Elastic Single-Degree-of-Freedom

(SDOF) Systems

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 1

Structural Dynamics

Structural frequency and period of vibration

Behavior under dynamic load

Dynamic magnification and resonance

Effect of damping on behavior

Linear elastic response spectra

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 2

accelerations in terms of response spectrum

coordinates.

shear in terms of design spectrum and period

of vibration.

damping in system.

response spectrum as basic ground motion

input.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 3

F(t)

Mass

F ( t ), u ( t )

Damping

Stiffness

u(t)

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 4

f I (t )

0 .5 f S ( t )

fD (t )

F (t )

0 .5 f S ( t )

F (t ) f I (t ) fD (t ) fS (t ) = 0

fI (t ) + fD (t ) + fS (t ) = F (t )

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 5

Applied Force, kips

40

0

-40

0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

Displacement, in

0.50

0.00

-0.50

0.00

15.00

0.20

Velocity, in/sec

0.00

-15.00

0.00

0.20

Acceleration, in/sec2

400.00

0.00

-400.00

0.00

0.20

Time, sec

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 6

(Development of Equilibrium Equation)

Spring Force, kips

30.00

4.00

50.00

15.00

2.00

25.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

-15.00

-2.00

-25.00

-30.00

-0.60

-4.00

-20.00

-50.00

-500

-0.30

0.00

0.30

Displacement, inches

Slope = k

= 50 kip/in

f S ( t ) = k u( t )

0.60

-10.00

0.00

10.00

20.00

Velocity, In/sec

Slope = c

= 0.254 kip-sec/in

f D ( t ) = c u& ( t )

-250

250

500

Acceleration, in/sec2

Slope = m

= 0.130 kip-sec2/in

f I ( t ) = m u&&( t )

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 7

f I (t )

0 .5 f S ( t )

fD (t )

F (t )

0 .5 f S ( t )

fI (t ) + fD (t ) + fS (t ) = F (t )

m u&&( t ) + c u& ( t ) + k u ( t ) = F ( t )

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 8

Internal Force

Mass

M

1.0

Acceleration

May include some live load

Has units of force/acceleration

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 9

Damping

Damping Force

C

1.0

Velocity

Usually represented by linear viscous dashpot

Has units of force/velocity

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 10

Damping

Damping Force

AREA =

ENERGY

DISSIPATED

Displacement

elliptical for linear viscous damper.

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 11

Stiffness

Spring Force

K

1.0

Displacement

May include some seismically nonstructural members

Requires careful mathematical modelling

Has units of force/displacement

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 12

Spring Force

Stiffness

AREA =

ENERGY

DISSIPATED

Displacement

Nonlinearity is implicitly handled by codes

Explicit modelling of nonlinear effects is possible

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 13

Equation of motion:

Initial conditions:

Assume:

u ( t ) = A sin( t ) + B cos( t )

A=

u& 0

u (t ) =

u& 0

Solution:

m u&&( t ) + k u( t ) = 0

u& 0 u 0

B = u0

k

m

sin( t ) + u 0 cos( t )

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 14

Displacement, inches

u& 0

T = 0.5 sec

1.0

3

2

1

0

-1

-2

-3

u0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

Time, seconds

Circular Frequency

(radians/sec)

k

m

Cyclic Frequency

(cycles/sec, Hertz)

f =

2

Period of Vibration

(sec/cycle)

1

2

T =

=

f

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 15

(ASCE 7-05)

Ta = C h

x

t n

Ct =

Ct =

Ct =

Ct =

0.028, x = 0.8

0.016, x = 0.9

0.030, x = 0.75

0.020, x = 0.75

for concrete moment frames

for eccentrically braced frames

for all other systems

T = 0.1N

a

story height of 10 feet. N = number of stories.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 16

of Approximate Period for Steel Moment Frames

Ta = 0.028hn0.8

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 17

20-story moment resisting frame

10-story moment resisting frame

1-story moment resisting frame

T = 1.9 sec

T = 1.1 sec

T = 0.15 sec

10-story braced frame

1-story braced frame

T = 1.3 sec

T = 0.8 sec

T = 0.1 sec

Gravity dam

Suspension bridge

T = 0.2 sec

T = 20 sec

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 18

(Table 12.8-1 of ASCE 7-05)

T = Ta Cu Tcomputed

SD1

> 0.40g

0.30g

0.20g

0.15g

< 0.1g

Cu

1.4

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

substantiated analysis.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 19

in ELF Analysis?

If you do not have a more accurate period

(from a computer analysis), you must use T = Ta.

If you have a more accurate period from a computer

analysis (call this Tc), then:

if Tc > CuTa

use T = CuTa

if Tc < Ta

use T = Ta

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 20

m u&&( t ) + c u& ( t ) + k u ( t ) = 0

Initial conditions: u0

u& 0

st

Assume: u ( t ) = e

Equation of motion:

Solution:

u( t ) = e

u& 0 + u 0

sin( D t )

u 0 cos( D t ) +

D

c

c

=

=

2m

cc

D = 1

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 21

Damping in Structures

c

c

=

=

2m

cc

Sometimes is expressed as a% (0 < < 100%).

Displacement, in

Time, sec

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 22

Damping in Structures

True damping in structures is NOT viscous. However, for low

damping values, viscous damping allows for linear equations

and vastly simplifies the solution.

Spring Force, kips

30.00

4.00

50.00

15.00

2.00

25.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

-15.00

-2.00

-25.00

-30.00

-0.60

-4.00

-20.00

-50.00

-500

-0.30

0.00

0.30

Displacement, inches

0.60

-10.00

0.00

10.00

20.00

Velocity, In/sec

-250

250

2

Acceleration, in/sec

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 23

500

Displacement, inches

3

2

1

0

-1

-2

-3

0% Damping

10% Damping

20% Damping

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

Time, seconds

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 24

Welded steel frame

Bolted steel frame

= 0.010

= 0.020

Uncracked reinforced concrete

Cracked reinforced concrete

= 0.015

= 0.020

= 0.035

Nailed plywood shear wall

= 0.100

= 0.150

Damaged concrete structure

= 0.050

= 0.075

= 0.250

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 25

Inherent damping

independent of mass and stiffness

Added damping

C

mass and stiffness and

damping constant C of device

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 26

For all

damping values

u1

=

ln

u2

u1

Amplitude

0.5

u2

u3

2

1 2

u0 e

-0.5

-1

0.00

0.50

1.00

damping values

1.50

2.00

2.50

3.00

u1 u 2

2 u2

Time, Seconds

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 27

Equation of motion:

Force, Kips

T =

150

100

50

0

-50

-100

-150

0.00

m u&&( t ) + k u ( t ) = p 0 sin( t )

0.25

= 0.25 sec

po=100 kips

0.50

0.75

1.00

1.25

1.50

1.75

2.00

Time, Seconds

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 28

&&( t ) + k u ( t ) = p 0 s in ( t )

Equation of motion: m u

Assume system is initially at rest:

Particular solution: u ( t ) = C s i n ( t )

Complimentary solution: u( t ) = A sin(t ) + B cos(t )

Solution:

p0

u (t ) =

sin( t ) sin( t )

2

k 1 ( / )

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 29

Define

Loading frequency

Structures natural frequency

Dynamic magnifier

Transient response

(at structures frequency)

p0

1

u( t ) =

sin( t ) sin( t ) )

2 (

k 1

Steady state

Static displacement

response

(at loading frequency)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 30

Steady state

response (in.)

Transient

response (in.)

Total response

(in.)

200

100

0

-100

-200

0.00

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00

1.25

1.50

1.75

2.00

10

5

0

-5

-10

0.00

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00

1.25

1.50

1.75

2.00

10

5

0

-5

-10

0.00

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00

1.25

1.50

1.75

2.00

10

5

0

-5

-10

0.00

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00

1.25

1.50

1.75

2.00

sp ace e t,

Loading (kips)

Time, seconds

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 31

Loading

(kips)

150

100

50

0

-5 0

-1 0 0

-1 5 0

0 .0 0

0 .2 5

0 .5 0

0 .7 5

1 .0 0

1 .2 5

1 .5 0

1 .7 5

2 .0 0

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00

1.25

1.50

1.7 5

2.00

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00

1.25

1.50

1.75

2.00

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00

1.25

1.50

1.75

2.00

500

Steady state

response (in.)

250

0

-250

-500

0.00

500

250

Transient

response (in.)

0

-250

-500

0.00

80

0

p

Total response

(in.)

40

-40

-80

0.00

T ime, seconds

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 32

80

2 uS

Displacement, in.

40

-40

Linear envelope

-80

0.00

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00

1.25

1.50

1.75

2.00

Time, seconds

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 33

Loading (kips)

150

100

50

0

-5 0

-1 0 0

-1 5 0

0 .0 0

= 1.01

u S = 5.0 in.

0 .2 5

0 .5 0

0 .7 5

1 .0 0

1 .2 5

1 .5 0

1 .7 5

2 .0 0

0 .2 5

0 .5 0

0 .7 5

1 .0 0

1 .2 5

1 .5 0

1 .7 5

2 .0 0

0 .2 5

0 .5 0

0 .7 5

1 .0 0

1 .2 5

1 .5 0

1 .7 5

2 .0 0

0 .2 5

0 .5 0

0 .7 5

1 .0 0

1 .2 5

1 .5 0

1 .7 5

500

Steady state

response (in.)

250

0

-2 5 0

-5 0 0

0 .0 0

500

Transient

response (in.)

250

0

-2 5 0

-5 0 0

0 .0 0

80

40

0

p

Total response

(in.)

-4 0

-8 0

0 .0 0

2 .0 0

T im e , s e c o n d s

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 34

= 4 rad / sec

Loading (kips)

150

100

50

0

-50

-100

-150

0.00

= 8 rad / sec

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00

1.25

1.50

1.75

2.00

0 .2 5

0 .5 0

0 .7 5

1 .0 0

1 .2 5

1 .5 0

1 .7 5

2 .0 0

0 .2 5

0 .5 0

0 .7 5

1.0 0

1.2 5

1 .5 0

1 .75

2 .00

0 .2 5

0 .5 0

0 .7 5

1 .0 0

1 .2 5

1 .5 0

1 .7 5

2 .0 0

Steady state

response (in.)

3

0

-3

-6

0 .0 0

6

3

Transient response

(in.)

0

-3

-6

0 .0 0

6

3

0

p

Total response

(in.)

-3

-6

0 .0 0

T im e , s e c o n d s

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 35

(Signs Retained)

12.00

8.00

In phase

4.00

Resonance

0.00

-4.00

-8.00

-12.00

0.00

0.50

1.00

1.50

2.00

2.50

3.00

Frequency Ratio

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 36

(Absolute Values)

12.00

Resonance

10.00

8.00

6.00

4.00

Slowly

loaded

Rapidly

loaded

2.00

1.00

0.00

0.00

0.50

1.00

1.50

2.00

2.50

3.00

Frequency Ratio

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 37

Equation of motion:

Force, Kips

T =

150

100

50

0

-50

-100

-150

0.00

= 0.25 sec

po=100 kips

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00

1.25

1.50

1.75

2.00

Time, Seconds

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 38

Equation of motion:

Assume system is initially at rest

Particular solution:

u ( t ) = C sin( t ) + D cos( t )

Complimentary solution:

u ( t ) = e t [ A sin( D t ) + B cos( D t ) ]

Solution:

u ( t ) = e t [ A sin( D t ) + B cos( D t ) ]

+ C sin( t ) + D cos( t )

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

c

2 m

D = 1 2

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 39

Transient response at structures frequency

(eventually damps out)

u(t ) = e

[ A sin( D t ) + B cos( D t ) ]

C sin(t ) + D cos( t )

Steady state response,

at loading frequency

po

1 2

C=

k (1 2 ) 2 + (2 ) 2

po

2

D=

k (1 2 ) 2 + (2 ) 2

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 40

BETA=1 (Resonance)

Beta=0.5

Beta=2.0

50

40

30

20

10

0

-10

-20

-30

-40

-50

0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

Time, Seconds

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 41

Displacement Amplitude, Inches

50

40

1

Static

2

30

20

10

0

-10

-20

-30

-40

-50

0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

Time, Seconds

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 42

Effects of Damping

200

150

100

50

0

-50

-100

-150

-200

0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

Time, Seconds

0% Damping

%5 Damping

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 43

14.00

Resonance

0.0% Damping

5.0 % Damping

10.0% Damping

25.0 % Damping

12.00

10.00

8.00

RD =

6.00

1

(1 2 ) 2 + ( 2 ) 2

4.00

2.00

Slowly

loaded

0.00

0.00

0.50

Rapidly

loaded

1.00

1.50

2.00

2.50

3.00

Frequency Ratio,

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 44

in Harmonically Loaded Systems

natural frequency, the dynamic response

exceeds the static response. This is referred to

as dynamic amplification.

have an unbounded increase in displacement

over time.

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 45

in Harmonically Loaded Systems

Damping is an effective means for dissipating energy in

the system. Unlike strain energy, which is recoverable,

dissipated energy is not recoverable.

limited displacement over time with the limit being (1/2)

times the static displacement.

resonance.

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 46

and Energy DISSIPATED

F

Energy

Stored

Energy

Dissipated

2

1

LOADING

YIELDING

Energy

Recovered

2

u

UNLOADING

Total

Energy

Dissipated

3

u

UNLOADED

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 47

F(t)

Time, T

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 48

Solution Techniques

Fourier transform

Duhamel integration

Piecewise exact

Newmark techniques

All techniques are carried out numerically.

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 49

dF

F ( ) = Fo +

dt

Fo

dF

dt

dt

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 50

Initial conditions

u o , 0 = 0 u&o , 0 = 0

u1 = u ( )

u&1 = u& ( )

u&&1 = u&&( )

u o ,1 = u ( )

u&0 ,1 = u& ( )

LOOP

u 2 = u ( )

u& 2 = u& ( )

u&&2 = u&&( )

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 51

Advantages:

Very computationally efficient

Disadvantages:

Note: NONLIN uses the piecewise exact method for

response spectrum calculations.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 52

Newmark Techniques

General method that encompasses a family of different

integration schemes

Derived by:

Development of incremental equations of motion

Assuming acceleration response over short time step

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 53

Newmark Method

Advantages:

Disadvantages:

Note: NONLIN uses the Newmark method for

general response history calculations

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 54

GROUND ACC, g

0.40

0.20

0.00

-0.20

-0.40

0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

6.00

TIME, SECONDS

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 55

0.3

0.2

0.1

40

0

-0.1

-0.2

-0.3

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Time (sec)

15

10

0.4

30

20

10

0

-10

-20

-30

0

10

20

30

40

50

Time (sec)

0

-5

-10

-15

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

are available via the

Internet.

Time (sec)

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 56

60

u&&r

Ground Acceleration Response History

0.40

GROUND ACC, g

u&&g

u&&t

0.20

0.00

-0.20

-0.40

0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

TIME, SECONDS

mu&&r ( t ) + c u&r ( t ) + k ur ( t ) = mu&&g ( t )

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 57

6.00

mu&&r (t ) + cu&r (t ) + kur (t ) = mu&&g (t )

Divide through by m:

c

k

u&&r (t ) + u&r (t ) + ur (t ) = u&&g (t )

m

m

Make substitutions:

c

= 2

m

k

=2

m

Simplified form:

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 58

history ur(t) is function of the structures

frequency and damping ratio .

Structural frequency

2

Damping ratio

Ground motion acceleration history

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 59

Ground Acceleration (g's)

0.4

with given and

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

-0.1

SOLVER

-0.2

-0.3

0

10

20

30

40

Time (sec)

60

6

Structural Displacement (in)

or structural parameters

and requires recalculation of structural

response

50

Computed response

4

2

0

-2

-4

Peak displacement

-6

0

10

20

30

Time (sec)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

40

50

60

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 60

An elastic displacement response spectrum is a plot

of the peak computed relative displacement, ur, for an

elastic structure with a constant damping , a varying

fundamental frequency (or period T = 2/ ), responding

to a given ground motion.

5% damped response spectrum for structure

responding to 1940 El Centro ground motion

DISPLACEMENT, inches

16

12

0

0

10

PERIOD, Seconds

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 61

El Centro Ground Motion

Displacement, Inches

0.08

0.06

Computed response

0.04

0.02

0.00

-0.02

-0.04

-0.06

-0.08

10

11

12

Time, Seconds

10.00

= 0.05

T = 0.10 sec

Umax= 0.0543 in.

Displacement, Inches

8.00

6.00

4.00

2.00

0.00

0.00

0.50

1.00

1.50

2.00

Period, Seconds

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 62

for El Centro Ground Motion

Displacement, Inches

0.40

0.30

Computed response

0.20

0.10

0.00

-0.10

-0.20

-0.30

-0.40

10

11

12

Time, Seconds

10.00

= 0.05

T = 0.20 sec

Umax = 0.254 in.

Displacement, Inches

8.00

6.00

4.00

2.00

0.00

0.00

0.50

1.00

1.50

2.00

Period, Seconds

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 63

for El Centro Ground Motion

Displacement, Inches

0.80

0.60

Computed response

0.40

0.20

0.00

-0.20

-0.40

-0.60

-0.80

10

11

12

Time, Seconds

10.00

= 0.05

T = 0.30 sec

Umax = 0.622 in.

Displacement, Inches

8.00

6.00

4.00

2.00

0.00

0.00

0.50

1.00

1.50

2.00

Period, Seconds

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 64

for El Centro Ground Motion

Displacement, Inches

1.20

0.90

Computed response

0.60

0.30

0.00

-0.30

-0.60

-0.90

-1.20

10

11

12

Time, Seconds

10.00

= 0.05

T = 0.40 sec

Umax = 0.956 in.

Displacement, Inches

8.00

6.00

4.00

2.00

0.00

0.00

0.50

1.00

1.50

2.00

Period, Seconds

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 65

for El Centro Ground Motion

Displacement, Inches

2.40

1.80

Computed response

1.20

0.60

0.00

-0.60

-1.20

-1.80

-2.40

10

11

12

Time, Seconds

10.00

= 0.05

T = 0.50 sec

Umax = 2.02 in.

Displacement, Inches

8.00

6.00

4.00

2.00

0.00

0.00

0.50

1.00

1.50

2.00

Period, Seconds

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 66

Displacement, Inches

for El Centro Ground Motion

3.20

2.40

1.60

Computed response

0.80

0.00

-0.80

-1.60

-2.40

-3.20

0

10

11

12

Time, Seconds

10.00

= 0.05

T = 0.60 sec

Umax= -3.00 in.

Displacement, Inches

8.00

6.00

4.00

2.00

0.00

0.00

0.50

1.00

1.50

2.00

Period, Seconds

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 67

Response Spectrum for El Centro

Ground Motion

12.00

Displacement, Inches

10.00

8.00

6.00

4.00

2.00

0.00

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

Period, Seconds

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 68

Development of Pseudovelocity

Response Spectrum

35.00

5% damping

Pseudovelocity, in/sec

30.00

25.00

20.00

15.00

10.00

PSV (T ) D

5.00

0.00

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

Period, Seconds

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 69

Development of Pseudoacceleration

Response Spectrum

400.0

5% damping

Pseudoacceleration, in/sec

350.0

300.0

250.0

200.0

PSA (T ) 2 D

150.0

100.0

50.0

0.0

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

Period, Seconds

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 70

The pseudoacceleration response spectrum represents the total

acceleration of the system, not the relative acceleration. It is nearly

identical to the true total acceleration response spectrum for lightly

damped structures.

400.0

5% damping

Pseudoacceleration, in/sec

350.0

Peak ground

acceleration

300.0

250.0

200.0

150.0

100.0

50.0

0.0

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

Period, Seconds

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 71

u&&r

Ground Acceleration Response History

0.40

GROUND ACC, g

u&&g

u&&t

0.20

0.00

-0.20

-0.40

0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

TIME, SECONDS

mu&&r ( t ) + c u&r ( t ) + k ur ( t ) = mu&&g ( t )

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 72

6.00

and Total Acceleration

(System with 5% Damping)

300.00

Acceleration (in/sec )

350.00

250.00

200.00

150.00

100.00

50.00

0.00

0.1

1

Period (sec)

Total Acceleration

10

Pseudo-Acceleration

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 73

and Relative Velocity

(System with 5% Damping)

40

Ve locity (in/se c)

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

0.1

1

Period (sec)

Relative Velocity

10

Pseudo-Velocity

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 74

for Different Damping Values

Damping

Displacement, Inches

25.00

0%

5%

10%

20%

20.00

15.00

10.00

5.00

0.00

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

Period, Seconds

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 75

for Different Damping Values

Damping

Pseudoacceleration, g

4.00

0%

5%

10%

20%

3.00

2.00

1.00

0.00

Peak ground

acceleration

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

Period, Seconds

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 76

Response for (Almost) Any Given Period

of Vibration

An earthquake record can be considered to be the

combination of a large number of harmonic components.

Any SDOF structure will be in near resonance with one

of these harmonic components.

Damping is most effective at or near resonance.

Hence, a response spectrum will show reductions due to

damping at all period ranges (except T = 0).

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 77

Amplitude

Response for Any Given Period of

Vibration

4.00

2.00

0.00

-2.00

-4.00

0.0

6.0

12.0 18.0 24.0 30.0 36.0 42.0 48.0 54.0 60.0 66.0 72.0 78.0 84.0 90.0

Time (sec)

resemble a real time ground motion

accelerogram.

Generated wave obtained by combining five

different harmonic signals, each having equal

amplitude of 1.0.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 78

1

0.5

0

-0.5

-1

0.0

Amplitud

e

T = 5.0 s

6.0

12.0

18.0

24.0

30.0

36.0

42.0

1

0.5

0

-0.5

-1

48.0

54.0

60.0

66.0

72.0

78.0

84.0

90.0

T = 4.0 s

0.0

6.0

12.0

18.0

24.0

30.0

36.0

42.0

1

0.5

0

-0.5

-1

48.0

54.0

60.0

66.0

72.0

78.0

84.0

90.0

T = 3.0 s

0.0

6.0

12.0

18.0

24.0

30.0

36.0

42.0

48.0

54.0

60.0

66.0

72.0

78.0

84.0

90.0

Time (sec)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 79

1

0.5

0

-0.5

-1

0.0

Amplitude

T = 2.0 s

6.0

12.0

18.0

24.0

30.0

36.0

42.0

1

0.5

0

-0.5

-1

48.0

54.0

60.0

66.0

72.0

78.0

84.0

90.0

T = 1.0 s

0.0

6.0

12.0

18.0

24.0

30.0

36.0

42.0

48.0

54.0

60.0

66.0

72.0

78.0

84.0

90.0

Summation

4.00

2.00

0.00

-2.00

-4.00

0.0

6.0

12.0

18.0

24.0

30.0

36.0

42.0

48.0

54.0

60.0

66.0

72.0

78.0

84.0

90.0

Time (sec)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 80

at Each Resonant Frequency

14.00

0.0% Damping

5.0 % Damping

10.0% Damping

25.0 % Damping

Fourier amplitude

12.00

10.00

8.00

6.00

4.00

2.00

0.00

0.00

0.50

1.00

1.50

2.00

2.50

3.00

Frequency Ratio,

Frequency (Hz)

FFT curve for the combined wave

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 81

Example Structure

12.00

K = 500 k/in

M = 2000/386.4 = 5.18 k-sec2/in

= (K/M)0.5 =9.82 rad/sec

T = 2/ = 0.64 sec

5% critical damping

Displacement, Inches

10.00

W = 2,000 k

8.00

6.00

4.00

2.00

0.00

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

Period, Seconds

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 82

400.0

K = 500 k/in

W = 2,000 k

M = 2000/386.4 = 5.18 k-sec2/in

= (K/M)0.5 =9.82 rad/sec

T = 2/ = 0.64 sec

5% critical damping

Pseudoacceleration, in/sec2

Example Structure

350.0

300.0

250.0

200.0

150.0

100.0

50.0

0.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

Period, Seconds

Base shear = M x PSA = 5.18(301) = 1559 kips

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 83

4.0

1.00

Diagonal lines represent

period values, T

Pseudoacceleration, g

0.80

T = 0.64s

0.60

0.40

0.20

0.00

0.00

2.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

10.00

12.00

Displacement, inches

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 84

Line of increasing

displacement

100

PSEUDOVELOCITY, in/sec

D=10.0

1.0

0.1

Line of constant

displacement

10

1.0

0.01

D=

1

.01

0.1

0.001

PSV

0.1

0.1

10

100

1000

Circular Frequency

per Second

, Radiand

Circular Frequency

(radians/sec)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 85

Line of constant

acceleration

100

PSEUDOVELOCITY, in/sec

PSA=1000

10000

100000

Line of increasing

acceleration

10

100

10000

PSA = PSV

10

100

1000

0.1

0.1

10

100

1000

Circular Frequency

Radiand per

Circular ,

Frequency

Second

(radians/sec)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 86

2

PSEUDOVELOCITY, in/sec

100

DI

S

ec

s

n/

i

N,

IO

T

A 100

R

00

LE

PL

AC

0 EM

10

E

10

NT

,i

n

10

E

C

AC 10

0

10

0

0

1.

10

1

0.

01

0.

0.

1

01

0

0.

0.1

0.1

10

100

1000

Circular Frequency

, Radiand per

Circular Frequency

Second

(radians/sec)

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 87

Plotted vs Period

D

is

pl

ac

em

.0

10

1

00

0.

0.

00

1

01

0.

0.

01

1.00

10

0.

0.

1

0

1.

1.

0

g

n,

io

10.00

at

10

.0

er

el

cc

PSEUDOVELOCITY, in/sec

en

t,

in

100.00

0.10

0.01

0.10

1.00

10.00

PERIOD, Seconds

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 88

Development of an Elastic

Response Spectrum

Problems with Current Spectrum:

100.00

en

t

10

.0

D

is

.0

10

n,

pl

ac

em

tio

ra

10.00

0.

1

1.

0

0

1.

10

0.

0.

01

1.00

01

0.

1

00

0.

0.10

0.01

0.

00

1

PSEUDOVELOCITY, in/sec

e

el

,i

n.

c

Ac

small variations in structural

frequency (period) can produce

significantly different results.

0.10

1.00

PERIOD, Seconds

10.00

earthquakes will have different

Characteristics.

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 89

A

en

t,

in

100

10

.0

0% Damping

5% Damping

10% Damping

20* Damping

10

0.

0.

1

0

1.

1.

0

10

1

00

0.

0.

00

1

0.

01

01

0.

g

n,

io

.0

10

at

D

is

pl

ac

em

er

el

cc

small variations in structural

frequency (period) can produce

significantly different results.

0.1

0.01

0.1

1

Period, Seconds

10

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 90

Scaled to 0.40 g (PGA)

Different earthquakes

100.0

will have different spectra.

El Centro

Loma Prieta

North Ridge

San Fernando

Average

10.0

1.0

0.1

0.01

0.10

1.00

10.00

Period, seconds

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 91

(Elastic DESIGN Response Spectra)

Newmark-Hall spectrum

ASCE 7 spectrum

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 92

100

0% Dam ping

5% Dam ping

10

max u&

Observations

at short T

v0

max u

max u&&

v max v

v&& 0

0.1

0.01

0.1

Period1 (sec)

10

at long T

100

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 93

Relative displacement

Total acceleration

Zero

Ground acceleration

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 94

Relative displacement

Total acceleration

Ground displacement

Zero

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 95

100

10

.0

.0

10

g

n,

io

1.

0

0

1.

0% Damping

5% Damping

10% Damping

20* Damping

4.25 in.

0.

01

0.

1

10

0.

12.7 in/s

01

0.

0.35g

1

00

0.

0.1

0.01

Ground Maxima

0.

00

1

at

D

is

pl

ac

em

en

t,

er

el

cc

in

10

0.1

1

Period, Seconds

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

10

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 96

for Horizontal Elastic Response

Damping

% Critical

.05

1

2

3

5

7

10

20

av

ad

aa

5.10 3.84 3.04

4.38 3.38 2.73

3.66 2.92 2.42

3.24 2.64 2.24

2.71 2.30 2.01

2.36 2.08 1.85

1.99 1.84 1.69

1.26 1.37 1.38

aa

3.68

3.21

2.74

2.46

2.12

1.89

1.64

1.17

Median (50%)

av

ad

2.59 2.01

2.31 1.82

2.03 1.63

1.86 1.52

1.65 1.39

1.51 1.29

1.37 1.20

1.08 1.01

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 97

1) Draw the lines

corresponding to max

v&& , v& , v

2) Draw line max v

&&

3

4

from Tb to Tc

6

3) Draw line V

from Tc to Td

4) Draw line D

from Td to Te

max v&

max v

from Ta to Tb

Ta

Tb

Tc

Td

Te Tf

from Te to Tf

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 98

Spectral Response

Acceleration, Sa

ASCE 7

Uses a Smoothed Design Acceleration Spectrum

Short

period

acceleration

2

SDS

SD1

Long period

acceleration

SDS

Sa = 0.6

T + 0.4 SDS

T0

Sa = SDS

3

4

SD1

T

TS

Sa = L 2D1

T

Sa =

TS

Period, T

T = 1.0

TL

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 99

is a uniform hazard spectrum based on

probabilistic and deterministic seismic

hazard analysis.

Multiple-Degrees-of-Freedom (MDOF) Systems

u1

u2

u3

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 1

MDOF Systems

Uncoupling of equations through use of natural

mode shapes

Solution of uncoupled equations

Recombination of computed response

Modal response history analysis

Modal response spectrum analysis

Equivalent lateral force procedure

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 2

M

U

m

u

W

g

Scalars

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 3

ASCE 7-05 provides guidance for three specific

analysis procedures:

Modal superposition analysis (MSA)

Response history analysis (RHA)

ELF usually allowed

Cs

See ASCE 7-05

Table 12.6-1

Ts

3.5Ts

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 4

uy

rz Typical nodal

Majority of mass

is in floors

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

ux

DOF

Motion is

predominantly

lateral

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 5

But with Only THREE Dynamic DOF

u1

u2

u1

U = u2

u

3

u3

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 6

f1 = 1 kip

d1,1

d2,1

d1,1

d2,1

d3,1

d3,1

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 7

(continued)

d1,2

f2=1 kip

d2,2

d1,1 d1,2

d2,1 d2,2

d3,1 d3,2

d3,2

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 8

(continued)

d1,3

d2,3

d2,1 d2,2 d2,3

f3 = 1 kip

d3,3

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 9

(Flexibility)

U = d2,1 d2,2 d2,3 f2

d3,1 d3,2 d3,3 f3

d1,1

d1,2

d1,3

U = d2,1 f1 + d2,2 f2 + d2,3 f3

d

d

d

3,1

3,2

3,3

DF=U

K = D-1

KU=F

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 10

Static Condensation

K m,n Um Fm

=

K n,n Un {0}

K m,m

K

n,m

Massless DOF

K m,mUm + K m,nUn = Fm

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 11

Static Condensation

(continued)

Rearrange

Plug into

Simplify

1

n ,n

Un = K K n,mUm

1

n,n

1

n,n

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 12

m1

f1(t), u1(t)

k1

m2

f2(t), u2(t)

k2

m3

k3

f3(t), u3(t)

-k1

0

k1

K = -k1 k1+ k 2

-k 2

0

-k 2

k 2 + k 3

0

m1 0

M = 0 m2 0

0

0 m3

f1(t )

F(t ) = f2 (t )

f (t )

3

u1(t )

U(t ) = u2 (t )

u (t )

3

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 13

for Undamped Forced Vibration

MU

m1

0

0

m2

0

&&1 ( t )

0 u

&&

0 u

(

t

)

+

2

&& 3 ( t )

m 3 u

k1

k1

k1

k1 + k 2

k 3

0

u 1 ( t ) f1 ( t )

k 2 u 2 ( t ) = f 2 ( t )

k 2 + k 3 u 3 ( t ) f3 ( t )

DOF 2

m1u

&&2 (t ) k1u1(t ) + k1u2 (t ) + k 2u2 (t ) k 2u3 (t ) = f2 (t )

m 2u

DOF 3

m3u

DOF 1

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 14

the Equations of Motion

from normal coordinates (displacements at the nodes)

To modal coordinates (amplitudes of the natural

Mode shapes).

shapes, the equations of motion become uncoupled,

allowing them to be solved as SDOF equations.

coordinates.

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 15

(Natural Mode Shapes and Frequencies)

MU

&& t ) = 2 sint

U(t ) = sin t U(

2

K

Then

Assume

1,1

1 = 2,1 , 1

3,1

1,2

2 = 2,2 , 2

3,2

1,3

3 = 2,3 , 3

3,3

Natural frequency

Natural mode shape

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 16

(continued)

For a SINGLE Mode

K = M2

Where: = [1 2 3 ]

12

2

2

2

2

K

=

=

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

1,i = 1.0

or

T M = I

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 17

1,2

1,1

1,3

Node

2,3

2,2

2,1

Node

Node

3,1

3,2

MODE 1

3,3

MODE 2

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MODE 3

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 18

(Transformation of Coordinates)

U =Y

Mode shape

1,1

1,2

1,3

U = 2,1 2,2 2,3 y2 U = 2,1 y1 + 2,2 y2 + 2,3 y3

3,1 3,2 3,3 y3

3,1

3,2

3,3

Modal coordinate =

amplitude of mode

shape

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 19

Orthogonality Conditions

= [1 2 3 ]

Generalized mass

m1*

T

*

M =

m2

m

3

Generalized stiffness

k1*

T

*

k2

K =

k

3

Generalized damping

Generalized force

c1*

T

*

c2

C =

c

3

f1* (t )

*

T

F(t ) = f2 (t )

f * (t )

3

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 20

MDOF equation of motion:

Transformation of coordinates:

Substitution:

&&

&

MU+CU+KU

= F(t )

U = Y

&& C Y+K

&

M Y+

Y = F(t )

Premultiply by T : T MY

Using orthogonality conditions, uncoupled equations of motion are:

m1*

m *2

&&

y1 c 1*

&&

y2 +

m 3* &&

y 3

c 2*

y& 1 k 1*

&

y2 +

c 3* y& 3

k 2*

y1 f1* (t )

*

y 2 = f2 (t )

k 3* y 3 f3* (t )

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 21

(Explicit Form)

Mode 1

Mode 2

Mode 3

*

1 1

*

*

*

&&

&

m y +c1y1+k1y1 = f1 (t )

*

2 2

*

*

*

&&

&

m y +c2 y2 +k2 y2 = f2 (t )

*

3 3

*

*

*

&&

&

m y +c3 y3 +k3 y3 = f3 (t )

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 22

(Explicit Form)

*

ci

Simplify by dividing through by m* and defining i =

2mi*i

Mode 1

Mode 2

2

*

*

&&

&

y 2 + 222 y 2 + 2 y 2 = f2 (t ) / m2

Mode 3

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 23

u&&g U&&r ,1

&&r ,1(t )

u&&g (t ) + u

&&r ,2 (t ) =

FI (t ) = M u&&g (t ) + u

u&& (t ) + u

&&

(

t

)

r ,3

g

&&r ,1(t )

u

1.0

&&

&&

M 1.0 ug (t ) + M ur ,2 (t )

1.0

u

&&

(

t

)

r ,3

Move to RHS as

FEFF (t ) = - M Ru&&g (t )

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 24

m1 = 2

m2 = 3

m3 = 1

u1

u2

u3

u&&g (t )

m3 = 1

m1 = 2

m2 = 3

u1

u3

u2

u&&g (t )

F (t ) = MRu&&g (t )

*

M= 3

1

R = 1

1

1

2 + 1

M=

3 R= 1

0

1

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 25

&&g (t )

fi (t ) = MRu

*

For earthquakes:

T

i

fi (t )

MR

&&

y&&i + 2 i i y& i + y i =

u

=

g (t )

*

*

mi

mi

2

i

T

i

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 26

pi =

MR

T

i

*

i

Mi

T

i

used to scale the mode shapes.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 27

with First Mode Shape

p1 = 1.0

1.0

p1 =1.4

p1 =1.6

1.0

1.0

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 28

For each Mode I,

mi = pi mi

2

modes is

equal to the total structural mass.

independent of mode shape scaling.

a total effective mass not less than 90% of the

total structural mass.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 29

with First Mode Shape

m1 / M = 1.0

1.0

m1 / M= 0.9 m1 / M= 0.7

1.0

1.0

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 30

For each mode:

(continued)

2

i

SDOF system:

2

&&

&

qi + 2 i i qi + i qi = u&&g

solving the SDOF system.

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 31

(continued)

y i (t ) = pi qi (t )

Recall

ui (t ) = i y i (t )

Substitute

ui (t ) = pi i qi (t )

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 32

(continued)

Vi (t ) = Kui (t ) = Pi Ki qi (t )

Recall:

Ki = i Mi

2

Substitute:

Vi (t ) = Mi Pi i qi (t )

2

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 33

(continued)

T

Acceleration in mode

Mi = MRPi

T

i

and

Vi = Mi qi (t )

2

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 34

(continued)

T

i MR T

T

Mi = i MRPi = T

i Mi Pi

i Mi i

Mi = Pi mi

2

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 35

In previous development, we have assumed:

c1*

T

*

c2

C =

c3

Rayleigh proportional damping

Wilson discrete modal damping

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 36

(continued)

MASS

PROPORTIONAL

DAMPER

STIFFNESS

PROPORTIONAL

DAMPER

C = M + K

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 37

(continued)

C = M + K

For modal equations to be uncoupled:

Assumes

T M = I

2nn = Cn

T

n

2nn = +

2

n

1

n

n =

+

2n

2

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 38

(continued)

Compute coefficients and :

m n

=2 2

2

n m

m m

n

1/ 1/

n

m n

C = M + K

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 39

5% critical in Modes 1 and 3

Structural frequencies

Mode

1

2

3

4

5

4.94

14.6

25.9

39.2

52.8

0.15

TYPE

MASS

STIFFNESS

TOTAL

= 0.41487

= 0.00324

0.10

0.05

0.00

0

20

40

Frequency, Radians/Sec.

60

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 40

5% Damping in Modes 1 & 2, 1 & 3, 1 & 4, or 1 & 5

0.15

Modes

1&2

1&3

1&4

1&5

.36892

.41487

.43871

.45174

0.00513

0.00324

0.00227

0.00173

1,2

Proportionality factors

(5% each indicated mode)

MODES

1,3

1,4

1,5

0.10

0.05

0.00

0

20

40

60

Fequency, Radians/sec

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 41

Wilson Damping

*

2m1*11*

c1*

*

*

*

T

c2

2m222

C =

=

*

*

*

c3

2m333

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 42

From Wilson Modal Damping

(NOT Usually Required)

211

2 22

T C =

2 n 1n 1

( )

=c

2 nn

T 1

c1 = C

n

T

C = M 2i i i i M

i =1

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 43

5% Damping in Modes 1 and 2, 3

10% in Mode 5, Zero in Mode 4

12

10

10

8

6

4

2

0

0

4.94

14.57

25.9

39.2

52.8

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 44

5% Damping in all Modes

12

10

8

6

4.94

14.57

25.9

39.2

52.8

4

2

0

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 45

Equations (approximate)

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 46

Piecewise Linear Loading

Force, V(t)

Vt2

Vt1

t0

Vt 2 Vt 2

=

t2 t1

t1

t2 t3

Time, t

Time

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 47

Responding to 1940 El Centro Earthquake

m1=1.0 k-s2/in

10 ft

u1(t)

k1=60 k/in

m2=1.5 k-s2/in

u2(t)

Example 1

Assume Wilson

damping with 5%

critical in each mode.

k2=120 k/in

10 ft

u3(t)

m3=2.0 k-s2/in

10 ft

k3=180 k/in

N-S component of 1940 El Centro earthquake

Maximum acceleration = 0.35 g

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 48

Example 1 (continued)

Form property matrices:

m1=1.0 k-s2/in

u1(t)

k1=60 k/in

m2=1.5 k-s2/in

u2(t)

m3=2.0 k-s2/in

1.0

kip s2/in

M =

1.5

2.0

k2=120 k/in

u3(t)

k3=180 k/in

60

0

60

K = 60 180 120kip/in

0

120 300

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 49

Example 1 (continued)

Solve eigenvalue problem:

m1=1.0 k-s2/in

u1(t)

k1=60 k/in

m2=1.5 k-s2/in

u2(t)

m3=2.0 k-s2/in

k2=120 k/in

u3(t)

k3=180 k/in

K = M2

21.0

2

2

=

96.6

sec

212.4

1.000 1.000 1.000

= 0.644 0.601 2.57

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 50

= 0.478 0.384 0.534

0.223 0.431 0.514

vs

M = I

T

0.644 0.601 2.57

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 51

Example 1 (continued)

Mode Shapes and Periods of Vibration

MODE 1

= 4.58 rad/sec

T = 1.37 sec

MODE 2

= 9.83 rad/sec

T = 0.639 sec

MODE 3

= 14.57 rad/sec

T = 0.431 sec

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 52

Example 1 (continued)

m1=1.0 k-s2/in

u1(t)

k1=60 k/in

m2=1.5 k-s2/in

u2(t)

k2=120 k/in

m3=2.0 k-s2/in

u3(t)

k3=180 k/in

4.58

14.57

1.37

Tn = 0.639sec

0.431

1 . 801

M * = T M =

2 . 455

kip sec 2 / in

23 . 10

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 53

Example 1 (continued)

m1=1.0 k-s2/in

u1(t)

k1=60 k/in

m2=1.5

k-s2/in

V * (t ) = T MR v&&g (t )

u2(t)

k2=120 k/in

m3=2.0 k-s2/in

u3(t)

k3=180 k/in

2.566

&&

*

Vn = 1.254 vg (t )

2.080

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 54

Example 1 (continued)

Write uncoupled (modal) equations of motion:

m1=1.0 k-s2/in

u1(t)

k1=60 k/in

m2=1.5 k-s2/in

u2(t)

k2=120 k/in

m3=2.0 k-s2/in

u3(t)

k3=180 k/in

y&&2 + 222 y& 2 + 22 y 2 = V2* (t ) / m2*

y&&3 + 233 y& 3 + 32 y 3 = V3* (t ) / m3*

y&&1 + 0.458y&1 + 21.0y1 = 1.425v&&g (t )

y&&2 + 0.983y&2 + 96.6y2 = 0.511v&&g (t )

y&&3 + 1.457y&3 + 212.4y3 = 0.090v&&g (t )

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 55

Mode 1

Mode 2

Mode 3

Modal scaling

1 .4 2 5

1 .9 1 1

0 .5 1 1

0 .7 9 9

0 .0 9 0

0 .4 3 5

i,1 = 10

.

i Mi =10

.

T

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 56

(continued)

1.000

0.744

0.300

0.223

using 1,1

=1

using T M

1

=1

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 57

Mn

Mn = Pn m

2

*

n

Mode 1

Mode 2

Mode 3

Accum%

3.66 81

81

0.64 14

95

0.20 5 100%

4.50 100%

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 58

Example 1 (continued)

Solving modal equation via NONLIN:

For Mode 1:

&y&1 + 211y&1 + 12 y1 = V1* (t ) / m1*

M = 1.00 kip-sec2/in

C = 0.458 kip-sec/in

K1 = 21.0 kips/inch

Scale ground acceleration by factor 1.425

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 59

Example 1 (continued)

Modal Displacement Response Histories (from NONLIN)

6.00

3.00

T1 = 1.37 sec

0.00

-3.00

-6.00

0

MODE 1

10

11

12

2.00

1.00

T2 = 0.64

0.00

-1.00

-2.00

MODE 2

10

11

12

0.20

0.10

T3 = 0.43

0.00

-0.10

-0.20

MODE 3

10

Time, Seconds

11

12

Maxima

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 60

Example 1 (continued)

Modal Response Histories:

5

4

3

2

1

0

-1

-2

MODE 1

MODE 2

MODE 3

-3

-4

-5

0

10

12

Time, Seconds

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 61

Example 1 (continued)

u(t ) = y (t )

u1(t)

u2(t)

u3(t)

6

4

2

0

-2

-4

-6

0

10

11

12

10

11

12

10

11

12

6

4

2

0

-2

-4

-6

6

4

2

0

-2

-4

-6

0

Time, Seconds

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 62

Example 1 (continued)

Compute story shear response histories:

u1(t)

u2(t)

u3(t)

400

200

0

-200

-400

0

10

11

12

10

11

12

10

11

12

400

200

0

-200

-400

400

200

0

-200

-400

Time, Seconds

= k2[u2(t) - u3(t)]

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 63

Example 1 (continued)

Displacements and forces at time of maximum displacements

(t = 6.04 sec)

0

134.8 k

5.11

134.8

62.1 k

1348

2.86

196.9

1.22

23.5 k

3317

220.4

Story Shear (k)

5521

Story OTM (ft-k)

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 64

Example 1 (continued)

Displacements and forces at time of maximum shear

(t = 3.18 sec)

38.2 k

3.91

38.2

124.7 k

382

3.28

182.7 k

162.9

2111

1.92

345.6

Story Shear (k)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

5567

Story OTM (ft-k)

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 65

mode, use a response spectrum to compute the

maximum response in each mode.

statistical technique, such as square root of the sum of

the squares (SRSS) or complete quadratic combination

(CQC).

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 66

Displacement Response Spectrum

1940 El Centro, 0.35g, 5% Damping

7.00

6.00

Modal response

5.00

4.00

3.47

3.00

2.00

1.00

0.00

0.00

3.04

1.20

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

1.40

1.60

1.80

2.00

Period, Seconds

Mode 3

T = 0.431 sec

Mode 2

T = 0.639 sec

Mode 1

T = 1.37 sec

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 67

Example 1 (continued)

Spectral Displacement, Inches

7.00

6.00

5.00

4.00

3.47

3.00

3.04

2.00

1.20

1.00

0.00

0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

1.40

1.60

1.80

2.00

Period, Seconds

y&&1 + 0.458 y&1 + 21.0 y1 = 1.425v&&g (t )

Modal Maxima

y&&3 + 1.457 y& 3 + 212.4 y 3 = 0.090v&&g (t ) y 3 = 0.090 * 1.20 = 0.108"

y&&2 + 0.983 y& 2 + 96.6 y 2 = 0.511v&&g (t )

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 68

Example 1 (continued)

7.00

6.00

5.00

spectrum values give

the same modal maxima

as the previous time

Histories.

3.47x 1.425

4.00

3.00

3.04 x 0.511

2.00

1.20 x 0.090

1.00

0.00

0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

1.40

1.60

1.80

2.00

Period, Seconds

6.00

Mode 1

T = 1.37

3.00

0.00

-3.00

-6.00

0

10

11

12

10

11

12

10

11

12

2.00

Mode 2

T = 0.64

1.00

0.00

-1.00

-2.00

0.20

Mode 3

T = 0.43

0.10

0.00

-0.10

-0.20

Time, Seconds

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 69

Example 1 (continued)

Computing Nonconcurrent Story Displacements

Mode 1

1.000

4.940

=

0.644

4.940

3.181

0.300

1.482

Mode 2

1.000

1.550

0.601

1.550

0.931

0.676

1.048

Mode 3

0.108

1.000

2.5700.108 = 0.278

0.267

2.470

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 70

Example 1 (continued)

Modal Combination Techniques (for Displacement)

Sum of Absolute Values:

Exact

5.15

1.482 + 1.048 + 0.267 2.80

5.18

2

2

2

3.181 + 0.931 + 0.278 = 3.33

2

2

2 1.84

2.86

1.22

Envelope of story displacement

5.15

3.18

1.93

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 71

Example 1 (continued)

Computing Interstory Drifts

Mode 1

1.482 0 1.482

Mode 2

1.550(0.931) 2.481

0

.

117

0

.

931

(

1

.

048

)

1.0480 1.048

Mode 3

0.267 0 0.267

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 72

Example 1 (continued)

Computing Interstory Shears (Using Drift)

Mode 1

1.759(60) 105.5

1.699(120) = 203.9

1.482(180) 266.8

Mode 2

2.481(60) 148.9

=

0.117(120)

14.0

1.048(180) 188.6

Mode 3

0.386(60) 23.2

0.545(120)

65.4

0.267(180) 48.1

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 73

Example 1 (continued)

Computing Interstory Shears: SRSS Combination

106 2 + 149 2 + 23.22 220

2

2

2

+

+

215

=

204

14

65

.

4

267 2 + 189 2 + 48.12 331

Exact

Exact

Exact

38.2

163

346

135

197

220

207

203

346

At time of

max. shear

At time of max.

displacement

Envelope = maximum

per story

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 74

Caution:

Do NOT compute story shears from the story

drifts derived from the SRSS of the story

displacements.

Calculate the story shears in each mode

(using modal drifts) and then SRSS

the results.

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 75

Number of Natural Modes

Modal Response Histories:

5

4

3

2

1

0

-1

-2

MODE 1

MODE 2

MODE 3

-3

-4

-5

0

10

12

Time, Seconds

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 76

Time-History for Mode 1

y1(t1) y1(t 2) y1(t 3) y1(t 4) y1(t 5) y1(t 6) y1(t 7) y1(t 8) .... y1(tn)

y (t ) = y 2 (t1) y 2 (t 2) y 2 (t 3) y 2 (t 4) y 2 (t 5) y 2 (t 6) y 2 (t 7) y 2 (t 8) .... y 2 (tn)

y3 (t1) y3 (t 2) y3 (t 3) y3 (t 4) y3 (t 5) y3 (t 6) y3 (t 7) y3 (t 8) .... y3 (tn)

u(t ) = [1 2 3 ]y (t )

Transformation:

3 x nt

3x3

3 x nt

3 x nt

u1(t1) u1(t 2) u1(t 3) u1(t 4) u1(t 5) u1(t 6) u1(t 7) u1(t 8) .... u1(tn)

u(t ) = u2 (t1) u2 (t 2) u2 (t 3) u2 (t 4) u2 (t 5) u2 (t 6) u2 (t 7) u2 (t 8) .... u2 (tn)

u3 (t1) u3 (t 2) u3 (t 3) u3 (t 4) u3 (t 5) u3 (t 6) u3 (t 7) u3 (t 8) .... u3 (tn)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 77

Time History for Mode 1

y (t1) y1(t 2) y1(t 3) y1(t 4) y1(t 5) y1(t 6) y1(t 7) y1(t 8) .... y1(tn)

y (t ) = 1

y

(

t

1)

y

(

t

2)

y

(

t

3)

y

(

t

4)

y

(

t

5)

y

(

t

6)

y

(

t

7)

y

(

t

8)

....

y

(

tn

)

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

u(t ) = 1 2 y (t )

Transformation:

3 x nt

3x2

2 x nt

3 x nt

u1(t1) u1(t 2) u1(t 3) u1(t 4) u1(t 5) u1(t 6) u1(t 7) u1(t 8) .... u1(tn)

u(t ) = u2 (t1) u2 (t 2) u2 (t 3) u2 (t 4) u2 (t 5) u2 (t 6) u2 (t 7) u2 (t 8) .... u2 (tn)

u3 (t1) u3 (t 2) u3 (t 3) u3 (t 4) u3 (t 5) u3 (t 6) u3 (t 7) u3 (t 8) .... u3 (tn)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 78

(Modal Response Spectrum Technique)

Sum of absolute values:

4.940 + 1.550 + 0.108 6.60

1.482 + 1.048 + 0.267 2.80

6.49

4.112

2.53

5.18

2

2

2

3.181 + 0.931 + 0.278 = 3.33

2

2

2 1.84

5.18

3.31

1.82

At time of maximum

displacement

Exact:

5.15

2.86

1.22

3 modes 2 modes

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 79

Responding to 1940 El Centro Earthquake

m1=2.5 k-s2/in

10 ft

u1(t)

k1=150 k/in

m2=2.5 k-s2/in

u2(t)

Example 2

Assume Wilson

damping with 5%

critical in each mode.

k2=150 k/in

10 ft

u3(t)

m3=2.5 k-s2/in

10 ft

k3=150 k/in

N-S component of 1940 El Centro earthquake

Maximum acceleration = 0.35 g

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 80

Example 2 (continued)

Form property matrices:

m1=2.5 k-s2/in

u1(t)

k1=150 k/in

m2=2.5 k-s2/in

u2(t)

m3=2.5 k-s2/in

2.5

kip s2/in

M =

2.5

2.5

k2=150 k/in

u3(t)

k3=150 k/in

0

150 150

K = 150 300 150 kip/in

0

150 300

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 81

Example 2 (continued)

Solve = eigenvalue problem:

m1=2.5 k-s2/in

u1(t)

k1=150 k/in

m2=2.5 k-s2/in

u2(t)

m3=2.5 k-s2/in

k2=150 k/in

u3(t)

k3=150 k/in

K = M2

11.9

2

2

=

93.3

sec

194.8

1.000 1.000 1.000

= 0.802 0.555 2.247

0.445 1.247 1.802

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 82

M = I

T

1.000 1.000 1.000

= 0.373 0.207 0.465 vs 0.802 0.555 2.247

0.445 1.247 1.802

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 83

Example 2 (continued)

Mode Shapes and Periods of Vibration

Mode 1

= 3.44 rad/sec

T = 1.82 sec

Mode 2

= 9.66 rad/sec

T = 0.65 sec

Mode 3

= 13.96 rad/sec

T = 0.45 sec

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 84

Example 2 (continued)

m1=2.5 k-s2/in

u1(t)

k1=150 k/in

m2=2.5 k-s2/in

u2(t)

k2=150 k/in

m3=2.5 k-s2/in

u3(t)

k3=150 k/in

3.44

13.96

1.82

Tn = 0.65sec

0.45

4 .6 0 3

M * = T M =

7 .1 5 8

k ip se c 2 / in

2 3 .2 4 1

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 85

Example 2 (continued)

m1=2.5 k-s2/in

m2=2.5

k-s2/in

u1(t)

k1=150 k/in

V * (t ) = T MR v&&g (t )

u2(t)

k2=150 k/in

m3=2.5 k-s2/in

u3(t)

k3=150 k/in

5.617

&&

*

Vn = 2.005 vg (t )

1.388

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 86

Example 2 (continued)

Write uncoupled (modal) equations of motion:

m1=2.5 k-s2/in

u1(t)

m2=2.5 k-s2/in

k1=150 k/in

u2(t)

k2=150 k/in

m3=2.5 k-s2/in

u3(t)

k3=150 k/in

y&&2 + 0.966y&2 + 93.29y2 = 0.280v&&g (t )

y&&3 + 1.395y&3 + 194.83y3 = 0.06v&&g (t )

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 87

Mode 1 1 .2 2 2 .6 1 5

Mode 2 0 .2 8

0 .7 4 8

Mode 3 0 .0 6 0 0 .2 8 7

Modal scaling

i,1 = 10

.

i Mi =10

.

T

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 88

Mn

Mn = Pn mn

2

% Accum%

Mode 1 6.856 91.40 91.40

Mode 2 0.562 7.50 98.90

Mode 3 0.083 1.10

100.0

7.50 100%

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 89

Example 2 (continued)

Solving modal equation via NONLIN:

For Mode 1:

&y&1 + 211y&1 + 12 y1 = V1* (t ) / m1*

M = 1.00 kip-sec2/in

C = 0.345 kip-sec/in

K1 = 11.88 kips/inch

Scale ground acceleration by factor 1.22

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 90

Example 2 (continued)

Modal Displacement Response Histories (from NONLIN)

10.00

5.00

T=1.82

0.00

-5.00

-10.00

0

Mode 1

10

11

12

1.00

0.50

T=0.65

0.00

-0.50

Mode 2

-1.00

0

10

11

12

0.15

0.10

0.05

0.00

T=0.45

-0.05

-0.10

Mode 3

10

11

12

Maxima

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 91

Example 2 (continued)

Modal Response Histories

8

MODE 1

MODE 2

MODE 3

6

4

2

0

-2

-4

-6

-8

0

10

12

Time, Seconds

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 92

Example 2 (continued)

Compute story displacement response histories:

u1(t)

u2(t)

u3(t)

u(t ) = y (t )

8.00

6.00

4.00

2.00

0.00

-2.00

-4.00

-6.00

-8.00

0

10

11

12

10

11

12

10

11

12

8.00

6.00

4.00

2.00

0.00

-2.00

-4.00

-6.00

-8.00

8.00

6.00

4.00

2.00

0.00

-2.00

-4.00

-6.00

-8.00

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 93

Example 2 (continued)

Compute story shear response histories:

u1(t)

u2(t)

u3(t)

600.00

400.00

200.00

0.00

-200.00

-400.00

-600.00

0

10

11

12

10

11

12

10

11

12

600.00

400.00

200.00

0.00

-200.00

-400.00

-600.00

600.00

400.00

200.00

0.00

-200.00

-400.00

-600.00

Time, Seconds

=k2[u2(t)-u3(t)]

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 94

Example 2 (continued)

Displacements and Forces at time of Maximum Displacements

(t = 8.96 seconds)

0

222.2 k

6.935

222.2

175.9 k

2222

5.454

398.1

21.9 k

6203

2.800

420.0

Story Shear (k)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

10403

Story OTM (ft-k)

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 95

Example 2 (continued)

Displacements and Forces at Time of Maximum Shear

(t = 6.26 sec)

130.10 k

6.44

130.10

180.45 k

1301

5.57

215.10 k

310.55

4406

3.50

525.65

Story Shear (k)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

9663

Story OTM (ft-k)

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 96

mode, use a response spectrum to compute the

maximum response in each mode.

Combine the maximum modal responses using some

statistical technique, such as square root of the sum of

the squares (SRSS) or complete quadratic combination

(CQC).

It is the basis for the equivalent lateral force (ELF) method.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 97

Displacement Response Spectrum

1940 El Centro, 0.35g, 5% Damping

Spectral Displacement, Inches

7.00

MODAL RESPONSE

6.00

5.71

5.00

4.00

3.02

3.00

2.00

1.57

1.00

0.00

0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

1.40

1.60

1.80

2.00

Period, Seconds

Mode 2

T = 0.65 sec

Mode 1

T = 1.82 sec

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 98

Mode 3

T = 0.45 sec

Example 2 (continued)

Spectral Displacement, Inches

7.00

6.00

5.71

5.00

4.00

3.02

3.00

2.00

1.00

1.57

0.00

0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

1.40

1.60

1.80

2.00

Period, Seconds

y&&1 + 0.345 y&1 + 11.88 y1 = 1.22v&&g (t )

y&&2 + 0.966 y& 2 + 93.29 y 2 = 0.280v&&g (t )

y&&3 + 1.395 y& 3 + 194.83 y 3 = 0.060v&&g (t )

Modal Maxima

y 2 = 0.28 * 3.02 = 0.845"

y3 = 0.060 *1.57 = 0.094"

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 99

S p e c tra l D is p la c e m e n t, In c h e s

7.00

6.00

Example 2 (continued)

5.71 x 1.22

in.

5.00

4.00

3.00

2.00 1.57 x 0.06 in.

1.00

0.00

0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00

Period, Seconds

spectrum values give

the same modal maxima

as the previous time

histories.

10.00

5.00

0.00

Mode 1

T = 1.82

-5.00

-10.00

0

10

11

12

1.00

0.50

Mode 2

T = 0.65

0.00

-0.50

-1.00

0

10

10

11

12

0.15

Mode 3

T = 0.45

0.10

0.05

0.00

-0.05

-0.10

0

11

12

Example 2 (continued)

Computing Nonconcurrent Story Displacements

Mode 1

1.000

6.966

0.802

6.966

5.586

=

0.445

3.100

Mode 2

1.000

0.845

0.555

0.845

0.469

1.247

1.053

Mode 3

1.000

0.094

1.802

0.169

Example 2 (continued)

Modal Combination Techniques (For Displacement)

Sum of absolute values:

Exact

3.100 + 1.053 + 0.169 4.322

6.935

5.454

2.800

Envelope of story displacement

7.02

2

2

2

5.586 + 0.469 + 0.211 = 5.61

2

2

2 3.28

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

6.935

5.675

2.965

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 102

Example 2 (continued)

Computing Interstory Drifts

Mode 1

3.100 0 3.100

Mode 2

0.469

(

1.053)

0.584

1.053 0 1.053

Mode 3

0.169 0

0.169

Example 2 (continued)

Computing Interstory Shears (Using Drift)

Mode 1

1.380(150) 207.0

2.486(150) = 372.9

3.100(150) 465.0

Mode 2

1.314(150) 197.1

0.584(150)

87.6

=

1.053(150) 157.9

Mode 3

0.319(150) 47.9

0.380(150)

57.0

0.169(150) 25.4

Example 2 (continued)

Computing Interstory Shears: SRSS Combination

2072 + 197.12 + 47.92

289.81

2

2

2

+

+

=

372.9

87.6

57

387.27

491.73

2

2

2

Exact

Exact

Exact

130.1

310.5

525.7

222.2

398.1

420.0

304.0

398.5

525.7

At time of

max. shear

At time of max.

displacement

Envelope = maximum

per story

Modal Analysis Technique Called the

Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure

Smoothed response spectrum

Compute total base shear, V, as if SDOF

Distribute V along height assuming regular

geometry

Compute displacements and member forces using

standard procedures

Higher modes can be included empirically.

Has been calibrated to provide a reasonable

estimate of the envelope

of story shear, NOT to provide accurate

estimates of story force.

May result in overestimate of overturning

moment.

Use response spectrum to obtain total acceleration @ T1

Acceleration, g

Sa1

T1

Period, sec

W

= Sa1W

VB = (Sa1g )M = (Sa1g )

g

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

dr

Wx

hx

fx

hx

2 Wx

fx (t ) = d r (t )1

h

g

VB (t ) =

nstories

i =1

d r (t )12

fi (t ) =

hg

nstories

i =1

hiWi

fx (t )

=

VB (t )

hxWx

nstories

i =1

hiWi

m1=1.0 k-s2/in

m2=1.5

k1=60 k/in

k2=120 k/in

3h

m3=2.0

Recall

T1 = 1.37 sec

k3=180 k/in

Total weight = M x g = (1.0 + 1.5 + 2.0) 386.4 = 1738 kips

Spectral acceleration = w2SD = (2p/1.37)2 x 3.47 = 72.7

in/sec2 = 0.188g

Spectral Displacement, Inches

7.00

6.00

5.00

4.00

3.47 in.

3.00

2.00

1.00

1.37sec

0.00

0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

1.40

1.60

1.80

2.00

Period, Seconds

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

386(3h )

= 0.381VB = 0.375(327) = 125 kips

f3 =

386(3h ) + 579(2h ) + 722(h )

W=386 k

W=579 k

3h

W=722 k

125 k

125 k

(220 k)

125 k

250 k

(215 k)

77 k

327 k

(331 k)

327 k

Story Shear (k)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Units = inches

Time History

(Envelope)

5.15

3.18

1.93

Modal Response

Spectrum

5.18

3.33

1.84

ELF

5.98

3.89

1.82

base shear (327 kips ELF vs 331 kips modal

response spectrum).

ELF underestimates shears in upper stories.

Higher Mode Effects

1st Mode

=

2nd Mode

Combined

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 115

Uses smoothed response spectrum

Has correction for higher modes

Has correction for overturning moment

Has limitations on use

Ta = Ct h

x

n

Ct = 0.016, x = 0.9 for concrete moment frames

Ct = 0.030, x = 0.75 for eccentrically braced frames

Ct = 0.020, x = 0.75 for all other systems

Note: For building structures only!

Ta = 0.1N

For moment frames < 12 stories in height, minimum

story height of 10 feet. N = number of stories.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

T = TaCu Tcomputed

SD1

> 0.40g

0.30g

0.20g

0.15g

< 0.1g

Cu

1.4

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

substantiated analysis.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

(for Use with ELF Procedure)

Spectral Response

Acceleration, Sa

V = CSW

SDS

Short

period

acceleration

1

SD1

Long period

acceleration

T = 0.2

T = 1.0

SDS

CS =

R

I

SD1

CS =

R

T

I

Varies

Period, T

function of system inelastic behavior. This is covered

in the topic on inelastic behavior. For now, use

R = 1, which implies linear elastic behavior.

Seismic Use Group. I = 1.5 for essential facilities,

1.25 for important high occupancy structures,

and 1.0 for normal structures. For now, use I = 1.

Fx = CvxV

Cvx =

k

x

wxh

n

w h

i =1

k

i

k = 0.5T + 0.75

(sloped portion only)

k

2.0

1.0

0.5

2.5

Period, sec

k=2

k=1

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

V = 327 kips

T = 1.37 sec

W = 386k

146 k

(125 k)

146 k

W = 579k

120 k

(125 k)

266 k

3h

W = 722k

61 k

(77 k)

327 k

327 k

Story Shear (k)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Applicable only to regular structures with T

less than 3.5Ts. Note that Ts = SD1/SDS.

Adjacent story strength does not vary more than 20%.

Adjacent story masses does not vary more than 50%.

If violated, must use more advanced analysis (typically

modal response spectrum analysis).

Other Considerations Affecting Loading

Redundancy

Accidential torsion

Torsional amplification

P-delta effects

Importance factor

Ductility and overstrength

Deterministic procedures

Probabilistic procedures

USGS hazard maps

2003 NEHRP Provisions design maps

Site amplification

NEHRP Provisions response spectrum

UBC response spectrum

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Hazard vs Risk

Seismic hazard analysis

describes the potential for dangerous,

earthquake-related natural phenomena

such as ground shaking, fault rupture,

or soil liquefaction.

assesses the probability of occurrence of losses

(human, social, economic) associated with

the seismic hazards.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Deterministic

The earthquake hazard for the site is a peak ground

acceleration of 0.35g resulting from an earthquake

of magnitude 6.0 on the Balcones Fault at a distance of

12 miles from the site.

Probabilistic

The earthquake hazard for the site is a peak ground

acceleration of 0.28g with a 2 percent probability of being

exceeded in a 50-year period.

First addressed in 1968 by C. Allin Cornell in

Engineering Seismic Risk Analysis, and article

in the Bulletin of the Seismological Society

(Vol. 58, No. 5, October).

(2) Controlling Earthquake

(1) Sources

Site

F1

Balcones

Fault

Fixed distance R

Fixed magnitude M

Area

Source

Peak Acceleration

Magnitude M

Distance

The earthquake hazard for

the site is a peak ground

acceleration of 0.35 g

resulting from an earthquake

of magnitude 6.0 on the

Balcones Fault at a distance

of 12 miles from the site.

Source Types

Fault

Fault

Site

Fault

Localizing

structure

Area

Source

Seismotectonic

province

Source Types

Localizing structure: An identifiable geological

structure that is assumed to generate or localize

earthquakes. This is generally a concentration of

known or unknown active faults.

Seismotectonic province: A region where there

is a known seismic hazard but where there are no

identifiable active faults or localizing structures.

Maximum Earthquake

Maximum possible earthquake:

An upper bound to

size (however unlikely) determined by earthquake processes (e.g.,

maximum seismic moment).

The maximum

reasonable earthquake size based on earthquake processes (but

does not imply likely occurrence).

or instrumented earthquake that is often a lower bound on

maximum possible or maximum credible earthquake.

Described

later.

Magnitude M

Reasons:

Geometric spreading

Absorption (damping)

Distance

Steps to Obtain Empirical Relationship

1. Obtain catalog of appropriate ground motion records

2. Correct for aftershocks, foreshocks

3. Correct for consistent magnitude measure

4. Fit data to empirical relationship of type:

ln Y = ln b1 + f1 ( M ) + ln f 2 ( R ) + ln f 3 ( M , R ) + ln f 4 ( Pi ) + ln

Basic Empirical Relationships

ln Y = ln b1 + f1 ( M ) + ln f 2 ( R ) + ln f 3 ( M , R ) + ln f 4 ( Pi ) + ln

Y Ground motion parameter (e.g. PGA)

b1 Scaling factor

f1 ( M ) Function of magnitude

f 2 ( R) Function of distance

f 4 ( Pi ) Other variables

Error term

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Relationships for Different Conditions

Subduction zone earthquakes

Shallow crustal earthquakes

Near-source attenuation

Extensional tectonic regions

Many others

May be developed for any desired quantity (PGA,

PGV, spectral response).

Relationships

Volume 68, Number 1

January/February, 1997

(Sadigh, Chang, Egan, Makdisi, and Youngs)

(Sadigh, Chang, Egan, Makdisi, and Youngs)

(Sadigh, Chang, Egan, Makdisi, and Youngs)

(Sadigh, Chang, Egan, Makdisi, and Youngs)

T

PGA

0.07

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.75

1

1.5

2

3

4

C1

-0.624

0.110

0.275

0.153

-0.057

-0.298

-0.588

-1.208

-1.705

-2.407

-2.945

-3.700

-4.230

C2

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

C3

0.000

0.006

0.006

-0.004

-0.017

-0.028

-0.040

-0.050

-0.055

-0.065

-0.070

-0.080

-0.100

C4

-2.100

-2.128

-2.148

-2.080

-2.028

-1.990

-1.945

-1.865

-1.800

-1.725

-1.670

-1.610

-1.570

C5

1.296

1.296

1.296

1.296

1.296

1.296

1.296

1.296

1.296

1.296

1.296

1.296

1.296

C6

0.250

0.250

0.250

0.250

0.250

0.250

0.250

0.250

0.250

0.250

0.250

0.250

0.250

C7

0.000

-0.082

-0.041

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

(Sadigh, Chang, Egan, Makdisi, and Youngs)

Magnitude

0.1

4

5

6

7

8

0.01

0.001

1

10

100

1000

Distance, KM

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

(Sadigh, Chang, Egan, Makdisi, and Youngs)

1.0 Second Acceleration

10

Magnitude

1

4

5

6

7

8

0.1

0.01

0.001

10

Magnitude

1

4

5

6

7

8

0.1

0.01

0.001

1

10

100

1000

Distance, KM

10

100

1000

Distance, KM

Source 3

Source 2

D3

D2

Source 1

D1

Site

Source M

1

2

3

7.3

7.7

5.0

D

PGA

(km) (g)

23.7 0.42

25.0 0.57

60.0 0.02

Maximum on source

Closest distance

From attenuation relationship

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Site

F1

Balcones

Fault

Area

Source

(2) Recurrence

(1) Sources

Magnitude M

Uncertainty

M1

M3

Distance

M2

Probability of Exceedance

Peak Acceleration

Seismic Hazard Analysis 5a - 24

Empirical Gutenberg-Richter

Recurrence Relationship

1000

log m = a bm

100

10

1

0.1

= mean rate of

recurrence

(events/year)

1 / m =

0.01

return period

0.001

0.0001

0

Magnitude

10

Bounded vs Unbounded

Recurrence Relationship

Mean Annual Rate of Exceedance

1000

Unbounded

Bounded

100

10

1

0.1

0.01

0.001

0.0001

0.00001

0.000001

0

10

Magnitude

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Uncertainties Included in

Probabilistic Analysis

Attenuation laws

Recurrence relationship

Distance to site

NS NM NR

y* = vi P[Y > y * m j , rk ] P[ M = m j ] P[ R = rk ]

i =1 j =1 k =1

Source 3

Source 2

D3

D2=?

D1=?

Source 1

Source 3

Site

M3=?

A3=?

Source 1

Site

Source 2

M2=?

A2=?

M1=?

A1=?

Source 1

Site

Source 2

Source 3

10-1

10-0

10-1

10-2

10-3

Source 2

10-4

10-5

Source 1

Source 3

10-6

10-7

10-8

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

and Probability of Exceedance

10000

2475

1000

474

100

2%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

10

1

0

20

40

50

60

80

100

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Acceleration, g

Return period = 475 years

Rate of exceedance = 1/475=0.0021

0.8

0.6

10% in 50 year

elastic response

spectrum

SEISMIC HAZARD CURVE

10-1

10-0

10-1

10-2

10-3

10-4

10-5

10-6

10-7

10-8

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.4

PGA=0.33g

0.2

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

Period, T (sec)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Acceleration, g

Return period = 475 years

rate of exceedance = 1/475=0.0021

0.8

0.6

10% in 50 year

Elastic Response

Spectrum

10-1

10-0

10-1

10-2

10-3

10-4

10-5

10-6

10-7

10-8

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.4

PGA = 0.55g

0.2

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

Period, T (sec)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Response Spectrum

0.8

Acceleration, g

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

Period, T (sec)

Response

Uniform hazard spectrum

Large distant

earthquake

Small nearby

earthquake

Period

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Developed from probabilistic analysis

All ordinates have equal probability of exceedance

Represents contributions from small local,

large distant earthquakes

May be overly conservative for modal response

spectrum analysis

May not be appropriate for artificial ground motion

generation

Probabilistic vs Deterministic

Seismic Hazard Analysis

The deterministic approach provides a clear and

trackable method of computing seismic hazard whose

assumptions are easily discerned. It provides

understandable scenarios that can be related to the

problem at hand.

However, it has no way for accounting for uncertainty.

Conclusions based on deterministic analysis can easily

be upset by the occurrence of new earthquakes.

Probabilistic vs Deterministic

Seismic Hazard Analysis

The probabilistic approach is capable of integrating

a wide range of information and uncertainties into

a flexible framework.

Unfortunately, its highly integrated framework can

obscure those elements which drive the results, and its

highly quantitative nature can lead to false impressions

of accuracy.

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

0

0.5

1.5

2.5

Period (sec)

2% in 50 years

HAZARD MAP

10% in 50 years

RESPONSE SPECTRA

(and NEHRP Provisions Maps)

Guidelines Theme Issue, Volume 16, Number 1,

February 2000

the maximum level of earthquake shaking

that is considered as reasonable to design

normal structures to resist.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

0

0.5

1.5

2.5

Period (sec)

2% in 50 years

10% in 50 years

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

0

0.5

1.5

2.5

Period (sec)

2% in 50 years

10% in 50 years

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/hazmaps/

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/research/hazmaps/design/

The input zipcode is 80203. (DENVER)

ZIP CODE

80203

LOCATION

39.7310 Lat. -104.9815 Long.

DISTANCE TO NEAREST GRID POINT 3.7898 kms

NEAREST GRID POINT

39.7 Lat. -105.0 Long.

Probabilistic ground motion values, in %g, at the Nearest Grid

point are:

PGA

0.2 sec SA

0.3 sec SA

1.0 sec SA

10%PE in 50 yr

3.299764

7.728900

6.178438

2.334019

5%PE in 50 yr

5.207589

11.917400

9.507714

3.601994

2%PE in 50 yr

9.642159

19.921591

16.133711

5.879917

ACCURATE RESULTS.

5% damped, 2% in 50 years, Site Class B (firm rock)

0.2 second and 1.0 second spectral ordinates provided

On certain faults in California, Alaska, Hawaii, and CUS

Provisions values are deterministic cap times 1.5. Outside

deterministic areas, Provisions maps are the same

as the USGS maps.

USGS longitude/latitude and zipcode values are

probabilistic MCE. To avoid confusion, ALWAYS

use Provisions (adopted by ASCE and IBC) maps

for design purposes.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Deterministic Cap

Applies only where probabilistic values exceed

highest design values from old (Algermissen and Perkins)

maps.

The deterministic procedure for mapping applies:

For known active faults

Uses characteristic largest earthquake on fault

Uses 150% of value from median attenuation

Use deterministic value if lower than 2% in 50 year value

0.2 Second Spectral Response (SS)

1.0 Second Spectral Response (S1)

Site Class B (Firm Rock)

Spectral Acceleration, g.

1.00

Ss = 0.75g

0.80

Curve is S1/T

0.60

S1 = 0.30g

0.40

Constant

displacement

region beyond

transition

period TL

0.20

PGA

0.00

Not mapped

Period, sec.

Acceleration

B

A

Time

Sand

Shale

Rock

A

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Longer duration of motion

Change in frequency content of motion

Not the same as soil-structure interaction

Soft

Rock

and Mexico City Earthquakes

A

Very dense soil or soft rock: 1200 < vs < 2500 ft/sec

Site-specific requirements

for Site Classes A through E

3.00

Site Class

A

B

C

D

E

2.00

1.50

1.00

0.50

0.00

0.00

4.00

Site Class

A

B

C

D

E

3.50

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00

1.25

1.50

Amplification Fv

Amplification Fa

2.50

3.00

2.50

2.00

1.50

1.00

0.50

0.00

0.00

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00

1.25

1.50

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Modified for Site Class D

SMS = FASS = 1.2(0.75)=0.9g

Spectral Acceleration, g.

1.05

0.84

Basic

0.63

0.42

0.21

Site Amplified

0.00

0

Period, sec.

by 2/3 for Margin of Performance

Buildings designed according to current procedures

assumed to have margin of collapse of 1.5

Judgment of lower bound margin of

collapse given by current design procedures

Design with current maps (2% in 50 year) but

scale motions by 2/3

Results in 2/3 x 1.5 = 1.0 deterministic earthquake

(where applicable)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design Spectra (Scaled by 2/3)

1.00

Spectral Aceleration, g.

Site Amplified

0.80

Basic

0.60

0.40

0.20

Scaled

0.00

0

Period, sec.

Spectral Response Acceleration (g)

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

0

0.5

1.5

2.5

Period (sec)

2% in 50 years

10% in 50 years

2/3 of 2% in 50 years

Spectral Response Acceleration (g)

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

0

0.5

1.5

2.5

Period (sec)

2% in 50 years

10% in 50 years

2/3 of 2% in 50 years

2% in 50 Year 5% Damped

Inelastic Design Spectra (R=6, I=1)

Site Class D

Spectral Acceleration, g.

1.00

Site Amplified

0.80

0.60

Basic

Scaled

0.40

0.20

Inelastic

0.00

0

Period, sec.

Elastic Spectra by R

Methods for obtaining acceptable

inelastic response are presented

in later topics

For sites relatively close to the fault, the

direction of fault rupture can have an amplifying

effect on ground motion amplitude.

Towards

Away

How To Obtain the Basic Values

1 Determine basic values from maps for

bedrock conditions

2, 3 Classify soil conditions at site and

determine site coefficients

4 Determine site-adjusted values

4 Take two-thirds for use in design

5 Construct design response spectrum

7 Site-specific studies permitted/required

Two sets of maps; acceleration parameter is in

units of gravity

SS for spectral response acceleration at 0.2 sec

S1 for spectral response acceleration at 1.0 sec

Shortcut to Seismic Design Category A:

SS < 0.15 and S1 < 0.04

Mapped Contours of SS

mapped 2% in 50 year

spectral accelerations

for firm rock

SDS and SD1 are the

design level spectral

accelerations (modified

for site and expected

good performance)

CD vs Internet

Internet

CD

Both sources give the same answers

Both sources have a similar user

interface

The graphics are somewhat different

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/research/hazmaps/

Ss and S1, Hazard Curves, Uniform Hazard

Spectra, and Residential Design Category

Installation

Installation Caution

Opening Screen

Analysis Options

IBC Option

User Aids

Calculate SS AND S1

Location By Zipcode

Calculate SM Spectrum

Calculate SD Spectrum

Graphic Options

Map Spectrum: Sa - T

All Spectra: Sa - T

Return Period

Single Values

Deaggregation

hazard analysis

Helps remove some of the black box

effect

Helps visualize the source of the

hazard

Many uses, e.g. liquefaction analysis,

time history determination

Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Deaggregation Olympia,

Washington

States

10% PE in 50 years

PGA only

Estimate 2% from 10% PE by multiplying by

2.0

Ss = 2.5xPGA

S1 = PGA

Use site-specific studies where available

USGS studies where available

Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

UFC 3-310-1

What is GSHAP?

INELASTIC BEHAVIOR OF

MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 1

Inelastic Behavior of

Materials and Structures

Explains why inelastic response may be necessary

Explains the equal displacement concept

Introduces the concept of inelastic design response spectra

Explains how inelastic behavior is built into the NEHRP

Recommended Provisions and ASCE 7-05

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 2

reduction factor, R

amplification factor, Cd

factor, o

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 3

From material

to cross section

to critical region

to structure

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 4

From Material..

Stress

u

y

u

=

y

y

Strain

u

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 5

Stress, ksi

80

60

40

20

0

0.005

0.010

0.015

0.020

0.025

Strain, in/in

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 6

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 7

(Unconfined and Confined)

Stress, ksi

6

4

Confined

2

Unconfined

0

0.002

0.004

0.006

0.008

0.010

Strain, in/in

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 8

Concrete Confinement

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 9

Unconfined

Confined

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 10

Benefits of Confinement

Spiral Confinement

Virtually NO Confinement

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 11

To Section..

Strain

Stress

Moment

ELASTIC

y

Strain

y

Stress

My

Moment

INELASTIC

Mu

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 12

To Section..

Moment

Mu

My

u

=

y

y

NOTE:

Curvature

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 13

XTRACT

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 14

To Critical Region and Member

Mu

My

Moment

Area y

u

Curvature

Area u

LP

ELASTIC

INELASTIC

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 15

To Critical Region and Member

Moment

Mu

My

u

=

y

y

NOTE:

Rotation

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 16

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 17

To Structure..

Force

u

=

y

Note:

Displacement

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 18

Strain = 100

Curvature = 12 to 20

Rotation = 8 to 14

Displacement = 4 to 10

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 19

acceptable seismic behavior.

ductile materials. However, ductility in

itself is insufficient to provide acceptable

seismic behavior.

better indicator of performance.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 20

Cyclic Loading

(t)

+

Time

as a result of the deformations.

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 21

Displacement

Transducer

(Controls )

+

Moment Arm L

7

5

3

Time

2

4

6

Hydraulic

Ram

Records (F)

inelastic, and reversed

Load Cell

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 22

Force

Displacement

Transducer

(Controls )

Moment Arm L

Deformation

Hydraulic

Ram

Records (F)

Measured Hysteretic

Behavior

Load Cell

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 23

Hysteretic Behavior

Force

Force

Deformation

ROBUST

(Excellent)

Deformation

PINCHED

(Good)

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 24

Hysteretic Behavior

Force

Force

Deformation

Poor

Deformation

BRITTLE

Unacceptable

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 25

Hysteretic Behavior

AREA=

Energy Dissipated

Force

Force

Deformation

ROBUST

Deformation

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 26

cycles of inelastic deformation without significant

loss of strength.

stiffness loss can lead to collapse.

excessive deformation, the better the behavior

of the structure.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 27

With good detailing, structures can be designed

for force levels significantly lower than would be

required for elastic response.

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 28

Compare the Wind and Seismic Design of a

Simple Building

Building properties:

Moment resisting frames

Density = 8 pcf

Period T = 1.0 sec

Damping = 5%

Soil Site Class B

62.5

90

120

Wind:

100 mph Exposure C

Earthquake:

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 29

Wind:

100 mph fastest

Exposure C

62.5

Gust/exposure factor Ce = 1.25

Pressure coefficient Cq = 1.3

Load factor for wind = 1.3

90

120

VW120= 62.5*120*25.6*1.25*1.3*1.3/1000 = 406 kips

Total wind force on 90-foot face:

VW90 = 62.5*90*25.6*1.25*1.3*1.3/1000 = 304 kips

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 30

Earthquake:

Building weight, W =

120*90*62.5*8/1000 = 5400

kips

62.5

VEQ = CSW

90

120

0.48

S D1

CS =

=

= 0.480

. (10

. / 10

. )

T ( R / I ) 10

Total ELASTIC earthquake force (in each direction):

VEQ = 0.480*5400 = 2592 kips

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 31

VEQ

2592

=

= 6.4

VW 120

406

VEQ

2592

=

= 8.5

VW 90

304

Virtually impossible to obtain economical design

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 32

Increase damping (passive energy dissipation)

Allow controlled inelastic response

Historically, building codes use inelastic response procedure.

Inelastic response occurs through structural damage (yielding).

We must control the damage for the method to be successful.

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 33

Pushover Analysis Predicts Strength = 500 k

Force, kips

Actual

600

Idealized

400

200

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

Displacement, inches

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 34

Force, kips

600

Fy=500 k

K2=11 k/in

400

200

K1=550 k/in

1.0

2.0

4.0

5.0

Displacement, in.

0 .6

Acceleration, g

3.0

0 .4

0 .2

0

-0 .2

-0 .4

-0 .6

0

10

12

14

16

18

20

T im e , S e c o n d s

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 35

Maximum

displacement:

4.79

Maximum

shear force:

542 k

Number of

yield events:

15

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 36

=

= 5.26

Ductility Demand

Yield Displacement

0.91

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 37

The frame, designed for a wind force that is 15%

of the ELASTIC earthquake force, can survive the

earthquake if:

It has the capability to undergo numerous cycles of

INELASTIC deformation.

It has the capability to deform at least 5 to 6

times the yield deformation.

It suffers no appreciable loss of strength.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 38

As a result of the large displacements associated with

the inelastic deformations, the structure will suffer

considerable structural and nonstructural damage.

adequate detailing and by limiting

structural deformations (drift).

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 39

Concept of Seismic Resistant Design

Concept used by:

IBC

NEHRP

ASCE-7

design concept. Used to predict

design forces and displacements

FEMA 273

analysis. Used to predict displacements

at various performance points.

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 40

stiffness K and strength Fy, subjected to a particular

ground motion, is approximately equal to the displacement

of the same system responding elastically.

(The displacement of a system is independent of the

yield strength of the system.)

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 41

(All other parameters stay the same)

7

Elastic = 5.77

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

Ductility Demand

6

5

4

Inelastic

3

2

1

Elastic

0

0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 42

of Inelastic Response

IDEALIZED BEHAVIOR

3500

3500

3000

3000

2500

2500

Force, Kips

Force, Kips

ACTUAL BEHAVIOR

2000

1500

1000

2000

1500

1000

500

500

0

0

4

Displacement, Inches

Displacement, inches

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 43

of Inelastic Response

inelastic displacements are equal to the

displacements that would occur during an

elastic response.

are much less than the force levels required for

elastic response.

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 44

of Inelastic Design

3500

Elastic

Force, Kips

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

Inelastic

500

0

0

5.77 6

Displacement, inches

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 45

of Inelastic Design

3500

Elastic

Force, Kips

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

Inelastic

500

0

0 d =0.91 2

y

4 du=5.77 6

Displacement, inches

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

5.77

= 6.34

0.91

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 46

3500

FE

Force, Kips

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

FI

500

0

0

dR

dI 6

Displacement, inches

Estimate ductility supply, , and determine inelastic force demand FI

= FE /.. Design structure for FI.

Compute reduced displacement. dR, and multiply by to obtain true

inelastic eisplacement, dI. Check drift using di.

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 47

ASCE 7 Approach

Use basic elastic spectrum but, for strength,

divide all pseudoacceleration values by R,

a response modification factor that accounts for:

Overstrength

Damping (if different than 5% critical)

Past performance of similar systems

Redundancy

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 48

Ductility/Overstrength

FIRST SIGNIFICANT YIELD

First

Significant

Yield

Force

Design

Strength

Displacement

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 49

that causes complete plastification of at least

the most critical region of the structure (e.g.,

formation of the first plastic hinge).

The design strength of a structure is equal

to the resistance at first significant yield.

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 50

Overstrength (1)

Force

Design

Strength

Displacement

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 51

Overstrength (2)

Force

Design

Strength

Displacement

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 52

Overstrength (3)

Force

Apparent

Strength

Overstrength

Design

Strength

Displacement

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 53

Sources of Overstrength

Material overstrength (actual vs specified yield)

Strain hardening

Capacity reduction ( ) factors

Member selection

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 54

Overstrength Factor =

Apparent Strength

Design Strength

Force

Apparent Strength

Overstrength

Design Strength

Displacement

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 55

Force

Elastic Strength

Demand

Strength

Demand

Reduction due

To Ductility

Apparent Strength

Overstrength

Design Strength

Displacement

Elastic

Displacement

Demand

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 56

Ductility Reduction Rd =

Apparent Strength

Force

Elastic

Strength

Demand

Apparent

Strength

Design

Strength

Strength

Demand

Reduction due

To Ductility

Overstrength

Elastic Displacement

Displacement

Demand

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 57

Coefficient R

Overstrength Factor =

Ductility Reduction Rd =

Apparent Strength

Design Strength

Elastic Strength Demand

Apparent Strength

R=

Design Strength

= Rd

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 58

Coefficient R

Force

R x Design Strength

x Design Strength

Reduced (Design) Strength

Displacement

ANALYSIS DOMAIN

Elastic

Displacement

Demand

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 59

Elastic Strength

Demand

Apparent Strength

Design Strength

Computed Design

Displacement

Demand D

Actual Inelastic

Displacement

Demand I

Elastic

Displacement

Demand E

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 60

Determine design forces: V = CsW, where Cs

includes ductility/overstrength reduction factor R.

Distribute forces vertically and horizontally and

compute displacements using linear elastic analysis.

Multiply computed displacements by Cd to obtain

estimate of true inelastic response.

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 61

ASCE 7-05

R

Rd

Cd

Intermediate Moment Frame

Ordinary Moment Frame

8

4.5

3.5

3

3

3

2.67

1.50

1.17

5.5

4.0

3.0

Eccentric Braced Frame (Pinned)

8

7

2

2

4.00

3.50

4.0

4.0

Ordinary Concentric Braced Frame

6

3.25

2

2

3.00

1.25

5.0

3.25

Not Detailed

1.00

3.0

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 62

for Reinforced Concrete Structures

ASCE 7-05

R

Rd

Cd

Intermediate Moment Frame

Ordinary Moment Frame

8

5

3

3

3

3

2.67

1.67

1.00

5.5

4.5

2.5

Ordinary Reinforced Shear Wall

Detailed Plain Concrete Wall

Ordinary Plain Concrete Wall

5

4

2

1.5

2.5

2.5

2.5

2.5

2.00

1.60

0.80

0.60

5.0

4.0

2.0

1.5

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 63

Adjusted for Ductility and Overstrength

1.2

SDS=1.0g

SDS

CS =

R/ I

S D1

CS =

T(R / I )

Acceleration, g

1.0

SD1=0.48g

R=1

0.8

R=2

R=3

R=4

R=6

R=8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

0

Period, Seconds

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 64

to Determine Force Demand

1.2

Pseudoacceleration, g

R=1

1.0

R=4

0.8

0.6

V=0.15W

0.4

0.15

0.2

0.0

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

Period, Seconds

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 65

to Determine Displacement Demand

25

Displacement,inches.

R=1

R=4

20

(R=4)*Cd

15

Cd=3.5

10

5

0

0

Period, Seconds

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 66

displacements based on reduced force would be too low

INELASTIC = Cd REDUCEDELASTIC

25

Displacement,inches.

R=1

R=4

20

(R=4)*Cd

15

Cd = 3.5

10

5

0

0

Period, Seconds

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 67

applicable at very low period values.

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 68

(Applicable at Low Periods)

ELASTIC ENERGY

FE

FI

EE

FE

y

FI

FE

FE2

y = 0.5 y

EE = 0.5FE

FI

FI

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 69

(Applicable at Low Periods)

INELASTIC ENERGY

FI

EI

y

EI = FI u 0.5FI y = FI y ( 0.5 )

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 70

(Applicable at Low Periods)

Assuming EE = EI :

FE

FI

FE

= 2 1

FI

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 71

100

Elastic:

FE

FI =

2 1

Inelastic:

10

FI =

FE

EqualDisp.

Equal Energy

Transition

0.1

0.01

0.1

1

Period, Seconds

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

10

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 72

Newmarks

Inelastic Design Response Spectrum

To obtain inelastic displacement spectrum,

multiply the spectrum shown in previous

slide by (for all periods).

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 73

100

Disp.

Accel.

10

0.1

0.01

0.1

1

Period, Seconds

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

10

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 74

ground acceleration so this partially compensates for

error in equal displacement assumption at low period

values.

Cs

Period, T

Note: FEMA 273 has explicit modifications for computing target

at low periods.

Inelastic Behaviors 6 - 75

Design Concepts 7 - 1

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Select structural system

Establish performance objectives

Estimate external seismic forces

Estimate internal seismic forces (linear analysis)

Proportion components

Evaluate performance (linear or nonlinear analysis)

Final detailing

Quality assurance

Design Concepts 7 - 2

use in building design to maintain public safety in an

extreme earthquake.

and loss of life they DO NOT necessarily limit

damage, maintain function, or provide for easy repair.

significant amount of inelastic behavior will take place

in the structure during a design earthquake.

Design Concepts 7 - 3

continued

forces are much lower than those that would be

required if the structure were to remain elastic.

In contrast, wind-resistant structures are designed to

remain elastic under factored forces.

Specified code requirements are intended to provide for

the necessary inelastic seismic behavior.

In nearly all buildings designed today, survival in large

earthquakes depends directly on the ability of their

framing systems to dissipate energy hysteretically while

undergoing (relatively) large inelastic deformations.

Design Concepts 7 - 4

and Earthquake-Resistant Design

For Wind:

Excitation is an applied pressure or force on the facade.

Loading is dynamic but response is nearly static for most structures.

Structure deforms due to applied force.

Deformations are monotonic (unidirectional).

Structure is designed to respond elastically under factored loads.

The controlling life safety limit state is strength.

Enough strength is provided to resist forces elastically.

Design Concepts 7 - 5

Pressure

F

Time

Factored 50 yr wind

Unfactored 50 yr wind

10 yr wind

First significant

yield

Design Concepts 7 - 6

and Earthquake-Resistant Design

For Earthquake:

Excitation is an applied displacement at the base.

Loading and response are truly dynamic.

Structural system deforms as a result of inertial forces.

Deformations are fully reversed.

Structure is designed to respond inelastically under factored loads.

Controlling life safety limit state is deformability.

Enough strength is provided to ensure that inelastic deformation

demands do not exceed deformation capacity.

Design Concepts 7 - 7

Ground Disp.

(Elastic Response)

Time

Factored seismic

elastic strength

demand

Factored wind

G

F

feasible to design structures to

respond elastically to earthquake

ground motions.

Design Concepts 7 - 8

Ground Disp.

(Inelastic Response)

F

Time

Loading

G

F

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design Concepts 7 - 9

Ground Disp.

(Inelastic Response)

F

Time

Unloading

Deformation

reversal

G

F

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design Concepts 7 - 10

Ground Disp.

(Inelastic Response)

F

Time

Reloading

G

F

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design Concepts 7 - 11

Definition of Ductility,

Stress or force or moment

u

=

y

Strain

or displacement

or rotation

Hysteresis

curve

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design Concepts 7 - 12

Stress or force or moment

Units = force x displacement

Strain

or displacement

or rotation

Design Concepts 7 - 13

Performance Objective (Theoretical)

An adequate design is accomplished when a structure

is dimensioned and detailed in such a way that the

local ductility demands (energy dissipation demands)

are smaller than their corresponding capacities.

Demand Supply

Demand Supplied

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design Concepts 7 - 14

ES = Elastic strain energy

EK = Kinetic energy

ED = Viscous damping energy

EH = Hysteretic energy

Design Concepts 7 - 15

Damping energy

Hysteretic energy

Design Concepts 7 - 16

max

EH

+ 0.15

Damage =

Fy ult

ult

Yielding is necessary for affordable design.

Yielding causes hysteretic energy dissipation.

Hysteretic energy dissipation causes damage.

Therefore, damage

is necessary for

affordable design

Design Concepts 7 - 17

The role of design is to estimate the structural

strength required to limit the ductility demand to

the available supply and to provide the

desired engineering economy.

Design Concepts 7 - 18

Design Philosophies

New Buildings (FEMA 450, IBC 2003, ASCE 7-05)

Force-based approach

Single event (2/3 of 2% in 50 year earthquake)

Single performance objective (life safety)

Simple global acceptance criteria (drift)

Linear analysis

Existing Buildings (ATC40, FEMA 273)

Displacement-based approach

Multiple events

Multiple performance objectives

Detailed local and global acceptance criteria

Nonlinear analysis

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design Concepts 7 - 19

Structural

(1) IMMEDIATE

OCCUPANCY

(2) Damage Control

Range

Nonstructural

Combined

(A) OPERATIONAL

(1-A) OPERATIONAL

(B) IMMEDIATE

OCCUPANCY

(1-B) IMMEDIATE

OCCUPANCY

(D) HAZARDS

REDUCED

(5-D) HAZARDS

REDUCED

(4) Limited Safety

Range

(5) COLLAPSE

PREVENTION

Design Concepts 7 - 20

Probability

MRI

Frequency

50%-50 year

72 years

Frequent

20%-50 year

225 years

Occasional

474 years

Rare

2475 years

Very rare

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design Concepts 7 - 21

Building Performance Level + EQ Design Level = Performance Objective

2475 year

Collapse Prev.

474 year

Life Safety

225 year

Operational

72 year

Immediate Occ.

Earthquake

Performance Level

a

e

i

m

b

f

j

n

c

g

k

o

d

h

l

p

Basic Safety

Objective is

design for k and

p.

Design Concepts 7 - 22

Enhanced Safety Objectives

474 year

2475 year

5000 year

a

e

i

m

b

f

j

n

c

g

k

o

Collapse Prev.

Life Safety

225 year

Operational

Earthquake

72 year

Immediate Occ.

Performance Level

d

h

l

p

x

Enhanced Safety

Objective is

designed for j , o ,

and x.

Design Concepts 7 - 23

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Develop Concept

Select Structural System

Establish Performance Objectives

Estimate External Seismic Forces

Estimate Internal Seismic Forces (Linear Analysis)

Proportion Components

Evaluate Performance (Linear or Nonlinear Analysis)

Final Detailing

Quality Assurance

Design Concepts 7 - 24

Definitions

Inherent Capacity: That capacity provided by the

gravity system or by gravity plus wind.

(ordinary) building costs in the geographic area of interest.

strength demand to the inherent capacity.

Design Concepts 7 - 25

Elastic

Seismic

Demand

Affordable

Capacity

Yield

Deformation

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Deformation

Demand

Design Concepts 7 - 26

Ductility demand =

Affordable capacity

Elastic

seismic

demand

Affordable

capacity

Yield

deformation

Deformation

demand

Design Concepts 7 - 27

If affordable capacity is relatively constant, then

ductility demand is primarily a function of elastic

seismic demand.

Because elastic seismic demand is a function

of local seismicity, ductility demand is directly

proportional to local seismicity.

Hence, California, which has higher seismicity than,

for example, Austin, has a higher inherent ductility demand

than does Austin.

Design Concepts 7 - 28

Elastic demand

California

Boston

Austin

Affordable

strength

1.0Y 1.8Y

3.0Y

5.0Y

Design Concepts 7 - 29

Limitation

The ductility demand cannot exceed the ductility supply.

Moment Frame Ductility Supply

Ordinary detailing

Intermediate detailing

Special detailing

1.5

2.5

5.0

ductility demand (typically > 3); hence, only moment

frames with special detailing may be used.

Design Concepts 7 - 30

1.2

1.0

Normalized Shear

No special detailing

required

Design

Elastic

Expected

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

Normalized Displacement

Advantages:

Architectural simplicity, low detailing cost

Disadvantages:

Higher base shear, highly restricted use

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design Concepts 7 - 31

1.2

1.0

Normalized Shear

DETAILING REQUIREMENTS:

Continuous top and bottom

reinforcement

Special requirements for shear

strength

Special detailing in critical regions

Design

Elastic

Expected

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

Normalized Displacement

Advantages:

Architectural simplicity, relatively low base shear,

less congested reinforcement

Disadvantages:

Restricted use

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design Concepts 7 - 32

1.2

Design

Elastic

Expected

1.0

Normalized Shear

DETAILING REQUIREMENTS

Restrictions on steel grades

Continuous top & bottom reinforcement

Joint shear strength requirements

Strong column - weak beam

Use of maximum probable strength

Closely spaced ties in critical regions

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

9.0

Normalized Displacement

Advantages:

Architectural simplicity, relatively low base shear

Disadvantages:

Drift control, congested reinforcement

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design Concepts 7 - 33

ductility demand (typically < 2); hence, intermediate

and special detailing may be used.

However, there is no motivation to use special detailing if

the resulting design forces fall below the inherent

capacity.

Design Concepts 7 - 34

Cannot Meet the Demand?

Ductility demand =

Affordable capacity

(pay a higher seismic premium)

Base isolation

Added damping

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design Concepts 7 - 35

Could I use an ordinary moment frame in California?

Theoretically, YES if affordability is not an issue.

Practically, NO as costs will be unreasonable.

Theoretically, YES but detailing would be governed

by inherent strength requirements.

Practically, NO as costs would be unreasonable.

Note: Comments are without regard to building code requirements

Design Concepts 7 - 36

Essential Facilities:

How To Provide More Protection?

Ductility demand =

Affordable capacity

capacity (make system stronger).

Design Concepts 7 - 37

to Additional Premium Paid

Force

Critical facility

AP x affordable strength

Regular building

Affordable strength

uy

AP x uy

umax

Deformation

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design Concepts 7 - 38

Max drift = 2.2 in.

Duct. demand = 4.4

Max EH = 183 in-k

Max drift = 2.4 in.

Duct. demand = 3.1

Max EH = 199 in-k

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design Concepts 7 - 39

of Second Term

max

EH

Damage =

+ 0.15

ult

AP Fy ult

Design Concepts 7 - 40

System Concepts

Optimal performance achieved by:

Providing redundancy

Avoiding configuration irregularities

Proper consideration of nonstructural

elements and components

Avoiding excessive mass

Detailing for controlled energy dissipation

Limiting deformation demands

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design Concepts 7 - 41

Plan

Elevation

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design Concepts 7 - 42

System A

System B

Systems have same overall deformation capacity.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design Concepts 7 - 43

++

+

System A

System B

Design Concepts 7 - 44

Hinge sequence

Force

Deformation

Design Concepts 7 - 45

Hinge sequence

Force

Deformation

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design Concepts 7 - 46

Force

Distributed

Simultaneous

Deformation

Simultaneous: Less apparent overstrength

Less post-yield stability

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design Concepts 7 - 47

1.2

Design

Elastic

Expected

1.0

Normalized Shear

DETAILING REQUIREMENTS

Restrictions on steel grades

Continuous top & bottom reinforcement

Joint shear strength requirements

Strong column - weak beam

Use of maximum probable strength

Closely spaced ties in critical regions

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

9.0

Normalized Displacement

Advantages:

Architectural simplicity, relatively low base shear

Disadvantages:

Drift control, congested reinforcement

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design Concepts 7 - 48

Force

Deformation

Design Concepts 7 - 49

Design Concepts 7 - 50

Design Concepts 7 - 51

Vdesign = 2Mp/L

L

Vactual = 2Mp/L

Masonry wall

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design Concepts 7 - 52

Design Concepts 7 - 53

Design Concepts 7 - 54

Element Is Catastrophic

Design Concepts 7 - 55

(or Reinforce Accordingly)

Structurally: Improved

Architecturally Dubious

Design Concepts 7 - 56

Design Concepts 7 - 57

Design Concepts 7 - 58

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Develop Concept

Select Structural System

Establish Performance Objectives

Estimate External Seismic Forces

Estimate Internal Seismic Forces (Linear Analysis)

Proportion Components

Evaluate Performance (Linear or Nonlinear Analysis)

Final Detailing

Quality Assurance

Design Concepts 7 - 59

Structural Analysis

In the context of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions,

the purpose of structural analysis is to estimate:

1. The forces required to proportion members

2. Global deformations (e.g., story drift)

What kind of analysis to use?

Equivalent lateral force (ELF) analysis

Modal response spectrum (MRS) analysis

Linear time history (LTH) analysis

Nonlinear static pushover (NSP) analysis

Nonlinear dynamic time history (NTH) analysis

Design Concepts 7 - 60

Structural Analysis

The analysis must be good enough for design.

There should be no expectation that the analysis can

predict actual response (linear or nonlinear)

ELF: Good enough for preliminary design but not final design

MRS: Good enough for design

LTH: Not significantly better than MRS

NSP: The Jury is deliberating

NTH: The best choice for predicting local deformation demands

(Note: NTH is not required by NEHRP Recommended Provisions or

IBC.)

Design Concepts 7 - 61

RELATIVE LEVEL OF EFFORT

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

ELF

MRS

LTH

NSP

NTH

ANALYSIS METHOD

Design Concepts 7 - 62

Is as Much an Art

as It Is a Science

Design Concepts 7 - 63

INTRODUCTION

Development of the

NEHRP Recommended

Provisions

Introduction to NEHRP 8a - 1

NATIONAL

EARTHQUAKE

HAZARDS

REDUCTION

PROGRAM

Introduction to NEHRP 8a - 2

Damage to

Olive View

Hospital

Stair tower

separated

from building

Near collapse

in second

story

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Introduction to NEHRP 8a - 3

1974 SEAOC - Quick Change

Higher forces

Soil factor

Importance factor

Fundamental changes

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Introduction to NEHRP 8a - 4

Creation of NEHRP

to reduce risks to life and property from

future earthquakes in the United States.

Construction

Model codes

Plus response, recovery, and many

other concerns

Introduction to NEHRP 8a - 5

Agency

Technology (new lead agency)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Introduction to NEHRP 8a - 6

ATC-3 Report

1978 Publication of

ATC / NSF / NBS

New approaches:

Nationwide

Probabilistic

Inelastic behavior

Strength level

Nonstructural

Existing Buildings

Introduction to NEHRP 8a - 7

vs. ATCs Provisions

COVERAGE OF THEN

CURRENT STANDARDS

DEAD

LIVE

WIND

REINFORCED

CONCRETE

STEEL

EARTHQUAKE

SNOW

LUMBER

PLYWOOD

MASONRY

COVERAGE OF

ATCS PROVISIONS

Introduction to NEHRP 8a - 8

Building

Seismic

Safety

Council

Introduction to NEHRP 8a - 9

BSSC

Private, voluntary

A council of NIBS

National forum for issues:

Technical

Social

Economic

60+ organizational members

Consensus process

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Introduction to NEHRP 8a - 10

BSSC Members

Building Community Organizations

Examples:

ACI

AF&PA

AISI

AITC

ASME

BIA

NCMA

NCSEA

SEAOC TMS

AIA

APA

EERI

NFPA

AISC

ASCE

ICC

PCA

Introduction to NEHRP 8a - 11

BSSC Organization

MEMBERS

BOARD

COMMITTEES

STAFF

Introduction to NEHRP 8a - 12

Provisions for New Buildings

1997, 2000, and 2003

1981-84 Trial Designs

1985 Edition (first edition to be

Recommended)

Introduction to NEHRP 8a - 13

Recommended Provisions

Organizations generating

standards and model codes

Role of BSSC

Introduction to NEHRP 8a - 14

Information Flow

Through Building Codes

Prestandards

National

standards

Model

code

Research

Building

Code

Construction

Design

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Introduction to NEHRP 8a - 15

Officials

Uniform Building Code

National Building Code

Standard Building Code

Current

International Building Code

NFPA 5000

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Introduction to NEHRP 8a - 16

SEAOC

NEHRP

ASCE 7

Standard

Building Code

BOCA National

Building Code

Uniform

Building Code

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Introduction to NEHRP 8a - 17

OVERVIEW OF

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING

STANDARDS

The Basic Implementation of the

2003 NEHRP Recommended

Provisions

Overview of Standards 8b - 1

Scope

of basic building structures that

implement the 2003 NEHRP

Recommended Provisions

Does not include standards referenced

for design of nonstructural components

and anchorages

Does not include standards referenced

for design of nonbuilding structures

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Overview of Standards 8b - 2

NEHRP

Recommended

Provisions

Fundamentally a resource

document

Produced at the Building

Seismic Safety Council

2003 edition influences many

standards

3 year cycle till now

Overview of Standards 8b - 3

IBC 2006

Sets some basic

requirements, but

mostly cites

structural design

standards by

reference.

A distinct change

from the UBC,

more like SBC and

BNBC.

Overview of Standards 8b - 4

ASCE/SEI 7

2005 edition

with Supplement 1

of 2003 NEHRP

Provisions for its

seismic chapters

Reorganized and

strongly edited

Overview of Standards 8b - 5

ASCE 7

standard consensus process

Publication cycle varies (1988, 1993,

1995, 1998, 2002, 2005)

Latest Version ASCE 7-05 Including

Supplement 1 includes references to

latest (2005 editions) material standards

Extensive errata go to

www.seinstitute.org & click on

publications

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Overview of Standards 8b - 6

Standards are more difficult to change

than codes ASCE 7-10/11 should be

adopted by 2012 IBC

Less rapid fire adoption of major

changes

However, IBC Code Supplements will still

occur every 18 months with new full

editions every 3 years.

Overview of Standards 8b - 7

Goals of seismic section reorganization:

To improve clarity and use

Reduce depth of section numbering from

6 max typical to 4 max typical (i.e., Sec.

9.5.2.5.2.2 is now Sec. 12.5.3)

Create logical sequence of provisions

aim at the structural engineering

community

Improve headings and clarify ambiguous

provisions

Overview of Standards 8b - 8

Specific Design and Detailing

1 Steel

2 Concrete

3 Composite Steel and Concrete

4 Masonry

5 Wood

IBC 2006 does not cite Chapter 14 by

reference; it includes the same information in

its chapters dealing with the material of

construction

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Overview of Standards 8b - 9

Structural Steel

AISC 341

AISC 360

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Overview of Standards 8b - 10

Structural Steel

Design Categories B, C if use R = 3

Seismic provisions (341) required for all other situations

Special, intermediate, ordinary moment resisting

frames

Special, ordinary concentrically braced frames

Eccentrically braced frames

Buckling restrained braced frames

Steel plate shear walls

Composite steel and concrete systems

Overview of Standards 8b - 11

Overview of Standards 8b - 12

New lateral design standard covers:

Diaphragms and walls sheathed with

structural wood panels

Walls sheathed with light gage steel

sheet

Walls braced with diagonal steel straps

No specific reference for untopped steel

deck acting as a diaphragm.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Overview of Standards 8b - 13

ACI 318-05

Seismic

requirements are

primarily found in

Chapter 21

Composite steel

and concrete is

covered in AISC

341

Overview of Standards 8b - 14

Structural Concrete

Special, intermediate, ordinary moment

resisting frames

Special, ordinary shear walls (structural walls)

Special, intermediate, ordinary precast

concrete shear walls

Special precast concrete moment frames

Provisions for concrete structure not

designed as part of seismic force resisting

systems

Overview of Standards 8b - 15

TMS 401-05

ACI 530-05

ASCE 5-05

(MSJC Code)

Mostly incorporated

into IBC chapter 21

by transcription as

opposed to citation

by reference

Overview of Standards 8b - 16

Masonry

Special, intermediate, ordinary reinforced

walls

Detailed, ordinary plain walls

convoluted (2008 edition will be better!)

Prestressed shear walls

Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC)

masonry

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Overview of Standards 8b - 17

Wood (Timber)

Overview of Standards 8b - 18

Timber Structures:

Seismic Supplement

Various sheathing types

Framing and configuration requirements

Note that much of this information was

formerly included directly in the model

building code rather than a design

standard.

Overview of Standards 8b - 19

NEHRP Recommended Provisions

Both IBC and ASCE 7 cite and supplement the

2005 material design standards:

AISC for structural steel and composite

steel/concrete

AISI for cold formed steel

ACI for concrete

TMS 402 (MSJC) for masonry

AF&PA NDS for timber

Overview of Standards 8b - 20

Topic Objectives

Description of analysis techniques

Modeling considerations

System regularity

Load combinations

Other considerations

Drift computation and acceptance criteria

P-delta effects

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

(ASCE 7, NEHRP Recommended Provisions)

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Determine basic ground motion parameters (SS, S1)

Determine site classification (A-F)

Determine site coefficient adjustment factors (Fa, Fv)

Determine design ground motion parameters (SdS,

Sd1)

6. Determine seismic design category (A-F)

7. Determine importance factor

8. Select structural system and system parameters

(R, Cd, o)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

(Continued)

9. Examine system for configuration irregularities

10. Determine diaphragm flexibility (flexible, semi-rigid, rigid)

11. Determine redundancy factor ()

12. Determine lateral force analysis procedure

13. Compute lateral loads

14. Add torsional loads, as applicable

15. Add orthogonal loads, as applicable

16. Perform analysis

17. Combine results

18. Check strength, deflection, stability

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

I) Low risk occupancy

Agricultural facilities

Temporary facilities

Minor storage facilities

II) Normal hazard occupancy

Any occupancy not described as I, III, IV

III) High hazard occupancy

High occupancy (more than 300 people in one room)

Schools and universities (various occupancy)

Health care facilities with < 50 resident patients

Power stations

Water treatment facilities

Telecommunication centers

Other.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

IV) Essential facilities

Hospitals or emergency facilities with surgery

Fire, rescue, ambulance, police stations

Designated emergency shelters

Aviation control towers

Critical national defense facilities

Other.

Note: NEHRP Recommended Provisions has Occupancy Categories I-III;

ASCE 7 I+II = NEHRP I, ASCE 7 III = NEHRP II, ASCE 7 IV = NEHRP III

Hazard Maps

accelerations Ss and S1 or 2% in 50 year probability or

1.5 times deterministic peak in areas of western US

Fa to determine spectral coefficients SMS and SM1

performance. This provides the design spectral

coordinates SDS and SD1.

(2% in 50 year, 5% damped, Site Class B)

(2% in 50 year, 5% damped, Site Class B)

SITE CLASSES

A

Very dense soil or soft rock: 1200 < vs < 2500 ft/sec

Site-specific requirements

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

for Site Classes A through E

Site Class

Site A

Site B

Site C

Site D

Site E

2.50

2.00

Site A

Site B

Site C

SiteSite

Class

D

Site E

4.00

1.50

1.00

0.50

0.00

0.00

0.50

1.00

1.50

2.00

3.00

3.50

3.00

2.50

2.00

1.50

1.00

0.50

0.00

0.00

0.50

1.00

1.50

2.00

1a) and 1b) Torsional Irregularity

avg

max

No irregularity

max > 1.4 avg Extreme irregularity

Irregularity 1b is NOT PERMITTED in SDC E or F.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

2) Re-entrant Corner Irregularity

Ly

py

px

Irregularity exists if

py > 0.15Ly

Lx

and

px > 0.15Lx

3) Diaphragm Discontinuity Irregularity

Open

Open

OR if effective diaphragm stiffness varies by more than

50% from one story to the next.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

4) Out of Plane Offsets

5) Nonparallel Systems Irregularity

lateral force resisting elements are not parallel to or

symmetric about the major orthogonal axes of the seismic

force resisting system.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

1a, 1b) Stiffness (Soft Story) Irregularity

Irregularity (1a) exists if stiffness

of any story is less than 70%

of the stiffness of the story above

or less than 80% of the average

stiffness of the three stories above.

An extreme irregularity (1b) exists if

stiffness of any story is less than 60%

of the stiffness of the story above

or less than 70% of the average

stiffness of the three stories above.

exist if no story drift ratio is greater

than 1.3 times drift ratio of story above.

K=1/

SDC E or F.

2) Weight (Mass) Irregularity

Irregularity exists if the effective

mass of any story is more than 150%

of the effective mass of an adjacent

story.

Exception: Irregularity does not

exist if no story drift ratio is greater

than 1.3 times drift ratio of story above.

3) Vertical Geometric Irregularity

di+1

di

the lateral force resisting system at

any story is more than 130% of that

for any adjacent story

di-1

4) In-Plane Discontinuity Irregularity

Irregularity exists if the offset is

greater than the width (d) or there

exists a reduction in stiffness of the

story below.

d

offset

5a, 5b) Strength (Weak Story) Irregularity

Irregularity (5a) exists if the lateral

strength of any story is less than 80%

of the strength of the story above.

An extreme irregularity (5b) exists

If the lateral strength of any story is

less than 65% of the strength of the

story above.

Irregularities 5a and 5b are NOT

PERMITTED in SDC E or F.

Irregularity 5b not permitted in SDC D.

Structural Systems

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

F.

G.

H.

Building frame systems

Moment resisting frame systems

Dual systems with SMRF

Dual systems with IMRF

Ordinary shear-wall frame interactive systems

Cantilever column systems

Steel systems not detailed for seismic

System Parameters:

Response modification coefficient = R

System overstrength parameter = o

Deflection amplification factor = Cd

Height limitation = by SDC

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Structural Systems

Bearing Wall

than 100 lbs/ft of vertical load in addition to its

own weight

Any concrete or masonry wall that supports more

than 200 lbs/ft of vertical load in addition to its

own weight

It appears that almost ANY concrete or masonry

wall would be classified as a bearing wall!

1.2

R 8

Cd 5.5

o 3

Design

Elastic

Expected

NL

NL

NL

NL

NL

NL

Normalized Shear

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

9.0

Normalized Displacement

Advantages:

Architectural simplicity, relatively low base shear

Disadvantages:

Drift control, connection cost, connection testing

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

1.2

R 6

Cd 5

o 2

Design

Elastic

Expected

NL

NL

NL

160

160

100

Normalized Shear

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

Normalized Displacement

Advantages:

Lower drift, simple field connections

Disadvantages:

Higher base shear, high foundation forces,

height limitations, architectural limitations

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

1.2

R 6

Cd 5

o 2.5

Design

Elastic

Expected

NL

NL

NL

160

160

100

Normalized Shear

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

Normalized Displacement

Advantages:

Drift control

Disadvantages:

Lower redundancy (for too few walls)

Accounts for:

Ductility

Overstrength

Redundancy

Damping

Past behavior

Maximum = 8

Eccentrically braced frame with welded connections

Buckling restrained brace with welded connections

Special moment frame in steel or concrete

Minimum = 1.5 (exclusive of cantilever systems)

Ordinary plain masonry shear walls

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Overstrength Factor

d

offset

Elements must be designed

using load combination

with factor o

Strength

FE

FE/R

Analysis

domain

Computed

Displacement

Cd

Displacement

Diaphragm Flexibility

Diaphragms must be considered as semi-rigid unless

they can be classified as FLEXIBLE or RIGID.

panels are considered FLEXIBLE if the vertical seismic

force resisting systems are steel or composite braced

frames or are shear walls.

may be considered FLEXIBLE.

are considered RIGID if the width to depth ratio of the

diaphragm is less than 3 and if no horizontal irregularities

exist.

F/3

F/3

F/3

RIGID

Center Wall Shear = F/3

F/4

F/4 F/4

F/4

FLEXIBLE

Center Wall Shear = F/2

Diaphragm Flexibility

De

SEISMIC LOADING

MAXIMUM DIAPHRAGM

DEFLECTION (MDD)

(ADVE)

Importance Factors

SUG

IV

III

I, II

Importance

Factor

1.50

1.25

1.00

Seismic Use Group +

Design Ground Motion

Based on SHORT PERIOD acceleration

Value of SDS

SDS < 0.167g

0.167g < SDS < 0.33g

0.33g < SDS < 0.50g

0.50g < SDS

I, II

A

B

C

D

III

A

B

C

D

IV

A

C

D

D

Based on LONG PERIOD acceleration

Value of SD1

SD1 < 0.067g

0.067g < SD1 < 0.133g

0.133g < SD1 < 0.20g

0.20g < SD1

Value of S1

S1 > 0.75g

I, II

A

B

C

D

III

A

B

C

D

IV

A

C

D

D

I, II

E

III

E

IV

F

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

(involving earthquake)

0.9D + 1.0E

Note: 0.5L may be used when Lo < 100 psf

(except garages and public assembly)

Use ASCE 7 basic load combinations but substitute the

following for the earthquake effect E:

E = Eh Ev

Eh = QE

Ev = 0.2SDS D

(0.9 0.2SDS )D + QE

Note: See ASCE 7 for combinations including hydrostatic load

Included in the Load Combinations

SDS=2.5 PGA

PGA

(including overstrength factor)

E = Emh Ev

Emh = o QE

Ev = 0.2SDS D

(0.9 0.2SDS )D + oQE

Note: See ASCE 7 for combinations including hydrostatic load

Redundancy Factor

Cases where = 1.0

Drift and P-delta calculations

Design of nonstructural components

When overstrength (o) is required in design

Diaphragm loads

Systems with passive energy devices

Redundancy Factor

Cases where = 1.0 for

SDC D, E, and F buildings

When each story resisting more than 35% of the base

shear in the direction of interest complies with

requirements of Table 12.3-3 (next slide)

OR

Structures that are regular in plan at all levels and have

at least two bays of perimeter framing on each side of

the building in each orthogonal direction for each story

that resists more than 35% of the total base shear.

Otherwise = 1.3

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Redundancy Factor

Requirements for = 1 in SDC D, E, and F buildings

Braced

Frames

thereto, would not result in more than a 33%

reduction in story strength, nor does the resulting

system have an extreme torsional irregularity

(horizontal structural irregularity Type 1b).

Moment

Frames

connections at both ends of a single beam would

not result in more than a 33% reduction in story

strength, nor does the resulting system have an

extreme torsional irregularity (horizontal structural

irregularity Type 1b).

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Redundancy Factor

Requirements for = 1 in SDC D, E, and F buildings

Shear

Walls

Cantilever

Column

height-to-length ratio greater than 1.0 within

any story, or collector connections thereto,

would not result in more than a 33% reduction

in story strength, nor does the resulting system

have an extreme torsional irregularity

(horizontal structural irregularity Type 1b).

Loss of moment resistance at the base

Connections of any single cantilever column

would not result in more than a 33% reduction

in story strength, nor does the resulting system

have an extreme torsional irregularity (horizontal

structural irregularity Type 1b).

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

The equivalent lateral force method is allowed for all

buildings in SDC B and C. It is allowed in all

SDC D, E, and F buildings EXCEPT:

Any structure with T > 3.5 Ts

Structures with T < 3.5 Ts and with Plan Irregularity

1a or 1b or Vertical Irregularity 1, 2 or 3.

When the ELF procedure is not allowed, analysis must

be performed by the response spectrum analysis procedure

or by the linear (or nonlinear) response history

analysis procedure.

Determine Base Shear:

CS

V = CSW

SDS

(R / I )

SD1

T (R / I )

CS (min)= 0.01 or

TLSD1

T 2 (R / I )

0.5S1

when S1 > 0.6g

(R / I )

TL

TS

Not used

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

All structural and nonstructural elements

10 psf minimum partition allowance

25% of storage live load

Total weight of operating equipment

20% of snow load when flat roof snow load exceeds

30psf

Ta = Ct h

x

n

ct = 0.016, x = 0.9 for concrete moment frames

ct = 0.030, x = 0.75 for eccentrically braced frames

ct = 0.020, x = 0.75 for all other systems

Note: Buildings ONLY!

Ta = 0.1N

For moment frames < 12 stories in height, minimum

story height of 10 feet. N = number of stories.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

of Approximate Period for Steel Moment Frames

Ta = 0.028hn0.8

of the building?

hn ?

hn ?

T = TaCu Tcomputed

SD1

> 0.40g

0.30g

0.20g

0.15g

< 0.10g

Cu

1.4

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

substantiated analysis.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

if Ta < Tcomputed < CuTa use Tcomputed

if Tcomputed < Ta use Ta

Tcomputed

OK

Ta

CuTa

Fx = CvxV

Cvx =

k

x

wxh

n

w h

i =1

k

i

k = 0.5T + 0.75

(sloped portion only)

k

2.0

1.0

0.5

2.5

Period, Sec

k=2

k=1

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Overturning

The 2003 NEHRP Recommended Provisions

and ASCE 7-05 allow a 25% reduction

at the foundation only.

No overturning reduction is allowed in the

above grade portion of the structure.

Torsional Effects

ALL

torsion

where Type 1a or 1b irregularity

exists

Accidental Torsion

0.05Lx

Fx

Fy

T1=Fy(0.05Lx)

0.05L

y

Ly

T2=Fx(0.05Ly)

Lx

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

min

max

avg

max

Ax =

1.2 avg

New center

of rigidity

Damage

V

Added torsional

eccentricity

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

100%

30%

100%

100%

30%

Affects primarily columns, particularly corner columns

Story Drift

e

Strength

level forces

modified

by R and I

Drift reported by

analysis with strength

level forces:

e =

e / I

h

Amplified drift:

Note: Drift computed at center of mass of story

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

= Cd e

Seismic Load Analysis 9 - 62

Drift Limits

Occupancy

Structures other than masonry

4 stories or less with system

Designed to accommodate drift

I or II

III

0.025hsx 0.020hsx

IV

0.015hsx

structures

0.010hsx

0.010hsx

0.010hsx

0.007hsx

0.007hsx

0.007hsx

0.020hsx

0.015hsx

0.010hsx

exceed tabulated values divided by .

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

For purposes of computing drift, seismic forces may

be based on computed building period without upper

limit CuTa.

For SDC C,D,E, and F buildings with torsional irregularities,

drift must be checked at building edges.

of Oviatt Library during Northridge Earthquake

(attributed to pounding).

Separation

Source: http://library.csun.edu/mfinley/eqexdam1.html

P-Delta Effects

o

o

f =

=

P o 1

1

Vh

o

f

P

V

h

= story drift including gravity loads (including P-D)

= total gravity load in story

= total shear in story

= story height

Reduced stiffness and

increased displacements

P

V

Shear force

Vy

Excluding P-delta

*

y

Including P-delta

P

KG =

h

Vy

KE =

K = K E KG

y

Displacement

Reduced strength

Shear force

VY

Excluding P-delta

*

Y

Including P-delta

P y

Vy h

V = Vy (1 )

*

y

Displacement

Larger residual deformations and increased

V

tendency towards dynamic instability

Slope = KG

3.0

Displacement, Inches

2.0

1.0

0.0

-1.0

KG = -50 k/in

KG = 0 k/in

KG = +50 k/in

-2.0

-3.0

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

Time, seconds

10.0

12.0

14.0

P-Delta Effects

For each story compute:

P

=

Vx hsxCd

Px

Vx

h

= computed story design level drift (including Cd)

= total shear in story

= story height

Fictitious Elastic Displacements

Shear, V

xe

Fictitious elastic

displacement

PCd e

=

Vx hsxCd

Cdxe

Displacement,

True inelastic

displacement

If > 0.1 then check

max

0.5

=

< 0.25

Cd

of the story in question (effectively the inverse of the story

overstrength). may conservatively be taken as 1.0 [which

gives, for example, max = 0.125 when Cd = 4].

If > 0.1 and less than max:

Multiply all computed element forces and displacements by:

1

a=

1

Check drift limits using amplified drift

Design for amplified forces

Note: P-delta effects may also be automatically included

in the structural analysis. However, limit on still applies.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SD1

T0 = 0.2

SDS

SD1

TS =

SDS

Spectral

Acceleration

SDS

TL See Chapter 22

SD1

T

SD1

0.4SDS

To

TS

1.0

SD1TL

2

T

TL

Period, T

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Basic Steps in

Modal Response Spectrum (RS) Analysis

1. Compute modal properties for each mode

Frequency (period)

Shape

Modal participation factor

Effective modal mass

2. Determine number of modes to use in analysis.

Use a sufficient number of modes to capture at least

90% of total mass in each direction

3. Using general spectrum (or compatible ground motion

spectrum) compute spectral accelerations for each

contributing mode.

4. Multiply spectral accelerations by modal

participation factor and by (I/R)

5. Compute modal displacements for each mode

6. Compute element forces in each mode

7. Statistically combine (SRSS or CQC) modal displacements

to determine system displacements

8. Statistically combine (SRSS or CQC) component forces

to determine design forces

9. If the design base shear based on modal analysis is

less than 85% of the base shear computed using ELF

(and T = TaCu), the member forces resulting from the

modal analysis and combination of modes must be

scaled such that the base shear equals 0.85 times the

ELF base shear.

10. Add accidental torsion as a static loading and

amplify if necessary.

11. For determining drift, multiply the results of the

modal analysis (including the I/R scaling but not the

85% scaling) by Cd/I.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Analytical Modeling

for Modal Response Spectrum Analysis

For concrete structures, include effect of cracking [reqd]

For steel structures, include panel zone deformations [reqd]

Include flexibility of foundation if well enough defined

Include actual flexibility of diaphragm if well enough defined

Include P-delta effects in analysis if program has the capability

Do not try to include accidental torsion by movement of

center of mass

Include orthogonal load effects by running the fill 100% spectrum

in each direction, and then SRSSing the results.

uses the natural mode shapes to transform

the coupled MDOF equations (with the nodal

displacements as the unknowns) into several

SDOF equations (with modal amplitudes as

the unknowns). Once the modal amplitudes are

determined, they are transformed back to nodal

displacements, again using the natural mode shapes.

Coupled equations:

u = y

Transformation:

*

*

T

&&

&

&&g

Uncoupled equations: m y i + ci y i + k i y i = i MRu

*

i

Solves the coupled equations of motion directly,

without use of natural mode shapes. Coupled

equations are numerically integrated using one

of several available techniques (e.g., Newmark linear

acceleration). Requires explicit formation of system

damping matrix C.

&& + Cu&

Coupled equations: Mu

+ Ku = MRu&&g

Explicit damping matrix C is not required (see below)

Very good (approximate) solutions may be obtained

using only a small subset of the natural modes

2

&&

&

&&

y i + 2i i y i + i y i = Pu

i g

Modal frequency

Modal participation factor

Structural Modeling Procedures

Follow procedures given in previous slides for modeling

structure. When using modal response history

analysis, use enough modes to capture 90% of the mass of

the structure in each of the two orthogonal directions.

as additional static load conditions.

orthogonal horizontal ground motion simultaneous with the

principal direction motion.

Selection

Ground motions must have magnitude, fault mechanism,

and fault distance consistent with the site and must be

representative of the maximum considered ground motion

simulated motions (or modified motions) may be used

(Parenthesis by F. Charney)

Where does one get the records?

How are ground motions scaled?

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

ASCE 7-05:

A suite of not less than three motions shall be used.

http://peer.berkeley.edu/smcat/search.html

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

average value of the 5% damped response

spectra of the suite of motions is not less than

the design response spectrum in the period

range 0.2T to 1.5T, where T is the fundamental

period of the structure.

Pseudoacceleration, g

Design spectrum

Avg. of unscaled

suite spectra

Higher

modes

0.2T

Softening

1.5T

Period, sec

Pseudoacceleration, g

Design spectrum

Avg. of scaled

suite spectra

Higher

modes

0.2T

Softening

1.5T

Period, sec

Ground Motion

Selection and Scaling

damped spectra of each motion pair (N-S and E-W

components) is constructed.

2. Each pair of motions should be scaled such that the

average of the SRSS spectra of all component pairs

is not less than 1.3 times the the 5% damped design

spectrum in the period range 0.2 to 1.5 T.

A degree of freedom exists in selection of individual motion

scale factors, thus different analysts may scale the same

suite differently.

higher modes.

when compared to other recommendations (e.g., Shome

and Cornell)

Recommendations:

If near-field effects are possible for the site a separate

set of analyses should be performed using only

near field motions

Try to use motions that are magnitude compatible

with the design earthquake

Scale the earthquakes such that they match the target

spectrum at the structures initial (undamaged) natural

frequency and at a damping of at least 5% critical.

Linear Response History Analysis

For each (scaled) ground motion analyzed, all

computed response parameters must be multiplied by the

appropriate ratio (I/R). Based on these results, the maximum

base shear is computed.

The ratio of the maximum base shear to total weight for the

structure must not be less than the following:

V / W = 0.01

0.5S1

V /W =

R /I

Linear Response History Analysis (continued)

If at least seven ground motions are used, response

quantities for component design and story drift may be

based on the average quantity computed for all

ground motions.

If less than seven ground motions are used, response

quantities for component design and story drift must be

based on the maximum quantity computed among all

ground motions.

Advanced Topic and in not covered herein.

Due to effort required, it will typically not be used except for

very critical structures, or for structures which incorporate

seismic isolation or passive, semi-active, or active control

devices.

The principal difficulty with nonlinear response history analysis

(aside from the effort required) are the sensitivities of the

computed response due to a host of uncertainties.

Such sensitivities are exposed by a systematic analysis

approach called incremental dynamic analysis.

Subjected to 30 Earthquakes

[exposing effect of ground motion uncertainty]

Dispersion

Subjected to Suite of Earthquakes Where Different

Scaling Methods Have Been Used

NORMALIZED to PGA

NORMALIZED to Sa

Methods of Analysis

Described in ASCE 7-05

Nonlinear static pushover analysis

SEISMIC DESIGN OF STEEL STRUCTURES

Context in NEHRP Recommended Provisions

Steel behavior

Reference standards and design strength

Moment resisting frames

Braced frames

Other topics

Summary

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Steel Structures 10 - 1

Design basis: Strength limit state

Using the 2003 NEHRP Recommended Provisions:

Load combination

Chap. 4

Seismic load analysis

Chap. 5

Components and attachments Chap. 6

Design of steel structures

Chap. 8

AISC Seismic

and others

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Steel Structures 10 - 2

Unbraced Frames

Joints are:

Rigid/FR/PR/

Moment-resisting

Seismic classes are:

Special/intermediate/

Ordinary/not detailed

Braced Frames

Concentric bracing

Eccentric bracing

Steel Structures 10 - 3

Steel Structures 10 - 4

Strain

M

Stress

yield strain and stress

y < < sh y

Section near plastic

u

sh

y

Steel Structures 10 - 5

Steel Structures 10 - 6

Conceptual moment - curvature

M

Mp

My

u u u

=

y y y

y y

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

u

Steel Structures 10 - 7

Moment Curvature

Laboratory Test -- Annealed W Beam

Steel Structures 10 - 8

Mr

OLM

OHI

OJG

OJE

OJK

Inelastic lateral tors. buckling

Inelastic lateral tors. buckling

Idealized behavior

Strain hardening

Steel Structures 10 - 9

Practical Limits

1

2

Brace well

Local buckling

Limit width-to-thickness ratios

for compression elements

Fracture

Avoid by proper detailing

Steel Structures 10 - 10

Steel Structures 10 - 11

Steel Structures 10 - 12

Local Buckling

b

t

cr =

k 2 E

12(1 )(b / t )

2

b

kE

0.95

t

Fy

Steel Structures 10 - 13

Local Buckling

continued

With the plate buckling coefficient taken as 0.7 and an adjustment

for residual stresses, the expression for b/t becomes:

b

E

0.38

t

Fy

This is the slenderness requirement given in the AISC specification

for compact flanges of I-shaped sections in bending. The

coefficient is further reduced for sections to be used in seismic

applications in the AISC Seismic specification

b

E

0.3

t

Fy

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Steel Structures 10 - 14

Steel Structures 10 - 15

Steel Structures 10 - 16

Pre-Northridge Standard

Steel Structures 10 - 17

Northridge earthquake,

numerous failures of steel

beam-to-column moment

connections were identified.

This led to a multiyear,

multimillion dollar FEMAfunded research effort

known as the SAC joint

venture. The failures caused

a fundamental rethinking of

the design of seismic

resistant steel moment

connections.

Steel Structures 10 - 18

Flange and Web

Steel Structures 10 - 19

Fracture

Steel Structures 10 - 20

Northridge Failure

Beam

web

Note backup bar

and runoff tab

Bottom flange

of beam

Steel Structures 10 - 21

Northridge Failure

Beam flange

and web

Column

flange

Backup bar

Steel Structures 10 - 22

Northridge Failures

Weld

Weld Fusion

Column Flange

HAZ

Column Divot

Lamellar Tear

Steel Structures 10 - 23

2

11

2

1

Cross Sections

Fw

1

2

Fy

Fy

Beam Moment

Fw

Fw Z1 > Fy Z2

Steel Structures 10 - 24

Northridge showed serious flaws. Problems

correlated with:

- Weld material, detail concept and workmanship

- Beam yield strength and size

- Panel zone yield

Repairs and new design

- Move yield away from column face

(cover plates, haunches, dog bone)

- Verify through tests

SAC Project: FEMA Publications 350 through 354

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Steel Structures 10 - 25

Moment (MN-m)

SAC Joint Venture

4

2

0

-2

-4

-4

-2

Steel Structures 10 - 26

SAC Joint Venture

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Steel Structures 10 - 27

Plastic hinge formation -- flange and

web local buckling

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Steel Structures 10 - 28

7000

6000

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0

-1000

-2000

-3000

-4000

-5000

-6000

-7000

-0.06

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

0

-100

-200

-300

-400

-500

-600

-700

-0.04

-0.02

0.00

0.02

0.04

Moment (kN-m)

Moment (k-in)

FS-03 - Moment/Rotation

0.06

Rotation (rad)

Graphic courtesy of Professor Roberto Leon, Georgia Institute of Technology

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Steel Structures 10 - 29

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Steel Structures 10 - 30

25000

25000

20000

20000

15000

10000

5000

0

-5000

-10000

-15000

15000

10000

5000

0

-5000

-10000

-15000

-20000

-20000

-25000

-0.08

-25000

-0.08

-0.06

-0.04

-0.02

0.00

0.02

0.04

(a) Moment vs Total Rotation

0.06

0.08

-0.06

-0.04

-0.02

0.00

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

(b) Moment vs Plastic Rotation

Steel Structures 10 - 31

Limits

Welded Joints

- Brittle fracture of weld

- Lamellar tearing of base metal

- Joint design, testing, and inspection

Bolted Joints

- Fracture at net cross-section

- Excessive slip

Joint Too Weak For Member

- Shear in joint panel

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Steel Structures 10 - 32

Multistory Frame

Laboratory Test

Steel Structures 10 - 33

Flexural Ductility

Effect of Axial Load

e=

P

=0

Py

M pc

Mp

L

= 7.0

rx

= 1 .0

W12x36

e = 5.10"

P

= 0.55

Py

Mpc

e = 1.75"

P

= 0.76

Py

Mpc

Mp

Mp

= 0.57

= 0.28

Steel Structures 10 - 34

Axial Strut

Laboratory test

L

= 45

r

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Steel Structures 10 - 35

Laboratory test

Steel Structures 10 - 36

Conceptual Behavior

H

H

Slapback

For cycle 2

Steel Structures 10 - 37

Steel Structures 10 - 38

Lab test of link

Steel Structures 10 - 39

Steel Behavior

Ductility

- Material inherently ductile

- Ductility of structure < ductility of material

Damping

- Welded structures have low damping

- More damping in bolted structures due

to slip at connections

- Primary energy absorption is yielding of

members

Steel Structures 10 - 40

Steel Behavior

Buckling

- Most common steel failure under earthquake loads

- Usually not ductile

- Local buckling of portion of member

- Global buckling of member

- Global buckling of structure

Fracture

- Nonductile failure mode under earthquake loads

- Heavy welded connections susceptible

Steel Structures 10 - 41

Steel Design

Context in NEHRP Recommended Provisions

Steel behavior

Reference standards and design strength

Steel Structures 10 - 42

Steel Structures 10 - 43

Structural Steel

Both the AISC LRFD and ASD methodologies are

presented in a unified format in both the

Specification for Structural Steel Buildings and the

Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings.

Steel Structures 10 - 44

Steel Structures 10 - 45

Steel Joist Institute

Standard Specifications, 2002

Steel Cables

ASCE 19-1996

Steel Deck Institute

Diaphragm Design Manual, 3rd Ed., 2005

Steel Structures 10 - 46

Steel Design

Context in NEHRP Recommended Provisions

Steel behavior

Reference standards and design strength

Moment resisting frames

Steel Structures 10 - 47

Frame

Test

Details

Special

Reqd

0.04

Many

Intermediate

Reqd

0.02

Moderate

Ordinary

Allowed

NA

Few

Steel Structures 10 - 48

a+b

Mu M p

b

Fy* = Ry Fy

a+b 1

1.7 Fy*

Fu F Z

b

Af d

*

y

Steel Structures 10 - 49

Panel Zones

Special and intermediate moment

frame:

Shear strength demand:

Basic load combination

RyMp of beams

or

Thickness (for buckling)

Use of doubler plates

Steel Structures 10 - 50

Beam shear: 1.1RyMp + gravity

Beam local buckling

- Smaller b/t than LRFD for plastic design

Continuity plates in joint per tests

Strong column - weak beam rule

- Prevent column yield except in panel zone

- Exceptions: Low axial load, strong stories, top

story,and non-SRS columns

Steel Structures 10 - 51

Lateral support of column flange

- Top of beam if column elastic

- Top and bottom of beam otherwise

- Amplified forces for unrestrained

Lateral support of beams

- Both flanges

- Spacing < 0.086ryE/Fy

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Steel Structures 10 - 52

Prequalified Connections

See FEMA 350: Recommended Seismic Design Criteria for

New Steel Moment-Frame Buildings

-Welded Unreinforced Flange

-Welded Free Flange Connection

-Welded Flange Plate Connection

-Reduced Beam Section Connections

-Bolted Stiffened End Plate Connection

-Bolted Flange Plate Connection

Intermediate Steel Moment Frames for Seismic Applications

-Reduced Beam Section Connections

-Bolted Stiffened and Unstiffened Extended Moment End Plate Connections

Steel Structures 10 - 53

Welded Coverplates

Steel Structures 10 - 54

Steel Structures 10 - 55

Steel Structures 10 - 56

Steel Structures 10 - 57

Steel Structures 10 - 58

Steel Structures 10 - 59

Example

5 at 25'-0"

7 at 25'-0"

Steel Structures 10 - 60

The following design steps will be reviewed:

Select preliminary member sizes

Check member local stability

Check deflection and drift

Check torsional amplification

Check the column-beam moment ratio rule

Check shear requirement at panel zone

Select connection configuration

Steel Structures 10 - 61

Select preliminary member sizes The preliminary

member sizes are given in the next slide for the

frame in the East-West direction. These members

were selected based on the use of a 3D stiffness

model in the program RAMFRAME. As will be

discussed in a subsequent slide, the drift

requirements controlled the design of these

members.

Steel Structures 10 - 62

Steel Structures 10 - 63

Check beam flange:

(W33x141 A992)

bf

= 6.01

2tf

bf

tf

E

= 7.22OK

Upper limit: 0.3

Fy

hc

Check beam web:

= 49.6

tw

E

Upper limit: 3.76

= 90.6

Fy

hc

tw

OK

Steel Structures 10 - 64

The frame was checked for an allowable story drift limit of

0.020hsx. All stories in the building met the limit. Note that the

NEHRP Recommended Provisions Sec. 4.3.2.3 requires the

following check for vertical irregularity:

Cd x

story 2

Cd x

story 3

5.17in.

268in.

= 0.98 < 1.3

=

3.14in.

160in.

Steel Structures 10 - 65

The torsional amplification factor is given below. If Ax < 1.0

then torsional amplification is not required. From the

expression it is apparent that if max / avg is less than 1.2,

then torsional amplification will not be required.

max

Ax =

1.2

avg

that none of the max / avg ratios exceed 1.2; therefore,

there is no torsional amplification.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Steel Structures 10 - 66

Member Design Considerations - Because Pu/Pn is

typically less than 0.4 for the columns, combinations

involving 0 factors do not come into play for the

special steel moment frames (re: AISC Seismic

Sec. 8.3). In sizing columns (and beams) for

strength one should satisfy the most severe value

from interaction equations. However, the frame in

this example is controlled by drift. So, with both

strength and drift requirements satisfied, we will

check the column-beam moment ratio and the

panel zone shear.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Steel Structures 10 - 67

Per AISC Seismic Sec. 9.6

*

M pc

*

pb

> 1.0

where M*pc = the sum of the moments in the column above and

below the joint at the intersection of the beam and column

centerlines. M*pc is determined by summing the projections of the

nominal flexural strengths of the columns above and below the

joint to the beam centerline with a reduction for the axial force in

the column.

M*pb = the sum of the moments in the beams at the intersection of

the beam and column centerlines.

Steel Structures 10 - 68

Column W14x370; beam W33x141

M

*

pc

*

M pc

Puc

500kips

2

2

736

50

= Zc Fyc

=

in

ksi

109

A

in

= 66,850in kips

height between beams.

268in. + 160in.

*

M pc

= 66,850in kips

= 75,300in kips

251.35in. + 128.44in.

Steel Structures 10 - 69

For beams:

*

M pb

= (1.1Ry M p + Mv )

with Mv = VpSh

S h = dist . from col . centerline to plastic hinge

= dc / 2 + d b / 2 = 25.61in.

Vp = shear at plastic hinge location

wL' 2

2M p +

'

2

2

Vp = 2M p + wL / 2 =

'

L

(1.046klf ) ( 248.8in.)2

( 2 )( 25,700in kips ) +

12

2

= 221.2kips

=

248.8in.

Steel Structures 10 - 70

Mv = VpSh = (221.2kips )(25.61in.) = 5,665in kips

and

*

M pb

= (1.1Ry M p + Mv )

computed as:

Ratio =

*

M pc

*

M pb

75,300in kips

= 1.02 > 1.00 OK

73,500in kips

Steel Structures 10 - 71

The 2005 AISC Seismic specification is used to check the panel zone strength. Note

that FEMA 350 contains a different methodology, but only the most recent AISC

provisions will be used. From analysis shown in the NEHRP Design Examples volume

(FEMA 451), the factored strength that the panel zone at Story 2 of the frame in the

EW direction must resist is 1,883 kips.

3bcf tcf2

(3)(16.475in.)(2.66)2

Rv = 0.6Fy dc t p 1 +

= (0.6)(50ksi )(17.92in.)(t p ) 1 +

d

d

t

(33.3

in

.)(17.92

in

.)(

t

)

b c p

p

Rv = 537.6t p + 315

The required total (web plus doubler plate ) thickness is determined by :

Rv = Ru

(1.0)(537.6t p + 315) = 1,883kips

t prequired = 2.91in.

The column web thickness is 1.66in., therefore the required doubler plate thickness is :

t pdoubler = 1.25in. (therefore use one 1.25in. plate or two 0.625in. plates )

Steel Structures 10 - 72

Steel Structures 10 - 73

Steel Structures 10 - 74

Summary

Beam to column connection capacity

Select preliminary member sizes

Check member local stability

Check deflection and drift

Check torsional amplification

Check the column-beam moment ratio rule

Check shear requirement at panel zone

Select connection configuration

Prequalified connections

Testing

Steel Structures 10 - 75

Steel Design

Context in Provisions

Steel behavior

Reference standards and design strength

Seismic design category requirement

Moment resisting frames

Braced frames

Steel Structures 10 - 76

Basic Configurations

Inverted V

Diagonal

Steel Structures 10 - 77

Construction

Steel Structures 10 - 78

Steel Structures 10 - 79

Special AISC Seismic

R=6

Chapter 13

R = 3.25

Chapter 14

R=3

AISC LRFD

Steel Structures 10 - 80

Dissipate energy after onset of global buckling by

avoiding brittle failures:

Minimize local buckling

Strong and tough end connections

Better coupling of built-up members

Steel Structures 10 - 81

Special and Ordinary

Bracing members:

- Compression capacity = cPn

- Width / thickness limits

Generally compact

Angles, tubes and pipes very compact

- Overall

KL

< 4

r

E

Fy

Steel Structures 10 - 82

Special concentrically braced frames

Brace connections

Axial tensile strength > smallest of:

Axial tension strength = RyFyAg

Maximum load effect that can be transmitted to

brace by system.

Axial compressive strength 1.1RyPn where Pn is the

nominal compressive strength of the brace.

Flexural strength > 1.1RyMp or rotate to permit

brace buckling while resisting AgFCR

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Steel Structures 10 - 83

V bracing:

Design beam for D + L + unbalanced brace forces,

using 0.3Pc for compression and RyFyAg in tension

Laterally brace the beam

Beams between columns shall be continuous.

K bracing:

Not permitted

Steel Structures 10 - 84

Built-up member stitches:

Spacing < 40% KL/r

No bolts in middle quarter of span

Minimum strengths related to Py

Column in CBF:

Same local buckling rules as brace members

Splices resist moments

Steel Structures 10 - 85

Concentrically

Braced Frame

Example

E-W direction

Steel Structures 10 - 86

The following general design steps are required:

Selection of preliminary member sizes

Check strength

Check drift

Check torsional amplification

Connection design

Steel Structures 10 - 87

Link

Brace

Beam

Steel Structures 10 - 88

Steel Structures 10 - 89

Steel Structures 10 - 90

Eccentric bracing systems

Cd

dual system w/ special moment frame

With moment resisting connections

at columns away from links

Without moment resisting connections

at columns away from links

These connections

determine classification

Steel Structures 10 - 91

Design Procedure

1.

2.

3.

4.

Elastic analysis

Check rotation angle; reproportion as required

Design check for strength

Design connection details

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Steel Structures 10 - 92

Example

Steel Structures 10 - 93

Rotation Angle

1. Compute total = Cd

E

hinges at ends of line

3. Compute rotation angle

at end of link

1.6 M p

2.6 M p

Vp

Vp

1.6 M p

Vp

<L<

2.6 M p

Vp

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Steel Structures 10 - 94

Rotation Angle Example

From computer analysis:

e = 0.247 in

8.5'

Total drift:

From geometry:

L

20 0.99

= =

= 0.043

e

3 12.67 (12 )

1.6M p

= 3.52'

Because e = 3.0 ' <

Fy

8.5'

12.67'

3.0'

rad

OK

Steel Structures 10 - 95

Rotation Angle

length

- Short links yield in shear and are allowed

greater rotation

Rotation angle may be reduced in design by:

- Increasing member size (reducing e)

- Changing geometric configuration

(especially changing length of link beam)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Steel Structures 10 - 96

Link Design

Provide strength V and M per load combinations

Check lateral bracing per AISC Lpd

Local buckling (width to thickness of web and

flange) per AISC Seismic

Stiffeners (end and intermediate) per

AISC Seismic

Steel Structures 10 - 97

Brace Design

shear strength of link

Steel Structures 10 - 98

Brace Design Example

Check axial strength of 15.26 ft long TS 8 x 8 x 5/8 Fy = 46 ksi:

KL (1)(15.26) (12 )

=

= 61.2

r

2.99

E

61.2 < 4.71

= 118.3

Fy

Fe =

2E

2

2 (29,000)

2

Fy

Fcr = 0.658 Fe

Fy

= 76.4 ksi

61.2

KL

r

46

76.4

Fcr = 0.658 46 = 35.8ksi

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Steel Structures 10 - 99

Brace Design Example

Vn = 0.9(0.6Fy )d t

or

Vn = 2(0.9)M / e =

2 ( 0.9 )( 50 )(105 )

and

3 (12 )

= 262.5 kip

190

Pu = 1.25 (1.1)

(120.2 ) = 369 < 528 OK

85.2

Steel Design

Context in NEHRP Recommended Provisions

Steel behavior

Reference standards and design strength

Moment resisting frames

Braced frames

Other topics

Buckling and yielding

in special section

Design to be elastic

outside special section

Deforms similar to EBF

Special panels to be

symmetric X or

Vierendeel

Geometric Limits:

L 65'

0.1 <

d 6'

Ls

< 0.5

L

L

2

3

< p <

3

d

2

Flat bar diagonals,

b

2.5

t

2 M pc

Vp = 2

Ls

F h = V

Materials:

Limit to lower strengths and higher ductilities

Bolted Joints:

Fully tensioned high strength bolts

Limit on bearing

Welded Joints:

AWS requirements for welding procedure specs

Filler metal toughness

gouges, etc.

Columns:

Strength using o if Pu /

Pn > 0.4

fillet welds

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Steel Diaphragm

Example

Vn = (approved strength)

= 0.6

For example only:

Use approved strength as 2.0 x working load in

SDI Diaphragm Design Manual

L

VE

VE

wE

L = 80'

d = 40'

wD = wL = 0

wE = 500 plf

VE =

v SDI

wEL

= 20 kip;

2

vE =

20000

= 500 plf

40

vE

500

=

=

= 417 plf

2 2(0.6 )

Deck chosen:

1 , 22 gage with welds on 36/5 pattern and 3

sidelap fasteners, spanning 5-0

Capacity = 450 > 417 plf

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Qn = 0.5 Asc ( fc Ec)1/2 Rg Rp Asc Fu

Rg = stud geometry adjustment factor

Rp = stud position adjustment factor

Note that the strength reduction factor for bending has

been increased from 0.85 to 0.9. This results from the

strength model for shear studs being more accurate,

although the result for Qn is lower in the 2005

specification.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Qn = 0.5 Asc ( fc Ec)1/2 Rg Rp Asc Fu

Rg = stud group adjustment factor

Rg = 1.0

Rg = 1.0*

Rg = 0.85

Rg = 0.7

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Qn = 0.5 Asc ( fc Ec)1/2 Rg Rp Asc Fu

Rp = stud position adjustment factor

Rp = 0.75 (strong)

= 0.6 (weak)

Rp = 1.0

Rp = 0.75

No Deck

Deck

35

S Studs

2S Studs

W Studs

25

Qe=QN

20

25

15

10

0

0

10

15

20

25

30

35

30

20

15

Qe=Qsc

10

0

0

10

15

20

25

Shear studs are often used along diaphragm collector

members to transfer the shear from the slab into the

frame. The shear stud calculation model in the

2005 AISC specification can be used to compute

the nominal shear strengths. A strength reduction

factor should be used when comparing these

values to the factored shear. There is no codeestablished value for the strength reduction factor.

A value of 0.8 is recommended pending further

development.

Inspection Requirements

Welding:

- Single pass fillet or resistance welds

> PERIODIC

- All other welds

> CONTINUOUS

High strength bolts:

> PERIODIC

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Shop Certification

Domestic:

- AISC

- Local jurisdictions

Foreign:

- No established international criteria

Base Metal Testing

Subjected to through-thickness weld

shrinkage

Lamellar tearing

Ultrasonic testing

Steel Design

Context in Provisions

Steel behavior

Reference standards and design strength

Moment resisting frames

Braced frames

Other topics

Summary

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SEISMIC DESIGN OF

REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

Concrete Design Requirements

Provisions

Concrete behavior

Reference standards

Requirements by Seismic Design Category

Moment resisting frames

Shear walls

Other topics

Summary

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Provisions

Design basis: Strength limit state

Using NEHRP Recommended Provisions:

Structural design criteria:

Chap. 4

Structural analysis procedures:

Chap. 5

Components and attachments:

Chap. 6

Design of concrete structures:

Chap. 9

and

ACI 318

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Seismic-Force-Resisting Systems

Reinforced Concrete

Unbraced frames (with

rigid moment resisting joints):

Three types

Ordinary

Intermediate

Special

R/C shear walls:

Ordinary

Special

Precast shear walls:

Special

Intermediate

Ordinary

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Concrete Design

Concrete behavior

20000

4500 psi

8800 psi

13,500 psi

17,500 psi

18000

16000

Stress, psi

14000

12000

10000

8000

6000

4000

2000

0

0

0.001

0.002

0.003

0.004

Strain, in./in.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

of Unconfined Concrete

6000

Stress, psi

5000

4000

2 2

fc = fc' c c

o o

2fc'

o =

Et

3000

2000

1000

0

0

Strain

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Asp

fyhAsp

ds

fyhAsp

Confinement

from spiral or

circular hoop

Forces acting

on 1/2 spiral or

circular hoop

Confinement

from square

hoop

Confinement

Rectangular hoops

with cross ties

Confinement by

transverse bars

Confinement by

longitudinal bars

no confinement

4.75 in.

Pitch of

3.5 in.

in. dia.

2.375 in.

spiral

1.75 in.

8000

7000

Stress, psi

6000

5000

4000

3000

Tests of

6 in. x 12 in.

cylinders

2000

1000

0

0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Confined Concrete

Kent and Park Model

No Hoops

4 in.

6 in.

9 in.

12 in.

4500

4000

Stress, psi

3500

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0

0

0.004

Confined Area 12 x 16

0.008

0.012

0.016

Strain, in./in.

100

Grade 75

Stress, ksi

80

Grade 60

rupture~10-12%

60

Grade 40

40

rupture ~18-20%

E = 29,000 ksi

20

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

Microstrain

steel

yields

failure

Load

cracked-inelastic

cracked-elastic

uncracked

Mid-Point Displacement,

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

b

fc

d

As

s

Strain

sEs < fy

Stress

b

c,max

f'c

d

As

s >y

Strain

jd

Asfy

fy

Stress

Forces

Mn = Asfyjd

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

700

w/ strain hardening

M, in-kip

600

fc = 4 ksi

500

fy = 60 ksi

b = 8 in

400

d = 10 in

300

= 0.0125

200

100

0

0

100

200

300

x 10-5 in-1

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

5000

fc = 4 ksi

M, in-kip

4000

fy = 60 ksi

b = 10 in

3000

d = 18 in

2000

= 2.5%

= 1.5%

= 0.5%

1000

0

0

100

200

300

400

x 10-5 in-1

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

1600

1200

Beam

1

2

3

1

4

5

6

4 7

2

5

800

M

2

lb

/

in

bd2

0.0375

0.0375

0.0375

0.0250

0.0250

0.0125

0.0125

'

0.0250

0.0125

0

0.0125

0

0.0125

0

6

7

400

0

0

0.008

0.016

0.024

Moment-Curvature

with Confined Concrete

c,max

f'c

As

s >y

Strain

fy

Stress

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 20

Concrete

35000

Moment, in-k

30000

25000

Beam - 24 in. x 36 in.

Tension Steel - 12 ea. #10

Compression Steel - 5 ea. #8

Confining Steel - #4 hoops at 4 in. c-c

20000

15000

10000

5000

without confining

with confining

0

0

500

1000

1500

2000

curvature, microstrain/in.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Plastic Hinging

idealized

lp

Mu

u y

u

actual

plastic

rotation

Use low flexural reinforcement ratio

Add compression reinforcement

Add confining reinforcement

Acts as shear reinforcement

Prevents buckling of longitudinal

reinforcement

Prevents bond splitting failures

Structural Behavior

Frames

Story Mechanism

Sway Mechanism

Story Mechanism

s

V

N

V

V

V

T

Flexural

failure

V

N

Horizontal

tension

Sliding on

flexural cracks

Sliding on

construction

joint

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 27

Structural Behavior

Walls

Vu

Vu

Vu

Compression

1

2

hw

1

2

45

lw

Structural Behavior

Columns

Ultimate

yield

1000

14 in square

4-#11 bars

f' c = 4 ksi

f y = 45 ksi

800

600

1.75

bending axis

400

200

400

800

1200

1600

0.002

Moment, M, in-kip

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

0.001

Curvature, , rad/in

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 29

Gross column

Area = A g

Confined concrete

Area = A core

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Column with

Inadequate Ties

Column

M 1.0

Mu

0.5

-4

-0.5

Drift, %

-1.0

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Structural Behavior

Columns

M1

M1

L

V

M2

M1 + M2 2Mu

=

V=

L

L

M2

P

Range

of P

Mo

Mu

Structural Behavior

Joints

V

fc

h

ft

T

Cc

Cs

Vj = T- V

M

Mu

1.0

0.5

5 6

Drift, %

-1

-0.5

M

Mu

1.0

0.5

5 6

Drift, %

-1

-0.5

Anchorage Failure in

Column/Footing Joint

Compressive Ductility

Strong in compression but brittle

Confinement improves ductility by

Maintaining concrete core integrity

Preventing longitudinal bar buckling

Flexural Ductility

Longitudinal steel provides monotonic ductility at low

reinforcement ratios

Transverse steel needed to maintain ductility through

reverse cycles and at very high strains (hinge

development)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Damping

Well cracked: moderately high damping

Uncracked (e.g. prestressed): low damping

Potential Problems

Shear failures are brittle and abrupt and must be

avoided

Degrading strength/stiffness with repeat cycles

Limit degradation through adequate hinge

development

Concrete Design

Concrete behavior

Reference standards

ACI 318-05

ACI 318-05

Chapter 21, Special Provisions for Seismic Design

General design requirements

Modifications to ACI 318

Seismic Design Category requirements

Special precast structural walls

Untopped precast diaphragms (Appendix to Ch.9)

Scope and material properties

Special moment frames

Special shear walls

Special and intermediate precast walls

Foundations

Anchoring to concrete

Concrete Design

Concrete behavior

Reference standards

Requirements by Seismic Design Category

Seismic Force

Resisting

System

Response

Modification

Coefficient, R

Deflection

Amplification

Factor, Cd

Special R/C

Moment Frame

5.5

Intermediate R/C

Moment Frame

4.5

Ordinary R/C

Moment Frame

2.5

Design Coefficients

Shear Walls (Bearing Systems)

Seismic Force

Resisting

System

Response

Modification

Coefficient, R

Deflection

Amplification

Factor, Cd

Walls

Ordinary R/C

Shear Walls

Intermediate Precast

Shear Walls

Design Coefficients

Shear Walls (Frame Systems)

Seismic Force

Resisting

System

Response

Modification

Coefficient, R

Deflection

Amplification

Factor, Cd

Walls

Ordinary R/C

Shear Walls

4.5

Intermediate Precast

Shear Walls

4.5

Design Coefficients

Dual Systems with Special Frames

Seismic Force

Resisting

System

Response

Modification

Coefficient, R

Deflection

Amplification

Factor, Cd

Dual System w/

Special Walls

8 (7)

6.5 (5.5)

Dual System w/

Ordinary Walls

Frames

Seismic

Design

Category

Minimum

Frame Type

ACI 318

Requirements

A and B

Ordinary

Chapters 1 thru

18 and 22

Intermediate

ACI 21.12

Special

ACI 21.2, 21.3,

21.4, and 21.5

D, E and F

Seismic

Design

Category

Minimum

Wall

Type

A, B and C

Ordinary

Chapters 1 thru

18 and 22

Special

ACI 21.2 and 21.7

D, E and F

ACI 318

Requirements

Seismic

Design

Category

A and B

D, E and F

Minimum

Wall Type

ACI 318

Requirements

Ordinary

Chapters 1 thru

18 and 22

Intermediate

ACI 21.13

Special

ACI 21.2, 21.8

Category C

Discontinuous members

Plain concrete

Walls

Footings

Pedestals (not allowed)

Concrete Design

Concrete behavior

Reference standards

Requirements by Seismic Design Category

Moment resisting frames

Performance Objectives

Strong column

Avoid story mechanism

Hinge development

Confined concrete core

Prevent rebar buckling

Prevent shear failure

Joint shear strength

Rebar development

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Frame Mechanisms

strong column weak beam

Story mechanism

Sway mechanism

M nc1

M nb1

M nb2

M nc2

Hinge Development

Tightly Spaced Hoops

Provide confinement to increase concrete strength

and usable compressive strain

Provide lateral support to compression bars to

prevent buckling

Act as shear reinforcement and preclude shear

failures

Control splitting cracks from high bar bond stresses

Hinge Development

Before

spalling

After

spalling

Hinge Development

Bidirectional cracking

Spalled cover

Beam Longitudinal Reinforcement

200

fy

0 .025

top & bottom

Joint face Mn+ not less than 50% MnMin. Mn+ or Mn- not less than

25% max. Mn at joint face

Splice away from hinges and

enclose within hoops or spirals

Beam Transverse Reinforcement

Closed hoops at hinging regions

with seismic hook

135 hook, 6dh 3 extension

Maximum spacing of hoops:

d/4

8db

24dh 12

tied as if column bars

2d

min

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Beam Shear Strength

1.2D + 1.0L + 0.2S

Mpr1

ln

Ve1

Ve =

Mpr1 + Mpr 2

ln

w ul n

'

g c

A f

Ve

Mpr = Mn

fs = 1.25fy ,

Ve2

If earthquake-induced > 1 V

e

2

shear force

and Pu <

Mpr2

with

= 1 .0

by analysis

then Vc = 0

20

Beam-Column Joint

Vj = T + C Vcol

Vcol

T

Vj

T = 1.25fy A s, top

C = 1.25fy A s, bottom

Beam-column Joint

20

Vn = 15 f 'c A j

12

Coefficient depends on joint confinement

To reduce shear demand, increase beam depth

Keep column stronger than beam

Column Longitudinal Reinforcement

M nc1

0.01 0.06

M nb1

M nb2

M nc2

At joints

(strong column-weak beam)

consistent with direction of lateral forces

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Column Transverse Reinforcement at Potential

Hinging Region

Hoops

Spirals

Ag

f 'c

s = 0.45

1

A ch

fyt

and

f 'c

s 0.12

fyt

A sh

A g

f

'

c

0.3 sbc

1

f

yt A ch

and

A sh

f 'c

0.09sbc

fyt

Column Transverse Reinforcement at Potential

Hinging Region

hx

hx

14 h x

so = 4 +

3

Spacing shall not exceed the smallest of:

b/4 or 6 db or so (4 to 6)

Distance between legs of hoops or crossties, hx 14

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Potential Hinge Region

walls, hoops are required over full height of column

if

Pe >

f 'c A g

10

shear strength is neglected if axial load is low and

earthquake shear is high)

Lap splices are not allowed in potential plastic

hinge regions

Splice in Hinge

Region

Terminating

bars

Potential Hinge Region

d

clear height

lo

6

18"

A

D

1

7 @ 30 = 210

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

5 @ 20 = 100

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Frame Elevations

A

15' 18'

15' 18'

11 @ 12.5'

11 @ 12.5'

Column Lines 3 to 6

Story Shears:

Seismic vs Wind

seismic E-W

seismic N-S

wind E-W

wind N-S

frame 1

frame 2

frame 3

1

2

3

includes shearwall

0

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Frame 1

25% Frame 1

w/ walls

w/o walls

Layout of Reinforcement

32

29.6

28.6

22.5

30

Frame 1 Beams

A

B

4708

4515

CL

Seismic

715

Dead

5232

5834

5761

492

Combined:

834

4122

4222

4149

1.42D +0.5 L + E

0.68D - E

1.2D + 1.6L

Beam Reinforcement:

Longitudinal

Max negative Mu = 5834 in-kips

b = 22.5 d = 29.6 fc = 4 ksi fy = 60 ksi

Mu

5834

0 .9

A s req'd =

=

= 4.17in2

fy (0.875d) 60 0.875 29.6

Choose: 2 #9 and 3 #8 As = 4.37 in2

= 0.0066 < 0.025 OK

Mn = 6580 in-kips OK

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Beam Reinforcement:

Longitudinal (continued)

Positive Mu at face of column = 4222 in-kips

(greater than (5834) = 2917)

b for negative moment is the sum of

the beam width (22.5 in.) plus 1/12 the

span length (20 ft x 12 in./ft)/12,

b = 42.5 in.

Mu

A s req'd

4222

0.9 = 2.94in2

=

=

fy (0.9d) 60 0.9 29.6

Beam Reinforcement:

Longitudinal (continued)

Choose 2 #7 and 3 #8 As = 3.57 in2

Mn = 5564 in-kips OK

Run 3 #8s continuous top and bottom

Mn = 3669 in-kips

This moment is greater than:

25% of max negative Mn = 1459 in-kips

Max required Mu = 834 in-kips

Beam Reinforcement:

Preliminary Layout

A'

2 #7

C

3 #8

2 #9

2 #8

2 #7

3 #8

C'

2 #9

3 #8

D

2 #8

2 #7

Hinging mechanism

B

C'

9697

8999

Plastic

moments

(in-kips)

10085

10085

9.83'

20.0'

10.5'

20.0'

150.4

94.2

90.9

Girder and

column shears

(kips)

150.4

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

150.5 kip

355.5 kip

355.5 kip

560.5 kip

Vj = T + C Vcol = 560.5 kips

v j = 15 f 'c = 949 psi

Vn = v j A j = 949 30 30 = 854 kips

Vn = 0.85 854 = 726 kips > 560.5 kips

A

B

82.7

79.4

C

82.7

Seismic shear

79.4

75.6

29.5

29.5

82.7

29.5

29.5

Factored

gravity shear

29.5

112.2

108.9

53.2

49.9

29.5

112.2

53.2

Design shear

46.1

105.1

49.9

108.9

53.2

112.2

Beam Reinforcement:

Transverse

Vseismic > 50% Vu therefore take Vc = 0

82.7 kips = 73%(112.2)

Use 4 legged #3 stirrups

Vs =

A v fy d

s

Near midspan s = 7.0 in.

Beam Reinforcement:

Transverse

plastic hinge length (2d)

8db = 7.0 in.

24dh = 9.0 in.

A

A'

7311

Girder moments

(Level 7)

6181

= 16190 in k

8095

8095

Column moments

(Level 7)

if

Pu >

Mnc

f 'c A g

10

> 1.2 Mnb

above and below:

Mnc = 8095 in-kips (above)

Mnc = 8095 in-kips (below)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design Strengths

Design Aspect

Strength Used

Design strength

Beam-column joint

strength

Maximum probable

strength

Maximum probable

strength

Maximum probable

strength

A sh

A g

f

'

c

1

= 0.3 sbc

fyt A ch

and

A sh = 0.09sbc

f 'c

fyt

Ach = area confined within the hoops

bc = transverse dimension of column core

measured center to center of outer legs

Second equation typically governs for larger columns

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Maximum spacing is smallest of:

One quarter of minimum member dimension

Six times the diameter of the longitudinal bars

so calculated as follows:

14 h x

so = 4 +

3

hx = maximum horizontal center to center spacing

of cross-ties or hoop legs on all faces of the

column, not allowed to be greater the 14 in.

For max s = 4 in.

A sh

A g

f

'

4 900

= 0.3 sbc

1

1

0

.

3

4

26

.

5

A ch

f

60 702

yt

A sh = 0.60 in2

and

A sh

f 'c

4

= 0.09sbc

= 0.09 4 26.5

= 0.64 in2

fyt

60

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Mpr,top

Mpr,1

Mpr,2

Vseismic

ln

Mpr,3

Mpr,4

Vseismic

Mpr,bottom

Design for Concrete Structures 11 - 96

Shear Demand from Mpr of Beams

Mpr, 1 = 9000 in-k (2 #9 and 3 #8)

Mpr,2 = 7460 in-k (2 #7 and 3 #8)

Assume moments are distributed equally above and below joint

Vseismic

8230 2

=

= 139 kips

(12.5 12) 32

Note Vseismic~100%Vu

Vc = 0, if Pmin <

f 'c Ag

20

= 180 kips

Pmin = 266 kips OK

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Shear Demand from Mpr of Beams

Vc = 2 f 'c bd = 0.75 2 0.85 4000 30 27.5 = 66.5 kips

Vs,required = 139 66.5 = 72.5 kips

Vs,provided =

A v fy d

Hoops

4 0.2 60 29.6

= 0.75

= 266.4 kips

4

4 legs #4

s = 4

Column Reinforcement

A'

7 @ 4"

#4 hoops:

5"

8 @ 6"

5"

7 @ 4"

12 #8 bars

Issue

Intermediate

Special

confinement

minor

full

Bar buckling

lesser

full

Member shear

lesser

full

minor

full

Joint shear

Ordinary

minor

Strong column

full

Rebar development

lesser

lesser

full

Load reversal

minor

lesser

full

Concrete Design

Concrete behavior

Reference standards

Requirements by Seismic Design Category

Moment resisting frames

Shear walls

Performance Objectives

Resist axial forces, flexure and shear

Boundary members

Where compression strains are large, maintain

capacity

Discontinuous walls: supporting columns

have full confinement

Design Philosophy

Flexural yielding will occur in predetermined

Brittle failure mechanisms will be precluded

Diagonal tension

Sliding hinges

Local buckling

General Requirements

lw

t = parallel to shear plane

hw

l = perpendicular

to shear plane

Shear plane, Acv =

web thickness x

length of wall

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

General Requirements

unless

Vu < A cv f 'c

Spacing not to exceed 18 in.

Reinforcement contributing to Vn

shall be continuous and distributed

across the shear plane

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

General Requirements

if:

Vu > 2A cv f 'c

lateral load analysis

General Requirements

Shear strength:

Vn = A cv c f 'c + t fy

c = 2.0 for hw/lw2.0

Linear interpolation between

orthogonal directions

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

General Requirements

column to determine axial load moment

interaction

P

M

Boundary Elements

For walls with a high

compression demand

at the edges Boundary

Elements are required

Extra confinement and/or

longitudinal bars at end

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Boundary Elements

lw

c

u

600

h

w

u = Design displacement

c = Depth to neutral axis from strain

compatibility analysis with loads

causing u

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Boundary Elements

extend up the wall from the critical section a

distance not less than the larger of:

lw

or Mu/4Vu

Boundary Elements

maximum extreme fiber compressive stress

calculated based on factored load effects,

linear elastic concrete behavior and gross

section properties, exceeds 0.2 fc

where the compressive stress is less than

0.15fc

Boundary Elements

In flanged walls, boundary element must

include all of the effective flange width and at

least 12 in. of the web

Transverse reinforcement must extend into

the foundation

Wall Example

A

15' 18'

11 @ 12.5'

Wall Cross-Section

17-6=210

30

30

30

30

12

Story Shears

E-W Loading

frame 1

frame 2

frame 3

1

2

3

includes shearwall

0

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Required if: fc > 0.2 fc' based on gross concrete section

Axial load and moment are determined based on

factored forces, including earthquake effects

At ground Pu = 5550 kip

Mu from analysis is 268,187 in-kip

The wall has the following gross section properties:

A = 4320 in2

S = 261,600 in3

Need boundary element

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Determine preliminary reinforcing ratio in boundary elements

by assuming only boundary elements take compression

M = 268,187 in-k

M

P

B2

P

M

+

= 3892 kip

2 240

P

M

B2 =

= 1658 kip

2 240

B1 =

B1

Need

P = 5550 k

For fc = 4 ksi = 7.06% Too large

For fc = 6 ksi = 4.18% Reasonable; 24 #11

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Transverse reinforcement in boundary elements is to be

designed essentially like column transverse reinforcement

A sh

fc'

2

= 0 . 09 sb c

= 1 . 08 in at s = 4 "

fy

4 legs of #5

Vn = A cv 2

fc' + t f y

Panel to Acv

t = 0.0036 for fy = 40 ksi

Acv

2 curtains if

Vu > 2

'

fc A cv

Select transverse and longitudinal reinforcement:

longitudin al :

0 .2 2

# 4 @ 12"

= 0.0028 > 0.0025

12 12

transverse :

0 .2 2

# 4 @ 9"

= 0.0037 > 0.0036

12 9

30000

Nominal

Axial Load, k

25000

Factored

Combinations

20000

15000

10000

5000

0

0

20000

40000

60000

Moment, k-ft

C

B

R

12

24 #10

24 #9

11

#4@6" hor. E.F.

fc = 6 ksi

6

12 #9

G

24 #11

10

#5 @ 4"

#4@16" hor. E.F.

B

4

#4@12"

E.W. E.F.

#4 @ 4"

fc = 4 ksi

Concrete Design

Concrete behavior

Reference standards

Requirements by Seismic Design Category

Moment resisting frames

Shear walls

Other topics

In frame members not designated as part of

the lateral-force-resisting system in regions

of high seismic risk:

to the design displacement

Transverse reinforcement increases depending on:

Forces induced by drift

Axial force in member

Diaphragms

Diaphragm

Shear walls

Collectors, if reqd to transfer force

from diaphragm to shear walls

Load from analysis in accordance

With design load combinations

Check:

Shear strength and reinforcement (min. slab reinf.)

Chords (boundary members)

- Force = M/d Reinforced for tension

(Usually dont require boundary members)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

performance objectives

ductility is more difficult to achieve

Field connections

at points of low

stress

Strong connections

Configure system so that hinges

occur in factory cast members

away from field splices

Field connections

must yield

Ductile connections

Inelastic action at field splice

Quality Assurance

Rebar Inspection

Continuous

Welding of rebar

Periodic

During and upon completion of placement for special

moment frames, intermediate moment frames and

shear walls

Quality Assurance:

Reinforcing Inspection - Prestressed

Periodic

Placing of prestressing tendons (inspection required

upon completion)

Continuous

Stressing of tendons

Grouting of tendons

Quality Assurance:

Concrete Placement Inspection

Continuous

Prestressed elements

Drilled piers

Caissons

Periodic

Frames

Shear walls

Quality Assurance:

Precast Concrete (plant cast)

by regulatory agency

If no approved quality control program,

independent special inspector is required

Quality Assurance:

PCI Certification Program

Scheduled and surprise visits

Qualified independent inspectors

Observed work of in-plant quality control

Check results of quality control procedures

Periodic specific approvals requiring renewal

Quality Assurance:

ACI Inspector Certification

Laboratory and in situ testing

Inspection of welding

Handling and placement of concrete

Others

Quality Assurance:

Reinforcement Testing

Rebar

Special and intermediate moment frames

Boundary elements

Prestressing steel

Tests include

Weldability

Elongation

Actual to specified yield strength

Actual to specified ultimate strength

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Quality Assurance:

Concrete Testing

Slump

Air content

7 and 28 day strengths

Unit weight

Rate

Once per day per class

Concrete Design

Concrete behavior

Reference standards

Requirements by Seismic Design Category

Moment resisting frames

Shear walls

Other topics

Summary

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

STRUCTURES

Masonry Design

Context in the NEHRP Recommended Provisions

Masonry behavior

Reference standards

Seismic resisting systems

Component design

Quality assurance

Summary

Objectives of Module

Basics of masonry behavior

Basics of masonry specification

The MSJC code and specification and their relationship

Earthquake design of masonry structures and

components using the 2005 MSJC code and

specification

Example of masonry shear wall design

Provisions

Design seismic loads

Load combinations

Chap. 5

Loads on structures

Chap. 5

Chap. 6

Design resistances

Chap. 11

units of

concrete or

fired clay

...

... typical

typical

materials

materials in

in

reinforced

reinforced

masonry

masonry

grout

steel

reinforcing

bars

grout

mortar

Design for Wall-type Structures

Starting point for design

Design of vertical strips in walls perpendicular to

lateral loads

Design of walls parallel to lateral loads

Design of lintels

Simplified analysis for lateral loads

Design of diaphragms

Detailing

Structures

No beams or columns

(Example of direction of

span)

Vertical reinforcement of

#4 bars at corners and

jambs

Horizontal reinforcement

of two #4 bars in bond

beam at top of wall, and

over and under openings

(two #5 bars with span > 6

ft)

Resisting Gravity Loads

Bearing walls resist

axial loads (concentric

and eccentric) as

vertical strips

concentric axial load as

vertical strips

Resisting Lateral Forces

Walls parallel to lateral

forces act as shear walls

reactions from walls to

horizontal diaphragms and

act as diaphragm chords

Vertical strips of walls perpendicular to lateral

forces resist combinations of axial load and out-ofplane moments, and transfer their reactions to

horizontal diaphragms

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Effect of Openings

Effective

width of strip

A

Strip A

Width A

Effective

width of strip

B

Effective

width of strip

C

Strip B

Strip C

Width B

Width C

Effect of Openings

Openings increase original design actions

on each strip by a factor equal to the ratio

of the effective width of the strip divided by

the actual width:

Effective Width B

Actions in Strip B = Original Actions

Actual Width B

Perpendicular Walls

Moments and axial forces due to

combinations of gravity and lateral

load

M=Pe

M=Pe/2

M wind

Perpendicular Walls

Pn

Moment-axial force

interaction diagram

(with the help of a

spreadsheet)

Mu, Pu

Mn

Moments, axial forces, and shears due

to combinations of gravity and lateral

loads

P

V

h

Moment-axial force

interaction diagram

(with the help of a

spreadsheet)

Sufficient lateral

capacity comes from

wall density.

Pn

Mu, Pu

Mn

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Shearing resistance:

Vn = Vm + Vs

Mu

Vm = 4.0 1.75

Vu dv

'

A

f

n m + 0.25 Pu

Design of Lintels

Moments and shears due to

gravity loads:

(Example of

direction of span)

w l2

Mu =

8

wl

Vu =

2

Design of Lintels

Shear design: Provide

enough depth so that shear

reinforcement is not

needed.

Flexural design:

Neutral axis

Mu

As

fy 0.9 d

As

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Classical approach

Determine whether the

diaphragm is rigid or

flexible

Carry out an appropriate

analysis for shears

Rigid Diaphragms

Locate center of rigidity

Treat the lateral load as the

superposition of a load

acting through the center of

rigidity and a torsional

moment about that center of

rigidity

Rigid Diaphragms

Consider only the shearing

40 ft

8 ft

8 ft

40 ft

V

stiffness, which is

proportional to plan length

Neglect plan torsion

8 ft

8 ft

8 ft

Diaphragms

40 ft

8 ft

8 ft

40 ft

8 ft

8 ft

8 ft

Vleft

Vright

40 ft

5

=

Vtotal = Vtotal

8

( 40 + 8 + 8 + 8 ) ft

8 + 8 + 8 ) ft

(

=

Vtotal

( 40 + 8 + 8 + 8 ) ft

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

3

= Vtotal

8

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 22

Flexible Diaphragms

Distribute shears according

to tributary areas of the

diaphragm independent of

the relative stiffnesses of

the shear walls

Flexible Diaphragms

40 ft

half

half

8 ft

8 ft

40 ft

8 ft

8 ft

8 ft

1

Vleft = Vtotal

2

1

Vright = Vtotal

2

Design for the worse of the two cases:

40 ft

8 ft

5/8V

1/2V

8 ft

V

40 ft

8 ft

3/8V

1/2V

8 ft

8 ft

Diaphragm Design

Diaphragm shears are resisted by total depth or by

cover (for plank diaphragms). Diaphragm moments

are resisted by diaphragm chords in bond beams.

L/2

M = w L2 / 8

V=wL/2

w

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Details

Wall-diaphragm connections

Design of lintels for out-of-plane loads between wall

diaphragm connections

Connections between bond beam and walls

Connections between walls and foundation

Masonry Behavior

On a local level, masonry behavior is nonisotropic,

On a global level, however, masonry behavior can be

idealized as isotropic and homogeneous.

Nonlinearity in compression is handled using an

equivalent rectangular stress block as in reinforced

concrete design.

A starting point for masonry behavior is to visualize

it as very similar to reinforced concrete. Masonry

capacity is expressed in terms of a specified

compressive strength, fm, which is analogous to fc.

for Prism Under Compression

f unit

Masonry unit

f prism

f mortar

Prism

Mortar

Strain

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Basic terms

Units

Mortar

Grout

Accessory materials

Connectors

Flashing

Sealants

Typical details

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Basic Terms

Head

joints

Bed

joints

Running bond

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Stack bond

Flemish bond

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 31

Masonry Units

Concrete masonry units (CMU):

Specified by ASTM C 90

Minimum specified compressive

strength (net area) of 1900 psi

(average)

Net area is about 55% of gross area

Nominal versus specified versus

actual dimensions

Type I and Type II designations no

longer exist

Masonry Units

Clay masonry units:

Specified by ASTM C 62 or C 216

Usually solid, with small core holes

for manufacturing purposes

If cores occupy 25% of net area,

units can be considered 100% solid

Masonry Mortar

Mortar for unit masonry is specified by ASTM C 270

Three cementitious systems

Portland cement lime mortar

Masonry cement mortar

Mortar cement mortar

Masonry Mortar

Within each cementitious system, mortar is specified

by type (M a S o N w O r K):

Going from Type K to Type M, mortar has an

increasing volume proportion of portland cement. It

sets up faster and has higher compressive and tensile

bond strengths.

As the volume proportion of portland cement

increases, mortar is less able to deform when

hardened.

Types N and S are specified for modern masonry

construction.

Masonry Mortar

Under ASTM C270, mortar can be specified by

proportion or by property.

If mortar is specified by proportion, compliance is

verified only by verifying proportions. For example:

Type S PCL mortar has volume proportions of 1 part

cement to about 0.5 parts hydrated masons lime to

about 4.5 parts masons sand.

Type N masonry cement mortar (single-bag) has one

part Type N masonry cement and 3 parts masons

sand.

Masonry Mortar

Under ASTM C270, mortar can be specified

by proportion or by property:

Proportion specification is simpler -- verify

in the field that volume proportions meet

proportion limits.

Property specification is more complex: (1)

establish the proportions necessary to

produce a mortar that, tested at laboratory

flow, will meet the required compressive

strength, air content, and retentivity (ability

to retain water) requirements and (2) verify

in the field that volume proportions meet

proportion limits.

Masonry Mortar

The proportion specification is the default.

Unless the

property specification is used, no mortar testing is

necessary.

The proportion of water is not specified. It is determined

by the mason to achieve good productivity and

workmanship.

Masonry units absorb water from the mortar decreasing

its water-cement ratio and increasing its compressive

strength. Mortar need not have high compressive

strength.

Grout

Grout for unit masonry is specified by ASTM C 476

Two kinds of grout:

Fine grout (cement, sand, water)

Coarse grout (cement, sand, pea gravel, water)

but does not require any. Lime is usually not used in

plant batched grout.

Grout

Under ASTM C476, grout can be specified

by proportion or by compressive strength:

Proportion specification is simpler. It

requires only that volume proportions of

ingredients be verified.

Specification by compressive strength is

more complex. It requires compression

testing of grout in a permeable mold (ASTM

C 1019).

Grout

If grout is specified by proportion, compliance is

verified only by verifying proportions. For example:

Fine grout has volume proportions of 1 part cement to

about 3 parts masons sand.

Coarse grout has volume proportions of 1 part cement

to about 3 parts masons sand and about 2 parts pea

gravel.

used, no grout testing is necessary.

Grout

The proportion of water is not specified.

Masonry units absorb water from the grout

decreasing its water-cement ratio and

increasing its compressive strength. Highslump grout will still be strong enough.

Accessory Materials

Horizontally oriented expansion joint under

shelf angle:

Weepholes

Flashing

Shelf angle

Sealant gap

~ 3 / 8 in.

ANSI process (balance of interests, letter ballots, resolution of

Negatives, public comment)

Technical

Industry

ASTM

Organizations

Groups

(Material

NEHRP

MSJC

MSJC

Specifications)

develops

Code

provisions

MSJC

model codes

Specification

ICC

reference those

(QA,

Other

Model

(International

provisions

materials,

Codes

Building Code)

execution)

(NFPA)

local authorities

adopt those model

codes

Building Code

(legal standing)

(contract between society and the designer)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

(part of a civil

contract between

owner and

contractor)

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 44

Specification... ?

ACI

(ACI 530-05)

(ACI 530.1-05)

2005 MSJC

Code and

Specification

ASCE

(ASCE 5-05)

(ASCE 6-05)

TMS

(TMS 402-05)

(TMS 602-05)

Masonry Standards

Joint Committee

MSJC

Specification

Ch. 2,

Allowable

Stress

Design

Ch. 3,

Strength

Design

2.2, URM

2.3, RM

Ch. 4,

Prestressed

Masonry

Ch. 5,

Empirical

Design

3.1, General SD

3.2, URM

3.3, RM

Ch. 6,

Veneer

6.1, General

6.2, Anchored

6.3, Adhered

Ch. 7,

Glass

Block

App.A,

AAC

Specification

Code:

Design provisions are given in Chapters 1-7 and

Appendix A

Sections 1.2.4 and 1.14 require a QA program in

accordance with the specification

Section 1.4 invokes the specification by reference.

Specification:

Comply with required level of quality assurance

Comply with specified products and execution

Role of fm

Concrete:

Designer states assumed value of fc

Compliance is verified by compression tests on

cylinders cast in the field and cured under ideal

conditions

Masonry

Designer states assumed value of fm

Compliance is verified by unit strength method or

by prism test method

Unit strength method (Spec 1.4 B 2):

Compressive strengths from unit manufacturer

ASTM C 270 mortar

Grout meeting ASTM C 476 or 2,000 psi

Pro -- can permit optimization of materials

Con -- require testing, qualified testing lab, and

procedures in case of non-complying results

(Specification Tables 1, 2)

Clay masonry units (Table 1):

Unit compressive strength 4150 psi

Type N mortar

Prism strength can be taken as 1500 psi

Unit compressive strength 1900 psi

Type S mortar

Prism strength can be taken as 1500 psi

(Spec Tables 1, 2)

Design determines required material specification:

Designer states assumed value of fm

Specifier specifies units, mortar and grout that will

satisfy unit strength method

mortar, grout, or prisms

Execution

Products -- Specification Article 2:

Units, mortar, grout, accessory materials

Inspection

Preparation

Installation of masonry, reinforcement, grout,

prestressing tendons

Chapter 1

1.1 1.6 Scope, contract

documents and

calculations, special

systems, reference

standards, notation,

definitions

1.7 Loading

1.8 Material properties

1.9 Section properties

1.10 Deflections

1.12 Corbels

1.13 Details of reinforcement

1.14 Seismic design

requirements

1.15 Quality assurance program

1.16 Construction

Chord modulus of elasticity, shear modulus, thermal

concrete, and AAC masonry

Moisture expansion coefficient for clay masonry

Shrinkage coefficients for concrete masonry

Use minimum (critical) area for computing member

stresses or capacities

Capacity is governed by the weakest section; for

example, the bed joints of face-shell bedded hollow

masonry

Radius of gyration and member slenderness are better

represented by the average section; for example, the

net area of units of face-shell bedded masonry

Chapter 1

1.1 1.6 Scope, contract

documents and

calculations, special

systems, reference

standards, notation,

definitions

1.7 Loading

1.8 Material properties

1.9 Section properties

1.10 Deflections

1.12 Corbels

1.13 Details of reinforcement

1.14 Seismic design

requirements

1.15 Quality assurance program

1.16 Construction

Reinforcing bars must be embedded in grout; joint

Placement of reinforcement

Protection for reinforcement

Standard hooks

Chapter 1

1.1 1.6 Scope, Contract

documents and

calculations, special

systems, reference

standards, notation,

definitions

1.7 Loading

1.8 Material properties

1.9 Section properties

1.10 Deflections

1.12 Corbels

1.13 Details of reinforcement

1.14 Seismic design

requirements

1.15 Quality assurance program

1.16 Construction

Applies to all masonry except

Glass unit masonry

Veneers

structures in earthquakes

Improves ductility of masonry members

Improves connectivity of masonry members

Define a structures Seismic Design Category (SDC)

according to ASCE 7-02

SDC depends on seismic risk (geographic location),

importance, underlying soil

SDC determines

Required types of shear walls (prescriptive

reinforcement)

Prescriptive reinforcement for other masonry elements

Permitted design approaches for LFRS (lateral forceresisting system)

Seismic design requirements are keyed to ASCE 7

Requirements are cumulative; requirements in each

higher category are added to requirements in the

previous category.

Seismic Design Category A:

Drift limit = 0.007

Minimum design connection force for wall-to roof

and wall-to-floor connections

Lateral force resisting system cannot be designed

empirically

Seismic Design Category C:

All walls must be considered shear walls unless

isolated

Shear walls must meet minimum prescriptive

requirements for reinforcement and connections

(ordinary reinforced, intermediate reinforced, or special

reinforced)

Other walls must meet minimum prescriptive

requirements for horizontal or vertical reinforcement

Walls for SDC C

roof connectors

@ 48 in. max oc

roof

diaphragm

16 in. of top of parapet

Top of Parapet

#4 bars around

openings

24 in. or 40 db

past opening

#4 bar (min) @

diaphragms

continuous through

control joint

#4 bar (min)

within 8 in. of all

control joints

#4 bar (min)

within 8 in. of

corners &

ends of walls

control joint

#4 bars @ 10 ft oc

reinforcement @ 16 in. oc

Seismic Design Category D:

Masonry that is part of the lateral force-resisting

system must be reinforced so that v + h 0.002, and

v and h 0.0007

Type N mortar and masonry cement mortars are

prohibited in the lateral force-resisting system

Shear walls must meet minimum prescriptive

requirements for reinforcement and connections

(special reinforced)

Other walls must meet minimum prescriptive

requirements for horizontal and vertical

reinforcement

Shear Walls

roof connectors

@ 48 in. max oc

roof

diaphragm

16 in. of top of parapet

Top of Parapet

#4 bars around

openings

24 in. or 40 db

past opening

#4 bar (min) @

diaphragms

continuous through

control joint

#4 bar (min)

within 8 in. of all

control joints

#4 bar (min)

within 8 in. of

corners &

ends of walls

control joint

#4 bars @ 4 ft oc

#4 bars @ 4 ft oc

Seismic Design Categories E and F:

Additional reinforcement requirements for stackbond masonry

SW Type

Minimum Reinforcement

SDC

Empirically

Designed

none

Ordinary Plain

none

A, B

Detailed Plain

of openings, within 8 in. of movement joints, maximum

spacing 10 ft; horizontal reinforcement W1.7 @ 16 in. or

#4 in bond beams @ 10 ft

A, B

Ordinary

Reinforced

same as above

A, B, C

Intermediate

Reinforced

A, B, C

Special

Reinforced

= 0.002

any

Chapter 1

1.1 1.6 Scope, contract

documents and

calculations, special

systems, reference

standards, notation,

definitions

1.7 Loading

1.8 Material properties

1.9 Section properties

1.10 Deflections

1.12 Corbels

1.13 Details of reinforcement

1.14 Seismic design

requirements

1.15 Quality assurance program

1.16 Construction

Requires a quality assurance program in accordance

with the MSJC Specification:

Three levels of quality assurance (A, B, C)

Compliance with specified fm

Increasing levels of quality assurance require

increasingly strict requirements for inspection, and for

compliance with specified products and execution

Minimum requirements for inspection, tests, and

submittals:

Empirically designed masonry, veneers, or glass unit

masonry

Table 1.14.1.2 for essential facilities

Other masonry

Table 1.14.1.3 for essential facilities

Chapter 1

1.1 1.6 Scope, contract

documents and

calculations, special

systems, reference

standards, notation,

definitions

1.7 Loading

1.8 Material properties

1.9 Section properties

1.10 Deflections

1.12 Corbels

1.13 Details of reinforcement

1.14 Seismic design

requirements

1.15 Quality assurance program

1.16 Construction

1.16, Construction

Minimum grout spacing (Table 1.16.2)

Embedded conduits, pipes, and sleeves:

Consider effect of openings in design

Masonry alone resists loads

frames, and other construction:

Show type, size, and location of connectors on

drawings

Chapter 3, Strength Design (SD)

Fundamental basis

Loading combinations

Design strength

Deformation requirements

-factors

Anchor bolts

Bearing strength

Compressive strength

Modulus of rupture

Strength of reinforcement

Unreinforced masonry

Reinforced masonry

Strength Design

Factored design actions must not exceed nominal

Quotient of load factor divided by the factor is

analogous to safety factor of allowable-stress design,

and should be comparable to that safety factor.

Chapter 3, Strength Design

Fundamental basis

Loading combinations

Design strength

factors

Deformation requirements

Anchor bolts

Bearing strength

Compressive strength

Modulus of rupture

Strength of reinforcement

Unreinforced masonry

Reinforced masonry

for SD

From governing building code

From ASCE 7-02

Chapter 3

Fundamental basis

Loading combinations

Design strength

factors

Deformation requirements

Anchor bolts

Bearing strength

Compressive strength

Modulus of rupture

Strength of reinforcement

Unreinforced masonry

Reinforced masonry

Design strength must exceed required strength

Extra caution against brittle shear failure:

Design shear strength shall exceed the shear

corresponding to the development of 1.25 times the

nominal flexural strength

Nominal shear strength need not exceed 2.5 times

required shear strength

Chapter 3

Fundamental basis

Loading combinations

Design strength

factors

Deformation requirements

Anchor bolts

Compressive strength

Modulus of rupture

Strength of reinforcement

Unreinforced masonry

Reinforced masonry

Factors for SD

Action

Reinforced Masonry

Unreinforced

Masonry

Combinations of

flexure and axial

load

0.90

0.60

Shear

0.80

0.80

Anchorage and

splices of

Reinforcement

0.80

---

Bearing

0.60

0.60

Factors for SD

Capacity of Anchor

Bolts as Governed

by

Strength-reduction

Factor

fracture

0.90

Masonry breakout

0.50

Pullout of bent-bar

anchors

0.65

Chapter 3

Fundamental basis

Loading combinations

Design strength

factors

Deformation requirements

Anchor bolts

Compressive strength

Modulus of rupture

Strength of reinforcement

Unreinforced masonry

Reinforced masonry

Requirements

Drift limits from ASCE 7-02

Deflections of unreinforced masonry (URM) based on

uncracked sections

Deflections of reinforced masonry (RM) based on

cracked sections

Chapter 3

Fundamental basis

Loading combinations

Design strength

factors

Deformation requirements

Anchor bolts

Compressive strength

Modulus of rupture

Strength of reinforcement

Unreinforced masonry

Reinforced masonry

Tensile capacity governed by:

Tensile breakout

Yield of anchor in tension

Tensile pullout (bent-bar anchor bolts only)

Shear breakout

Yield of anchor in shear

interaction

Chapter 3

Fundamental basis

Loading combinations

Design strength

Deformation requirements

factors

Anchor bolts

Bearing strength

Compressive strength

Modulus of rupture

Strength of reinforcement

Reinforced masonry

Unreinforced masonry

Strength of Masonry

For concrete masonry, 1,500 psi fm 4,000 psi

For clay masonry, 1,500 psi fm 6,000 psi

of Grout

For concrete masonry, fm fg 5,000 psi

For clay masonry, fg 6,000 psi

Chapter 3

Fundamental basis

Loading combinations

Design strength

Deformation requirements

factors

Anchor bolts

Compressive strength

Modulus of rupture

Strength of reinforcement

Unreinforced masonry

Reinforced masonry

In-plane and out-of-plane bending

Table 3.1.8.2.1

Lower values for masonry cement and airentrained portland cement-lime mortar

Higher values for grouted masonry

For grouted stack-bond masonry, fr = 250 psi

parallel to bed joints for continuous horizontal

grout section

Chapter 3

Fundamental basis

Loading combinations

Design strength

Deformation requirements

factors

Anchor bolts

Compressive strength

Modulus of rupture

Strength of reinforcement

Unreinforced masonry

Reinforced masonry

Reinforcement

fy 60 ksi

Actual yield strength shall not exceed 1.3 times

Compressive strength of reinforcement shall be

ignored unless the reinforcement is tied in

compliance with Code 2.1.6.5

Chapter 3

Fundamental basis

Loading combinations

Design strength

Deformation requirements

factors

Anchor bolts

Compressive strength

Modulus of rupture

Strength of reinforcement

Unreinforced masonry

Reinforced masonry

Masonry in flexural tension is cracked

Reinforcing steel is needed to resist tension

Similar to strength design of reinforced concrete

3.3.2 Design assumptions

3.3.3 Reinforcement requirements and details, including

maximum steel percentage

3.3.4 Design of piers, beams and columns:

Nominal axial and flexural strength

Nominal shear strength

3.3.6 Design of walls for in-plane loads

Continuity between reinforcement and grout

Equilibrium

mu = 0.0035 for clay masonry, 0.0025 for concrete

masonry

Plane sections remain plane

Elasto-plastic stress-strain curve for reinforcement

Tensile strength of masonry is neglected

Equivalent rectangular compressive stress block in

masonry, with a height of 0.80 fm and a depth of 0.80 c

Flexural

Assumptions

Axial

Load

s y

P=C-T

mu = 0.0035 clay

Reinforcement

fy

0.0025 concrete

0.80 fm

1 = 0.80

Requirements and Details

Bar diameter 1 / 8 nominal wall thickness

Standard hooks and development length:

Development length based on pullout and splitting

Splices:

Lap splices based on required development length

Welded and lap splices must develop 1.25 fy

Axial

load

Reinforcement

s = y

Reinforcement

fy

extreme-fiber strains

include compressive reinforcement)

mu = 0.0035 clay

0.0025 concrete

0.80 fm

1 = 0.80

and Columns

Capacity under combinations of flexure and axial load

is based on the assumptions of Code 3.3.2

(interaction diagram)

Pn

Pure compression

Balance point

Mn

Pure flexure

and Columns

Slenderness is addressed by multiplying axial

capacity by slenderness-dependent modification

factors

h 2

1

140r

70r

h

h

for 99

r

h

for > 99

r

V n = Vm + Vs

Vn shall not exceed:

M / V dv 0.25

Vn 6 An fm

M / V dv 1.0

Vn 4 An fm

Linear interpolation between these extremes

Objective is to avoid crushing of diagonal strut

Vm and Vs are given by:

Vm

= 4 .0 1 . 7 5

M u

An

V u d v

f m' + 0 .2 5 P u

( 3 2 1)

Mu

1 .0

Vu d v

A

V s = 0 .5 v f y d v

s

(3 2 2 )

Pu 0.05 An fm

Mn 1.3 Mcr

Lateral bracing spaced at most 32 times beam

width

Nominal depth not less than 8 in.

Isolated elements (wall segments are not piers)

Pu 0.3 An fm

Nominal thickness between 6 and 16 in.

Nominal plan length between 3 and 6 times the

nominal thickness

Clear height not more than 5 times the nominal plan

length

Isolated elements (wall segments are not columns)

g 0.0025

g 0.04, and also meet Code 3.3.3.5

Lateral ties in accordance with Code 2.1.6.5

Solid-grouted

Least cross-section dimension 8 in.

Nominal depth not greater than 3 times the nominal

width

Out-of-plane Loads

Capacity under combinations of flexure and axial load

is based on the assumptions of Code 3.3.2

(interaction diagram)

Pn

Pure compression

Balance point

Mn

Pure flexure

Out-of-plane Loads

Maximum reinforcement by Code 3.3.3.5

Procedures for computing out-of-plane moments

on axial load)

Nominal shear strength by Code 3.3.4.1.2

In-plane Loads

Capacity under combinations of flexure and axial load

is based on the assumptions of Code 3.3.2

(interaction diagram)

Pn

Pure compression

Balance point

Mn

Pure flexure

In-plane Loads

Maximum reinforcement by Code 3.3.3.5

Vertical reinforcement not less than one-half the

horizontal reinforcement

Nominal shear strength by Code 3.3.4.1.2

Maximum Reinforcement

For walls expected to have flexural ductility in plane,

provide confined boundary elements in hinging regions

(this is another way of preventing toe crushing)

to be developed

MSJC

Specification

MSJC Code

Part 1

General

Part 2

Products

Part 3

Execution

1.6 Quality

assurance

2.1-Mortar

2.2-Grout

2.3 Masonry Units

2.4 Reinforcement

2.5 Accessories

2.6 Mixing

2.7-Fabrication

3.1-Inspection

3.2-Preparation

3.3 Masonry erection

3.4 Reinforcement

3.5 Grout placement

3.6 Prestressing

3.7 Field quality control

3.8-Cleaning

Masonry Shear Walls

in- and out-of-plane loading.

Given practical thickness for wall, design flexural

reinforcement as governed by out-of-plane loading.

Design flexural reinforcement as governed by inplane loading and revise design as necessary.

Check shear capacity using capacity design if

required.

Check detailing.

and Shears

and shears for in-plane

loading depend on actions

transferred to shear walls by

horizontal diaphragms at

each floor level.

Factored design moments

and shears for out-of-plane

loading depend on wind or

earthquake forces acting

between floor levels

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SHEARS

MOMENTS

M/V

Governed by Out-of-plane Loading

unit dimensions:

8- by 8- by 16-in. nominal dimensions

Specified thickness = 7-5/8 in.

One curtain of bars, placed in center of grouted

cells

Proportion flexural reinforcement to resist out-ofplane wind or earthquake forces

Governed by In-plane Loading

Axial Capacity

force interaction diagram

Computer programs

Spreadsheets

Tables

Flexural Capacity

Reinforcement

block from crushing:

Walls must be below balance

point.

Maximum steel percentage

decreases as axial load

increases, so that design above

balance point is impossible.

Axial Capacity

design prohibited

design permitted

Flexural Capacity

moments is less than or equal to that required for

in-plane moments, no adjustment is necessary.

Use the larger amount.

If flexural reinforcement required for out-of-plane

moments exceeds that required for in-plane

moments, consider making the wall thicker so that

in-plane flexural capacity does not have to be

increased. Excess in-plane capacity increases

shear demand.

shear overstrength:

Compute factored design shears based on factored

design actions.

Inelastic structures:

Compute design shears based on flexural capacity

WALL

SHEARS

WALL

MOMENTS

M/V

factored design loads

shears and moments

corresponding to nominal

flexural capacity

shears and moments

corresponding to

probable flexural capacity

V n = Vm + Vs

Vm depends on (Mu / Vudv) ratio

Vs = (0.5) Av fy (note efficiency factor)

V

Av f y

45 o

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Vm (1)

(Mu / Vudv) need not be taken greater than 1.0

Mu

Vm = 4.0 1.75

Vu dv

'

A

f

n m + 0.25Pu

Vm (2)

Vm / h Lw fm 10

8

6

P / Lwh = 0 psi

4

2.25

2

0

0.5

1.0

1.5

Mu / Vu dv

from reinforcement (Vs)

Upper limit on Vm depends on (Mu / Vu dv) ratio

Vn / h Lw fm 10

8

6

6.0

4.0

2

0

0.25 0.5

1.0

1.5

Mu / Vu dv

Check Detailing

Cover

Placement of flexural and shear reinforcement

Boundary elements not required:

Ductility demand is low

Maximum flexural reinforcement is closely

controlled

Detailing (1)

Cover:

Automatically satisfied by putting reinforcement in

grouted cells

Minimum flexural reinforcement and spacing

dictated by Seismic Design Category

Flexural reinforcement placed in single curtain.

Typical reinforcement would be at least #4 bars @

48 in.

Place horizontal reinforcement in single curtain.

Typical reinforcement would be at least #4 bars @

48 in.

Add more flexural reinforcement if required, usually

uniformly distributed.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

diagram for low axial load

Axial capacity

Flexural capacity

Flexural

capacity

Mn

Axial

capacity

Pn

s y

Lw

Reinforcement

fy

centroid of compressive

stress block

0.9Lw

0.9Lw

Mn 0.9 As fy

+ Pn

2

2

Mu

Pu

0.41 As fy Lw + 0.45

Lw

for As

shear wall shown below. Use fm = 1500 psi.

Vu = 80 kips

per floor

Pu = 100 kips

80 kips

12 ft

960 kip-ft

160 kips

12 ft

20 ft

Vu diagram

2,880 kip-ft

Mu diagram

Assume out-of-plane flexure is OK.

Check in-plane flexure using initial estimate.

Mu

P

0.41 As fy Lw + 0.45 u Lw

100 kips

0.41 As 60 ksi 240 in. + 0.45

240 in.

0.90

0.9

38,400 5,900 As + 12,000

As 4.47 in.2

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Refine flexural reinforcement using spreadsheetbased interaction diagram -- use #5 bars @ 16 in.

Strength Interaction Diagram by Spreadsheet

Concrete Masonry Shear Wall

f'm=1500 psi, 20 ft long, 7.63 in. thick, #5 bars @ 16 in.

1800

1600

1400

Pn, kips

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

0

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

Mn, ft-kips

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Now check shear:

Mu

2,880 kip ft

=

= 1.13

Vu d 160 kips 20 0.8 ft

Vm = 2.25 fm' h Lw + 0.25P

Vm = 2.25 1500 7.63 in. 240 in. + 0.25 100 kips

Vm = 159.6 kips + 25.0 kips = 184.6 kips

design:

1.25 Mn

Vu = 160 kips

Mu

1

1.25 3427 kip ft 0.9

Vu = 160 kips

2880 kip ft

required

Vn

=

=

=

= 2.07 Vu 2.5 Vu

0.8

0.8

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

design:

required

s

Vsrequired

Avrequired

Vu

160 1.65

Vm =

184.6 = 145.4 kips

0.8

d

= 2 Av fy

s

Vsrequired s

145.4 kips 16 in.

=

=

= 0.202 in.2

0.8 240 in. 60 ksi

d fy

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Use #5 bars @ 16 in. vertically

Use #4 bars @ 16 in. horizontally

Hook #4 horizontal bars around end #5 vertical bars

7.63 in.

240 in.

BSSC = www.bssconline.org

TMS = www.masonrysociety.org

ACI = www.aci-int.org

ASCE / SEI = www.seinstitute.org

MSJC = www.masonrystandards.org

Acknowledgements

This material on masonry was prepared by Prof.

Richard E. Klingner, University of Texas at Austin.

Klingner for a US Army short course.

Klingner for The Masonry Society and is used with

their permission.

WOOD STRUCTURES

Timber Structures 13 - 1

Objectives of Topic

Understanding of:

Basic wood behavior

Typical framing methods

Main types of lateral force resisting systems

Expected response under lateral loads

Sources of strength, ductility and energy dissipation

Basic shear wall construction methods

Shear wall component behavior

Analysis methods

Code requirements

Timber Structures 13 - 2

Longitudinal

Radial

Wood is orthotropic

Tangential

content

Main strength axis is

longitudinal - parallel to

grain

Unique, independent,

mechanical properties in 3

different directions

Radial and tangential are

"perpendicular" to the grain

substantially weaker

Timber Structures 13 - 3

Timber is as different from wood as

concrete is from cement.

Madsen, Structural Behaviour of Timber

derived from clear wood with adjustments for a range of "strength

reducing characteristics."

Concept of timber as the useful engineering and construction

material: In-grade testing (used now) determines engineering

properties for a specific grade of timber based on full-scale tests of

timber, a mixture of clear wood and strength reducing characteristics.

Timber Structures 13 - 4

Longitudinal

Sample DFL longitudinal design properties:

Modulus of elasticity: 1,800,000 psi

Tension (parallel to grain): 1,575 psi

Bending: 2,100 psi

Compression (parallel to grain): 1875 psi

Timber Structures 13 - 5

Sample DFL perpendicular to grain design

properties:

Modulus of elasticity: 45,000 psi (2.5 ~ 5 % of Ell!)

Tension (perpendicular to grain): 180 to 350 psi

FAILURE stresses. Timber is extremely weak for

this stress condition. It should be avoided if at all

possible, and mechanically reinforced if not

avoidable.

Compression (perpendicular to grain): 625 psi.

Note that this is derived from a serviceability limit

state of ~ 0.04 permanent deformation under stress

in contact situations. This is the most "ductile"

basic wood property.

Radial

Tangential

Timber Structures 13 - 6

Radial

Tangential

Shrinkage

Wood will shrink with changes

in moisture content.

This is most pronounced in the

radial and tangential directions

(perpendicular to grain).

May need to be addressed in

the LFRS.

(Wood Handbook, p. 58)

Timber Structures 13 - 7

Platform

Balloon

floor "platforms."

Floors support walls.

Most common type of

light-frame construction

today.

Economical but creates

discontinuity in the load

path.

Metal connectors

essential for complete

load path.

Walls feature

foundation to roof

framing members.

Floors supported by

ledgers on walls or

lapped with studs.

Not very common

today.

Timber Structures 13 - 8

Post and Beam

loads.

Moment continuity at

joint typically only if

member is continuous

through joint.

Lateral resistance

through vertical

diaphragms or braced

frames.

Knee braces as seen here

for lateral have no code

design procedure for

seismic.

Six story main lobby Old Faithful Inn, Yellowstone, undergoing renovation work in

2005. Built in winter of 1903-1904, it withstood a major 7.5 earthquake in 1959.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Timber Structures 13 - 9

Post and Beam

Construction

Gravity frame

Roof purlins

Roof sheathing

Floor sheathing

Lateral system

Floor joists

Timber Structures 13 - 10

Sill bolts at

pressure treated

sill to foundation

Slab-on-grade

minimal reinforcing

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Timber Structures 13 - 11

Bearing wall supporting gravity loads

Rim joist

Sill bolts at

pressure treated

sill to foundation

wall boundary members

Floor System

Crawl space under

"raised" floor

6 to 8 Stemwall

CMU or Concrete

minimal reinforcing

Timber Structures 13 - 12

Sill bolts at

pressure treated

sill to foundation

PT Slab

thickened edges, etc.

Post- tensioning

tendons

Timber Structures 13 - 13

Resultant inertial forces

Horizontal elements

Vertical elements

o

r

G

d

n

u

n

o

i

t

o

M

The basic approach to the lateral design of wood structures is the same as for other structures.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Timber Structures 13 - 14

Horizontal elements of LFRS

Edge nailing (interior nailing

not shown)

Plywood or OSB panels

Most structures rely on some form of nailed wood structural panels to act as

diaphragms for the horizontal elements of the LFRS (plywood or oriented strand board

OSB).

Capacity of diaphragm varies with sheathing grade and thickness, nail type and size,

framing member size and species, geometric layout of the sheathing (stagger), direction

of load relative to the stagger, and whether or not there is blocking behind every joint to

ensure shear continuity across panel edges.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Timber Structures 13 - 15

Horizontal elements of LFRS

Di r e

c ti o n

of l o

ad

Di

r

h

p

m

g

a

n

u

o

Nailing at diaphragm

boundaries

Nailing at continuous

edges parallel to load

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

r

a

d

Interior or field"

nailing

Diap

hrag

m

bou

n

dary

Timber Structures 13 - 16

Horizontal element:

nailed wood structural

panel diaphragm

either ASD or LRFD resistance levels) relative to all of the factors

mentioned above.

Timber Structures 13 - 17

Vertical element:

nailed wood

structural panel

diaphragm

Shear capacities for vertical plywood/OSB diaphragms are also given in the codes, with

similar variables impacting their strength.

Heavy timber braced frames (1997 UBC) and singly or doubly diagonal sheathed walls are

also allowed, but rare.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Timber Structures 13 - 18

or "conventional"

As in other engineered structures, wood structures are only limited by the application of

good design practices applied through principles of mechanics (and story height

limitations in the code).

A dedicated system of horizontal and vertical elements, along with complete connectivity,

must be designed and detailed.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Timber Structures 13 - 19

Diaphragm Boundary

Diaphragm Terminology

Edge nailing

Field nailing

Supported Edge

o

Direction

gm

a

r

h

p

a

i

d

f l oad o n

Parallel to Load

Unblocked Edge

Diaphragm Sheathing

Timber Structures 13 - 20

Diaphragm Design

Tables

need to adjust values if framing

with wood species with lower

specific gravities.

Partial reprint of engineered

wood structural panel

diaphragm info in 2003 IBC

Table 2306.3.1.

Major divisions: Structural 1

vs. Rated Sheathing and

Blocked vs. Unblocked panel

edges.

Timber Structures 13 - 21

Shear Wall Design Tables

structural panel diaphragm info in

2003 IBC Table 2306.4.1.

to adjust values if framing with

wood species with lower specific

gravities.

Rated Sheathing and Panels

Applied Directly to Framing vs.

Panels Applied Over Gypsum

Wallboard.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Timber Structures 13 - 22

Proprietary Moment Frames

Traditional vertical diaphragm shear walls less effective at high aspect ratios.

Prefabricated proprietary code-approved solutions available.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Timber Structures 13 - 23

Complete Load Path

structure.

If the structure doesnt keep up with the

movements of the foundations, failure will occur.

Keeping a structure on its foundations requires

a complete load path from the foundation to all

mass in a structure.

Load path issues in wood structures can be

complex.

For practical engineering, the load path is

somewhat simplified for a "good enough for

design" philosophy.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Timber Structures 13 - 24

Complete Load Path

Diaphragm to shear wall

Overturning tension/compression

through floor

Overturning tension/compression

to foundation

Timber Structures 13 - 25

Complete Load Path

D-F.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Timber Structures 13 - 26

Complete Load Path

forces through floor

Timber Structures 13 - 27

Complete Load Path

shear transfer through floor

Timber Structures 13 - 28

Overturning tension/compression to foundation

Timber Structures 13 - 29

Shear transfer to foundation

Timber Structures 13 - 30

Also referred to as

Conventional Construction

or Deemed to Comply

Traditionally, many simple wood structures have been designed without "engineering.

Over time, rules of how to build have been developed, most recently in the 2003

International Residential Code (IRC).

For the lateral system, the "dedicated" vertical element is referred to as a braced wall

panel, which is part of a braced wall line.

Based on SDC and number of stories, rules dictate the permissible spacing between

braced wall lines, and the spacing of braced wall panels within braced wall lines.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Timber Structures 13 - 31

While rules exist for the "dedicated" elements, testing and subsequent analysis has show

these structures do not "calc out" based on just the strength of braced wall panels.

In reality, the strength, stiffness, and energy dissipation afforded by the "nonstructural"

elements (interior and exterior sheathing) equal or exceed the braced wall panels in their

contribution to achieving "life safety" performance in these structures.

Timber Structures 13 - 32

(Seismic Design Category D1 or D2 and/or Wind Speeds < 110 mph)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Timber Structures 13 - 33

(R602.10.3 #3)

All horizontal

panel joints

shall occur over

a minimum of

1 blocking

(per R602.10.7)

All vertical

panel joints

shall occur over

studs (per

R602.10.7)

Perimeter

nails at 6 o.c.

(per Table

602.3-1)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Timber Structures 13 - 34

Prescriptive provisions in the 2003 IRC are more liberal than in the 2003 NEHRP Provisions.

The NEHRP Provisions and Commentary can be downloaded from http://www.bssconline.org/. Also

available from FEMA and at the BSSC website is FEMA 232, an up to date version of the

Homebuilders Guide to Earthquake-Resistant Design and Construction.

Timber Structures 13 - 35

good sheathing nailing.

Unlike seismic design loads, wind design loads are representative of the real expected

magnitude.

When built properly, structural damage should be low.

Missile or wind born projectile damage can increase damage (this could potentially breach

openings and create internal pressures not part of the design).

Timber Structures 13 - 36

Engineered wood structures are thought of as having good flexibility/ductility, but can

also be quite brittle.

Wood structures can be engineered with either "ductile" nailed wood structural panel

shear walls or "brittle" gypsum board and/or stucco shear walls as their primary LFRS.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Timber Structures 13 - 37

Gypsum board

interior sheathing

and stucco exterior

sheathing: 50 %

Nailed wood

structural panel

shear walls : 50 %

Timber Structures 13 - 38

Gypsum board

interior sheathing

and stucco exterior

sheathing: 70 %

30 %

Timber Structures 13 - 39

Gypsum board

interior sheathing

and stucco exterior

sheathing: 30 %

Nailed wood

structural panel

shear walls : 70 %

Timber Structures 13 - 40

Wood Structures

Timber Structures 13 - 41

Stress in the wood

grain: not ductile, low energy

dissipation

Resisting

Force

Inertial

Force

Ledger

Failure

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Timber Structures 13 - 42

Timber Structures 13 - 43

Compression perpendicular to the grain: ductile, but not recoverable during and

event one way crushing similar to tension only braced frame behavior ductile, but

low energy dissipation

Design allowable stress should produce ~0.04 permanent crushing

Timber Structures 13 - 44

Wood Structures

and energy dissipation for nailed wood structural panel shear walls.

The energy dissipation is a combination of yielding in the shank of the nail,

and crushing in the wood fibers surrounding the nail.

Since wood crushing is nonrecoverable, this leads to a partial "pinching"

effect in the hysteretic behavior of the joint.

The pinching isnt 100% because of the strength of the nail shank

undergoing reversed ductile bending yielding in the wood.

As the joint cycles, joint resistance climbs above the pinching threshold

when the nail "bottoms out" against the end of the previously crushed slot

forming in the wood post.

Timber Structures 13 - 45

600

500

400

300

200

100

0

-100

-200

-300

-400

-500

-600

-0.6 -0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

DEFLECTION (INCHES)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Timber Structures 13 - 46

600

2.5

500

400

1.5

300

Wood Structures

1

0.5

0

-0.5

-1

-1.5

200

100

0

-100

-200

-300

-2

-400

-2.5

-500

-3

-4

-3

-2

-1

-600

-0.6 -0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

DEFLECTION (INCHES)

Timber Structures 13 - 47

0.5

0.6

NEHRP Section 12.4

Two types of braced wall panel construction: gypsum wall board

and wood structural panel

Numerous types of braced wall panel construction: NEHRP

methods + ~10 more

Timber Structures 13 - 48

NEHRP Methods

Cold-formed steel with flat strap tension-only bracing

Cold-formed steel with wood structural panel screwed to framing

Sheet steel shear walls

Ordinary steel braced frames

All others: gypsum and stucco

Proprietary shear walls

Timber Structures 13 - 49

adopted in the US for cyclic

testing of wood shear walls.

62 post yield cycles.

Found to demand too much

energy dissipation compared with

actual seismic demand.

Can result in significant

underestimation of peak capacity

and displacement at peak

capacity.

DISPLACEMENT (INCHES)

4

2

0

-2

-4

-6

TCCMAR (SPD)

Timber Structures 13 - 50

Developed by researchers at

Stanford University as part of the

CUREE/Caltech Woodframe

Project

analysis of wood structures

considering small "non-design"

vents preceding the "design

event."

Currently the "state-of-the-art" in

cyclic test protocols.

More realistically considers actual

energy and displacement demands

from earthquakes.

DISPLACEMENT (INCHES)

4

2

0

-2

-4

-6

Timber Structures 13 - 51

Engineered Wood Association (used to be the American Plywood

Association) in the 1950s.

These values are based on a principles of mechanics approach.

Some monotonic testing was run to validate procedure.

Testing was conducted on 8x8 walls (1:1 aspect ratio), with very rigid

overturning restraint.

Test was more of a sheathing test, not shear wall system test.

Extrapolation of use down to 4:1 aspect ratio panels proved problematic

on 1994 Northridge earthquake.

Code now contains provisions to reduce the design strength of walls

with aspect ratios (ARs) > 2:1 by multiplying the base strength by a

factor of 2 / AR.

Timber Structures 13 - 52

Proprietary shear wall systems for light frame construction have been

developed to provide higher useable strength when the AR exceeds 2:1.

developed by the International Code Council Evaluation Services

(ICC ES).

based on either SPD or CUREE protocols.

displacement (deflection which satisfies code deflection limits based on

Cd, the deflection amplification factor associated with the rated R factor,

and the appropriate maximum allowed inelastic drift ratio).

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Timber Structures 13 - 53

Flexible diaphragm

analysis

Rigid diaphragm

analysis

CR

CG

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Timber Structures 13 - 54

Flexible Diaphragm

Analysis

Lateral loads distributed as if

diaphragm is a simple span

beam between lines of lateral

resistance.

Diaphragm loads are

distributed to lines of shear

resistance based on tributary

area between lines of shear

resistance.

CR

CG

No

Timber Structures 13 - 55

Rigid Diaphragm Analysis

as if diaphragm is rigid,

rotating around the CR.

combination of

translational and

rotational shear.

CR

CG

Yes

Timber Structures 13 - 56

Comments on Analysis Methods

Neither the rigid nor flexible diaphragm methods

really represent the distribution of lateral resistance in

a typical structure.

Both methods (typically) ignore the stiffness

distribution of interior and exterior wall finishes.

Wood structural diaphragms are neither "flexible" or "rigid" they are somewhere in

between. "Glued and screwed" floor sheathing makes floors more rigid than flexible.

The nailing of interior wall sill plates across sheathing joints has the same effect.

Exterior walls can act as "flanges", further stiffening the diaphragm.

However, encouraging rigid diaphragm analysis is also encouraging the design of

structures with torsional response may not be a good thing!

Timber Structures 13 - 57

ASD/LRFD Supplement, Special Design Provisions for Wind and Seismic,

American Forest and Paper Association, 2001:

A diaphragm is rigid for the purposes of distribution of story shear and

torsional moment when the computed maximum in-plane deflection of

the diaphragm itself under lateral load is less than or equal to two times

the average deflection of adjoining vertical elements of the lateral forceresisting system of the associated story under equivalent tributary

lateral load. (Section 2.2, Terminology)

Timber Structures 13 - 58

dia

1

Load

avg

classified as rigid

Timber Structures 13 - 59

testing.

Requires a "true direction" nonlinear spring for the nails, as opposed to

paired orthogonal springs.

Com parison of Test and Analysis Results

Test 1

Advanced Analysis

Test 2

8.5

8

7.5

7

6.5

6

5.5

5

4.5

4

3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

0

0.25

0.5

0.75

1.25

1.5

1.75

2.25

2.5

2.75

3.25

Timber Structures 13 - 60

3.5

3.75

Advanced Analysis

NLTHA: rules based phenomenological elements fitted to full scale test data to

predict structural response.

Good correlation to simple tests more work needed for complex, full structures.

Story Predicted Tested

1

1.14

1.57

2

2.65

2.3

3

1.76

1.92

Timber Structures 13 - 61

Summary

performance in major earthquakes

achieve this.

discontinuous methods of framing wood structures,

requires careful attention to properly detailing the load

path.

understanding of force distribution within wood

structures, and the development of design tools to better

model this.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Timber Structures 13 - 62

FOUNDATION DESIGN

Proportioning elements for:

Transfer of seismic forces

Strength and stiffness

Shallow and deep foundations

Elastic and plastic analysis

Soil Pressure

Pile supporting structure

Force on a pile

deflected

shape

soil

pressure

Unmoving soil

Inertial force

EQ on unloaded pile

deflected

shape

soil

pressure

deflected

shape

soil

pressure

EQ Motion

Soil-to-foundation Force Transfer

Passive earth

pressure

Shallow

Friction

EQ motion

Soil-to-foundation Force Transfer

Deep

Motion

Soil

pressure

Bending

moment

EQ Motion

Vertical Pressures - Shallow

Overturning moment

EQ motion

Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Vertical Pressures - Deep

Overturning

moment

EQ Motion

Reinforced Concrete

Footings: Basic Design

Criteria (concentrically

loaded)

column or line midway

between face of steel

column and edge of

steel base plate (typical)

(a)

Critical section

for flexure

extent of footing

(typical)

(b)

Critical section

for one-way shear

(c)

Critical section

for two-way shear

d/2

(all sides)

Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

P

M

(a)

Loading

Footing Subject to

Compression and

Moment: Uplift

Nonlinear

(b)

Elastic, no uplift

(c)

Elastic, at uplift

(d)

Elastic, after uplift

(e)

Some plastification

(f)

Plastic limit

1'-2"

1'-2"

1'-2"

Example

7-story

Building:

Shallow

foundations

designed for

perimeter

frame and

core bracing.

Soil parameters:

Medium dense sand

(SPT) N = 20

Density = 120 pcf

Friction angle = 33o

4000 psf, B < 20 ft

2000 psf, B > 40 ft

Bearing capacity (EQ)

2000B concentric sq.

3000B eccentric

= 0.6

Footings

proportioned

for gravity

loads alone

Corner:

6'x6'x1'-2" thick

Interior:

11'x11'x2'-2" thick

Perimeter:

8'x8'x1'-6" thick

Design of

Footings

for

Perimeter

Moment

Frame

5 at 25'-0"

7 at 25'-0"

Combining Loads

Maximum downward load:

1.2D + 0.5L + E

Minimum downward load:

0.9D + E

Definition of seismic load effect E:

E = 1QE1 + 0.3 2QE2+/- 0.2 SDSD

x = 1.08 y = 1.11 and SDS = 1.0

Reactions

Grid

Dead

Live

Ex

Ey

A-5

P

203.8 k

Mxx

Myy

43.8 k

-3.8 k

53.6 k-ft

-243.1 k-ft

21.3 k

-1011.5 k-ft

8.1 k-ft

A-6

P

103.5 k

Mxx

Myy

22.3 k

-51.8 k

47.7 k-ft

-246.9 k-ft

-281.0 k

-891.0 k-ft

13.4 k-ft

NEHRP Recommended Provisions allow

25% at the soil-foundation interface.

For a moment frame, the column vertical

loads are the resultants of base overturning

moment, whereas column moments are

resultants of story shear.

Thus, use 75% of seismic vertical reactions.

At A5: P = 1.4(203.8) + 0.5(43.8) +

Mxx = 0.32(53.6) + 1.11(-1011.5) = -1106 k-ft

At A6: P = 1.4(103.5) + 0.5(22.3) +

0.75(0.32(-51.8) + 1.11(-281)) = -90.3 k

Mxx = 0.32(47.7) + 1.11(-891) = -974 k-ft

Sum Mxx = 12.5(-90.3-324) -1106 -974 = -7258

At A-5: P = 0.7(203.8) + 0.75(0.32(-3.8) +

1.11(21.3)) = 159.5 k

Mxx = 0.32(53.6) + 1.11 (-1011.5) = -1106 k-ft

At A-6: P = 0.7(103.5) + 0.75(0.32(-51.8) +

1.11(-281)) = -173.9 k

Mxx = 0.32(47.7) + 1.11(-891) = -974 k-ft

Sum Mxx = 6240 k-ft

Elastic Response

Objective is to set L

and W to satisfy

equilibrium and avoid

overloading soil.

Successive trials

usually necessary.

L

P

R

e

Additive Combination

Given P = 234 k, M =7258 k-ft

Try 5 foot around, thus L = 35 ft, B = 10 ft

Minimum W = M/(L/2) P = 181 k = 517 psf

Try 2 foot soil cover & 3 foot thick footing

W = 245 k; for additive combo use 1.2W

Qmax = (P + 1.2W)/(3(L/2 e)B/2) = 9.4 ksf

Qn = 0.6(3)Bmin = 10.1 ksf, OK by Elastic

Plastic Response

Same objective as for

elastic response.

Smaller footings can

be shown OK thus:

L

P

R

e

Counteracting Case

Given P = -14.4 k; M = 6240

Check prior trial; W = 245 k (use 0.9W)

e = 6240/(220.5 14.4) = 30.3 > 35/2 NG

New trial: L = 40 ft, 5 ft thick

W = 400 k; e = 18.0 ft; plastic Qmax= 8.6 ksf

Qn = 0.6(3)4 = 7.2 ksf, close

Solution is to add 5 k, then e = 17.8 ft and

Qmax = Qn = 7.9 ksf

Additional Checks

Moments and shears for reinforcement

Plastic soil stress gives upper bound on

moments and shears in concrete.

Horizontal equilibrium: Hmax< (P+W)

in this case friction exceeds demand; passive

could also be used.

Results for

all SRS

Footings

Middle:

5'x30'x4'-0"

Side:

8'x32'x4'-0"

Corner: 10'x40'x5'-0" w/

top of footing 2'-0" below grade

Design of Footings

for Core-braced 7story Building

center of building

Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Very high uplifts

at individual

columns; mat is

only practical

shallow

foundation.

Mat: 45'x95'x7'-0"

with top of mat

3'-6" below grade

12.2 ksf

~

12

4

(a)

Plastic

solution

16 (b)

8 Elastic solution

0 pressures (ksf)

Plastic

solution is

satisfactory;

elastic is not;

see linked file

for more

detail.

Pile/Pier Foundations

Pile

cap

Passive resistance

(see Figure 4.2-5)

Pile

p-y springs

(see Figure 4.2-4)

column above and

piles below.

Pile/Pier Foundations

Pile Stiffness:

Short (rigid)

Intermediate

Long

Cap influence

Group action

Soil Stiffness

Linear springs

nomographs e.g.

NAVFAC DM7.2

Nonlinear springs

LPILE or similar

analysis

100,000

10,000

1,000

100

Site Class C, depth = 30 ft

Site Class C, depth = 10 ft

10

Site Class E, depth = 10 ft

1

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

Pile deflection, y (in.)

0.8

0.9

1.0

P/Pult

Passive Pressure

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0

0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

/H

0.05

0.06

Group Effect

1.0

Group effect factor

s=4D

0.8

s=3D

0.6

s=2D

0.4

s = 1.5 D

0.2

0.0

1

2

3

4

Group size (piles per side)

Stiffnesses

0

5

Depth (ft)

10

15

20

25

Site Class C

Site Class E

30

-5

5

10

Shear, V (kip)

15

Pile

Moment

vs Depth

Depth (ft)

10

15

20

25

Site Class C

Site Class E

30

-1000

-500

0

Moment, M (in.-kips)

500

Pile

Reinforcement

4" pile

embedment

6'-4"

(6) #5

21'-0"

23'-0"

#4 spiral at

3.75 inch pitch

Section A

(6) #5

#4 spiral at

7.5 inch pitch

Section B

(4) #5

#4 spiral at

11 inch pitch

Site Class C

Larger amounts where

moments and shears are

high

Minimum amounts must

extend beyond theoretical

cutoff points

Half spiral for 3D

Section C

Pile Design

12'-4"

4" pile

embedment

(8) #7

#5 spiral at

3.5 inch pitch

20'-0"

Section A

(6) #7

#5 spiral at

3.5 inch pitch

32'-0"

Section B

Site Class E

Substantially more

reinforcement

Full spiral for 7D

Confinement at

boundary of soft and

firm soils (7D up and

3D down)

(4) #7

#4 spiral at

11 inch pitch

Section C

Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Foundation Ties: F = PG(SDS/10)

Pile Caps: high shears, rules of thumb; look

Liquefaction: another topic

Kinematic interaction of soil layers

2" clear

at sides

#4 ties at 7" o.c.

3" clear at

top and bottom

Pile cap axial load times SDS/10

Often times use grade beams or

thickened slabs one grade

Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

TOPICS IN PERFORMANCE-BASED

EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING

Introduction 15-1- 1

Topics Covered

Principles of performance-based earthquake engineering

Seismic hazard and seismic risk snalysis

Geotechnical earthquake engineering

Methods of analysis

Pushover-based methods

Nonlinear response history methods

Passive energy systems

Displacement dependent

Velocity dependent

Seismic isolation

Nonbuilding structures

Introduction 15-1- 2

Structural engineering is

the Art of using materials

that have properties which can only be estimated

that can only be approximately analyzed

to withstand forces

that are not accurately known

public safety is satisfied

Introduction 15-1- 3

PERFORMANCE-BASED

ENGINEERING

0.30

0.20

Acceleration, g

0.10

Joes

Beer!

Food!

0.00

-0.10

10

20

30

40

-0.20

-0.30

-0.40

-0.50

Time - Seconds

Performance Approach

The fundamental reason for the creation of a

structure is placed at the forefront.

Innovation is permitted, even encouraged.

Characterization, measurement, and

prediction of performance are fundamental

concepts.

Performance-Based Structural

Engineering

Historical review

Motivation

Communications

ICC Performance Code

Modern trends in

earthquake engineering

Performance levels

Global v local

evaluation

Primary and

secondary

Uncertainty

Performance Requirement

A qualitative statement

of a human need,

usually in the form of an

attribute that some

physical entity, process,

or person should

possess.

From the Code of Hammurabi (circa 1700

BCE):

If a builder has built a house for a man and

his work is not strong and if the house he has

built falls in and kills the householder, the

builder shall be slain . . .

Performance:

An acceptable level of

protection against

structural failure under

extreme load shall be

provided.

Prescriptive:

diameter bolts

spaced no more than 6

feet on center shall

anchor the wood sill of

an exterior wall to the

foundation.

Why Prescriptive?

Simple to design and check.

Simple can be economical.

No need to re-invent the

wheel on every new project.

Loss of rationale leads

to loss of ability to

change.

Loss of innovation leads

to loss of economy.

Loss of rationale can

lead to loss of

compliance.

Standards?

Quantitative criteria:

Sometimes difficult to develop

Often difficult to achieve consensus

Evaluation procedures:

Measurement is the key it is essential to

find a way to measure (analytically or

experimentally) a meaningful quantity

(now NIST)

1969: Performance concept and its

application

1970: Criteria for Operation Breakthrough

1971: PBS performance criteria for office

buildings

1975: Interim performance criteria for solar

1977: Performance criteria resource

document for innovative housing

NBS Format

R

C

A set of quantitative performance criteria for

each performance requirement

E

C

performance criterion

A commentary if appropriate

1. The structural system shall support all loads

expected during its service life without

failure.

2. The structure shall support the service

loadswithout impairing functionor

appearanceor causing discomfort.

3. Floor and wall surfaces shall resist service

loadings without damage.

1.1 Resistance to ultimate load

Eight items to evaluate

Based on probabilistic reliability

1.2 Resistance to progressive collapse

No real evaluation; mostly commentary

1.3 Resistance to repeated loads

Evaluation focused on physical testing

Maximum Load

Load combinations for additive and

counteracting loads

Computations of load effects

Foundation settlements

Factored resistance, mean and variation in

resistance

Ductility

Maximum Loads

U = 1.1 D + 1.45[Q + iFi]

where:

D = dead load

Q mean maximum variable load (= 1.25L, 1.2S,

1.0H, 0.85W, 1.4E, or 1.0T)

i = factor for arbitrary point in time load

Fi = L, S, H, W, E, or T

Specification of the load factors creates a

procedural standard whereas specification

of a reliability level would be more purely

performance

Analytical evaluation

Experimental evaluation ($$$)

Performance-based Design

Design specifically

intended to limit the

consequences of one or

more perils to defined

acceptable levels

Perils addressed:

wind, fire, snow,

earthquake, live loads

Performance . . .

minimizing the chance for:

Uncontrolled or inescapable

fire

Structural collapse

Spread of disease

controlling:

Noise

Vibration

Environment

Not Performance-based

D I NG

BUIL

CO D

E

Codes typically

prescribe design and

construction rules:

Believed capable of

attaining desired

performance

Largely based on

past poor

performance

BUILDIN

G

CODE

often:

Dont know why the

rules require certain

things.

Dont understand the

performance intended.

Dont know how to adjust

the rules to get different

performance.

Performance-based Design

Requires the designer

to understand:

Intended

performance

Relationship

between design

features and

performance

Forces the designer to

predict expected

performance given

a design event

Unacceptable

Earthquake Performance Level

Sa

Es

se

n

Ba

si

c

Ob

je

c

tia

tiv

lO

fe

e

ty

bj

ec

Cr

tiv

iti

ca

e

l

Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

What is wrong with current building codes?

Only a single seismic event is applied.

Linear static or dynamic analysis.

No local acceptance criteria.

Multiple seismic events are applied.

May utilize nonlinear analysis.

Detailed local acceptance criteria

For structural elements

For nonstructural elements

Performance-based Seismic Design

FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY

FEMA 356

and Upgrade Criteria for Welded

Vision 2000

(new buildings)

FEMA 356

(existing buildings)

of California

Recommended Seismic Evaluation

and Upgrade Criteria for Welded

For Seismic Rehabilitation

Of Buildings

Vision 2000

A Framework for Performance

Based Structural Engineering

FEMA 350/351

(steel moment frame

buildings)

Select Performance Objectives

Perform Preliminary Design

Verify Performance Capability

Calculations

Testing

Deemed to Comply

Construction

Performance Objectives

Specification of:

Design Hazard (earthquake ground shaking)

Acceptable Performance Level

(maximum acceptable damage given that

shaking occurs)

+

Performance =

Objective

Ground

Motion

x% - 50 years

Performance

Level

Performance Objectives

For performance-based design to be successful, the

needs of both the client and engineer must be

satisfied.

Engineer -Hazard must be

quantifiable and

performance must

be quantifiable

Performance Objectives

For performance-based design to be successful, both

the client and engineer must be satisfied

understandable and

performance must

be understandable

and useful

Hazard

0.30

0.20

Acceleration, g

0.10

0.00

-0.10

10

20

30

-0.20

-0.30

40

characteristics of

ground shaking that

design is developed to

resist.

-0.40

-0.50

Time - Seconds

Hazard

Two methods of expression:

Deterministic

Magnitude x earthquake

on y fault

Probabilistic

x % probability of

exceedance in y years

for design event

Easy to understand

but . . .

there is considerable

uncertainty as to how

strong the motion from

such an event actually is.

Probability of Exceedance

Deterministic Hazards

1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.2

1.4

0.12

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0

-0.02

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Probabilistic Hazards

Need to move clients to

probabilistic mind set.

Commonly used for other

considerations such as:

Probable occupancy rates,

Probable cost of

construction, and

Probable return on

investment.

Probabilistic Hazards

Low intensity shaking occurs frequently.

Moderate intensity shaking occurs occasionally.

Severe shaking occurs rarely.

Probabilistic Hazards

Probability of exceedance for design event:

10%/50 years

(500 year mean return) traditionally taken as

hazard for life safety protection

2%/50 years

(2,500 year mean return) traditionally taken as

hazard for collapse avoidance

Hazard for economic loss protection can be taken

at any level based on cost-benefit considerations.

Probability

MRI

Frequency

50%-50 Year

72 Years

Frequent

20%-50 Year

225 Years

Occasional

Rare

Very Rare

2475 Years

Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Performance Level

The permissible amount

of damage, given that

design hazards are

experienced.

Allows user to systematically achieve various

solutions.

Prescriptive code deemed to be acceptable.

Procedure to address the alternate materials

and methods clause of code.

Commentary highly recommended.

Committee envisions limited code changes

in the future, except that acceptable

methods will be an evolving process.

Purpose -- To provide appropriate health,

safety, welfare, and social and economic

value, while promoting innovative, flexible

and responsive solutions.

Intent -- A structure that will withstand loads

associated with normal use and of the

severity associated the location.

Functional statements:

Design professional qualifications

Design documents required for review

Construction compliance to be verified

Maintenance of performance-based design

over life of building

Performance requirements

Building owner responsibilities

Design professional qualifications

Special expert responsibilities

Documentation

Concept report and design reports

O & M manual

Basis for assignment:

Function

Risks to users

Risk factors:

Nature of hazard

Number of people

Length of time occupied

Sleep facility

Familiarity

Vulnerable groups

Relationships

Performance Group

Description

II

Normal buildings

III

Hazardous contents

IV

Essential facilities

Levels

Size of

event

V. Large

Perf.

Group I

Severe

Perf.

Group II

Severe

Perf.

Group III

High

Perf.

Group IV

Mod

Severe

High

Mod

Mild

Medium

High

Mod

Mild

Mild

Small

Mod

Mild

Mild

Mild

(v.rare)

Large

(rare)

(frequent)

Necessary nonstructural is operational

Minimal number of minor injuries

Minimal damage to contents

Structural damage, but repairable; delay in

reoccupancy

Necessary nonstructural operational

Locally significant injuries but low likelihood of

death

Moderate cost of damage

Minimal risk from hazardous materials

Significant structural damage, but no large

falling debris; repair possible but long-term

Necessary nonstructural damaged

significantly

Injury and death possible

but moderate numbers

Hazardous materials release

locally

Substantial structural damage, but collapse is

avoided; repair may be infeasible

Necessary nonstructural not functional

Likely single life loss; moderate probability of

multiple lives lost

Damage may total the building

Hazardous materials release requires

relocation

Event

Size

Small

Flood

Wind

Snow

Ice

Earthquake

20 100

50

25

25

25

Medium

50 500

75

30

50

72

Large

100 SS 100

50

100

475

V. large

500 SS 125

100

200

2475

Appendices

A. Use classification related to main code

B. Worksheet for assignment to performance

groups

C. Individually substantiated design method

D. Qualification characteristics

E. Use of computer models

Performance-Based Structural

Engineering

Historical review

Motivation

Communications

ICC Performance Code

Modern trends in

earthquake engineering

Performance levels

Global v local

evaluation

Primary and

secondary

Uncertainty

Performance-Based Earthquake

Engineering

Two driving factors:

High cost of upgrading existing structures

now considered unsafe

Requires more exacting assessment

High cost of damage and associated impacts

from structural performance in earthquakes

Higher performance criteria

Performance Levels

Engineer -amount of yielding,

buckling, cracking,

permanent deformation that

structure experiences

Can I use the building after

the earthquake?

How much will repair cost?

How long will it take to

repair?

Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Standard Structural

Performance Levels

Joes

Beer!

Food!

Operational

0%

Joes

Joes

Beer!

Food!

Immediate

Occupancy

Beer!

Food!

Life

Safety

Damage or Loss

Collapse

Prevention

99%

Operational Level

Joes

Beer!

Food!

nonstructural damage

Occupants are safe

during event

Utilities are available

Facility is available for

immediate re-use (some

cleanup required)

Loss < 5% of

replacement value

Joes

Beer!

Food!

Negligible structural

damage

Occupants safe during

event

Minor nonstructural

damage

Building is safe to

occupy but may not

function

Limited interruption of

operations

Losses < 15%

Joes

Beer!

Food!

Significant structural

damage

Some injuries may

occur

Extensive nonstructural

damage

Building not safe for

reoccupancy until

repaired

Losses < 30%

Extensive (near

complete) structural and

nonstructural damage

Significant potential for

injury but not wide scale

loss of life

Extended loss of use

Repair may not be

practical

Loss >> 30%

Joes

Joes

Loading Severity

Beer!

Food!

Beer!

Food!

Joes

Beer!

Food!

Structural Displacement

Evaluation Approach

4 - Determine

5 - Determine

drift & component performance

demands

Joes

10-1

10-2

10-3

Beer!

Food!

Lateral Force - V

1 - Select hazard

level

10-4

Joes

Beer!

Food!

LS

10-5

0

.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

CP

Lateral Displacement -

2 - Determine ground

evaluated on component

motion Sa

3 - Run analysis

by component or global

structural basis

Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

The answer depends on:

What performance level

you are hoping to

achieve.

The configuration of the

structure.

How accurate you need to

be.

A wide range of choices are

available.

Joes

Joes

Beer!

Food!

Beer!

Food!

Regular structures with short periods

Linear static procedures are fine

Regular structures with long periods and all irregular

structures - linear dynamic procedures are better

Response spectra accurate enough

Joes

Beer!

Food!

approach!)

Structures dominated by first mode response

Pushover analysis may be adequate

Structures with significant higher mode response

Nonlinear time history necessary

Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Judging Performance

Acceptability

Acceptance criteria are

indicators of whether

the predicted

performance is

adequate

Local (componentbased)

Global (overall

structure-based)

Force

Backbone

curve

Actuator

Deflection

Local (Component-based)

Acceptance Criteria

F

Life

Safety

Immediate

Occupancy

D

Collapse

Prevention

Acceptance Criteria

F

Brittle Behavior

(Force Controlled)

Ductile Behavior

(Deformation Controlled)

Local Acceptance Criteria

The weakest or most

highly damageable

element controls the

structures

performance.

The effect on global

stability is difficult to

judge.

Collapse

Prevention

Building Configuration

Hierarchy of parts that comprise a building:

Elements

Components

Actions

Elements

Horizontal or vertical

subassemblies that

comprise a structure:

Braced frame

Moment frame

Shear wall

Diaphragm

Components

Individual members that

comprise an element:

Beam

Column

Joint

Brace

Pier

Footing

Damper

Actions

Independent degrees of

freedom associated

with a component, each

with an associated force

and deformation:

Axial force elongation

Moment - rotation

Torsional moment twist

Primary Elements:

Any element

(component) {action}

required to provide

the buildings basic

lateral resistance.

Similar to the

concept of a

participating

element in the

building code.

Secondary:

Any element

(component) {action}

that is not required to

provide the buildings

basic lateral

resistance.

May participate

but is not required

to do so.

Permits engineer to utilize judgment in

determining whether a building meets the

intended performance levels.

Secondary elements are permitted to

experience more damage than primary

elements.

Acceptance criteria for secondary elements

are more permissive than for primary

elements.

Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Slabs (as diaphragms)

(Primary)

Slabs & interior columns

(as frames) (Secondary)

Walls at elevator & stair

(Secondary)

Plan

Perimeter walls

(Primary)

Elevation

Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Performance Evaluation

Primary Components

F

IO -

Immediate

occupancy

LS

CP

based on

appearance of

damage

CP - based on loss of

lateral load

resisting capacity

LS - 75 % CP

Life

safety

Collapse prevention

Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Performance Evaluation

Secondary Components

F

Immediate

occupancy

LS

CP

IO - based on

appearance of

damage

CP - based on

complete failure

of element

LS - 75% CP

Life

safety

Collapse prevention

Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Local Acceptance Criteria

The weakest or most

highly damageable

element controls the

structures performance

The effect on global

stability is difficult to

judge

Collapse

Prevention

Determining Capacity Limited by Global Stability

1 - Build analytical model

t

4- Find maximum

displacement

t

t

t

Global capacity

Maximum Displacement

Perception of a Guarantee

It was supposed

to provide

immediate occuancy!!

I followed the

guidelines???

Maybe I

should call

my

attorney!!!

Loading that will occur in the future is

uncertain.

Actual strength of materials and quality of

construction is variable.

Neither the real demands nor the capacity of

the structure to resist these demands can be

perfectly defined.

Uncertain and Variable

2.5

LA23

2

LA28

1.5

LA22

1

LA30

0.5

0

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

Performance Prediction

Global Life Safety Limit

Target Displacement

16000

Capacity

uncertainty

Demand

Uncertainty

14000

12000

10000

8000

6000

4000

2000

0

0

10

20

30

40

Vision 2000 / FEMA 273/356:

Damage will not exceed desired level, given that

ground motion of specified probability is

experienced.

SAC Approach:

Total probability of damage exceeding a desired

level, will not exceed a specified amount, given

our understanding of site hazards.

Confidence level associated with achieving this

performance is defined.

Performance Objectives

Redefined

highly

I am moderately confident

not very

that there is less than x%

chance in 50 years

that damage will be worse than

Immediate occupancy

Collapse prevention

Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Exceeding Specified Level

P (Damage > PerLev ) = P D > C GM P (GM )

D = demand (drift, or force) = b (GM) - random variable D

C = capacity (function of drift or force) - random variable c

ln(GM) = kln(PE)

components

Load and resistance factors derived as products of integration

Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Minor earthquakes

occur frequently.

Moderate earthquakes

occur occasionally.

Major earthquakes

occur rarely.

Mathematically, k is the

slope of the hazard curve

and indicates how much

more intense motion gets

with decreasing probability

of exceedance.

Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Global Life Safety Limit

Capacity

uncertainty

LATERAL RESISTANCE ( kips)

16000

14000

12000

10000

8000

6000

4000

CU

2000

0

0

10

20

30

40

Target Displacement

16000

Demand

Uncertainty

14000

12000

10000

8000

6000

4000

DU

2000

0

0

10

20

30

40

Factor Procedure

Demand and resistance factors computed as products of

integration, functions of hazard, randomness and uncertainty

=e

k 2

DR

2b

; a = CB e

k 2

DU

2b

; = e

k 2

2

CU + CR

2b

confidence of successful performance

a D

=

C

< 1 indicates higher than mean confidence

> 1 indicates less than mean confidence

Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Procedure

3. Correct predicted

maximum demands

for known inaccuracies

in prediction method

to obtain median estimate

of demand.

Configuration

Member sizes

Connection details

2. Analyze frame :

Use ground motion

at appropriate hazard

level (x% - 50 years)

Predict maximum

drift, member

deformations, forces

aD

Procedure

( a D )

=

C

4. Compute factored

demand to capacity ratio

(DCR)

Confidence

2%

3.0

5%

2.6

10%

2.2

20%

1.9

30%

1.6

40%

1.5

50%

1.3

60%

1.2

70%

1.1

80%

0.95

90%

0.8

95%

0.7

98%

0.5

Global Life Safety Limit

Target Displacement

16000

Capacity

uncertainty

Demand

Uncertainty

14000

12000

10000

8000

6000

4000

2000

0

0

10

20

30

40

Global Life Safety Limit

Target Displacement

16000

Capacity

uncertainty

Demand

Uncertainty

14000

12000

10000

8000

6000

4000

2000

0

0

10

20

30

40

Summary

Performance-based design for earthquake resistance

is possible.

There is considerable uncertainty associated with

prediction of performance.

LRFD approach developed for steel moment frame

buildings allows the engineer to be honest as to

confidence that performance may (or may not) be

achieved.

Communication is more complex but less dangerous.

Extensive work necessary to derive demand and

resistance factors for various structural systems for

general application.

ANALYSIS

Seismotectonics

Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Fault mechanics

Alpide Belt

Ring of Fire

Deterministic and probabilistic analysis

Alpide Belt

Scaling of ground motions and design

and analysis tools (i.e., NONLIN)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Figure from USGS

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Continental-Continental Collision

(orogeny)

thick lithosphere

beneath continents

(~ 100 km)

continental crust

oceanic crust

solid mantle

partially melted

mantle

thin lithosphere

under oceans

( ~ 50 km)

asthenosphere

~ 500 km

Oceanic-Continental Collision

(subduction)

Types of Earthquakes

About 90% of the earth's seismicity occurs

at plate boundaries on faults directly

forming the interface between two plates.

These are called plate-boundary or

interplate earthquakes.

The other 10% occur away from the plate

boundary, in the interior of plates. These

are called intraplate earthquakes.

Plate-boundary Earthquakes

Boundary

is an earthquake that occurs along a fault

associated with an active plate boundary.

An example of this type of boundary is the

San Andreas Fault in California.

Frequent occurrence, relatively well

understood behavior, as per plate tectonic

theory.

Photo courtesy of: USGS.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Intraplate Earthquakes

An intraplate earthquake is an earthquake

that occurs along a fault within the stable

region of a plate's interior (SICR). Examples

are the 1811-12 Madrid, MO earthquakes, the

1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake,

and, more recently, the Bhuj, India,

earthquake in 2001.

Infrequent occurrence, poorly understood,

difficult to study.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

New Madrid

1811, M > 8.0

Charleston

1886, M > 7.0

* Largest historical earthquakes in contiguous United States occurred east of the Mississippi!!

related to previous episodes of continental

spreading.

Weak Spots heating up and thinning of

lower crust such that the brittle-ductile

transition (molten rock/crust boundary)

migrates to a higher level. Because the

overlying crust becomes thinner, stresses

become more concentrated in the crust.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

year old rift zone:

concentrations

rock mass (rock mass of heavy minerals)

into underlying molten rock. As mafic block

sinks, stresses are concentrated in

overlying crust. Process thought to be due

to rock density anomalies combined with

thermal processes.

Other localized mechanisms? (meteor

impact craters, etc.)

North American

Plate

Pacific

Plate

Figure credit: USGS.

California Seismicity

Subduction Zone

Seismicity relatively

well understood

Figure Credit:

USGS

Who really knows

for sure?

Recurring events

along Wasatch

Fault

associated with

many events in this

region.

Central US Earthquakes

Isoseismal Map

from New Madrid

Earthquake,

Dec. 16, 1811

Isoseismal Map -- Dec. 16, 1811

created due to subsidence and

tectonic change

M1-2 every other day (200 per year)

M3 every year (felt)

M4 every 1.5 years (local minor damage)

M5 every 10 years (damaging event)

M6 every 80 years (last one in 1895)

M8+ every 400-600 years? (last one in 1812)

M8+ has 4-10% chance in 50 years

Figure and photo credit: USGS.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

A recurrence of the New Madrid earthquake,

postulated with a 4-10% probability in the next 50

years, has been estimated to cause a total loss

potential of $200 billion with 26 states affected.

Approximately 2/3 of the projected losses will be

due to interruptions in business operations and

the transport of goods across mid-America.

Southeastern Seismicity

Tennessee relatively active

1886 South Carolina event

not fully explained

Magnetic signature from

North Carolina to Georgia

similar to Charleston area;

same potential?

caused by the terrorist attacks of September 11,

2001 (NRC, 2003).

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

1886 Charleston Earthquake

southeastern US from 1977 through 1999.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Earthquake of May 31, 1897; M 6?

Figure credit: USGS.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

1886 Charleston Earthquake

United States indicate recurring large

prehistoric earthquakes this has

increased hazard

Studies in Pacific Northwest debatable

Photo credit: USGS.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

~ 1 meter

liquefied

sands vented

from below

and eroded

crater

Dark

material is

organic

soil and

matter

outline of crater

Photo credit: S. Obermeier

Features Found in Charleston Region*

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

600 ybp

1250 ybp

WABASH VALLEY

SEISMIC ZONE

3250 ybp

5150 ybp

CHARLESTON &

COASTAL SOUTH

CAROLINA

NEW MADRID

SEISMIC ZONE

* Study led to increased seismic design values in South Carolina.

Artesian Condition?

Types of Faults

(a) Strike-slip

fault

(b) Normal

fault

(b) normal

fault

(c)reverse

Reverse

fault

(c)

fault

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Time = 40 Years

(strain building)

Time = 0 Years

Fault

Fault

New

Road

New

Fence

Old Fence

Time = 41 Years

(strain energy released)

Fault

Fence offset

from

fault movement

New

Road

Fault

trace

Old Fence

Photo credit: USGS.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Moment Magnitude

Seismic Moment = MO = A D

where:

= modulus of rigidity (~ 3.5x1011 dynes/cm2 typical)

A = fault rupture area (W x L); where typical L for

big earthquake 100 km, and W 10 to 20 km

D = fault displacement (typical 2 m for big quake)

D

Pr irec

op tio

ag n

at of

io

n

Compression eave

(P wave)

P and

S

waves

Body waves are generated at the source and they radiate in all directions.

As they go through layers, they are reflected, refracted and transformed.

D

Pr irec

op tio

ag n o

at f

io

n

Fault

rupture

D

Pr irec

op tio

ag n o

at f

ion

Di

Pr rect

op ion

ag

at o f

ion

Shear wave

(S wave)

Rayleigh wave

Love wave

Seismic Waves

Particle Motions

Direction of wave

propagation

Vertical Section

SV

SH

SH

SV

P Primary waves

SH Horizontally polarized S waves

SV Vertically polarized S waves

approach the ground surface

because of less competent material

near the surface Snells Law

Direction of wave

propagation

Plan View

Rayleigh Love

SV SH

Site B

Site A

SV

SV

SH

Vs a > Vs b

SV

SV

soil

SH

SH

SV

Incoming P

rock

Incoming SV

Amplitude and direction of reflected and refracted waves with respect to the

incoming wave is given by Snells Law

Earths crust is layered, with seismic velocities increasing with depth; therefore as

waves approach ground surface wave path will get near-vertical

fault

Incoming SH

1. Define earthquake scenario

2. Estimate site response and ground motions

Must be done in context of structure, type of analysis

No universal set of ground motions for

any region.

Uncertainties are inherent to the process

and will cause differences in results.

Judgment is required, even with

probability.

Inconsistency among governing agencies.

process is function of structure/system being

analyzed.

Not possible to predict actual motion that will

occur at a site; mainly concerned with capturing

characteristics important to performance of

project.

Structure/System Considerations

SPECTRAL

ACCELERATION Sa

Two analyses using same models and basic

parameters can give different answers (EPRI vs.

NRC/LLNL studies in 1980s).

SPECTRAL

ACCELERATION Sa

PERIOD T

PERIOD T

continuous feedback!

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Structure/System Issues

Place emphasis on issues

important to the specific project.

SA

Period

Example: If this

is not an

important part of

the spectrum,

do not spend

extra time and

effort on issues

that affect this.

Internal systems

performance.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Structure/System Considerations

Type of structure (building, embankment dam, etc.)

Type and purpose of analysis (linear elastic?

history? liquefaction?)

time

Typical process: seismologist geotech engineer

structural engineer

Seismologists and end user must be closely involved

with continuous feedback

Selection of earthquake scenario is most important

task (do not want precise analysis of inaccurate

model)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Seismic hazard evaluation involves establishing

earthquake ground motion parameters for use in

evaluating a site/facility during seismic loading. By

assessing the vulnerability of the site and the

facility under various levels of these ground motion

parameters, the seismic risk for the site/facility can

then be evaluated.

Seismic hazard the expected occurrence of

future seismic events

Seismic risk the expected consequences of

future seismic events

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Deterministic:

The earthquake hazard for the site is a peak

ground acceleration of 0.35 g resulting from an

earthquake of magnitude 7 on the Woodstock

Fault at a distance of 18 miles from the site.

may produce significant ground shaking at

the site

Probabilistic:

The earthquake hazard for the site is a peak

ground acceleration of 0.25 g, with a 2 percent

probability of being exceeded in 50 years.

zone to the site

using a regional attenuation relationship

2) Controlling earthquake

Woodstock

Fault

Source 3

Source 2

Fixed Distance R*

D3

Fixed Magnitude M*

Area

Source

Magnitude M

D1

D2

1

2

3

site is a pga of 0.35 g resulting

from an earthquake of M7 on the

Woodstock Fault at a distance of

18 miles from the site.

Closest distance

Analysis is relatively transparent;

effects of individual elements can be

understood and judged more readily.

Requires less expertise than

probabilistic analysis.

Does not consider inherent uncertainties in

seismic hazard estimation (i.e., maximum

magnitude, ground motion attenuation).

Relative likelihood of events not considered

(EUS vs. WUS); therefore, inconsistent levels

of risk.

Hazard & Risk Analysis 15-3 - 63

Considers where, how big, and how often.

Identify and characterize source zones that may

produce significant ground shaking at the site including

the spatial distribution and probability of eqs in each

zone.

Characterize the temporal distribution and probability of

earthquakes in each source zone via a recurrence

relationship and probability model.

Select a regional attenuation relationship and

associated uncertainty to calculate the variation of

ground motion parameters with magnitude & distance.

Calculate the hazard by integrating over magnitude and

distance for each source zone.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

scenario design events in many cases.

Anchored in reality.

7.3

7.7

5.0

D

PGA

(km) (g)

23.7 0.42

25.0 0.57

60.0 0.02

Maximum on source

___________

Distance

Source M

Site

4) Hazard at site

2) Recurrence

1) Sources

Ashley

River

Fault

Site

Area

Source

Woodstock

Fault

(Uncertainty in

locations of

sources & Ms

considered).

3) Ground motion

Peak Acceleration

Peak Acceleration

Source 1

M1

Distance

Magnitude M

4) Probability of exceedance

Considers

uncertainty

M3

Site

Ashley

River

Fault

M2

Probability of Exceedance

1) Sources*

Empirical Gutenberg-Richter

Recurrence Relationship

1000

log m = a bm

100

10

1

0.1

= mean rate of

recurrence

(events/year)

1 / m =

0.01

Uncertainties Included in

Probabilistic Analysis

Attenuation Laws

Recurrence Relationship

Distance to Site

return period

0.001

0.0001

0

Magnitude

10

NS NM NR

y* = vi P[Y > y * m j , rk ] P[ M = m j ] P[ R = rk ]

i =1 j =1 k =1

Predict the Likelihood of Earthquakes

Poisson Model

The simplest, most used model for

earthquake probability.

Time-dependent Models

probability that an earthquake will occur in

an interval of time starting from now does

not depend on when "now" is, because a

Poisson process has no "memory."

P (X = k) = (t)k e-(t)

k!

P = 1 - e-t

t = exposure interval

k = no. of events

where

t = exposure interval

1/ = return period

Poisson Model

Note that the probabilistic earthquake risk level can

be put in the form of an earthquake return interval:

Earthquake Return Period = t/-ln(1-PE)

PE

10%

5%

2%

Return

Period

475

975

2475

t

50 yrs.

50 yrs.

50 yrs.

For 2%/50 years, we have 50/(-ln(1-0.02))=

2,475 year return period

For 10%/250 years, we have 250/(-ln(1-0.10))=

2,372 year return period

small, then P t.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

equal, but are equal from design standpoint.

Time-Dependent Models

Used less than simpler Poisson model

Time-dependent means that the probability of

a large earthquake is small immediately after

the last, and then grows with time.

Such models use various probability density

functions to describe the time between

earthquakes including Gaussian, log-normal,

and Weibull distributions.

Source 3

Source 2

D1=?

Source 1

D2=?

D3

Source 3

Site

M3=?

A3=?

Source 2

Source 1

M2=?

A2=?

Site

M1=?

A1=?

Site

10-1

10-0

10-1

10-2

10-3

Source 2

10-4

10-5

Source 1

Source 3

10-6

10-7

10-8

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Return Period = 475 years

Rate of Exceedance = 1/475=0.0021

Acceleration, g

Source 1

Source 2

Source 3

0.8

0.6

10% in 50 Year

Elastic Response

Spectrum

10-1

10-0

10-1

10-2

10-3

10-4

10-5

10-6

10-7

10-8

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.4

PGA = 0.33g

0.2

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

Period, T (sec)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

0.8

0.6

10% in 50 year

Elastic Response

Spectrum

10-1

10-0

10-1

10-2

0.8

10-3

10-4

10-5

10-6

10-7

10-8

0.0

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.2

0.0

0.2

0.4

Response Spectrum (UHS)

Acceleration, g

Acceleration, g

Return Period = 475 years

Rate of Exceedance = 1/475=0.0021

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

0.5

1.5

1.0

Period, T (sec)

0.5

1.0

1.5

Period, T (sec)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Response

Developed from probabilistic analysis.

large distant earthquakes.

Large Distant

Earthquake

Small Nearby

Earthquake

spectrum analysis.

May not be appropriate for artificial ground

motion generation, especially in CEUS.

Period

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Reflects true state of knowledge and lack

thereof.

Consider inherent uncertainties in seismic

hazard estimation (i.e., maximum magnitude,

ground motion attenuation).

Considers likelihood of events considered;

basis for consistent levels of risk established.

Allows more rationale comparison among

many scenarios and to other hazards.

Less dependent upon analyst.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Analyses are not transparent; the effects of individual

parameters cannot be easily recognized and understood.

Quantitatively seductive -- encourages use of precision

that is out of proportion with the accuracy with which the

input is known.

Requires special expertise.

May provide unrealistic scenarios (i.e., probabilistic design

event could correspond to location where actual fault does

not exist).

Analyst still has big influence (methods, etc.).

Results of probabilistic and deterministic

analyses are often similar in the WUS;

not true for CEUS.

Each bar represents an event that exceeds a specified

ground motion at 1 Hz Washington, DC, example.; note

mean and modal values.

difficult to define in CEUS.

Best to use integrated or hybrid method

that combines both approaches.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

ILLINOIS

ILLINOIS

2

PSA (m/s )

Project

Project

Site

Site

For 5% damping

3

2

1

0

0.1

T= 0.05 sec

Scenarios A & B

M6@25 km & M7.5 @101 km

Scenarios A & B

M6@25 km & M7.5 @101 km

Period (sec)

M = 6.0 at 25 km (Scenario A)

T= 0.1 sec

Scenarios A, B, & C?

M6@25 km, M7.5 @101 km,

and M7.5@ 200 km

Scenarios A & B

selected based on T of

structure (< 1.0 sec.)

T= 1.0 sec

M = 7.5 at 101 km (Scenario B)

What kind of analysis to be performed?

Is duration important, or just pga?

Basic question: Does it matter which

event caused motions to be exceeded?

Seismologist and end user should be

closely linked from the beginning!!

Vertical, fault normal and fault parallel refer to finite fault calculations, and

show 3-orthogonal components of motion, oriented with respect to source

reference standards (i.e., IBC2003) and, therefore, very

important!!!

Based on probability maps show contours of

maximum expected ground motion for a given level of

certainty (90%, 98%, etc.) in 50 years; or, said differently,

contours of ground motions that have a common given

probability of exceedance, PE, in 50 years (10%, 2%,

etc.).

(2002/2003 versions most recent )*

does not indicate an event that occurs once

every 2,500 years!

Rather, this term reflects a probability, that is,

the earthquake event that has a probability of 1

in 2500 of occurring in one year.

For instance, the 100-year flood can actually

occur several years in a row or even several

times in one year (as occurred in the 1990s in

Virginia).

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

(and NEHRP Provisions Maps)

2.5

Spectral Response Acceleration (g)

Earthquake Spectra

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

0

0.5

1.5

2.5

Period (sec)

2% in 50 years

and Guidelines

Volume 16, Number 1

February, 2000

10% in 50 years

HAZARD MAP

____________________________

*2002 versions revised April 2003

2% in 50 years

2% in 50 years

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

http://eqint.cr.usgs.gov/eq/html/zipcode.html

The input zip-code is 80203. (DENVER)

ZIP CODE

80203

LOCATION

39.7310 Lat. -104.9815 Long.

DISTANCE TO NEAREST GRID POINT 3.7898 kms

NEAREST GRID POINT

39.7 Lat. -105.0 Long.

Probabilistic ground motion values, in %g, at the Nearest Grid

point are:

PGA

0.2 sec SA

0.3 sec SA

1.0 sec SA

10%PE in 50 yr

3.299764

7.728900

6.178438

2.334019

5%PE in 50 yr

5.207589

11.917400

9.507714

3.601994

2%PE in 50 yr

9.642159

19.921591

16.133711

5.879917

2% in 50 years

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Hazard in some areas increased relative to

previous maps due to recent studies.

Maps developed for motions on B-C soil

boundary (soft rock).

Maps do not account for regional geological

effects such as deep profiles of

unconsolidated sediments this is big effect

in CEUS (i.e., in Charleston ~1 km thick).

New 2002 versions of maps revised in April

2003.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

can illustrate relative probability of a given level of

earthquake ground motion of one part of the country

relative to another.

illustrate the relative demand on structures in one region

relative to another, at a given probability level.

as per building codes, use maps as benchmark to

determine the resistance required by buildings to resist

damaging levels of ground motion.

with judgment and sometimes special procedures, use

maps to determine the input ground motions for

geotechnical earthquake analyses (liquefaction,etc.)

Compare?

Note differences

between 500-yr

and 2,500-yr EQs

Large

earthquake

s frequent

vs.

Large

earthquakes

rare

compare

St. Louis > 650 mi.

Charleston

US Population Density

compare

Seismicity relatively

well understood

CEUS has potential for recurring large

earthquakes

Attenuation lower in CEUS

Weak structures not weeded out in CEUS

Adolescent seismic practice in CEUS

Human inertia in CEUS

Much more uncertainty in CEUS

Bottom line seismic risk in CEUS and WUS is

comparable!

Nonductile Structure, 1989 Loma Prieta EQ

Cypress Overpass

is Common in CEUS!

CEUS has potential for recurring large EQs

Attenuation lower in CEUS

Abundance of weak, non-ductile structures in CEUS;

weakest not weeded out

Immature seismic practice in CEUS

Human inertia in CEUS; little awareness

Much more uncertainty in CEUS

Areas with poor soils in CEUS

Bottom line seismic risk in CEUS and WUS is

comparable!

CEUS is to the WUS

Kobe M6.9 (> $120 billion losses);

weaker infrastructure, poor soil conditions

Remember most expensive US natural

disaster (Northridge, EQ $30 billion) was

moderate earthquake on minor fault on

fringe of Los Angeles

We typically need one or more of these:

Peak ground motion parameters (peak ground

accelerations, peak velocities); or, duration.

Spectral parameters (response spectra,

Fourier spectra, uniform hazard spectra)

Time history of acceleration, velocity, etc.

needed for advanced and/or specialized

analyses.

We typically need these parameters for

ground surface

fault

rupture

P and S

waves

released,nature of fault rupture,etc.

Path effects anelastic attenuation,

geometrical spreading,etc.

Site effects site response, soil

amplification, etc.

Stress drop

Source depth

Size of the rupture area

Slip distribution (amount and distribution of

static displacement on the fault plane)

Rise time (time for the fault slip to

complete at a given point on the fault

plane)

Type of faulting

Rupture directivity

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Crustal structure

Shear-wave velocity (or Q) and

damping characteristics of the

crustal rock

Rock properties beneath the site to

depths of up to about 2 km (hard

crystalline rock)

Local soil conditions at the site to

depths of up to several hundred feet

(typically)

Topography of the site

Effects of Magnitude

Effects of Magnitude

Effects of Distance

Effects of Distance

From USACE, 2000

Regional Effects

0.1

Period, secs.

1.0

Idriss (1984); EERI.

Near-source can be interpreted differently. For

many engineering applications, a zone within

about 20 km of the fault rupture is considered

near-source. Other cases near-source is

considered within a distance roughly equal to the

ruptured length of the fault; 20 to 60 km typical

Two Causes of large velocity pulses:

Directivity

Fling

Near-source effects:

Directiviity

Fling

Radiation pattern

Directivity:

Related to the direction of the rupture

front

Forward directivity: rupture toward the site

(site away from the epicenter)

Backward directivity: rupture away from the site

(site near the epicenter)

Fling:

Related to the permanent tectonic

deformation at the site

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Velocity Pulses

Directivity

Two-sided velocity pulse due to constructive

interference of SH waves from generated from

parts of the rupture located between the site and

epicenter; affects fault-normal component

Occurs at sites located close to the fault but away

from the epicenter

Fling

One-sided velocity pulse due to tectonic

deformation; affects fault-parallel component

Occurs at sites located near the fault rupture

independent of the epicenter location

a

G

Q

0.9

Acc(g)

Acc(g)

0.1

-0.1

0

6

Time (sec)

10

-0.9

12

10

15

20

Time (sec)

25

30

35

40

10

15

20

Time (sec)

25

30

35

40

10

15

20

Time (sec)

25

30

35

200

40

Vel (cm/s)

Vel (cm/s)

80

0

-40

-80

0

6

Time (sec)

10

-200

12

150

200

Disp (cm)

Disp (cm)

-150

0

6

Time (sec)

10

Acc (g

0.5

0.25

0

-200

12

-0.25

30

35

100

50

0

-50

-100

-150

-200

30

35

100

0

-100

-200

-300

-400

-500

30

35

40

45

40

40

45

50

50

45

50

Time (sec)

40

Hazard & Risk Analysis 15-3 - 140

Effects of Fling

fling

TCU05

55

6

fling

TCU05

55

60

fling

TCU05

55

structures are sensitive to fling ground

motions.

Preliminary results indicate some longspan structure may be sensitive to fling.

Need to evaluate various types of

structures to ground motions with and

without fling to determine the effect.

60

Forward directivity

Rupture direction

To Receiver

Backward directivity

Ground Displacement

Towards

Rupture direction

To Receiver

pulses are equal, but the amplitudes

and durations differ. This has major

effects on the ground velocity and acceleration.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Away

From USACE, 2000

Effect of Directivity

motions for sites close to the fault

rupture.

Unclear as to engineering significance

of fling.

Fault normal component

In the direction of forward

directivity.

Fault normal component

Point Source

Finite Source

rupture direction

Fault Plane

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Ground Motion Estimates

Generalized, simplified (i.e., IBC2003)

Site-specific, simplified (i.e., attenuation

curves, site amplification factors)

Site-specific, rigorous (time history

analysis)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

include these effects.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Also, vertical motions tend to be higher

than 2/3 maximum horizontal motions

when near-source.

Subduction zone EQs vs. shallow EQs

Topographical effects (especially

basins).

Surface waves may be important for

certain long-span structures (relative

motion among supports).

Others

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Simple to use.

Based on probabilistic maps.

Does not account for regional geological effects

(maps assume standard depth for B-C boundary

and profile layering) in WUS, B-C boundary

is shallow bedrock, but in some CEUS areas the

B-C boundary is deep as 1 km.

Accounts for local site effects in general

manner cannot handle special site conditions.

Not well-suited to many geotechnical analyses

(no magnitude, UHS approach, etc.).

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

model codes (UBC, BOCA, & SBC).

Based largely on FEMA 368 and 369, NEHRP

Recommended Provisions and Commentary.

Adopted in 45 states (as of July 2004) and by

the DoD.

Incorporates most recent (2002/2003) USGS

seismic hazard maps; USGS map values

capped in some areas by IBC 2003.

2002/2003 USGS probabilistic hazard maps (deterministic

limits used in high seismicity areas here hazard can be

driven by tails of distributions).

Maps provide and spectral accelerations for T = 0.2 sec

(Ss), and T = 1.0 sec (S1) for B-C boundary.

Local soil conditions considered using site coefficients (Fa

and Fv)

Develop design spectrum using S and F values

Ss (0.2 sec) map

for Site Classes A through E

3.00

A

Site Class

Amplification Fa

2.50

B

C

D

E

2.00

1.50

1.00

0.50

4.00

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00

1.25

3.50

1.50

Amplification Fv

0.00

0.00

Site Class

B

3.00

C

D

E

2.50

2.00

1.50

1.00

0.50

0.00

0.00

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00

1.25

1.50

Site Class D (5% Damping)

Spectral Acceleration, g.

1.05

SMS=FASS=1.2(0.75)=0.9g

0.84

Basic

0.63

SM1=FVS1=1.8(0.30)=0.54g

Adjust MCE values of Ss and S1 for

local site effects:

SMS = FaSs SM1 = FvS1

0.42

for D site

0.21

Base curve

(B site)

0.00

0

Site Amplified

SDS and SD1:

SDS = 2/3SMS SD1 = 2/3SM1

Period, sec.

Design with current 2%/50-yr. maps but scale by 2/3.

current design procedures.

SDS

SPECTRAL RESPONSE

ACCELERATION Sa

assumed to have margin of collapse of 1.5.

Sa=SD1/ T

(where applicable).

SD1

To

Ts

2/3 (2500-yr. EQ) 1600-year motions in EUS

1.0

PERIOD T

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Ground Motion Estimates

Generalized, simplified (i.e., IBC 2003)

Site-specific, simplified (i.e., attenuation

curves, site amplification factors)

Site-specific, rigorous (time history

analysis)

Site-Specific, Simplified

Relatively simple (chart-based procedures).

Based on probabilistic motions or deterministic

scenarios.

Can account for regional geological effects

(within 2 km of surface; USGS maps assume

standard depth for B-C boundary and hard

rock).

Accounts for local site (within few hundred feet

of surface) effects in simplified, but more

specific manner.

Better-suited to many geotechnical analyses.

Note IBC 2003 limits site-specific

benefit (in terms of reduced design)

motions to 20% for A-E sites.

Site-specific analysis in some CEUS

area less than probabilistic maps

values; opposite may be true in WUS.

Typical deterministic scenario:

1.

estimate ground motion parameter (i.e, pga or

spectral values) for hard rock from attenuation

relationships.

2.

conditions such as deep unconsolidated sediments

(Vs >700m/s and typically within 2 km of surface)

3.

and within few hundred of surface)*

*covered in detail in a following lecture.

Typically use region-specific attenuation

curve (but can use probabilistic maps also).

Curves developed from empirical data from

recorded motions in most regions.

Curves in CEUS developed from few small

EQs, plus stochastic simulations using

methods developed in WUS but with CEUS

geological parameters (Q, stress drop, etc.).

Most curves provide PGA, PGV, and spectral

values.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Relationships for Different Conditions

Basic Empirical Relationships

ln Y = ln b1 + f1 ( M ) + ln f 2 ( R ) + ln f 3 ( M , R ) + ln f 4 ( Pi ) + ln

b1 Scaling factor

f1 ( M ) Function of Magnitude

f 2 ( R ) Function of Distance

f 4 ( Pi ) Other Variables

Error Term

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Relationships

Subduction Zone Earthquakes

Shallow Crustal Earthquakes

Near-Source Attenuation

Extensional Tectonic Regions

Many Others

Most are for hard rock, some for soil

Volume 68, Number 1

January/February, 1997

(PGA, PGV, Spectral Response)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

(Sadigh, Chang, Egan, Makdisi, and Youngs; for Rock and Soil)

T

PGA

0.07

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.75

1

1.5

2

3

4

C1

-0.624

0.110

0.275

0.153

-0.057

-0.298

-0.588

-1.208

-1.705

-2.407

-2.945

-3.700

-4.230

C2

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

C3

0.000

0.006

0.006

-0.004

-0.017

-0.028

-0.040

-0.050

-0.055

-0.065

-0.070

-0.080

-0.100

C4

-2.100

-2.128

-2.148

-2.080

-2.028

-1.990

-1.945

-1.865

-1.800

-1.725

-1.670

-1.610

-1.570

C5

1.296

1.296

1.296

1.296

1.296

1.296

1.296

1.296

1.296

1.296

1.296

1.296

1.296

C6

0.250

0.250

0.250

0.250

0.250

0.250

0.250

0.250

0.250

0.250

0.250

0.250

0.250

C7

0.000

-0.082

-0.041

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

1.0 Second Acceleration

Magnitude

4

5

6

7

8

0.01

10

1.0 Sec. Spectral Acceleration, G

0.1

10

0.2 Sec. Spectral Acceleration, G

Magnitude

1

4

5

6

7

8

0.1

0.01

0.001

0.001

1

10

100

1000

Magnitude

1

4

5

6

7

8

0.1

0.01

0.001

1

10

100

1000

10

Distance, KM

100

1000

Distance, KM

Distance, KM

Hazard & Risk Analysis 15-3 - 171

In some regions, the presence of deep

unconsolidated sediments (soil to geologists,

soft rock to engineers; Vs 700 m/s) require

correction of hard rock values for these

conditions. Can use:

Regional correction curve to adjust hard

rock curve; or,

A soil attenuation curve in Step 1 that

already includes the effect of the soil as

soil attenuation curve. In this case, the

correction here for Step 2 is not required.

Requiring Adjustment:

0

100

Soil

200

300

400

500

600

Soft Rock

700

~12000 ft/s

800

900

Hard Rock

1000

1100

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

(adjust with regional soil amplification curve)

(use to adjust hard rock curve)

101

2.2

hard rock

10

Spectral Amplification

2.0

10-1

1.8

representative of Site Class

C soil profile

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

Mw = 7.3 R = 14.1 km

0.8

10-1

10-2

10-2

10-1

100

Period (sec)

100

Period (sec)

101

Can use these directly where appropriate and available in

lieu of two-step procedure:

101

104

T = 1.0 sec

T = 0.2 sec

103

102

10-1

102

M=8

M=7

M=6

101

10-2

10-2

10-1

100

M=8

M=7

Sa (cm/s2)

Sa (cm/s2)

104

10

M=6

100

M=5

M=5

101

100

101

Period (sec)

102

103

10-2

101

102

rhypo (km)

EPRI (1993)

103

rhypo (km)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

conditions (within ~30 m depth)

spectral adjustment using amplification factors

Ground Motion Estimates

600

400

200

0

-2 0 0

-4 0 0

-6 0 0

0

2

-463 cm/sec

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

600

400

curves, site amplification factors)

200

0

-2 0 0

-4 0 0

-6 0 0

0

2

-500 cm/sec

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

6 00

analysis)

4 00

2 00

0

-2 00

-4 00

-6 00

0

-391

cm/sec21 5

10

20

25

30

35

40

45

T im e (s e c )

Time, Seconds

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Increasing in usage

Time histories can be obtained from:

Databases of recorded motions such as

National and state data catalogs (NSMDS)

USGS web page

Conditions for which there are few records

available:

Moderate to large earthquakes in CEUS

Large-magnitude (8+) shallow crustal events

Near-source, large-magnitude (7.5+) events

modified recorded motions

synthetic motions

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

that are representative of site ground motions

for the design earthquake(s)* and that are

appropriate for the type of analyses planned.

Will not be able to predict actual motions,

rather interested in representing

characteristics most important for design.

__________________

* Discussed earlier. The design earthquake can be from deterministic or

probabilistic analysis; but, if probabilistic, the uniform hazard spectrum

should probably not be used as the target spectrum. Rather,

deterministic scenarios should be developed from deaggregation of the

PSHA.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

typical analysis?

Most logical procedure is to select available time

histories from databases that are reasonably

consistent with the design parameters and

conditions. Factors to consider include in selection:

(linear system is more influenced by

frequency-domain aspects of motion)

intraplate,etc.)

sequences of pulses, etc.)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

distances within a factor of 2

What is the motion at D?

and level to design spectra; also, want to achieve

reasonable match by scaling by factor 2.0

(especially if scaling record motions to higher

level)

Recorded

A

Soil

Rock

acceleration record should contain strong motion

pulse similar to that caused directivity, etc.

(a) Simple scaling scale motions by

single factor to match target spectrum;

again limiting the scaling factor to 2.0.

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0

0.01

0.1

1

Period (sec)

10

0.15

acceleration (g)

is project-dependent, but typically want suite of

candidate spectra to have average visual fit to

target. More important to have conservative fit

in period range of interest.

PSA (g)

site response

deconv.

D

Soil

0.10

0.05

0.00

-0.05

-0.10

-0.15

0

10

15

20

25

30

35

from 1989 LPE) in plot was

scaled up from 0.06g to 0.16g

(target) using factor of 2.8-- too

high ideally, but was deemed

acceptable because of

reasonable spectral match in

period range of interest ( 1

sec.) and a lack of other

recordings.

40

time (sec)

Required degree of fit is project dependent and often mandated

(b) Spectrum matching adjustments made in

either time domain or frequency domain to

change characteristics of the motions:

(i) Time-Domain Approach: (Lilhanand and

Tseng, 1988; Abrahamson, 1992).

Matching accomplished by adding (or subtracting)

finite-duration wavelets to (or from) the initial timehistory.

Normally provides a close fit to the target. Best to

being with candidate motion has spectral shape

similar to target spectrum.

Best to first scale motion to approximate level of

target spectrum before modification.

recorded motion

Best to begin with candidate motion that has

spectral shape similar to target spectrum

Best to first scale motion to approximate level

of target spectrum before modification

(ii) Frequency-Domain Approach: (Gasparini and

Vanmarcke 1976; Silva and Lee 1987; Bolt and

Gregor 1993).

Adjusts only the Fourier amplitudes while the Fourier

phases are kept unchanged.

Procedure equivalent to adding or subtracting

sinusoids (with the Fourier phases of the initial timehistory) in the time domain.

Does not always provide as close a fit as timedomain approach.

From USACE, 2000

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Other corrections

Ensure records are instrument and

base-line corrected, etc.

Dynamic site response analysis is best

approach (discussed in following

lecture).

much modification is allowed?)

present?

motion vs. synthetic.

regional and site conditions (i.e., motion recorded on

outcrops actually have surface wave energy included

but we commonly input this to base).

phase spectra from real earthquake probably

real in most important ways.

Process should be performed by expert,

typically seismologist.

Seismologists typically develop a suite of time

histories for hard rock or B-C (soft rock)

boundary.

Geotechnical engineers typically generate topof-profile motions using site response

analysis.

strong motions for CEUS)

certainly better to have reasonable region-specific synthetic

motion than inappropriate real motion

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

The computational model for generating synthetic

seismograms consists of:

The seismic source process;

The process of seismic wave propagation

from the source region to the design site; and

Shallow site response (site response is

discussed later).

Source Parameters Required

Rupture velocity, rupture initiation point, and sliptime functions over the ruptured area are the

primary source parameters needed.

Average propagation usually developed with

Greens functions -- requires knowledge of the

crustal parameters such as the P and S-wave

velocities, density, and damping factor (or seismic Q

factor, where Q = 0.5/damping ratio).

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

With fault slip model and Greens functions, ground

motions are computed using the representation theorem

(deconvolution process); see Aki and Richards 1980;

Hartzell, Frazier, and Brune 1978.

Simulation procedure simply sums a suite of Greens

functions lagged in time (delay caused by the rupture

propagation plus the time needed for the seismic waves

to travel from the corresponding point source to the site).

Greens Function is heart of the process.

To model complexity of seismogram, randomness

(stochastic model) is often introduced, either in the source

process or in the wave propagation.

very erratic, irregular high-frequency waves from rupture

process usually characterized as a stochastic process

that must be modeled with randomness

deterministic process often used for low-frequency

portion of motion

Hybrid models combine deterministic with random process.

(1) Boore (1983): developed Band-Limited-White-Noise model

for stochastic simulation of high-frequency ground motions.

This simulation procedure does not use stochastic slip

model.

Procedure generates random white noise, multiplies it by a

window function appropriate for the expected source

duration, and then filters the windowed white noise to obtain

a time-history having a band-limited Fourier amplitude

spectrum specified by the 2-source Brune (1970) model.

Incorporates wave propagation effects of a homogeneous

crust with 1/R geometrical attenuation.

(2) Silva and Lee (1987): method uses formulation for

the Fourier amplitude spectrum similar to Boore, but the

phase spectrum from a natural time-history to generate

the synthetic time-history.

(3) Publicly available computer codes: Some public

domain simulation codes are: RASCAL (Silva and Lee

1987) and SMSIM (Boore 1996).

Boore (1983):

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

0.40

0.35

0.30

PSA (g)

0.25

0.20

0.15

0.10

SRS target spectrum

0.05

0.00

0.01

0.1

10

after another simulating energy release.

Period (sec)

b) Synthetic motion

0.15

Greens Function.

acceleration (g)

0.10

0.05

a point from the fault.

0.00

-0.05

-0.10

-0.15

0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

time (sec)

Mo

4 3

2

1+

c

M=8

Mo : seismic moment

: mass density of earths crust

: shear wave velocity of earths crust

c : corner frequency (2fc)

M=7

acceleration amplitude

Source () =

M=6

Mo

4 3

M=5

fc = 4.91106

Mo

2

1+

c

1

3

0.001

0.01

0.1

10

100

frequency (Hz)

Corner frequency (c) decreases for larger magnitudes (duration

1/c)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Path () =

f r

1

Q ( f )

e

r

r = 50 km

r = 100 km

path effect

f : frequency

: shear wave velocity of earths crust

Q : quality factor (1/2D, D = damping ratio)

f r

1 Q( f )

e

r

f0.2

Western US

Q = 200

Q = 680 f0.34 Eastern US

0.001

0.01

Eastern US

Western US

0.1

10

100

frequency (Hz)

Smaller attenuation for Eastern US

acceleration amplitude

displacement pulses for a large number of sub-faults, randomly

distributed on the fault plane.

Approach taken is similar to that described originally by Zeng et al.,

Geophysical Research Letters, 1994.

r = 50 km

r = 100 km

Eastern US

Western US

0.001

0.01

0.1

10

100

frequency (Hz)

Larger high frequency components for Eastern US even at large distances

to overlap spatially. Superposition

of the radiated pulses from the sub-faults

models the spatial and temporal variability

of fault slip velocity.

1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

Fault dimensions

Maximum and minimum (circular) sub-fault radii

Sub-fault stress drop (not necessarily the static stress drop)

Rupture velocity (spatially constant, etc.)

To Receiver

pulse depends upon the

Sub-fault moment, which in

turn depends upon the radius

(random) and the stress drop

(constant).

pulse is radiated when the

rupture front reaches the

center of the sub-fault.

Expanding Rupture Front

SV

SH

a reduced number of SV and SH

Greens functions corresponding

to the center points of a number

of fault grid elements.

These are combined with the

summation of source

pulses from sub-faults lying

within each grid element.

Fault Plane

Sub-fault

s

source mechanisms, locations in CEUS.

sed

As = Sources base

exp( k sbase f ) sed

s

s exp(k s f ).

As = C

(2f ) 2

1 + ( f / fc )2

Ln

As

(2f ) 2

Ln

Asp

(2f )2

sed

sed

s exp(k s f ).

= b k s f + ,

= b k p f + .

Ln ( As / Asp ) = b ( k s k p ) f + .

i

Ln(Y ) =

therefore less attenuation.

Stress drop?

Too few strong motion recordings.

b j G j af .

j =1

GEOTECHNICAL EARTHQUAKE

ENGINEERING

Typically concerned with:

Determining ground motions especially as to

effects of local site conditions

Liquefaction and liquefaction-related evaluations

(settlements, lateral spreading movements, etc.)

Slope/landslide evaluation

Dams/embankments

Design of retaining structures

Deep and shallow foundation analysis

Underground structures (tunnels, etc.)

Geotechnical 15-4 - 1

Key Reference

Geotechnical Earthquake

Engineering. Prentice Hall, 653 pp.

Geotechnical 15-4 - 2

Historical Perspective

While many cases of soil effects had been

observed and reported for many years, it was

not until a series of catastrophic failures,

involving landslides at Anchorage, Valdez and

Seward in the 1964 Alaska earthquake, and

extensive liquefaction in Niigata, Japan,

during the earthquake in 1964, caused

geotechnical engineers to become far more

aware of, and eventually engaged in

understanding, these phenomena.

(I. M. Idriss, 2002)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Geotechnical 15-4 - 3

1967 Caracas

1971 San Fernando

1979 Imperial valley

1985 Mexico City

1989 Loma Prieta

1995 Kobe (Japan)

1999 Kocaeli (Turkey)

1999 Chi Chi (Taiwan)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Geotechnical 15-4 - 4

a movement must be modified while

passing through media of different

constitutions. Therefore, the earthquake effects

will arrive to the surface with higher or lesser

violence according to the state of aggregation

of the terrain which conducted the movement.

This seems to be, in fact, what we have

observed in the Colchagua Province (of Chile)

as well as in many other cases.

- from Del Barrio (1855) in Toro and Silva (2001)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Geotechnical 15-4 - 5

Change in frequency content of motion

Layering complicates the issue

Amplification or de-amplification of

ground motions can occur

Geotechnical 15-4 - 6

Acceleration

Sand

B

A

Shale

Rock

A

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Geotechnical 15-4 - 7

Conservation of energy drives amplification

Geotechnical 15-4 - 8

Amplification Definitions

Free Surface

Outcrop

Soil

Rock

Bedrock

Free Surface

Amplification =

Bedrock

Amplification =

Free Surface

Outcrop

Geotechnical 15-4 - 9

Amplification Definitions

Fourier amplification spectra

a free surface (f )

aoutcrop (f )

Spectral amplification

Sa, outcrop (T )

Geotechnical 15-4 - 10

Motions Relative To Bedrock

Geotechnical 15-4 - 11

Geotechnical 15-4 - 12

Geotechnical 15-4 - 13

Geotechnical 15-4 - 14

Geotechnical 15-4 - 15

Geotechnical 15-4 - 16

Geotechnical 15-4 - 17

(Bay mud)

Geotechnical 15-4 - 18

Geotechnical 15-4 - 19

Geotechnical 15-4 - 20

Geotechnical 15-4 - 21

Geotechnical 15-4 - 22

Geotechnical 15-4 - 23

Geotechnical 15-4 - 24

Geotechnical 15-4 - 25

Geotechnical 15-4 - 26

Deep Soft Soil Site

Reason for

F Category

in IBC 2003

Geotechnical 15-4 - 27

Geotechnical 15-4 - 28

Geotechnical 15-4 - 29

for Site Classes A through E

Site Class

3.00

A

B

C

D

E

2.00

1.50

1.00

0.50

Site Class

4.00

0.00

0.00

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00

1.25

A

B

C

D

E

3.50

1.50

Amplification Fv

Amplification Fa

2.50

3.00

2.50

2.00

1.50

1.00

0.50

0.00

0.00

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00

1.25

Long Period Spectral Accel. S1 (gs)

1.50

Geotechnical 15-4 - 30

NEHRP Provisions allow site

classification to determined from various

geotechnical data, such as SPT

blowcounts, undrained shear strength,

and shear wave velocity measurements

(Vs)

Best approach in situ Vs measurement

Geotechnical 15-4 - 31

Source

Direct P

and S

Waves

Direct P

and S

Waves

3-D

Receivers

Source

3 D Receivers

a. Crosshole Testing

Source

b. Downhole Testing

Fluid-Filled

Borehole

Direct

S Wave

Various

Propagation

Modes (body

and interface

waves)

Horizontal

Receiver

Receiver 1

Receiver 2

Source

d. Suspension Logging

Courtesy of K. H. Stokoe II

Geotechnical 15-4 - 32

Constant flux rate impedance

Vs2 = constant

Vs

Amplification

Vs

fn =

4H

attenuation in soil

Nonlinear soil behavior

Deamplification

Figure adapted from Rix, G. J., (2001)

Geotechnical 15-4 - 33

(1) Modeling the soil profile

(2) Calculating the site-modified time

histories or other motions at various

level within the profile, typically, at the

ground surface

Geotechnical 15-4 - 34

The stratigraphy and dynamic properties (dynamic

moduli and damping characteristics) of the soil profile

are modeled.

If soil depth is reasonably constant beneath the

structure and the soil layers and ground surface

reasonably flat, then a one-dimensional analysis can

be used.

Two- or three-dimensional models of the site can be

used where above conditions are not met.

Unless soil properties are well constrained a range of

properties should be defined for the soil layers to

account for uncertainties.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Geotechnical 15-4 - 35

Typically the design bedrock time-histories are

input to the soil model and the corresponding

top-of-soil time-histories are obtained.

Analysis should incorporate nonlinear soil

behavior either through the equivalent linear

method or true nonlinear analysis methods.

Ensure program properly accounts for motion

recorded on outcrop being input at base, etc.

Issue: where to assume base or halfspace? (Vs

= 2000 fps is often assumed but not always OK)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Geotechnical 15-4 - 36

Linear analyses

Quarter-wavelength approximation

Equivalent linear analyses

Nonlinear analyses

Geotechnical 15-4 - 37

Layered profile

1

Vertically propagating,

horizontally polarized

shear waves

Calculate the amplitude of

up-going and down-going

waves in each layer by

enforcing the compatibility

of displacements and

stresses at layer interface

Figure adapted from Rix, G. J., (2001)

Geotechnical 15-4 - 38

Linear Analysis

Charleston SC Profile

(Wheeler and Cramer,

2000)

Fourier Amplification

10

8

Constant Vs (i.e., G)

and D (i.e., Q)

6

4

2

10-2

10-1

100

101

Frequency (Hz)

to ground surface. Soil profile is ~1 km thick.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Geotechnical 15-4 - 39

1.0

0.8

G / Gmax

Start with

G = Gmax and

D = Dinit

0.6

PI

PI

PI

PI

PI

PI

0.4

0.2

=0

= 15

= 30

= 50

= 100

= 200

0.0

10 -4

10 -3

10 -2

10 -1

10 0

10 1

10 -2

10 -1

10 0

10 1

Linear

site response

analysis

Calculate

G = G(eff)

and D(eff)

25

20

15

PI

PI

PI

PI

PI

PI

=

=

=

=

=

=

0

15

30

50

100

200

10

0

10 -4

10 -3

No

Calculate max

and eff

in each layer

eff = 0.65max

G and D

consistent

with eff?

Yes

Output

Geotechnical 15-4 - 40

Fourier Amplification

10

Charleston SC Profile (Wheeler and

Cramer, 2000)

6

4

2

10-2

10-1

100

101

Frequency (Hz)

Geotechnical 15-4 - 41

Rock

Linear

Equivalent Linear

Response Spectra

0

0

0.5

1.5

2.5

Period (sec)

Geotechnical 15-4 - 42

representing nonlinear cyclic

soil behavior (nonlinear

inelastic, cyclic plasticity,

pore pressure generation)

Integrate the equation of

motion for vertically

propagating shear waves in

time domain

Programs available are

DESRA, FLAC,

DYNAFLOW, SUMDES, etc.

Shear Stress

Nonlinear Analysis

Shear Strain

Geotechnical 15-4 - 43

The inherent linearity of

equivalent linear analyses can

lead to spurious resonances.

The use of effective shear

strain can lead to an oversoftened and over-damped

system when the peak shear

strain is not representative of

the remainder of the shearstrain time history and vice

versa.

Nonlinear methods can be

formulated in terms of effective

stress to model generation of

excess pore pressures.

robust constitutive model that

may require extensive field and

lab testing to determine the

model parameters.

Difference between equivalent

linear and nonlinear analyses

depend on the degree of

nonlinearity in the soil

response. For low to moderate

strain levels (i.e. weak input

motions and/or stiff soils),

equivalent linear methods

provide satisfactory results.

-- from Kramer (1996)

Geotechnical 15-4 - 44

A. One-dimensional equivalent-linear codes:

SHAKE (Schnabel, Seed, and Lysmer 1972;

Idriss and Sun 1992)

WESHAKE (Sykora, Wahl, and Wallace 1992);

Geotechnical 15-4 - 45

B. One-dimensional nonlinear codes:

DESRA-2 (Lee and Finn 1978), DESRA-MUSC (Qiu

1998)

SUMDES (Li, Wang, and Shen 1992)

MARDES (Chang et al. 1990)

D-MOD (Matasovic 1993)

TESS (Pyke 1992)

Geotechnical 15-4 - 46

C. 2-D and 3-D equivalent linear codes:

FLUSH (2-D) (Lysmer et al. 1975)

QUAD4M (Hudson, Idriss, and Beikae 1994)

SASSI (2-D or 3-D) (Lysmer et al. 1991)

Geotechnical 15-4 - 47

Shear wave velocity profile

Gmax = Vs2

Nonlinear soil behavior

Modulus reduction curve

Gsec

Gmax

= f ( cyclic )

D=

1 W

= f ( cyclic )

4 W

W

Geotechnical 15-4 - 48

Laboratory Methods

Resonant column

Torsional shear

Cyclic simple shear

Cyclic triaxial

Bender elements

Geotechnical 15-4 - 49

In Situ Methods

Invasive methods

Noninvasive methods

Crosshole

Refraction

Downhole/SCPT

High-resolution seismic

reflection

Invasive methods for

nonlinear soil properties

Vertical arrays

Empirical correlations

with SPT and CPT

Geotechnical 15-4 - 50

Source

Direct P

and S

Waves

Direct P

and S

Waves

3-D

Receivers

Source

3 D Receivers

a. Crosshole Testing

b. Downhole Testing

Source

Fluid-Filled

Borehole

Direct

S Wave

Horizontal

Receiver

Courtesy of K. H. Stokoe II

Various

Propagation

Modes (body

and interface

waves)

Receiver 1

Receiver 2

Source

d. Suspension Logging

Geotechnical 15-4 - 51

1.0

G / Gmax

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

PI = 0

PI = 15

PI = 30

PI = 50

PI = 100

PI = 200

0.0

10-4

10-3

10-2

10-1

100

101

Hwang (1997)

25

20

15

EPRI (1993)

PI = 0

PI = 15

PI = 30

PI = 50

PI = 100

PI = 200

Toro and Silva (2001)

10

0

10-4

10-3

10-2

10-1

100

101

Geotechnical 15-4 - 52

Liquefaction

If a saturated sand is subjected to ground

vibrations, it tends to compact and decrease in volume.

If drainage is unable to occur, the tendency to

decrease in volume results in an increase in

pore pressure.

If the pore water pressure builds up to the point at

which it is equal to the overburden pressure, the

effective stress becomes zero, the sand loses its

strength completely, and liquefaction occurs.

Seed and Idriss

Geotechnical 15-4 - 53

Geotechnical 15-4 - 54

Geotechnical 15-4 - 55

Geotechnical 15-4 - 56

Geotechnical 15-4 - 57

Geotechnical 15-4 - 58

Lateral Spreading

Sand

boils

Liquefied

soil

Unliquefied

soil

ground (< 5%) resulting from soil liquefaction

One of most pervasive forms of ground damage;

especially troublesome for lifelines

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Geotechnical 15-4 - 59

Kobe, Japan, 1995

Geotechnical 15-4 - 60

Geotechnical 15-4 - 61

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Geotechnical 15-4 - 62

Geotechnical 15-4 - 63

Geotechnical 15-4 - 64

Liquefaction Damage

In the 1994 Northridge earthquake,

homes damaged by liquefaction or ground

failure were 30 times more likely to

require demolition than those homes only

damaged by ground shaking (ABAG)

In the 1995 Kobe Japan Earthquake,

significant damages occurred to port

facilities due to liquefaction; after almost

10 years post trade still 10-15% off

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Geotechnical 15-4 - 65

Key Reference

Youd et al. 2001. Liquefaction Resistance

Of Soils: Summary Report from the 1996

NCEER and 1998 NCEER/NSF Workshops on

Evaluation of Liquefaction Resistance of

Soils, Journal of Geotechnical and

Geoenvironmental Engineering, October, pp.

817-833.

Geotechnical 15-4 - 66

Liquefaction Analysis

Saturated loose sands, silty sands, sandy

silts, nonplastic silts, and some gravels are

susceptible to liquefaction in an earthquake.

FACILITY

Potentially Liquefiable

Soil

Upward

BEDROCK

Shear Waves from

EQ Source

Geotechnical 15-4 - 67

Liquefaction Analysis

A quantified measure of seismically induced

shaking within a soil profile is termed the

earthquake demand. The most commonly

used measure of demand in current practice

is the cyclic stress ratio (CSR).

The soils ability to resist this shaking without

liquefaction is determined by one or more

methods, and is indicated by its cyclic

resistance ratio (CRR).

Geotechnical 15-4 - 68

Step 1 -- Estimate the maximum acceleration at

the ground surface, amax:

This can be obtained from: (a) an actual

acceleration record from nearby; (b) from

attenuation relationships that relate amax to the

earthquake magnitude and include the effects of

soil directly; (c) from a site response analysis

using a series of time histories (if this is done,

CSR can be determined directly from the output);

(d) soft soil amplification factors such as Idriss

(1990); and (e) national seismic hazard maps.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Geotechnical 15-4 - 69

Liquefaction Analysis

Step 2 -- Determine the cyclic shear stress ratio, CSR,

according to:

ave

amax vo

CSR =

rd

= 0.65

vo '

g vo '

in which

ave = average cyclic shear stress

vo = vertical effective stress (total vertical stress minus

the pore water pressure) at the depth of interest

vo = total vertical stress at the depth of interest

g = acceleration due to gravity

rd = depth reduction factor (see Figure 1)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Geotechnical 15-4 - 70

Geotechnical 15-4 - 71

Liquefaction Analysis

Step 3 -- Determine the soil resistance to

liquefaction, CRR.

CRR can be determined from the results of Standard

Penetration Tests (SPT) see Figure 2, Cone

Penetration Tests (CPT) see Figure 3, or Shear

Wave Velocity Measurements (Vs) - see Figure 4, may

be used. Characteristics and comparisons of these

test methods are given in Table 1.

The SPT N-value method is described here for

level ground.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Geotechnical 15-4 - 72

Geotechnical 15-4 - 73

Liquefaction Analysis

Step 4 -- Determine SPT N-values at several depths over the range

of interest. These values must be corrected to account for depth

(overburden pressure) and several other factors as listed in Table 2 to

give the normalized penetration resistance (N1)60 which corresponds to

a hammer efficiency of 60%.

(N1 )60 = N CN CE CB CR CS

where:

N = measured penetration resistance, blows per foot

CN = correction for overburden pressure = (Pa/vo)0.5

Pa = atmospheric pressure in same units as vo= 1 tsf,

100 kPa, 1 kg/cm2

CE = energy correction (see Table 2)

CB = borehole diameter correction (see Table 2)

CR = correction for rod length (see Table 2)

CS = correction for sampling method (see Table 2)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Geotechnical 15-4 - 74

Factor

Test Variable

Overburden Pressure1

Term

Correction

CN

(Pa/ vo)0.5

CN 1.7

Energy Ratio

Donut Hammer

Safety Hammer

Automatic-Trip

DonutType Hammer

CE

0.5 to 1.0

0.7 to 1.2

0.8 to 1.3

Borehole Diameter

65 mm to 115 mm

150 mm

200 mm

CB

1.0

1.05

1.15

Rod Length2

<3m

3 m to 4 m

4 m to 6 m

6 m to 10 m

10 m to 30 m

> 30 m

CR

0.75

0.8

0.85

0.95

1.0

>1.0

Sampling Method

Standard Sampler

Sampler without Liners

CS

1.0

1.1 to 1.3

Geotechnical 15-4 - 75

Liquefaction Analysis

Step 5 -- Locate (N1)60 on Figure 2. If the

earthquake magnitude is 7.5 and the depth of the

point being evaluate corresponds to an effective

overburden pressure of 1 tsf, 100 kPa, or 1

kg/cm2, then the cyclic resistance ratio (CRR) is

given by the corresponding value from the curve

that separates the zones of liquefaction and no

liquefaction (note that the appropriate curve to use

depends on the fines content of the soil).

Geotechnical 15-4 - 76

Liquefaction Analysis

Step 6 -- If the effective overburden pressure (vo) is greater than

1 tsf, 100 kPa or 1 kg/sq. cm, then the CRR should be reduced

according to Figure 5 by:

(CRR) (vo) = (CRR) (vo)=1 x K

If the earthquake magnitude is less than 7.5, then the CRR

should be increased according to:

(CRR)M<7.5 = (CRR)M=7.5 x MSF

The Magnitude Scaling Factor (MSF) is given by the shaded zone

in Figure 6. Similarly, if the magnitude is greater than 7.5, then

the CRR should be reduced according to the relationship in

Figure 4.

Geotechnical 15-4 - 77

Liquefaction Analysis

Step 7 --If the soil contains more than 5% fines, Fines content (FC

corrections for soils with >5% fines may be made using (with

engineering judgment and caution) the following relationships.

(N1)60cs is the clean sand value for use with base curve in Fig. 2.

(N1)60cs = + (N1)60

=0

for FC 5%

= exp[1.76 (190/FC2)]

for 5% FC 35%

= 5.0

for FC 35%

= 1.0

for FC 5%

= [0.99 + (FC1.5/1000)]

for 5% FC 35%

= 1.2

for FC 35%

Geotechnical 15-4 - 78

Liquefaction Analysis

Step 8 -- The factor of safety against liquefaction

is defined by:

FSLIQN = CRR/CSR

Typically want FS >1.35 or so.

Geotechnical 15-4 - 79

Feature

Test Type

SPT

CPT

Vs

Abundant

Abundant

Limited

Sparse

Type of stress-deformation

in test

Partly

drained,

large strain

Drained,

large

strain

Small

strain

Quality control,

repeatability

Poor to

good

Very good

Good

Partly

drained,

large

strain

Poor

Detection of heterogeneity

Good if tests

closely

spaced

Very good

Fair

Fair

Gravel free

Gravel free

All

Gravelly

soil

Yes

No

No

Possibly

measured directly

Index

Index

Property

Index

interpretation/analysis

No

Yes

Yes

No

BPT

Geotechnical 15-4 - 80

Geotechnical 15-4 - 81

Geotechnical 15-4 - 82

Geotechnical 15-4 - 83

Geotechnical 15-4 - 84

Clayey Sands

Potentially liquefiable clayey soils need to meet all of the

following characteristics (Seed et al., 1983):

Percent finer than 0.005 mm < 15

Liquid Limit (LL) < 35

Water content > 0.9 x LL

If soil has these characteristics (and plot above the ALine for the fines fraction to be classified as clayey),

cyclic laboratory tests may be required to evaluate

liquefaction potential. Recent work suggests latter two

criteria work well to distinguish liquefiable soil, but the

criterion of percent finer than 0.005 does not match

recent field experience (Martin et al., 2004).

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Geotechnical 15-4 - 85

Liquefaction Remediation

Basic approach is to either increase

capacity (i.e., increase density, bind

particles together), or decrease demand

(i.e., soil reinforcement)

Recent studies indicate cost/benefit

ratio of liquefaction and site remediation

is generally > 1.0

Excellent summary of performance and

techniques available from:

http://www.ce.berkeley.edu/~hausler/home.html

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Geotechnical 15-4 - 86

Source of following slides: http://www.haywardbaker.com/

Compaction Grouting

When low-slump compaction grout is injected into granular

soils, grout bulbs are formed that displace and densify the

Surrounding loose soils. The technique is ideal for

remediating or preventing structural settlements, and for

site improvement of loose soil strata.

Chemical Grouting

The permeation of very low-viscosity chemical grout into

granular soil improves the strength and rigidity of the soil

to limit ground movement during construction. Chemical

grouting is used extensively to aid soft ground tunneling

and to control groundwater intrusion. As a remedial tool,

chemical grouting is effective in waterproofing leaking

subterranean structures.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Geotechnical 15-4 - 87

fissured rock, Portland and microfine cement grouts

play an important role in dam rehabilitation, not only

sealing water passages but also strengthening the rock

mass. Fast-set additives allow cement grouting in moving

water and other hard-to-control conditions.

Soilfrac Grouting Soilfracsm grouting is used where

a precise degree of settlement control is required

in conjunction with soft soil stabilization. Cementitious

or chemical grouts are injected in a strictly controlled

and monitored sequence to fracture the soil matrix

and form a supporting web beneath at-risk structures.

Geotechnical 15-4 - 88

system that creates an engineered, in situ soil/cement

product known as Soilcretesm. Effective across the

widest range of soil types, and capable of being

performed around subsurface obstructions and in

confined spaces, jet grouting is a versatile and valuable

tool for soft soil stabilization, underpinning, excavation

support and groundwater control.

for granular material, Vibro-Compaction uses

company-designed probe-type vibrators to densify

soils to depths of up to 120 feet. Vibro-Compaction

increases bearing capacity for shallow-footing

construction, reduces settlements and also mitigates

liquefaction potential in seismic areas.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Geotechnical 15-4 - 89

Vibro-Replacement is used in clays, silts, and mixed

or stratified soils. Stone backfill is compacted in lifts

to construct columns that improve and reinforce

the soil strata and aid in the dissipation of excess

pore water pressures. Vibro-Replacement is well suited

for stabilization of bridge approach soils, for shallow

footing construction, and for liquefaction mitigation.

and organic soils that are not suitable for standard

Vibro techniques can be improved by the installation

of Vibro Concrete Columns. Beneath large area loads,

Vibro Concrete Columns reduce settlement, increase

bearing capacity, and increase slope stability.

Geotechnical 15-4 - 90

is an economic site improvement technique used to treat

a range of porous soil types and permit shallow,

spread footing construction. Soils are densified at depth

by the controlled impact of a crane-hoisted, heavy weight

(15-35 tons) on the ground surface in a pre-determined

grid pattern. Dynamic Deep Compaction is also successful

in densifying landfill material for highway construction

or recreational landscaping.

Soil Mixing Typically used in soft soils, the soil mixing technique

relies on the introduction of an engineered grout material

to either create a soil-cement matrix for soil stabilization,

or to form subsurface structural elements to support earth

or building loads. Soil mixing can be accomplished by many methods,

with a wide range of mixing tools and tool configurations available.

Geotechnical 15-4 - 91

foundations, and support of footings for increased

capacity are prime candidates for minipile installation,

particularly where headroom is limited or access

restricted. These small diameter, friction and/or

end bearing elements can transfer ultimate loads

of up to 350 tons to a competent stratum.

http://www.haywardbaker.com/

Geotechnical 15-4 - 92

Vibrocompaction/Vibroreplacement

Hayward Baker, Inc.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Geotechnical 15-4 - 93

Vibrocompaction/Vibroreplacement

Geotechnical 15-4 - 94

Vibroreplacement

Geotechnical 15-4 - 95

Vibrocompaction in Charleston, SC

Hayward Baker, Inc.

Geotechnical 15-4 - 96

Geotechnical 15-4 - 97

Geotechnical 15-4 - 98

Geotechnical 15-4 - 99

Zetas, Inc.

Pseudostatic Analysis

stability is related to the

resisting forces (soil strength)

and driving forces (inertial

forces)

C-of-G

khW

W

represent horizontal inertia

forces from earthquake

seismic coefficient is related

to PGA

insufficient to represent

dynamics of the problem

Displacement Analysis

= friction coefficient

S=N

Estimate the acceleration (i.e. kh) that would overcome the available friction and

start moving the block down the plane critical acceleration, yield acceleration

Bracket the acceleration time history with yield acceleration in one direction (i.e.

downward movement only), double integrate the portion of the acceleration

history to estimate permanent displacement

Or use simplified charts to relate permanent displacements to yield acceleration

and peak ground acceleration

Displacement Analysis

d =3

100

vm 2 k y

km g km

d = 0.5

vm 2 k y

km g km

10

d = 0.5

vm 2 k y k y

1

k m g km km

dr = d

0.1

0.01

km g

vm 2

d r : normalized displacement

d : permanent displacement

v m : peak ground velocity

k y : yield acceleration (in g's)

k m : peak ground acceleration (in g's)

0.1

Traditionally considered conservative

to ignore (flexible foundations transmit

less motion to superstructure, vice

versa);

However, recent studies from (i.e.,

1995 Kobe, Japan EQ) suggest SSFI

effects may actually increase ductility

demand in some structures

The piles have to

withstand forces due to the

movement of the soil

around and also inertial

forces due to the building

above

1. Seismic force;

2. Inertial force;

3. Soil failure (liquefaction, etc.)

Inertial

force

Seismic force

(ground movement)

Inertial

force

TOTAL

MOMENTS

ON PILES

Earthquake Motions

Issues

Map-based procedure not ideally suited

for geotechnical analyses

Interpretation of soil categories not

straight forward (i.e., What is F site?)

Issues for Geotechnical Use

Maps generalized and not originally intended for sitespecific analysis that account for the effects of local soil

conditions, such as liquefaction.

Map-based site classification procedure does not work as

well for complex, layered soil profiles (site class based on

average of top 30 m or 100 ft.) think of 30 ft. of medium

clay on top of hard rock should this really be a C site?

Modifications of ground motions for the effects of local

soil conditions using the maps is not well-established

Maps do not account for regional geology

Issues for Geotechnical Use

Further away from original design intent, the fewer

guidelines are available (structural engineer

geotech engineer seismologist)

Maps developed mainly for structural design

Earthquake magnitude/duration not provided directly,

only pgas (M requires deaggregation)

For structures with elastic response, duration is not as

important per se

Magnitude/duration is very important for most

geotechnical analyses (non-linear behavior)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Provisions (Chap. 18) recommend SDS/2.5 for

liquefaction analysis SDS factored by 2/3, and 2/3

is from structural considerations, not soil-- this is

inconsistent!!

Structures can factor MCE by 2/3, but not soils new

IBC Provisions affect geotechnical analyses more than

structural analyses

20% limitation in reduction of map-based design

motions based on site-specific analysis, but no

simplified approach available for Class F sites

leads to loophole.

What is F site not always clear (i.e. liquefaction)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

by Current USGS Maps

fall line

(Columbia)

coast line

(Charleston)

160 km

B-C Classification

~1 km

Hard Rock

Charleston, SC

Columbia, SC

Vs, m/s

Vs, m/s

0

400

800

1200

1600

2000

2400

2800

3200

3600

400

800

1200

1600

2000

2400

2800

3200

3600

SANDY

DEPOSITS

100

100

IBC 2003

ASSUMPTION

200

200

300

300

500

600

400

Depth, m

Depth, m

400

COOPER

MARL/COASTAL

PLAIN WEDGE

BASEMENT

CRYSTALLINE ROCK

(3450 m/s)

SANDY

DEPOSITS

IBC 2003

ASSUMPTION

BASEMENT

CRYSTALLINE

ROCK (3450 m/s)

500

600

700

700

800

800

900

900

1000

1000

2.0

1.8

Spectrum

1.6

Unconservative

here

1.4

PSA, g

1.2

Site-specific time

history analysis

1.0

0.8

0.6

Over-conservative

here

0.4

0.2

0.0

0.01

0.1

10

Period, seconds/cycle

Effect unique to

central United States

2.0

1.8

Unconservative

here

1.6

1.4

PSA, g

1.2

1.0

Spectrum

Site-specific

time history

analysis

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

0.01

0.1

10

Period, seconds/cycle

0

available from recent site-specific study

100

Soil

Coastal Plain Site

200

340 ft below ground surface

300

400

500

600

Soft Rock

700

~12000 ft/s

800

900

1000

Hard Rock

1100

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

fall line

(Columbia)

coast line

(Charleston)

160 km

B-C Classification

~1 km

Hard Rock

SC coastal plain sediments (soft rock)

difficult to characterize

Q & ( of damping) are two big

unknowns

Sediments filter high frequencies and

decrease peak motions

Effective values in Eastern US soft rock

similar to values for Western US hard

rock

Soft rock motions in coastal SC may be

similar to Western US hard rock motions

California

Charleston

0

2

Depth (km)

Depth (km)

< 0.04

Q = 200

3

S

Velocity (km/s)

= 0.05

Q = 30

< 0.01

Q = 800

Velocity (km/s)

Q=30, K=0.05

Soft

Rock

Hard

Rock

0.50

0.45

0.40

0.35

(Allowable lower design limit)

PSA (g)

0.30

0.25

Site-specific Design

Spectrum

0.20

0.15

0.10

0.05

0.00

0

Period (sec)

__________

* Includes effect of coastal plain sediments plus near-surface soils

in top 30 m. Plots developed for typical site in coastal SC

CEUS

not apply in many cases in CEUS

Site response (i.e., SHAKE) analyses not as

straight-forward in CEUS

SHAKE has depth limitations (600 ft.? CEUS

sites can be deeper)

Where is halfspace? (Vs = 2000 ft/sec rule of

thumb not always applicable in CEUS)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

A

?

0

100

B

C

would be different, unless base motion

modified for the different halfspace depths.

Deeper profile is probably better to use, if

base motion is appropriately developed and

if damping is not too high.

Soil

200

300

400

500

600

Soft Rock

700

~12000 ft/s

800

900

1000

Hard Rock

1100

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

Relative PGAs in the United States

Summary

Losses from earthquakes continue to

exceed those from other natural hazards

(with the exception of megadisasters like

Hurricane Katrina).

Poor soils tend to increase damages from

earthquakes.

Earthquake soil mitigation, especially for

soil liquefaction, is effective.

Summary

Current IBC 2003 procedures are based on

WUS practice and experience.

IBC provisions may not yet adequately

account for unique CEUS conditions.

Soil conditions in CEUS increase hazard.

PERFORMANCE-BASED

EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING

Performance-Based

Earthquake Engineering

Nonlinear static pushover analysis

Nonlinear dynamic response history analysis

Incremental nonlinear dynamic analysis

Probabilistic approaches

Disclaimer

The design ground motion cannot be predicted.

Even if the motion can be predicted it is unlikely

than we can precisely predict the response. This is

due to the rather long list of things we do not know

and can not do, as well as uncertainties in the things

we do know and can do.

characteristics of the ground motion and the

characteristics of the response.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Deformation Demands?

Increasing Value

of

Information

Linear Dynamic Modal Response Spectrum Analysis

Linear Dynamic Modal Response History Analysis

Linear Dynamic Explicit Response History Analysis

Nonlinear Static Pushover Analysis

Nonlinear Dynamic Explicit Response History Analysis

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

T Ts

Linear

Resp. Hist.

Nonlinear

Resp. Hist.

Regular

Structures

Analysis Method

YES YES

YES

Linear

Static

Response

Spectrum

Requirements

(SDC D, E, F)

YES

Vert. Irreg. 4, 5

YES YES

YES

YES

Vert. Irreg. 1a, 1b

2, or 3

NO YES

YES

YES

NO YES

YES

YES

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Nonlinear

Static

Nonlinear

Dynamic

YES YES

YES

YES

Weak

Column

NO

NO

YES

YES

Any

Condition

NO

NO

YES

YES

Strong

Column

NO YES

NO

YES

Weak

Column

NO

NO

NO

YES

Any

Condition

NO

NO

NO

YES

(Collapse Prevention)

T Ts

Regular

Irregular

T > Ts

Regular

Irregular

Analysis Method

Linear

Static

Linear

Dynamic

Requirements

Strong

Column

Definition for

Elements and Components

Secondary

Component

Primary

Element

Primary

Component

Primary elements or components are critical to the buildings ability to resist collapse

In general, a model should include the following:

Soil-Structure-Foundation System

Structural (Primary) Components and Elements

Nonstructural (Secondary) Components and Elements

Mechanical Systems (if performance of such

Reasonable Distribution and Sequencing

of gravity loads

P-Delta (Second Order) Effects

Reasonable Representation of Inherent Damping

Realistic Representation of Inelastic Behavior

Realistic Representation of Ground Shaking

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

In general, a three-dimensional model is necessary.

However, due to limitations in available software,

3-D inelastic time history analysis is still not practical

(except for very special and important structures).

We will use the computer program NONLIN-Pro

which is on the course CD. Note that the analysis

engine behind NONLIN-Pro is DRAIN-2Dx.

state of the practice. The state of the art is being advanced

through initiatives such as PEERs OpenSees Environment.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Response History Analysis (1)

1) Develop Linear Elastic Model, without P-Delta Effects

a) Mode Shapes and Frequencies (Animate!)

b) Independent Gravity Load Analysis

c) Independent Lateral Load Analysis

2) Repeat Analysis (1) but include P-Delta Effects

3) Revise model to include Inelastic Effects. Disable P-Delta.

a) Mode Shapes and Frequencies (Animate!)

b) Independent Gravity Load Analysis

c) Independent Lateral Load (Pushover)Analysis

d) Gravity Load followed by Lateral Load

e) Check effect of variable load step

4) Repeat Analysis (3) but include P-Delta Effects

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Response History Analysis (2)

5) Run Linear Response History Analysis, disable P-Delta

a) Harmonic Pulse followed by Free Vibration

b) Full Ground Motion

c) Check effect of variable time step

6) Repeat Analysis (5) but include P-Delta Effects

7) Run Nonlinear Response History Analysis, disable P-Delta

a) Harmonic Pulse followed by Free Vibration

b) Full Ground Motion

c) Check effect of variable time step

8) Repeat Analysis (7) but include P-Delta Effects

Phenomenological

All of the inelastic behavior in the yielding region

of the component is lumped into a single location.

Rules are typically required to model axial-flexural

interaction.

Very large structures may be modeled using this

approach. Nonlinear dynamic analysis is practical

for most 2D structures, but may be too

computationally expensive for 3D structures.

Phenomenological Model

Actual

Model

Lumped Plastic

Hinge

M

Hinge

Hysteretic

Behavior

Macroscopic

The yielding regions of the component are highly

discretized and inelastic behavior is represented

at the material level. Axial-flexural interaction

is handled automatically.

These models are reasonably accurate, but are very

computationally expensive. Pushover analysis

may be practical for some 2D structures, but

nonlinear dynamic time history analysis is not

currently feasible for large 2D structures or for

3D structures.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Macroscopic Model

Actual

Slice

Model

Axial Stress

Fiber

Cross Section

Fiber

Material

Hysteretic

Behavior

Axial Strain

and Backbone Curves (1)

F

F

Outline of

Robust Hyst.

Simple Yielding

(Robust)

and Backbone Curves (2)

F

F

Loss of Stiffness

and Backbone Curves (3)

F

Pinched

Buckling

NONLIN

F

F = kD + (1 ) Fy Z

&

& Z > 0

k

D

Z

if

D

(

1

)

Z& =

&

Fy D otherwise

Fy

=50

=4

=2

Models also available. See Sivaselvan and Reinhorn for

Details.

The NONLIN-Pro

Structural Analysis Program

DRAIN 2Dx

Developed by Advanced Structural Concepts, Inc.,

of Blacksburg, Virginia

Formerly Marketed as RAM XLINEA

Provided at no cost to MBDSI Participants

May soon be placed in the Public Domain through

NISEE.

The DRAIN-2DX

Structural Analysis Program

Graham H. Powell

Nonlin-Pro Incorporates Version 1.10, developed

by V. Prakash, G. H. Powell, and S. Campbell,

EERC Report Number UCB/SEMM-93/17.

A full Users Manual for DRAIN may be found

on the course CD, as well as in the Nonlin-Pro

online Help System.

FORTAN Source Code for the version of DRAIN

incorporated into Nonlin-Pro is available

upon request

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

DRAIN-2DX Capabilities/Limitations

ONLY. Some 3D effects may be simulated if

torsional response is not involved.

Analysis Capabilities Include:

Linear Static

Mode Shapes and Frequencies

Linear Dynamic Response Spectrum*

Linear Dynamic Response History

Nonlinear Static: Event-to-Event (Pushover)

Nonlinear Dynamic Response History

* Not fully supported by Nonlin-Pro

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

DRAIN-2DX Capabilities/Limitations

P-Delta Effects included on an element basis

using linearized formulation

System Damping is Mass and Stiffness

Proportional

Linear Viscous Dampers may be (indirectly)

modeled using stiffness Proportional Damping

Response-History analysis uses Newmark constant

average acceleration scheme

Automatic time-stepping with energy-based error

tolerance is provided

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

TYPE 1: Truss Bar

TYPE 2: Beam-Column

TYPE 3: Degrading Stiffness Beam-Column*

TYPE 4: Zero Length Connector

TYPE 6: Elastic Panel

TYPE 9: Compression/Tension Link

TYPE 15: Fiber Beam-Column*

* Not fully supported by Nonlin-Pro

F

Simple Bilinear Yield in Tension

or Compression

d

Comp.

Yield

F

May act as linear viscous damper

(some trickery required)

d

Comp.

Buckle

Two Component Formulation

Elastic Component

j

Yielding Component

(Rigid-Plastic)

or Negative Moment. Axial

yield is NOT provided.

Linearized Geometric Stiffness

Nonprismatic properties and shear

deformation possible

Axial-Flexural Interaction

Axial Force

Load Path

Bending

Moment

Note: Diagram is for steel

sections. NOo interaction

and reinforced concrete type

interaction is also possible

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

NO Axial-Flexural Interaction

Axial Force

Load Path

Bending

Moment

Axial-Flexural Interaction

Axial Force

Bending

Moment

its accuracy or reliability. Improved

models based on plasticity theory

have been developed. See, for

example, The RAM-Perform

Program.

DRAIN 2Dx

Connection Element

Zero Length Element

Translational or Rotational Behavior

Variety of Inelastic Behavior, including:

Bilinear yielding with inelastic unloading

Bilinear yielding with elastic unloading

Inelastic unloading with gap

X and Y coordinates. The pair of nodes

is referred to as a compound node

slaved to those of node i

between nodes i and j

relative rotation between nodes i and j

Rotation

explicitly modeling a damper.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Girder Plastic Hinges

Compound

Node with

Spring

Beam-Column

Joint

Simple

Node

Compound

Node without

Spring

All Inelastic

Behavior is in Hinge

Moment

DRAIN-2Dx

M

Ram Perform

Very Large

Initial Stiffness

Rotation

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

What is OpenSees?

OpenSees is a multi-disciplinary open source

structural analysis program.

Created as part of the Pacific Earthquake

Engineering Research (PEER) center.

The goal of OpenSees is to improve modeling

and computational simulation in earthquake

engineering through open-source

development

OpenSees is an object oriented framework for finite

element analysis

OpenSees consists of 4 modules for performing

analyses:

OpenSees Modules

Modelbuilder - Performs the creation of the finite

element model

Analysis Specifies the analysis procedure to

perform on the model

Recorder Allows the selection of user-defined

quantities to be recorded during the analysis

Domain Stores objects created by the Modelbuilder

and provides access for the Analysis and Recorder

modules

Elements

Truss elements

Corotational truss

Elastic beam-column

Nonlinear beam-column

Zero-length elements Quadrilateral elements

Brick elements

Sections

Elastic section

Uniaxial section

Fiber section

Section aggregator

Plate fiber section

Bidirectional section

Elastic membrane plate section

Uniaxial Materials

Elastic

plastic

Parallel

gap

Series

Steel01

Hysteretic

Viscous

Elastic perfectly

Elastic perfectly plastic

Hardening

Concrete01

Elastic-No tension

Fedeas

Loads: Variable time series available with plain,

uniform, or multiple support patterns

Analyses: Static, transient, or variable-transient

Systems of Equations: Formed using banded,

profile, or sparse routines

Algorithms: Solve the SOE using linear, Newtonian,

BFGS, or Broyden algorithms

Recording: Write the response of nodes or elements

(displacements, envelopes) to a user-defined set of

files for evaluation

OpenSees Applications

Structural modeling in 2 or 3D, including

linear and nonlinear damping, hysteretic

modeling, and degrading stiffness elements

Advanced finite element modeling

Potentially useful for advanced earthquake

analysis, such as nonlinear time histories and

incremental dynamic analysis

Open-source code allows for increased

development and application

OpenSees Disadvantages

No fully developed pre or post processors yet

available for model development and

visualization

Lack of experience in applications

Code is under development and still being

fine-tuned.

The program and source code:

http://millen.ce.berkeley.edu/

http://peer.berkeley.edu/~silva/Opensees/manual/html/

OpenSees Homepage:

http://opensees.berkeley.edu/OpenSees/related.html

SAP2000/ETABS

Both have 3D pushover capabilities and linear/nonlinear

dynamic response history analysis. P-Delta and large

displacement effects may be included. These are the most powerful

commercial programs that are specifically tailored

to analysis of buildings(ETABS) and bridges (SAP2000).

RAM/Perform

Currently 2D program, but a 3D version should be available soon.

Developed by G. Powell, and is based on DRAIN-3D technology. Some

features of program (e.g. model building) are hard-wired and not easy to

override.

ABAQUS,ADINA, ANSYS, DIANA,NASTRAN

These are extremely powerful FEA programs but are not very practical for

analysis of building and bridge structures.

In Steel Structures

Vc

Doubler

Plate

H

Vc H/L

Continuity

Plate

L

L

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

FCF

Vc

FCF

FGF

FGF

Vc H

L

Vc H

L

FGF

FGF

FCF

Vc

FCF

L

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Horizontal Shear in Panel Zone:

VP = Vc

(1 )

6 times the column shear

(1 )

P = Vc

Lt P

including doubler plate

Shear deformations in the panel zone can be

responsible for 30 to 40 percent of the story drift.

FEMA 350s statement that use of centerline dimensions

in analysis will overestimate drift is incorrect for joints

without PZ reinforcement.

yield before the girders do. Although panel zone yielding is

highly ductile, it imposes high strains at the column flange

welds, and may contribute to premature failure of the

connection.

This

in Typical Joint

Yielding

In Column

Flanges

Yielding

In Panel Zone

Krawinkler

Model

Panel Spring

H

H

Flange Spring

L

L

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Column CL

Offset

Girder CL

Offset

Panel Zone

Web Hinge

Simple Hinge

Rigid

Bars (typical)

Simple Hinge

Panel Zone

Flange Hinge

11,12

10

8,9

7

1

2,3

5,6

25-28

22-24

18,21

15-17

1-3

4-7

8-10

11-14

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Moment-Rotation Relationships in

Krawinkler Model

Moment, M

Total

yP

Panel Component

Flange Component

yF

yP

yF

Hinge Rotation,

Moment-Rotation Relationships in

Krawinkler Model (Alternate)

Moment, M

Total

yP

yF

Panel Component

PK

yP

Flange Component

yF

Hinge Rotation,

(Panel Component)

M yP , K = 0.6 FyLH (t wc + t d )

K P , K = GLH (t wc + t d )

yP , K =

0.6 Fy

G

(Panel Component)

My P , K = 0.6 FyLH (t wc + t d )

Volume of Panel

K P , K = GLH (t wc + t d )

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

(Flange Component)

2

My F , K = 1.8Fy bcf tcf

yF , K = 4 yP, K

and thereby accurately portrays true kinematic

behavior

distortion

structure outside of panel zone region

Model does not include flexural deformations

in panel zone region

degrees of freedom

Note: Degrees of freedom can be reduced to

four (4) through proper use of constraints, if

available.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Rigid Ends (typical)

Flange Springs

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Krawinkler

Scissors

Krawinkler and Scissors Models

K Scissors

K Krawinkler

=

2

(1 )

M y , Scissors =

M y , Krawinkler

(1 )

Krawinkler). Only 4 DOF per joint, and

only two additional elements.

Disadvantages of Scissors Model

Does not model true behavior in joint region.

Does not include flexural deformations

in panel zone region

Not applicable to structures with unequal bay

width (model parameters depend on and )

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

in Concrete Structures

Accurate modeling is much more difficult (compared

to structural steel) due to pullout and loss of bond of

reinforcement and due to loss of stiffness and strength

of concrete in the beam-column joint region.

Physical

are under development. See reference by Lowes and

Altoontash.

2000 NEHRP Provisions 5A.1.1:

of axial load when axial loads exceed 15 percent of the

buckling load

Recommended Revision:

computer model of the structure.

1) Loss of Stiffness and

increased displacements

H

Shear Force

Vy

V

Excluding P-Delta

*

y

Including P-Delta

P

KG =

H

KE =

Vy

K = K E + KG

Displacement

2) Loss of Strength

Shear Force

VY

Excluding P-Delta

*

Y

Including P-Delta

P y

Vy H

V = V y (1 )

*

y

Displacement

3) Larger residual deformations and increased

tendency towards dynamic instability

3.0

Displacement, Inches

2.0

1.0

0.0

-1.0

KG = -50 k/in

KG = 0 k/in

KG = +50 k/in

-2.0

-3.0

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

Time, seconds

10.0

12.0

14.0

Linearized vs Consistent Geometric Stiffness

Large P-

Linearized

Small P-

Large P-

Consistent

Linearized Geometric Stiffness

displaced shape. No iteration required

for solution.

Significantly overestimates buckling

loads for individual columns

Large P-Delta Effect on a

story-by-story basis

Linearized

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

displaced shape. Iteration required for

solution.

individual columns only if each column

is subdivided into two or more elements.

in accuracy (compared to linearized

model) if being used only for

considering the Large P-Delta effect

in moment resisting frame structures.

Consistent

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

A

D

Lateral Column

Leaner Column

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

A

D

Lateral Column

Leaner Column

on Frame A

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Tributary Gravity Loads

Tributary

P-Delta Loads

Slaving

Slaving

Slaving

Activate

Geometric

Stiffness

in these

Columns

Only.

for P-Delta Analysis?

10 PSF Partition Load (or computed

value if available)

Full Reduced Live Load (as would be used

for column design).

Reduced Live Load based on most probable

live load. See for example Commentary of

ASCE 7.

Effect of Vertical Accelerations?

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Base Shear

analysis may terminate due

to a non-positive definite

tangent stiffness matrix

Roof Disp

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Controlled Analysis to Obtain

Complete Response

analysis), do not recover base shears from column forces.

Base Shear

Sum of

Column Shears

True Total

Base Shear

Roof Disp

P-Delta Shear

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Nonlinear static pushover analysis

Nonlinear dynamic response history analysis

Incremental nonlinear analysis

Probabilistic approaches

Basic overview of method

Details of various steps

Discussion of assumptions

Improved methods

reasonable estimates of inelastic deformation

or damage in structures.

this information.

capable of providing the required information,

but may be very time-consuming.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

provide reasonable estimates of location

of inelastic behavior.

providing estimates of maximum deformation.

Additional analysis must be performed for this

purpose. The fundamental issue is

How Far to Push?

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

of pushover analysis is not to predict the

actual response of a structure to an

earthquake. (It is unlikely that nonlinear

dynamic analysis can predict the response.)

of analysis, including pushover, is that it

must be good enough for design.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Prediction of Target Displacement

Capacity-Spectrum Approach (ATC 40)

Simplified Approach (FEMA 273, NEHRP)

Uncoupled Modal Response History

Modal Pushover

(ATC 40 Approach)

1. Develop Analytical Model of Structure Including:

Gravity loads

Known sources of inelastic behavior

P-Delta Effects

2. Compute Modal Properties:

Periods and Mode Shapes

Modal Participation Factors

Effective Modal Mass

3. Assume Lateral Inertial Force Distribution

4. Construct Pushover Curve

5. Transform Pushover Curve to 1st Mode Capacity Curve

6. Simplify Capacity Curve (Use bilinear approximation)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Pushover Curve

Capacity Curve

Modal

Acceleration

Base

Shear

Roof Displacement

Modal Displacement

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Develop 5% Damped ELASTIC Response Spectrum

Modify for Site Effects

Modify for Expected Performance and Equivalent Damping

Convert to Displacement-Acceleration Format

Base Shear/Weight

or Pseudoacceleration (g)

Elastic Spectrum based demand curve for X%

equivalent viscous damping

representing X% equivalent

viscous damping.

Target

Displacement

Spectral Displacement

Original Equations of Motion:

K = M 2

1

1

R=

.

1

u = y

y1

y

2

y=

= [1 2 3 ... n ]

.

yn

M&y& + Cy& + Ky = MRu&&g

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Use of Orthogonality Relationships:

T

T

T

&

&

&

My + Cy + Ky = MRu&&g

T

M = M

T

i Mi = mi

T

i Ci = ci

T K = K *

i K i = k i

C = C

T

*

i i

*

i i

*

i i

*

and noting

ci*

= 2 i i

*

mi

ki*

2

= i

*

mi

i MR

&y&i + 2 i i y& i + yi = T

u&&g = i u&&g

i Mi

T

2

i

i MR

&y&i + 2 i i y& i + yi = T

u&&g = i u&&g

i Mi

T

i MR

i = T

i Mi

T

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

with First Mode Shape

1=1.0

1=1.4

1.0

1=1.6

1.0

1.0

Any Mode of MDOF system

2

SDOF system

i

i i i

i

i

g

If we obtain the displacement Di(t) from the response

of a SDOF we must multiply by 1 to obtain the modal

amplitude response yi(t). history

y1 (t ) = 1 Di (t )

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

If we run a SDOF Response history analysis:

yi (t ) = i Di (t )

If we use a response spectrum:

yi ,max = i Di ,max

In general

yi (t ) = i Di (t )

Recalling

ui (t ) = i yi (t )

Substituting

ui (t ) = ii Di (t )

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Applied static forces required to produce ui(t):

Fi (t ) = Kui (t ) = i Ki Di (t )

Recall

Ki = Mi

2

i

Fi (t ) = i Mi Di (t ) = i Mi ai (t )

2

i

Fi ( t ) = Si ai ( t )

where

Si = i Mi

Total shear in mode:

Vi = Fi R

T

T

T

i i

a (t )

Vi ( t ) = M

i i

Effective Modal Mass:

[

]

MR

i

M i = T

i Mi

T

M i

Important Note:

does NOT depend on mode

shape scaling

with First Mode Shape

M 1

= 1.0

M Total

1.0

M 1

= 0 .9

M Total

1.0

M 1

= 0 .8

M Total

1.0

S1 + S 2 + ... + S n = MR

n

S

=

M

i ,k i

k =1

0

50 50

K = 50 110 60

0

60 130

1.267

S1 = 1.060

0.600

S

k =1

1, k

= 2.927

0

1.0 0

M = 0 1.1 0

0

0 1.2

0.338

S 2 = 0.223

0.428

S

k =1

0.071

S 3 = 0.183

0.172

2,k

= 0.313

S

k =1

3, k

= 0.060

1.0

S1 + S 2 + S 3 = 1.1

1.2

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Displacement Response in single mode:

ui (t ) = ii Di (t )

From Response-History

or Response Spectrum

Analysis

a (t )

Vi ( t ) = M

i i

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

as Function of System Response

Modal Displacement:

Modal Acceleration:

D1 (t ) =

u1,roof (t )

11,roof

V1 (t )

a1 (t ) =

M 1

u1,roof (t ) = 11,roof D1 (t )

D1(t)

V

First Mode SDOF System

(modal coords)

V

First Mode System (natural coords)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

V1( t )

Modal

a1( t ) =

Acceleration

M

1

Base

Shear

Pushover Curve

Roof

Displacement

Capacity Curve

Modal Displacement

u1 (t )

D1 (t ) =

11,roof

Potential Plastic

Hinge Location

(Must be predicted

and possibly corrected)

Create Mathematical Model

Apply gravity load to determine

initial nodal displacements and member forces

Apply lateral load sufficient to produce

single yield event

Update nodal displacements and member forces

Modify structural stiffness to represent yielding

Continue

Until

Sufficient

Load or

Displacement

is obtained.

Moment

MG

A,B

Rotation

Base Shear

Roof Displacement

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

(Acting Alone)

ML

Total

Load = V

Moment

B

B

A Rotation

Including Total Load V

MG+ML

Moment

B

Total

Load = V

A

B

Rotation

Base Shear

Roof Displacement

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Determine amount of Lateral Load Required to Produce First Yield

MG+ ML

Moment

Total

Load = V

Rotation

M G ,i + i M L , i = M P ,i

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Analysis 2b

Adjust Load to First Yield

Base Shear

Old Tangent

Stiffness

New Tangent

Stiffness

1

1

Roof Displacement

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Analysis 3a

Modify System Stiffness Apply Remainder of Load

Base Shear

VR=V(1-1)

1

1

Roof Displacement

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Required to Produce Second Yield

Total

Load = (1-1)V

Analysis 3b

Adjust Load to Second Yield

Base Shear

Old Tangent

Stiffness

New Tangent

Stiffness

2

1

2

1

Roof Displacement

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Analysis 4a

Modify System Stiffness Apply Remainder of Load

Base Shear

VR

2

1

2

1

Roof Displacement

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Analysis 4b

Adjust Load to Third Yield

Base Shear

Old Tangent

Stiffness

New Tangent

Stiffness

3

2

1

2

3

Roof Displacement

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Analysis 5a..

Base Shear

VR

3

2

1

2

3

Roof Displacement

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

V1 ( t )

Modal

a1 ( t ) =

Acceleration

M

1

Base

Shear

Pushover Curve

Capacity Curve

ACTUAL

SIMPLIFIED

Roof

Displacement

Modal Displacement

u (t )

D1 ( t ) = 1

11,roof

Base Shear/Weight

or Pseudoacceleration (g)

Elastic Spectrum based demand curve for X%

equivalent viscous damping

representing X% Equivalent

Viscous Damping.

Target

Displacement

Spectral Displacement

F

Area=ED

FD

Area=ES

FS

K

ED = FD u

= Cu

2 2

= 2m u

2

ES = 0.5 Fs u

2

= 0.5 Ku

= 0.5m u

2

ED

=

4ES

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Damping Force and Elastic Force

F

F

FD

FS

Area=ED

Area=ES

ED = FD u

1

ES = Fs u

2

ED

FD

=

=

4ES 2 FS

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Damping Energy and Strain Energy

ED

FD

=

=

4ES 2 FS

Note:

System must be in steady state harmonic

RESONANT response for this equation to work.

15000

10000

Force, Kips

5000

-5000

Spring

Damper

-10000

-15000

-6

-4

-2

Displacement, Inches

2000

1500

1000

Force, Kips

500

-500

-1000

Spring

Damper

-1500

-2000

-1.00

-0.50

0.00

0.50

1.00

Displacement, Inches

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

ED

FD

Results from NONLIN Using: =

=

4ES 2 FS

System Period = 0.75 seconds

Harmonic Loading

Target Damping Ratio 5% Critical

Loading

Period

(sec)

0.50

0.75

1.00

Damping

Force

(k)

118

984

197

Spring

Force

(k)

787

9828

2251

Damping

Ratio

%

7.50

5.00

3.75

Resonant

ED

FD

=

Results from NONLIN Using: =

4ES 2 FS

System Period = 0.75 seconds

Harmonic Loading

Target Damping Ratio 20% Critical

Loading

Period

(sec)

0.50

0.75

1.00

Damping

Force

(k)

430

999

1888

Spring

Force

(k)

717

2498

5666

Damping

Ratio

%

30.0

20.0

16.7

Resonant

Ratio from Yield-Based Hysteretic Energy

and Strain Energy

ES

ES

ED

Viscous System

EH

Yielding System

EH

4ES

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

System Stiffness

and Energy Dissipation

System Stiffness

Rigid

Rigid

System Energy

Dissipation

ES

EH

ES

ED

u

Advanced Analysis 15-5b - 53

Initial Frequency:

Posin(Inelt) =

Initial

Stiffness k

k

m

Resonant Frequency:

Inelastic

2

=

( 0.5 sin 2 )

= cos (1 2

1

F

Fy

k

uy

umax

Response (loaded at Inelastic):

ksec

umax

uy

umax

4u y

=

P

4 o

ku y

m

Posin(t)

Initial

Stiffness k

Resonant Frequency:

sec

ksec

=

m

Resonant Response:

F

u max

Po

=

2 sec ksec

Fy

ksec

uy

umax

sec

Equivalent Damping:

uy

1

= 0.637(1

) = 0.637(1 )

umax

Strain Hardening is Included

F

K

Fmax

Fy

K

u

ksec

uy

sec 0.637

umax

( Fy umax Fmax u y )

Fmax umax

Strain Hardening is Included

F

K

Fmax

Fy

K

u

ksec

uy

Equiv

umax

uy

Fy

1

1

0.637

= 0.637

Fmax u max

( 1) + 1

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

On Equivalent Viscous Damping

0.6

=0.0

0.5

0.4

=0.05

0.3

=0.10

=0.15

0.2

=0.20

0.1

0

1

Ductility Demand

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

(W = 11250 k, K = 918 k/in., T=1.0 sec, El Centro Ground Motion)

8

Yield Strength

600

800

1000

Ductility Demand

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Total = 5 + Equiv

Robust

Moderately

Robust

Short

=1

= .7

= .7

Long

= .7

= .33

= .33

Shaking Duration

Pinched

Or Brittle

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

(Values Shown are Percent Critical)

1.2

5 10 20

1.0

30

40

F/Fy

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

U/Uy

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

With 5% Strain Hardening Ratio

(Values Shown are Percent Critical)

1.2

5 10 20

1.0

40

30

F/Fy

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

u/uy

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Pseudoacceleration Spectrum in

Traditional Format

1.2

SDS

Pseudoacceleration, g

1.0

0.8

0.6

SD1/T

0.4

0.2

0.0

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

Period, Seconds

ADRS Format (5% Damping)

1.2

T=.10

T=.50

T=1.0

Pseudoacceleration, g

1.0

T=1.5

0.8

0.6

T=2.0

0.4

T=3.0

0.2

T=4.0

0.0

0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

20.0

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

for Increased Equivalent Damping

1.2

Robust

Degrading

Severely Degrading

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

0

10

20

30

40

50

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

1.2

T=1.0

T=.50

5% Damping

1.0

Pseudoacceleration, g

T=1.5

10%

0.8

20%

30%

0.6

T=2.0

40%

0.4

T=3.0

0.2

T=4.0

0.0

0

10

15

20

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

1.2

5% Damping

Pseudoacceleration, g

1.0

10%

0.8

20%

5%

30%

0.6

10%

40%

20%

30%

0.4

40%

0.2

0.0

0

10

15

20

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

0.4

40%

30% 20%

10%

5%

5% Damping

Pseudoacceleration, g

10%

20%

0.3

30%

0.2

40%

0.1

Target Disp

= 6.2 in.

0.0

0

10

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Note: The target displacement from the Capacity-Demand

diagram corresponds to a first mode SDOF system. It must

be multiplied by the first mode modal participation factor and

the modal amplitude of the first mode mode shape at the

roof to determine displacements or deformations in the

original system.

Hinge rotations may then be obtained for comparison with

performance criterion.

be found from the original pushover curve.

scientific technique, that proud servant

of engineering arts, is trying to swallow

its master

Professor Hardy Cross

2003 NEHRP Recommended Provisions

Gravity Loads include 25% of live load (but

Provisions are not specific on P-Delta Modeling

Requirements)

Lateral Loads Applied in a First Mode Pattern

Structure is pushed to 150% of target displacement

Target displacement is assumed equal to the

displacement computed from a first mode

response spectrum analysis, multiplied

by the factor Ci

Ci adjusts for error in equal displacement

theory when structural period is low

2003 NEHRP Provisions (2)

(1 Ts / T1 )

Ci =

+ (Ts / T1 )

Rd

TS = S D1/ S DS

1.5 R

Rd =

0

Sa

Ts

T

Advanced Analysis 15-5b - 72

2003 NEHRP Provisions (3)

Component deformation acceptance based on

laboratory tests

Maximum story drift may be as high as 1.25

times standard limit

Nonlinear Analysis must be Peer Reviewed

FEMA 356*. (Also used in FEMA 350)

More detailed (thoughtful) treatment than in

NEHRP Recommended Provisions

Principal Differences:

> Apply 25% of unreduced Gravity Load

> Use of two different lateral load patterns

> P-Delta effects included

> Consideration of Hysteretic Behavior

* FEMA 273 in Prestandard Format

FEMA 356 (2)

2

Te

t = C0C1C2C3 S a 2 g

4

Spectral

Displacement

t = Target Displacement

C0 = Modification factor to relate roof displacement

to first mode spectral displacement.

C1 = Modification factor to relate expected maximum

inelastic displacement to displacement calculated from

elastic response (similar to NEHRP Provisions Ci)

FEMA 356 (3)

2

Te

t = C0C1C2C3 S a 2 g

4

C2 = Modification factor to represent effect of pinched

hysteretic loop, stiffness degradation, and strength

loss.

C3 = Modification factor to represent increased displacements

due to dynamic P-Delta effect

Discussion of Assumptions

1. Dynamic effects are ignored

2. Duration effects are ignored

3. Choice of lateral load pattern

4. Only first mode response included

5. Use of elastic response spectrum

6. Use of equivalent viscous damping

7. Modification of response spectrum

for higher damping

30% Critical Damping

200

Acceleration, in/sec/sec

Pseudo Acceleration

150

100

50

0

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

and Pseudoacceleration

50%

5% Damping

10% Damping

15% Damping

20% Damping

25% Damping

30% Damping

Error, Percent

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

m

Posin(t)

Initial

Stiffness k

Resonant Frequency:

sec

ksec

=

m

Resonant Response:

ksec

umax =

2 sec Po

F

Fy

ksec

umax

Equivalent Damping:

uy

sec = 0.637(1

)

umax

the same AVERAGE (+/-) displacement, but considerably

DIFFERENT maximum displacement.

umin

umax

umin

umax

umin

umax

at predicting the AVERAGE displacement, but CAN NOT

predict the true maximum displacement.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Adaptive Load Patterns

Use of SDOF Response History Analysis

Inclusion of Higher Mode Effects

Base Shear/Weight

or Pseudoacceleration (g)

Elastic Spectrum based demand curve for X%

equivalent viscous damping

representing X% equivalent

viscous damping.

Target

Displacement

Spectral Displacement

Base Shear/Weight

or Pseudoacceleration (g)

Inelastic Spectrum based Demand Curve

for ductility demand of X.

representing ductility

demand of X.

Target

Displacement

Spectral Displacement

Target Displacement

theory for (longer period) EPP systems

analysis, the use of inelastic spectra gives better

results than ATC 40 procedure.

History Analysis of SDOF Systems

(UMRHA) is described by Chopra and Goel. See, for example,

Appendix A of PEER Report 2001/03, entitled Modal Pushover

Analysis Procedure to Estimate Seismic Demands for Buildings.

used to determine a static load pattern for each mode.

and corresponding bilinear capacity curves are obtained

for the first few modes. This is done using the procedures

described earlier for the ATC 40 approach.

History Analysis of SDOF Systems (2)

response history analysis is computed for each modal bilinear

system. This may be accomplished using NONLIN or

NONLIN-Pro.

coordinates and displacement (and deformation) response

histories are obtained for each mode.

determine the final displacement (deformations). In the Modal

Pushover approach, the individual response histories are

combined using SRSS.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

History Analysis of SDOF Systems (3)

2001/16, entitled Statistics of SDF-System Estimate of Roof

Displacement for Pushover Analysis of Buildings.

Conclusions from above report (paraphrased by F. Charney):

For larger ductility demands the SDOF method, using only

the first mode, overestimates roof displacements and the bias

increases for longer period buildings.

For small ductility demand systems, the SDOF system, using

only the first mode, underestimates displacement, and the bias

increases for longer period systems.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Conclusions (continued)

First mode SDOF estimates of roof displacements due to

individual ground motions can be alarmingly small (as low

as 0.31 to 0.82 times exact) to surprisingly large (1.45 to 2.15

times exact).

Errors increase when P-Delta effects are included. (Note: the

method includes P-Delta effects only in the first mode).

The large errors arise because for individual ground motions

the first mode SDOF system may underestimate or overestimate

the residual deformation due to yield-induced permanent drift.

The error is not improved significantly by including higher mode

contributions. However, the dispersion is reduced when elastic

or nearly elastic systems are considered.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

History Analysis of SDOF Systems

Problems with the method:

No rational basis

Does not include P-Delta effects in higher modes

Can not consider differences in hysteretic behavior of

individual components

Problem of ground motion selection and scaling still exists

Nonlinear static pushover analysis

Nonlinear dynamic response history analysis

Incremental nonlinear dynamic analysis

Probabilistic approaches

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 1

Nonlinear Dynamic

Response History Analysis

Principal Advantage: All problems with pushover analysis

are eliminated. However, new problems may arise.

Main Concerns in Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis:

1) Modeling of hysteretic behavior

2) Modeling inherent damping

3) Selection and scaling of ground motions

4) Interpretation of results

5) Results may be very sensitive to seemingly minor

perturbations

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 2

Using Rayleigh Proportional Damping

MASS

PROPORTIONAL

DAMPER

STIFFNESS

PROPORTIONAL

DAMPER

C = M + K

Note: K is the INITIAL

Stiffness of the system

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 3

Select Damping value in two modes, k and n

Compute Coefficients and :

k n

=2 2

2

n k

k k

n

1 / 1 /

n

k n

C = M + K

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 4

5% Critical in Modes 1 and 3

1

m = 0 .5

m

Structural Frequencies

Mode

1

2

3

4

5

4.94

14.6

25.9

39.2

52.8

0.15

TYPE

MASS

STIFFNESS

TOTAL

= 0.41487

= 0.00324

0.10

0.05

0.00

0

20

40

Frequency, Radians/Sec.

60

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 5

mass proportional damping

0.20

0.18

0.16

Damping Ratio

0.14

m=0.103

0.12

6

5

0.10

4

3

0.08

m=0.042

0.06

0.04

1=Ductility Demand

0.02

0.00

0

Frequency, Radians/Second

Topics in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 6

in DRAIN

DEVICE

Topics in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 7

L

j

k

Device

proportional damping.

K Damper

AE

=

L

C Damper = K Damper

Set A=L, E=0.01

use = CDamper/0.01

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 8

association with ANY elements that have

artificially high stiffness and that may yield.

Plastic Rotation, rad

M, in-k

Slope=

2max/T

max

Very Stiff

say K=106 in-k/rad

, rad

Topics in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering

Time, sec

T

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 9

M, in-k

Slope=velocity

2max/T

max

Very Stiff

say K=106 in-k/rad

, rad

Time, sec

T

Assume max = .03 rad, T=1.0 sec, =0.004

M=106(0.004)(2(.03)/1.0))=7540 in-k

Topics in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 10

Ground motions must have magnitude, fault mechanism,

and fault distance consistent with the site and must be

representative of the maximum considered ground motion

simulated motions (or modified motions) may be used

(Parenthesis by F. Charney)

Where does one get the records?

How can the records be modified to match site conditions?

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 11

Simulated records should NOT be used if they have been

created on the basis of spectrum matching where the

target spectrum is a uniform hazard spectrum.

Response

Uniform Hazard Spectrum

Large Distant

Earthquake

Small Nearby

Earthquake

Period

Topics in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 12

Reference:

On the use of Design Spectrum Compatible Time Histories,

by Farzad Naiem and Marshall Lew, Earthquake Spectra,

Volume 11, No.1.

Time Histories (DSCTH) are based on an erroneous understanding

of the role of design spectra and can suffer from a multitude

of major problems. They may represent velocities, displacements,

and high energy content which are very unreliable. The authors

urge extreme caution in the use of DSCTH in the design of

earthquake resistant structures.

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 13

http://peer.berkeley.edu/smcat/search.html

Topics in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 14

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 15

http://eqint.cr.usgs.gov/eq/html/lookup.shtml

Topics in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 16

http://eqint1.cr.usgs.gov/eq/html/deaggint.shtml

Topics in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 17

Earthquake of May 31, 1897.

Blacksburg

N 37.1

W -80.25

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 18

MOTION 4

MOTION 1

200

Acceleration, cm/sec/sec

Acceleration, cm/sec/sec

200

150

100

50

0

-50

-100

-150

-200

0

10

15

20

25

30

35

150

100

50

0

-50

-100

-150

-200

0

40

10

15

MOTION 2

30

35

40

25

30

35

40

200

150

Acceleration, cm/sec/sec

Acceleration, cm/sec/sec

25

MOTION 5

200

100

50

0

-50

-100

-150

-200

0

10

15

20

25

30

35

150

100

50

0

-50

-100

-150

-200

40

10

15

Time, Seconds

20

Time, Seconds

MOTION 3

MOTION 6

200

200

150

Acceleration, cm/sec/sec

Acceleration, cm/sec/sec

20

Time, Seconds

Time, Seconds

100

50

0

-50

-100

-150

-200

0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

150

100

50

0

-50

-100

-150

-200

0

Time, Seconds

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Time, Seconds

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 19

0.6

Target Spectrum

Record 1

Record 2

Record 3

Pseudoacceleration,gG

0.5

0.4

Period.

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

Period, Seconds

Topics in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 20

0.5

Target Spectrum

0.5

Average GM

Spectrum

Pseudoacceleration, g

G

0.4

0.4

0.3

Period.

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

Period, Seconds

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 21

1. Scale a given record to a higher or lower acceleration

(e.g to produce a record that represents a certain

hazard level)

2. Modify a record for distance

3. Modify a record for site classification (usually from

hard rock to softer soil)

4. Modify a record for fault orientation

MOTION 1

Acceleration, cm/sec/sec

200

150

100

50

0

-50

-100

-150

-200

0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Time, Seconds

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 22

(2-D Analysis)

value of the 5% damped response spectra of the suite

of motions is not less than the design response spectrum

in the period range 0.2T to 1.5T, where T is the

fundamental period of the structure.

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 23

Pseudoacceleration, g

Design Spectrum

Avg. of unscaled

Suite Spectra

Higher

Modes

0.2T

Softening

1.5T

Period, sec.

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 24

Pseudoacceleration, g

Design Spectrum

Avg. of Scaled

Suite Spectra

Higher

Modes

0.2T

Softening

1.5T

Period, sec.

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 25

Selection and Scaling (3-D Analysis)

1. The Square Root of the Sum of the Squares of the 5%

damped spectra of each motion pair (N-S and E-W

components) is constructed.

2. Each pair of motions should be scaled such that the

average of the SRSS spectra of all component pairs

is not less than 1.3 times the the 5% damped design

spectrum in the period range 0.2 to 1.5 T.

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 26

A degree of freedom exists in selection of individual motion

scale factors, thus different analysts may scale the same

suite differently.

higher modes.

when compared to other recommendations (e.g. Shome

and Cornell)

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 27

NEHRP Recommended Provisions:

5.6.2 A suite of not less than three motions shall be used

5.6.3 If at least seven ground motions are used evaluation

may be based on the average responses from the different

analyses. If less than seven motions are used the

evaluation must be based on the maximum value obtained

from all analyses.

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 28

For Nonlinear Analysis

Nilesh Shome and Allin Cornell

6th U.S. Conference on Earthquake Engineering

Seattle, Washington, September, 1997

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 29

(Shome and Cornell)

Bin:

A suite of ground motions with similar source, distance, and

magnitude.

Bin Normalization:

Adjusting individual bin records to the same intensity

Bin Scaling:

Adjusting records from one bin (say a lower magnitude) to

the intensity of the records from a different (usually higher)

intensity bin.

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 30

Normalization Procedures

(Shome and Cornell)

Normalize to a Single Frequency at low

damping (e.g. 2%)

damping (e.g 5% to 20%) (RECOMMENDED)

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 31

(Shome and Cornell)

it may typically require about 4 to 6 records to obtain about a

one sigma (plus or minus 10 to 15 percent) confidence band.

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 32

be scaled to represent higher intensity

earthquakes?

(Shome and Cornell)

When the records are scaled from one intensity level to a higher

intensity there is a mild dependency of scaling on computed ductility

demand. The median ductility demand may vary 10 to 20 percent

for one unit change in magnitude. The effect of scaling on nonlinear

hysteretic energy demand is more significant.

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 33

Recommendations (Charney):

1) Use a minimum of seven ground motions

2) If near-field effects are possible for the site a separate

set of analyses should be performed using only

near field motions

3) Try to use motions that are magnitude compatible

with the design earthquake

4) Scale the earthquakes such that they match the target

spectrum at the structures initial (undamaged) natural

frequency and at a damping of at least 5% critical.

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 34

1. Scale a given record to a higher or lower acceleration

(e.g to produce a record that represents a certain

hazard level)

2. Modify a record for distance (SRL Attenuation Issue)

3. Modify a record for site classification, usually from

hard rock to softer soil. (WAVES by Hart and Wilson)

4. Modify a record for fault orientation (Somerville, et al)

See Also: Ground Motion Evaluation Procedures for Performance

Based Design, by J.P. Stewart, et al, PEER Report 2001/09

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 35

Damage Prediction

Performance based design requires a quantification of

the damage that might be incurred in a structure.

The damage index must be calibrated such that it

may predict and quantify damage at all performance levels.

While inter-story drift and inelastic component deformation

may be useful measures of damage, a key characteristic

of response is missing the effect of the duration of ground

motion on damage.

A number of different damage measures have been proposed

which are dependent on duration.

Topics in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 36

Damage Prediction

Park and Ang (1985)

DI PA

umax

EH

=

+

ucap

ucap Fy

ucap = monotonic deformation capacity

EH

Fy

= calibration factor

Topics in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering

Additional Info on Damage Measures

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 37

Energy Balance

Hysteretic Energy

EI = ES + EK + ( E DI + EDA ) + EH

Inherent Damping

Added Damping

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 38

EI= 260

300

Hysteretic

Viscous + Hysteretic

Energy, In-Kips

250

Total

EDA

200

150

100

EH

50

0

0.00

5.00

10.00

15.00

20.00

Damage Index

1.00

0.80

0.60

0.40

0.20

0.00

0.00

5.00

10.00

15.00

20.00

Analysis

performed

on NONLIN

Time, Seconds

Topics in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 39

300

Hysteretic

250

EI=210

Energy, In-Kips

T otal

200

150

EDA

100

50

0

0.00

5.00

10.00

15.00

20.00

EH

Damage Index

1.00

0.80

0.60

0.40

0.20

0.00

0.00

5.00

10.00

15.00

20.00

Time, Seconds

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 40

5% Damping

40% Damping

20% Damping

60% Damping

0.60

Damage Index

0.50

0.40

0.30

0.20

0.10

0.00

0.00

5.00

10.00

15.00

20.00

Time, Seconds

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 41

Structures as Seen Through

Incremental Dynamic Analysis

Ph.D. Dissertation of Dimitros Vamvatsikos,

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Stanford University

July 2002.

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 42

Ground Motion Intensity Measure

Ground Motion C

Ground Motion B

Ground Motion A

Damage Measure

Topics in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 43

An IDA study is produced by

Intensity Measure

subjecting a single structure

to a series of time history

analyses, where each subsequent

analysis uses a higher ground

motion intensity.

An IDA Curve is a plot of a

damage measure (DM) versus

the ground motion intensity (IM)

at which it occurred.

Damage Measure

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 44

(after Vamvatsikos and Cornell)

20

18

Sa=0.01g

Sa=0.10g

Sa=0.20g

16

Story Level

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

Topics in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 45

Intensity Measure

Intensity Measure

Hardening

Softening

Linear

Damage Measure

Damage Measure

Intensity Measure

Intensity Measure

Severe Hardening

Damage Measure

Topics in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering

Resurrection

Damage Measure

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 46

Intensity Measure

IDA Curve

Static Pushover

Damage Measure

Topics in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 47

(using Multiple Ground Motions)

response of the structure to

a suite of ground motions.

Intensity Measure

Ground Motion C

Ground Motion B

to assess the effect of a design

change (or uncertainty) on

the response of a structure

to a particular ground motion.

Ground Motion A

Damage Measure

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 48

Response to Strain Hardening Ratio

Analyzed on NONLIN Using Northridge (Slymar) Ground Motion.

1.2

1.0

0.8

10% S.H.

5 % S.H.

EPP

-5% S.H.

0.6

0.4

Dynamic Instability

0.2

0.0

0

10

15

20

25

30

Displacement, inches

Topics in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 49

Response to Choice of Ground Motion

2% Damping, 5% Strain Hardening

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

El Centro Ground

Motion

Northridge Ground

Motion

0.4

0.2

0

0

10

15

20

25

Displacement, Inches

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 50

Subjected to Thirty Earthquakes

Dispersion

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 51

Subjected to Suite of Earthquakes

NORMALIZED to PGA

NORMALIZED to SA

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 52

Subjected to Thirty Earthquakes

2/50

10/50

50/50

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 53

Use of IDA shows the EXTREME sensitivity of damage to

ground motion intensity, as well as the EXTREME sensitivity

of damage to the chosen ground motion.

scaling each base ground motion to a target spectral intensity

computed at the structures fundamental frequency of vibration.

on response history analysis is problematic if carried out in a

purely deterministic framework. Probabilistic methods must

be employed to adequately handle the randomness of the

input and the apparent chaos in the results.

Topics in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 54

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 55

Probabilistic Approaches to

Performance-Based Engineering

The Most Daunting Task:

Identifying and Quantifying Uncertainties

Demand Side (Ground Motion)

1) Magnitude

2) Source Mechanism

3) Wave Propagation Direction

4) Attenuation

5) Site Amplification

6) Frequency Content

7) Duration

8) Sequence (foreshocks, aftershocks)

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 56

Probabilistic Approaches

The Most Daunting Task:

Identifying and Quantifying Uncertainties

Capacity Side (Soil/Foundation/Structure Behavior)

1) Strength

2) Stiffness

3) Inherent Damping

4) Hysteretic Behavior

5) Gravity Load

6) Built-in Imperfections

Analysis Uncertainties

Topics in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 57

( DV ) = G ( DV DM ) dG ( DV IM ) d ( IM )

(DV )

IM

DM

DV

Intensity Measure

Damage Measure

Decision Variable

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 58

P ( D > PL)

level in a period of t years

PD> PL (x)

level given that the ground motion intensity

is level x, as a function of x.

h( x)dx

intensity of level (x) to (x+dx) in a period of t

years

Topics in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 59

Simplified Method

Detailed Method

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 60

a D

=

C

a

D

Demand Variability Factor

Analysis Uncertainty Factor

Tabulated Capacity for the Component

Capacity Resistance Factor

Calculated Demand for the Component

UT

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 61

Table 4-7

Recommended Minimum Confidence Levels

Behavior

Global Interstory Drift

Local Interstory Drift

Column Compression

Splice Tension

Performance Level

Immediate Occupancy Collapse Prevention

50%

90%

50%

50%

50%

90%

50%

50%

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 62

Table 4-8

Interstory Drift Angle Analysis Uncertainty Factor a

Analysis Procedure

System Characteristic

Special

Special

Special

LSP

I.O

C.P.

LDP

I.O

C.P.

NSP

I.O

C.P.

NDP

I.O

C.P.

Mid Rise (4-12 stories)

High Rise (> 12 stories)

0.94

1.15

1.12

0.70

0.97

1.21

1.03

1.14

1.21

0.83

1.25

1.14

1.13

1.45

1.36

0.89

0.99

0.95

1.02

1.02

1.04

1.03

1.06

1.10

Ordinary Mid Rise (4-12 stories)

Ordinary High Rise (> 12 stories)

0.79

0.85

0.80

0.98

1.14

0.85

1.04

1.10

1.39

1.32

1.53

1.38

0.95

1.11

1.36

1.31

1.42

1.53

1.02

1.02

1.04

1.03

1.06

1.10

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 63

Table 4-9

Interstory Drift Angle Demand Variability Factor

Building

Height

I.O.

C.P.

Mid Rise ( 4-12 stories)

High rise ( >12 stories)

1.5

1.4

1.4

1.3

1.2

1.5

Ordinary Mid Rise ( 4-12 stories)

Ordinary High rise ( >12 stories)

1.4

1.3

1.6

1.4

1.5

1.8

Special

Special

Special

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 64

Table 4-10

Global Interstory Drift Angle Capacity Factors (C)

and Resistance Factors ()

Building Height

I.O.

C.P.

M id Rise (4-12 stories)

High Rise (> 12 stories)

0.02

0.02

0.02

1.00

1.00

1.00

0.10

0.10

0.09

0.90

0.85

0.75

Ordinary M id Rise (4-12 stories)

Ordinary High Rise (> 12 stories)

0.01

0.01

0.01

1.00

0.90

0.85

0.10

0.08

0.06

0.85

0.70

0.60

Special

Special

Special

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 65

Table 4-11

Uncertainty Coefficient UT for Global Interstory Drift

Evaluation

Building

Height

Special

Special

Special

Perf. Level

I.O.

C.P.

Mid Rise ( 4-12 stories)

High rise ( >12 stories)

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.30

0.40

0.50

Ordinary Mid Rise ( 4-12 stories)

Ordinary High rise ( >12 stories)

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.35

0.45

0.55

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 66

Table 4-6

Confidence Levels for Various Values of and UT

Confidence Level

for UT = 0.2

for UT = 0.3

for UT = 0.4

for UT = 0.5

for UT = 0.6

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

95

99

1.37

1.68

2.12

2.76

3.70

1.26

1.48

1.79

2.23

2.86

1.18

1.34

1.57

1.90

2.36

1.12

1.24

1.40

1.65

1.99

1.06

1.14

1.27

1.45

1.72

1.01

1.06

1.15

1.28

1.48

0.96

0.98

1.03

1.12

1.25

0.90

0.89

0.90

0.95

1.03

0.82

0.78

0.76

0.77

0.80

0.76

0.70

0.66

0.64

0.64

0.67

0.57

0.51

0.46

0.43

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 67

Example Calculations for 4-12 Story Frame

(DL is Allowable Interstory Drift Limit)

T ype

UT

DL

SPECIAL

SPECIAL

SPECIAL

SPECIAL

IO

IO

CP

CP

NSP

NDP

NSP

NDP

50%

50%

90%

90%

1.4

1.4

1.2

1.2

1.45

1.02

0.99

1.06

1

1

0.85

0.85

0.02

0.02

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.4

1.06

1.06

0.76

0.76

0.0104

0.0148

0.0544

0.0508

ORDINARY

ORDINARY

ORDINARY

ORDINARY

IO

IO

CP

CP

NSP

NDP

NSP

NDP

50%

90%

50%

90%

1.3

1.3

1.5

1.5

1.11

1.02

1.42

1.06

0.9

0.9

0.7

0.7

0.01

0.01

0.08

0.08

0.2

0.2

0.45

0.45

1.06

1.06

0.765

0.765

0.0066

0.0072

0.0201

0.0269

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 68

Even though the method provides the owner a

Level of Confidence that a certain performance

criteria will be met, the engineer is likely to be

bewildered by the arrays of coefficients. Hence,

it is difficult for the engineer to obtain a feel for the

validity of the results.

Given this, how confident is the engineer

with the value of confidence provided?

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 69

Unreinforced Masonry

Probability of Exceeding Damage State

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

Light Damage

Moderate Damage

Heavy Damage

0.2

0.0

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

http://www.ceri.memphis.edu/~hwang/

Topics in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 70

Reinforced Masonry

Probability of Exceeding Damage State

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

Light Damage

Moderate Damage

Heavy Damage

0.2

0.0

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

http://www.ceri.memphis.edu/~hwang/

Topics in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 71

Reinforced Concrete

Probability of Exceeding Damage State

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

Light Damage

Moderate Damage

Heavy Damage

0.2

0.0

0.00

0.10

0.20

0.30

0.40

0.50

0.60

0.70

http://www.ceri.memphis.edu/~hwang/

Topics in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 72

Wood Frame

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

Light Damage

Moderate Damage

Heavy Damage

0.2

0.0

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

http://www.ceri.memphis.edu/~hwang/

Topics in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 73

(Heavy Damage)

Probability of Exceeding Damage State

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

URM

RM

RC

WOOD

0.2

0.0

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

http://www.ceri.memphis.edu/~hwang/

Topics in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 74

Probability of Exceeding Damage State

1.2

Reinforced Concrete

50/50

10/50

2/50

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

Light Damage

Moderate Damage

Heavy Damage

0.2

0.0

0.00

0.10

0.20

0.30

0.40

0.50

0.60

0.70

http://www.ceri.memphis.edu/~hwang/

Topics in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 75

Performance Based Engineering?

Performance Basis: Minimize Life Cycle Costs

Realistic Forecasting of Cost of Repairing Damage

Realistic Forecasting of Cost of Loss of Use

Analysis Procedures

Sensitivity Analysis (Deterministic)

Probabilistic Assessment of Performance

Deaggregation of Probabilistic Results (Deterministic)

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 76

What We Need

Ground motion search, scaling, and modification tools for

development of suites for nonlinear dynamic analysis

dispersion in results

Incremental Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis [20 increments]

Systematic Sensitivity Analysis [10 uncert. X 8 values ]

Deterministic/Probabilistic Assessment Tools

Topics in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering

Advanced Analysis 15 5c - 77

PASSIVE ENERGY DISSIPATION

Presented & Developed by:

Michael D. Symans, PhD

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Finley A. Charney, PE, PhD

Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University

Major Objectives

Provide overview of types of energy dissipation

systems available

Describe behavior, modeling, and analysis of

structures with energy dissipation systems

Review developing building code requirements

Outline: Part I

and Effects on Seismic Response

Distinction Between Natural and Added

Damping

Energy Distribution and Damage Reduction

Classification of Passive Energy Dissipation

Systems

Outline: Part II

Velocity-Dependent Damping Systems:

Fluid Dampers and Viscoelastic Dampers

Models for Velocity-Dependent Dampers

Effects of Linkage Flexibility

Displacement-Dependent Damping

Systems: Steel Plate Dampers, Unbonded

Brace Dampers, and Friction Dampers

Concept of Equivalent Viscous Damping

Modeling Considerations for Structures

with Passive Energy Dissipation Systems

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Passive Energy Dissipation Systems

Representations of Damping

Examples: Application of Modal Strain

Energy Method and Non-Classical

Damping Analysis

Summary of MDOF Analysis Procedures

Outline: Part IV

Analysis

Example: Damped Mode Shapes and

Frequencies

An Unexpected Effect of Passive Damping

Modeling Dampers in Computer Software

Guidelines and Code-Related Documents

for Passive Energy Dissipation Systems

Outline: Part I

and Effects on Seismic Response

Distinction Between Natural and Added

Damping

Energy Distribution and Damage Reduction

Classification of Passive Energy Dissipation

Systems

Seismic Isolation Systems

Minimizing interruption of use of facility

(e.g., Immediate Occupancy Performance Level)

Reducing damaging deformations in structural and

nonstructural components

Reducing acceleration response to minimize contentsrelated damage

(Viscous Damper)

1.2

T=1.0

Pseudo-Spectral

Acceleration,

g

Pseudoacceleration,

g

T=.50

5% Damping

1.0

T=1.5

10%

0.8

20%

0.6

30%

T=2.0

40%

0.4

- Decreased Displacement

- Decreased Shear Force

T=3.0

0.2

T=4.0

0.0

0

10

15

20

(Added Bracing)

1.2

T=1.0

Pseudo-Spectral

Acceleration,

g

Pseudoacceleration,

g

T=.50

5% Damping

1.0

T=1.5

10%

0.8

20%

0.6

30%

T=2.0

40%

- Decreased Displacement

- Increased Shear Force

0.4

T=3.0

0.2

T=4.0

0.0

0

10

15

20

(ADAS System)

1.2

T=1.0

Pseudo-Spectral

Acceleration,

g

Pseudoacceleration,

g

T=.50

5% Damping

1.0

T=1.5

10%

0.8

20%

0.6

30%

T=2.0

40%

- Decreased Displacement

- Decreased Shear (possibly)

0.4

T=3.0

0.2

T=4.0

0.0

0

10

15

20

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

(Seismic Isolation)

1.2

T=1.0

Pseudo-Spectral

Acceleration,

g

Pseudoacceleration,

g

T=.50

5% Damping

1.0

T=1.5

10%

0.8

20%

0.6

30%

- Increased Displacement

40%

0.4

T=2.0

T=3.0

0.2

T=4.0

0.0

0

10

15

20

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

(Seismic Isolation with Dampers)

1.2

T=1.0

Pseudo-Spectral

Acceleration,

g

Pseudoacceleration,

g

T=.50

5% Damping

1.0

T=1.5

10%

0.8

20%

0.6

30%

- Decreased Shear

- Increased Displacement

40%

0.4

T=2.0

T=3.0

0.2

T=4.0

0.0

0

10

15

20

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

on Deformation Demand

Peak Displacement (in)

1.4

1.2

Yield

Strength

(kips)

1

0.8

10

0.6

20

0.4

30

0.2

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Outline: Part I

and Effects on Seismic Response

Distinction Between Natural and Added

Damping

Energy Distribution and Damage Reduction

Classification of Passive Energy Dissipation

Systems

Natural (Inherent) Damping

system mass, stiffness, and inherent

energy dissipation mechanisms

Added Damping

C

system mass, stiffness, and the

added damping coefficient C

ADDED = 10 to 30%

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Response of Bare Frame Before and After Adding Ballast

Model Weight

Bare Model

18 kips

Change in Damping and Frequency with Accumulated Damage

8

FREQUENCY, HZ

DAMPING, %

CRITICAL

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Outline: Part I

and Effects on Seismic Response

Distinction Between Natural and Added

Damping

Energy Distribution and Damage Reduction

Classification of Passive Energy Dissipation

Systems

Hysteretic Energy

Energy Balance:

EI = ES + E K + ( EDI + EDA ) + EH

Inherent Damping

Damage Index:

u max

E H (t )

DI (t ) =

+

uult

Fy uult

Source: Park and Ang (1985)

Added Damping

DI

1.0

0.0

Collapse Damage

State

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

umax

E H (t )

DI (t ) =

+

uult

Fy uult

Source: Park and Ang (1985)

u max

= maximum displacement

uult

= calibration factor

EH

Fy

DI

1.0

0.0

Collapse

Damage

State

10% Damping

200

160

KINETIC +

STRAIN

140

Damping Reduces

Hysteretic Energy

Dissipation Demand

DAMPING

120

100

80

60

40

HYSTERETIC

20

0

0

12

16

200

28

180

Time, Seconds

20

24

32

36

40

44

20% Damping

48

160

Energy

(kip-inch)

Absorbed (kip-inch)

Energy, inch-kips

Energy

180

140

KINETIC +

STRAIN

120

100

DAMPING

80

60

40

20

HYSTERETIC

0

0

12

16

20

24

28

32

36

40

44

Time, Seconds

48

on Hysteretic Energy

Hysteretic Energy (kip-in)

140

120

Yield

Strength

(kips)

100

80

10

60

20

30

40

20

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

EI = 260

300

Energy, In-Kips

250

H ysteretic

Viscous + H ysteretic

Total

EDI+EDA

200

150

EH

100

50

0

0.00

5.00

10.00

15.00

Max=0.55

1.00

Damage Index

20.00

0.80

Analysis

performed

on NONLIN

0.60

0.40

0.20

0.00

0.00

5.00

10.00

15.00

20.00

T ime, Seconds

300

Hysteretic

250

EI = 210

Energy, In-Kips

T otal

200

EDI+EDA

150

100

50

EH

0

0.00

5.00

10.00

15.00

Damage Index

1.00

20.00

Max=0.30

0.80

0.60

0.40

0.20

0.00

0.00

5.00

10.00

15.00

20.00

Time, Seconds

5% Damping

40% Damping

20% Damping

60% Damping

0.60

Damage Index

0.50

0.40

0.30

0.20

0.10

0.00

0.00

5.00

10.00

15.00

20.00

Time, Seconds

Outline: Part I

and Effects on Seismic Response

Distinction Between Natural and Added

Damping

Energy Distribution and Damage Reduction

Classification of Passive Energy Dissipation

Systems

Dissipation Systems

Velocity-Dependent Systems

Viscous fluid or viscoelastic solid dampers

May or may not add stiffness to structure

Displacement-Dependent Systems

Metallic yielding or friction dampers

Always adds stiffness to structure

Other

Re-centering devices (shape-memory alloys, etc.)

Vibration absorbers (tuned mass dampers)

Outline: Part II

Fluid Dampers and Viscoelastic Dampers

Models for Velocity-Dependent Dampers

Effects of Linkage Flexibility

Displacement-Dependent Damping

Systems: Steel Plate Dampers,Unbonded

Brace Dampers, and Friction Dampers

Concept of Equivalent Viscous Damping

Modeling Considerations for Structures

with Passive Damping Systems

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Augmented

Bracing

Pacific Bell North Area Operation Center (911 Emergency Center)

Sacramento, California

(3-Story Steel-Framed Building Constructed in 1995)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

San Francisco State

Office Building

San Francisco, CA

Huntington Tower

Boston, MA

U1

UD

sin 2

=

AF =

U1 cos(1 + 2 )

UD

- New 38-story steel-framed building

- 100 direct-acting and toggle-brace dampers

- 1300 kN (292 kips), +/- 101 mm (+/- 4 in.)

- Dampers suppress wind-induced vibration

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

u ( t ) = u 0 sin( t )

Phase

Angle

(Lag)

Imposed Motion

Loading Frequency

Total Force

1500

FORCE, KIPS

1000

ELASTIC FORCE

DAMPING FORCE

TOTAL FORCE

500

0

-500

-1000

-1500

0.00

0.10

0.20

0.30

0.40

0.50

0.60

0.70

0.80

0.90

1.00

TIME, SECONDS

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

P ( t ) = K S u ( t ) + C u& ( t )

P0

P0

K

sin( ) C = L

K S = cos( ) K L =

u0

u0

Storage Stiffness

Loss Stiffness

Damping Coeff.

uo

P

= sin Z

P0

Phase Angle

Total Force, P

K*

PZ

PZ = K L u o = Po sin ( )

E D = PZ uo = Pouo sin( )

KS

Po

Damper Displacement, u

P ( t ) = K S u (t ) + C u& (t )

Apply Fourier Transform:

P ( ) = K S u ( ) + K L i u ( ) /

P ( ) = [K S + iK L ]u (

P ( )

K ( ) =

u ( )

K S (

Note:

( )= K

and

K * (

K L (

Complex Stiffness:

P ( ) = K * ( )u (

for Viscoelastic Dampers

(K ) = K

*

for Typical Single-Ended Fluid Damper

Storage

Stiffnesslbs/inch

(lb/in)

Storage Stiffness,

10000

8000

6000

Cutoff

Frequency

4000

2000

0

0

10

15

20

25

Excitation Frequency,

Excitation

FrequencyHz.

(Hz)

Damping

Damping Coefficient,

Coefficient C, lb-sec/in

lb-sec/in

for Typical Single-Ended Fluid Damper

140

120

Cutoff

Frequency

100

80

60

40

20

0

0

10

15

20

25

Excitation Frequency,

Hz(Hz)

Excitation

Frequency

for Typical Single-Ended Fluid Damper

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

0

10

15

20

25

Frequency (Hz)

Damping

lb-sec/in

DampingCoefficient,

Constant, k-sec/in

Temperature for Typical Fluid Damper

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

0

10

20

30

40

50

Temperature

(Degrees

Temperature,

DegreesC)

C

Stiffness

KL

o

P ( t ) = C u& =

u&

K S = 0 = 90

Damper Force, P

uo

Po

E d = Po u o

Damper Displacement, u

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Harmonic Loading

Seismic Loading

Source:

Constantinou and Symans (1992)

Exp

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

300

200

100

-100

-200

-300

-6.00

-4.00

-2.00

0.00

2.00

4.00

6.00

P ( t ) = C u&

120

sgn( u& )

= 01

.

80

= 10

.

Force, Kips

40

-40

-80

-120

-1.2

-0.8

-0.4

0.4

0.8

1.2

Displacement, Inches

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

and Nonlinear Viscous Fluid Dampers

E D = Pouo

Linear Damper:

Nonlinear Damper:

E D = Pouo

1 +

2

= 4 2

(2 + )

2

= Gamma Function

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

for Viscous Fluid Damper

4.0

Hysteretic Energy Factor

AF = / = 1.24

3.8

3.6

AF = 1.11

3.4

AF = 1.0

3.2

3.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Coefficient for Equal Energy Dissipation Per Cycle

C NL

1

= ( uo )

CL

and is therefore meaningful only for steady-state

harmonic response.

Coefficient (For a Given Loading Frequency)

Loading

Freqency

= (6.28

6.28 Hz

Loading

Frequency

= 1 Hz

rad/sec)

12

Ratio of CNL to CL

10

Max Disp = 1.0

Max Disp = 2.0

Max Disp = 3.0

8

6

4

2

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

Velocity Exponent

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Constant (For a Given Maximum Displacement)

Maximum Displacement = 1

12

Load Freq = 1/3

6.28Hz

Hz (2.09 rad/s)

Load Freq = 1/2

3.14Hz

Hz (3.14 rad/s)

Ratio of CNL to CL

10

HzHz

(6.28 rad/s)

Load Freq = 2

2.09

8

6

4

2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

Velocity Exponent

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

800

Alpha = 1.0

Alpha = 0.5

600

Force, Kips

400

Max. Disp. = 10.0 in.

200

0

= 3.58

CLinear = 10.0 k-sec/in

CNonlinear = 69.5 k-sec0.5/in0.5

-200

-400

-600

-800

-15

-10

-5

10

15

Displacement, Inches

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

viscous dampers are used. Perform the analysis with

discrete nonlinear viscous dampers.

of a damping ratio () when using nonlinear viscous

dampers.

determine equivalent viscous damping when nonlinear

viscous dampers are used.

High reliability

High force and displacement capacity

Force Limited when velocity exponent < 1.0

Available through several manufacturers

No added stiffness at lower frequencies

Damping force (possibly) out of phase with

structure elastic forces

Moderate temperature dependency

May be able to use linear analysis

Somewhat higher cost

Not force limited (particularly when exponent = 1.0)

Necessity for nonlinear analysis in most practical

cases (as it has been shown that it is generally not

possible to add enough damping to eliminate all inelastic

response)

Viscoelastic Dampers

L

A

P(t)

P(t)

Viscoelastic Material

W

Developed in the 1960s

for Wind Applications

u(t)

h

h

Section A-A

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Facility, San Diego, CA

- Seismic Retrofit of 3-Story

Nonductile RC Building

- 64 Dampers Within Chevron

Bracing Installed in 1996

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

u ( t ) = u 0 sin( t )

Imposed Motion

Phase

Angle

(Lag)

Loading Frequency

Total Force

STRESS, PSI

800

ELASTIC FORCE

600

DAMPING FORCE

TOTAL FORCE

400

200

0

-200

-400

-600

-800

0.00

0.10

0.20

0.30

0.40

0.50

0.60

0.70

0.80

0.90

1.00

TIME, SECONDS

& )

P(t ) = KS u( t ) + Cu(t

G' A

KS =

h

G'' A

KL =

h

Storage Stiffness

Loss Stiffness

G = Storage Modulus

G = Loss Modulus

KL

C=

= sin Z

0

Phase Angle

G ( )

= tan (

=

G ( )

Damping Coeff.

Shear Stress

G*

Loss Factor

0

Z = G o = o sin ( )

( t ) = G (t ) + G & (t ) /

Shear Strain

E D = Z o Ah = o o Ah sin ( ) = G o2V

( t ) = G (t ) + G & (t ) /

Apply Fourier Transform:

( ) = G ( ) + G i ( ) /

( ) = [G + i G ] (

)

( ) = G [1 + i ] ( )

Complex Shear Modulus:

( )

G ( ) =

= G [1 + i ]

( )

*

( ) = G ( ) (

*

G * (

G (

G (

for Viscoelastic Materials

and Frequency for Typical Viscoelastic Damper

3

Increasing Temperature

0

0

Frequency (Hz)

and Frequency for Typical Viscoelastic Damper

1.5

Loss Factor

Increasing Temperature

1.0

0.5

0

0

Frequency (Hz)

Harmonic Loading

Seismic Loading

High reliability

May be able to use linear analysis

Somewhat lower cost

Strong Temperature Dependence

Lower Force and Displacement Capacity

Not Force Limited

Necessity for nonlinear analysis in most

practical cases (as it has been shown that it is

generally not possible to add enough damping

to eliminate all inelastic response)

Outline: Part II

Fluid Dampers and Viscoelastic Dampers

Models for Velocity-Dependent Dampers

Effects of Linkage Flexibility

Displacement-Dependent Damping

Systems: Steel Plate Dampers, Unbonded

Brace Dampers, and Friction Dampers

Concept of Equivalent Viscous Damping

Modeling Considerations for Structures

with Passive Damping Systems

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Simple Dashpot

CD

P(t)

u(t)

Newtonian Dashpot

P ( t ) = C D u& (t )

Useful For :

Fluid Dampers with Zero Storage Stiffness

This Model Ignores Temperature Dependence

Dampers: Kelvin Model

Newtonian Dashpot

CD

P(t)

Hookean Spring

KD

u(t)

P ( t ) = K D u (t ) + C D u& (t )

Useful For :

Viscoelastic Dampers and Fluid Dampers with

Storage Stiffness and Weak Frequency Dependence.

This Model Ignores Temperature Dependence

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

P ( t ) = K D u (t ) + C d u& (t )

Apply Fourier Transform:

P ( ) = [K D + i C d ]u (

KS( )

KD

Complex Stiffness:

*

K ( ) = K D + i C d

Storage Stiffness:

K S ( ) = K * ( ) = K D

Loss Stiffness:

C( )

K L ( ) = K * ( ) = C D

Damping Coefficient:

C( ) =

K L ( )

CD

= CD

CD

P(t)

Kelvin Model

u(t)

KD

C() = CD

P(t)

KS ( ) = KD

u(t)

Equivalent Kelvin

Model

Dampers: Maxwell Model

P(t)

CD

Newtonian Dashpot;

Hookean Spring

KD

u(t)

CD &

P( t ) +

P (t ) = C D u& (t )

KD

Useful For :

Viscoelastic Dampers and Fluid Dampers with Strong

Frequency Dependence.

This Model Ignores Temperature Dependence

P( t ) +

CD &

P (t ) = C d u& (t )

KD

C

P ( ) + i D P ( ) = i C d u ( )

KD

Complex Stiffness:

C D

C D 2

*

K ( ) =

+

i

1 + 2 2

1 + 2

Relaxation Time:

Storage Stiffness:

KD

C( )

2

CD

= CD K D

K D 2 2

K S ( ) = K ( ) =

1 + 2 2

Loss Stiffness:

*

KS( )

K L ( ) = K * ( ) =

C D

1 + 2 2

Damping Coefficient:

C( ) =

K S ( )

CD

1 + 2 2

Testing of Fluid Viscous Damper

Storage

Stiffnesslbs/inch

(lb/in)

Storage Stiffness,

10000

8000

KD

6000

4000

2000

0

0

10

15

20

25

Excitation Frequency,

Excitation

FrequencyHz.

(Hz)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Testing of Fluid Viscous Damper

140

120

CD

100

80

60

40

20

0

0

10

15

20

25

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

P(t)

CD

Maxwell Model

KD

u(t)

CD

C( ) =

1+22

P(t)

K D 2 2

KS ( ) =

1 + 2 2

Note:

u(t)

and C = CD

- If CD is very small, is very small, KS is small

and C = CD

- If KD is very small, is very large, C is small

and KS = KD.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Equivalent Kelvin

Model

CD

KD

Passive Energy Dissipation 15 6 - 77

Outline: Part II

Fluid Dampers and Viscoelastic Dampers

Models for Velocity-Dependent Dampers

Effects of Linkage Flexibility

Displacement-Dependent Damping

Systems: Steel Plate Dampers,Unbonded

Brace Dampers, and Friction Dampers

Concept of Equivalent Viscous Damping

Modeling Considerations for Structures

with Passive Damping Systems

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Because the damper is always

in series with the linkage, the

damper-brace assembly acts

like a Maxwell model.

K Brace, Effective

AE

=2

cos 2

L

damper is reduced. The degree

of lost effectiveness is a function

of the structural properties and

the loading frequency.

Outline: Part II

Fluid Dampers and Viscoelastic Dampers

Models for Velocity-Dependent Dampers

Effects of Linkage Flexibility

Displacement-Dependent Damping

Systems: Steel Plate Dampers, Unbonded

Brace Dampers, and Friction Dampers

Concept of Equivalent Viscous Damping

Modeling Considerations for Structures

with Passive Damping Systems

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

(Added Damping and Stiffness System - ADAS)

V

L

t

V

b

L

a

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

San Francisco, CA

- Seismic Retrofit of TwoStory Nonductile Concrete

Frame; Constructed in 1967

- 7 Dampers Within Chevron

Bracing Installed in 1992

- Yield Force Per Damper:

150 kips

ADAS Device

(Tsai et al. 1993)

(Source: Tsai et al. 1993)

(SAP2000 and ETABS Implementation)

Initial Stiffness

Secondary Stiffness

Ratio

Fy

F = k D + (1 ) Fy Z

Force, F

D& 1 Z

k

Z& =

Fy

D&

) if D& Z > 0

otherwise

Yield Sharpness

Displacement, D.

of ADAS Damper

V

L

n (2 + a / b )EI b

k=

L3

Fy =

V

b

L

a

nf y bt 3

4L

n = Number of plates

f y = Yield force of each plate

Ib =

of each plate at b

(i.e, at top of plate)

(coated with debonding chemicals)

Buckling of Core

Concrete

Sciences Replacement

Facility

- New Three-Story Building

on UC Davis Campus

- First Building in USA to Use

Unbonded Brace Damper

- 132 Unbonded Braced

Frames with Diagonal or

Chevron Brace Installation

- Cost of Dampers = 0.5% of

Building Cost

Source: ASCE Civil Engineering Magazine, March 2000.

Hysteretic Behavior of

Unbonded Brace Damper

Testing Performed

at UC Berkeley

Typical Hysteresis

Loops from

Cyclic Testing

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

and Unbonded Brace Damper

Force-Limited

Easy to construct

Relatively Inexpensive

Adds both Damping and Stiffness

and Unbonded Brace Damper

Must be Replaced after Major Earthquake

Adds Stiffness to System

Undesirable Residual Deformations Possible

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

(Sumitomo Metal Industries, Japan)

Interior of Webster

Library at Concordia

University, Montreal,

Canada

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

McConnel Library at

Concordia University,

Montreal, Canada

- Two Interconnected

Buildings of 6 and 10 Stories

- RC Frames with Flat Slabs

- 143 Cross-Bracing Friction

Dampers Installed in 1987

- 60 Dampers Exposed for

Aesthetics

Friction Damper

Normal Force

60

u& ( t )

FD = N

u& ( t )

40

Force, Kips

20

u0

u0

Coefficient of Friction

Alternatively,

-20

-40

FD = N sgn[u& (t )]

sgn(x)

-60

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

Displacement, Inches

-1

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Force-Limited

Easy to construct

Relatively Inexpensive

Highly Nonlinear Behavior

Adds Large Initial Stiffness to System

Undesirable Residual Deformations Possible

Outline: Part II

Fluid Dampers and Viscoelastic Dampers

Models for Velocity-Dependent Dampers

Effects of Linkage Flexibility

Displacement-Dependent Damping

Systems: Steel Plate Dampers, Unbonded

Brace Dampers, and Friction Dampers

Concept of Equivalent Viscous Damping

Modeling Considerations for Structures

with Passive Damping Systems

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Damping System with Inelastic or Friction Behavior

FD

ES

EH

EH

uD

EH

H =

4ES

Note: Computed damping ratio is displacement-dependent

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

on Equivalent Viscous Damping

FD

0.6

=0

0.5

0.00

0.4

0.05

0.10

0.3

0.15

K

uy

uy u

0.20

0.25

0.2

0.30

= 0.3

0.1

H =

2( 1)(1 )

(1 + )

0

0

Ductility Demand

Hysteretic Behavior

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Equivalent System with Linear Viscous Damper

FD

ES

ED

uD

C = 2m H

Es and are based on Secant Stiffness of Inelastic System

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Caution!

It is not possible, on a device level, to replace a

displacement-dependent device (e.g. a Friction Damper)

with a velocity-dependent device (e.g. a Fluid Damper).

a structural level, wherein a smeared equivalent viscous

damping ratio is found for the whole structure. This

approach is marginally useful for preliminary design, and

should not be used under any circumstances for final design.

Outline: Part II

Velocity-Dependent Damping Systems:

Fluid Dampers and Viscoelastic Dampers

Models for Velocity-Dependent Dampers

Effects of Linkage Flexibility

Displacement-Dependent Damping

Systems: Steel Plate Dampers, Unbonded

Brace Dampers, and Friction Dampers

Concept of Equivalent Viscous Damping

Modeling Considerations for Structures

with Passive Damping Systems

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Passive Energy Dissipation Devices

(Damping matrix is not proportional to stiffness

and/or mass)

is usually partially inelastic

is typically nonlinear (velocity exponents in the

range of 0.5 to 0.8)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Passive Energy Dissipation Systems

Representations of Damping

Examples: Application of Modal Strain

Energy Method and Non-Classical

Damping Analysis

Summary of MDOF Analysis Procedures

Dissipation Systems

Linear

Behavior?

No

Nonlinear Response-History

Analysis

Yes

(implies viscous

or viscoelastic

behavior)

Classical

Damping?

No

Yes

Spectrum Analysis

or

(Complex Modal) Response-History

Analysis

or

(Modal) Response-History Analysis

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

with Passive Energy Dissipation Systems

Inherent Damping:

Linear

Added Viscous Damping:

Linear or Nonlinear

C A f ( )

Restoring Force:

(May include Added Devices)

Linear or Nonlinear

Explicit integration of fully coupled equations:

explicitly.

set of coupled equations.

System may be linear or nonlinear.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Fast Nonlinear Analysis:

Treat CI as modal damping and model CA

explicitly. Move CA (and any other nonlinear

terms) to right-hand side. Left-hand side may

be uncoupled by Ritz Vectors. Iterate on

unbalanced right-hand side forces.

System may be linear or nonlinear.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Mv&&( t ) + C I v&( t ) + C Av&( t ) + K E v( t ) + FH ( t ) = MRv&&g ( t )

Move Added Damper Forces

and Nonlinear Forces to RHS:

Linear Terms

Transform Coordinates:

Apply Transformation:

Nonlinear Terms

v(t ) = y (t )

Orthogonal basis of Ritz vectors:

Number of vectors << N

~

~

~

~

T

T

M&y&( t ) + C I y& ( t ) + K E y( t ) = MR v&&g ( t ) FH ( t ) C A y& ( t )

Uncoupled

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Coupled

Passive Energy Dissipation 15 6 - 112

FNA/Full Integration

FAST

SLOW

10.0

1.0

1.0

0.0

Nonlinear DOF / Total DOF

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Explicit integration or response spectrum

analysis of first few uncoupled modal equations:

Use Modal Strain Energy method to represent CA

as modal damping ratios.

Applicable only to viscous (or viscoelastic)

damping systems.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Passive Energy Dissipation Systems

Representations of Damping

Examples: Application of Modal Strain

Energy Method and Non-Classical

Damping Analysis

Summary of MDOF Analysis Procedures

v = y

2

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

n 2

T

i i

C = M

i i M

T

i =1 i M i

Skyhook

Artificial Coupling

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

C R = M + K

Skyhook

0.12

MASS

STIFFNESS

0.10

Damping Ratio

COMBINED

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0.00

0

10

15

20

25

30

Frequency, radians/second

Deformation of Structure

in its Second Mode

Floor

Displacement

2,1

2,2

2,3

2,4

Damper

Deformation

2,1 - 2,2

2,2 - 2,3

2,3 - 2,4

2,4

Passive Energy Dissipation 15 6 - 119

E D ,i ,story k = i Ck ( i ,k i ,k 1 )2

ES ,i

1 T

1 2 T

= i Ki = i i Mi

2

2

n stories

i =

ED ,i ,story k

k =1

4ES ,i

N stories

i =

k =1

Ck ( i ,k i ,k 1 )2

2i Ti M i

Ti C A i

Ti C Ai

i =

=

T

2i i M i 2mi* i

Note: IF CA is diagonalized by ,

THEN

ci*

i = *

2mi i

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

iT C Ai

i =

*

2mi i

Note: is the Undamped Mode Shape

The Modal Strain Energy Method is approximate if

the structure is non-classically damped since the

undamped and damped mode shapes are different.

Passive Energy Dissipation Systems

Representations of Damping

Examples: Application of Modal Strain

Energy Method and Non-Classical

Damping Analysis

Summary of MDOF Analysis Procedures

m = 1.0 k-sec2/in.

m = 1.5

m = 1.5

m = 1.5

m = 1.5

Proportional Damping

k = 200 k/in.

c = 10.0 k-sec/in.

k = 250

c = 12.5

k = 300

c = 15.0

k = 350

c = 17.5

k = 400

c = 20.0

Method for Proportional Damping Distribution

0.8

Damping

Ratio,

0.113

0.302

0.462

0.575

0.690

0.6

Damping Ratio

Frequency

(rad/sec)

4.54

12.1

18.5

23.0

27.6

Proportional

0.7

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0

10

15

20

25

30

Frequency, rad/sec

m = 1.0 k-sec2/in.

m = 1.5

m = 1.5

m = 1.5

m = 1.5

k = 200 k/in.

c = 10 k-sec/in.

k = 250

c = 10

k = 300

c = 10

k = 350

c = 20

k = 400

c = 30

Method for Nearly Proportional Damping Distribution

0.8

Proportional

0.7

Damping

Ratio,

0.123

0.318

0.455

0.557

0.702

0.6

Damping Ratio

Frequency

(rad/sec)

4.54

12.1

18.5

23.0

27.6

Nearly Proportional

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0

10

15

20

25

30

Frequency, rad/sec

m = 1.0 k-sec2/in.

m = 1.5

m = 1.5

m = 1.5

m = 1.5

Nonproportional Damping

k = 200 k/in.

k = 250

k = 300

k = 350

c = 20 k-sec/in

k = 400

c = 30

Method for Nonproportional Damping Distribution

0.8

Proportional

Nearly Proportional

Nonproportional

0.7

Damping

Ratio.

0.089

0.144

0.134

0.194

0.514

0.6

Damping Ratio

Frequency

(rad/sec)

4.54

12.1

18.5

23.0

27.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0

10

15

20

25

30

Frequency, rad/sec

n 2 i i T

C = M T

i i M

i =1 i M i

Skyhook

Artificial Coupling

from the modal damping ratios obtained via the Modal Strain Energy Method

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Matrix Obtained from MSE Damping Ratios

Proportional Damping

0

0

0

10.0 10.0

c = 10.0 k-sec/in.

0

0

CA = 0

12.5 27.5 15.0

0

0

0

15

.

0

32

.

5

17

.

5

c = 12.5

0

17.5 37.5

0

0

c = 15.0

Matrix Using MSE Damping Ratios

c = 17.5

0

0

0

10.0 10.0

0

0

C= 0

12.5 27.5 15.0

0

0

0

15

0

32

5

17

5

.

.

.

0

17.5 37.5

0

0

c = 20.0

Matrix Obtained from MSE Damping Ratios

Nearly Proportional Damping

10.0

10.0

c = 10.0 k-sec/in.

CA = 0

0

c = 10.0

0

c = 10.0

c = 20.0

c = 30.0

10.0

20.0

10.0

0

0

0

0

0

10.0

0

0

20.0 10.0

0

20.0 50.0

0

Matrix Using MSE Damping Ratios

9.66 0.166 0.228 0.010

10.0

9.66

.

.

22

0

12

2

0

169

0

422

.

.

C = 0.166 12.2

15.1 0.731

27.3

0

228

0

169

15

1

33

1

17

8

.

.

.

.

.

37.5

Matrix Obtained from MSE Damping Ratios

Nonproportional Damping

CA =

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

20.0 20.0

20.0 50.0

Matrix Using MSE Damping Ratios

c = 20.0 k-sec/in.

2.96

c = 30.0

8.27

5.92

2.72

2.07

3.65

2.96

C = 0.456

1.098

0.066

0.456

5.92

13.4

10.9

6.21

1.098

2.72

10.9

21.9

15.1

0.066

2.07

6.21

15.1

20.9

with Nonproportional Damping

Discrete Damping: Rigid vs Flexible Braces

MSE Results

c = 20.0 k-sec/in.

c = 30.0

Frequency

(rad/sec)

4.54

12.1

18.5

23.0

27.6

Damping

Ratio,

0.089

0.144

0.134

0.194

0.514

to construct Rayleigh damping matrix.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

14

12

10

8

6

4

Discrete Dampers

Rayleigh Damping

0

0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

1.5c

20.0

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

1600

1400

1200

1000

800

600

Discrete Dampers

Rayleigh Damping: Inertial

Rayleigh Damping: Columns

400

200

0

0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

20.0

1.5c

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

(Discrete Damping Model)

14

12

10

8

6

4

Reasonably Stiff Braces

0

0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

1.5c

20.0

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Peak BasePeak

Shear,

KipsForce,

(fromKips

Inertial Forces)

Inertial

1600

1400

1200

1000

800

600

400

Very Stiff Braces

Reasonably Stiff Braces

200

0

0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

20.0 1.5c

14

12

10

8

6

4

Discrete Model with Flexible Braces

Rayleigh Damping

0

0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

20.01.5c

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Kips (from

Inertial

Peak Inertial

Forcer,

KipsForces)

1600

1400

1200

1000

800

600

400

Discrete Model with Flexible Braces

200

Rayleigh Damping

0

0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

1.5c

20.0

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Peak Story Shear Forces

1000

800

STIFF BRACES

C o lu m n s

B r a c e s (D a m p e r )

600

Shear, Kips

400

200

0

-2 0 0

-4 0 0

-6 0 0

-8 0 0

-1 0 0 0

0

10

12

14

16

18

20

T im e , S e c o n d s

1000

C o lu m n s

B ra c e s (D a m p e r)

800

600

FLEX BRACES

Shear, Kips

400

200

0

-2 0 0

-4 0 0

-6 0 0

-8 0 0

-1 0 0 0

0

10

12

14

16

18

T im e , S e c o n d s

20

Passive Energy Dissipation Systems

Representations of Damping

Examples: Application of Modal Strain

Energy Method and Non-Classical

Damping Analysis

Summary of MDOF Analysis Procedures

(Linear Systems and Linear Dampers)

dampers in the system damping matrix. Perform response

history analysis of full system. Preferred.

ratios and use these damping ratios in modal response

history or modal response spectrum analysis. Dangerous.

ratios and use these damping ratios in a response history

analysis which incorporates Rayleigh proportional

damping. Dangerous.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

(Linear Systems with Nonlinear Dampers)

dampers in the system damping matrix. Perform response

history analysis of full system. Preferred.

based linear dampers, and then use these equivalent

dampers in the system damping matrix. Perform response

history analysis of full system. Very Dangerous.

based linear dampers, use modal strain energy approach

to estimate modal damping ratios, and then perform

response spectrum or modal response history analysis.

Very Dangerous.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

(Nonlinear Systems with Nonlinear Dampers)

dampers in the system damping matrix. Explicitly model

inelastic behavior in superstructure. Perform response history

analysis of full system. Preferred.

based linear dampers and use modal strain energy approach

to estimate modal damping ratios. Use pushover analysis

to represent inelastic behavior in superstructure. Use

capacity-demand spectrum approach to estimate system

deformations. Do This at Your Own Risk!

Outline: Part IV

Analysis

Example: Damped Mode Shapes and

Frequencies

An Unexpected Effect of Passive Damping

Modeling Dampers in Computer Software

Guidelines and Code-Related Documents

for Passive Energy Dissipation Systems

Structures Using Complex Modal Analysis

Modal Analysis using Damped Mode Shapes:

Treat CI as modal damping and model CA

explicitly.

Solve by modal superposition using damped

(complex) mode shapes and frequencies.

System (dampers and structure) must be linear.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Damped Eigenproblem

EOM for Damped

Free Vibration

Assume CI is negligible

Linear Structure

v&

State Vector: Z =

v

State-Space

Transformation:

Z& = HZ

M 1C A

State Matrix: H =

I

M 1 K

Assume Harmonic Response for n-th mode: Z n = Pn e n t

Substitute Response into

Pn n = HPn

State Space Equation:

P = HP

Eigenvalue Matrix:

(* = complex conjugate)

Eigenvector Matrix:

Damped Eigenproblem

for n-th Mode

Damped Eigenproblem

for All Modes

=

*

= diag [ n ]

* *

P=

*

from Complex Eigenvalues

Complex

Eigenvalue

for Mode n:

n = n n in 1 2n

Modal Frequency:

n = n

Note:

Analogous to

Roots of Characteristic

Equation for SDOF

Damped Free Vibration

Problem

n =

(n )

i = 1

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

P=

*

U1

a1 + ib1

a + ib

2

2

=

U3

a3 + ib3

a4 + ib4

U

Imaginary

U2

Real

Outline: Part IV

Analysis

Example: Damped Mode Shapes and

Frequencies

An Unexpected Effect of Passive Damping

Modeling Dampers in Computer Software

Guidelines and Code-Related Documents

for Passive Energy Dissipation Systems

m = 1.0 k-sec2/in.

m = 1.5

m = 1.5

m = 1.5

m = 1.5

Nonproportional Damping

k = 200 k/in.

k = 250

k = 300

k = 350

k = 400

c = 20 k-sec/in

c = 30

System with Non-Classical Damping

Using UNDAMPED

MODE SHAPES

1

2

3

4

5

Frequency

(rad/sec)

4.54

12.1

18.4

23.0

27.6

Damping

Ratio

0.089

0.144

0.134

0.194

0.516

Using DAMPED

MODE SHAPES*

1

2

3

4

5

Frequency

(rad/sec)

4.58

12.3

18.9

24.0

25.1

Damping

Ratio

0.089

0.141

0.064

0.027

0.770

VERY STIFF braces.

Significant Differences in

Higher Mode Damping Ratios

System with Non-Classical Damping

Mode = 1

= 4.58

= 0.089

1.2

0.8

0.4

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4

Level 5

-0.4

-0.8

-1.2

-1.2

-0.8

-0.4

0.4

0.8

1.2

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

1.5

4

Level 5

Level 4

Level 3

Level 3

Level 1

0.5

0.0

-0.5

-1.0

-1.5

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

Time, Seconds

5

4

Story Level

Modal Amplitude

1.0

1 3

3

2

1

0

-1.00 -0.75 -0.50 -0.25 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00

Modal Displacement

System with Non-Classical Damping

Mode = 2

= 12.34

= 0.141

1.2

0.8

0.4

Level 5

Level 4

Level 3

Level 2

Level 1

-0.4

-0.8

-1.2

-1.2

-0.8

-0.4

0.4

0.8

1.2

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Outline: Part IV

Analysis

Example: Damped Mode Shapes and

Frequencies

An Unexpected Effect of Passive Damping

Modeling Dampers in Computer Software

Guidelines and Code-Related Documents

for Passive Energy Dissipation Systems

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

The larger the damping

coefficient C, the smaller

the damping ratio .

Why?

Note:

Occurs for toggle-braced systems only.

Huntington Tower

- 111 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA

- New 38-story steel-framed building

- 100 Direct-acting and toggle-brace dampers

- 1300 kN (292 kips), +/- 101 mm (+/- 4 in.)

- Dampers suppress wind vibration

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Huntington Tower

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

360

U1

U3

U2

150

159

65

Units: inches

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Determine Damping Ratio

Free Vibration Log Decrement

Damped Eigenproblem

C =10 to 40 k-sec/in (increments of 10)

A =10 to 100 in2 (increments of 10)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

A10

0.600

Damping

Energy

Energy Ratio

Modal

Energy

Modal Strain

Strain Energy

LogDecrement

Decrement

Log

Damped Eigenproblem

Complex

Eigenvalues

Damping Ratio

0.500

0.400

0.300

0.200

0.100

0.000

0

10

20

30

40

50

DampingCoefficient

Constant (k-sec/in)

Damping

(k-sec/in)

A20

0.600

Damping

Energy

Energy Ratio

Modal

StrainEnergy

Energy

Modal Strain

Log Decrement

Decrement

Log

Damped

ComplexEigenproblem

Eignevalues

Damping Ratio

0.500

0.400

0.300

0.200

0.100

0.000

0

10

20

30

40

50

Damping

Constant (k-sec/in)

Damping

Coefficient

(k-sec/in)

A30

0.600

Damping

Energy

Energy

Energy Ratio

Ratio

Modal

Energy

ModalStrain

Strain Energy

Energy

Modal

Strain

Damping Ratio

0.500

LogDecrement

Decrement

Log

Log

Decrement

Damped Eigenproblem

Eigenproblem

Complex

Eigenvalues

Damped

0.400

0.300

0.200

0.100

0.000

0

10

20

30

40

50

Damping

Constant(k-sec/in)

(k-sec/in)

Damping

Coefficient

A50

0.600

Damping

Energy

Energy Ratio

Modal Strain

Strain Energy

Modal

Energy

LogDecrement

Decrement

Log

0.500

Damping Ratio

Damped Eigenproblem

Complex

Eigenvalues

0.400

0.300

0.200

0.100

0.000

0

10

20

30

40

DampingCoefficient

Constant (k-sec/in)

Damping

(k-sec/in)

50

Brace Area/Damping Coefficient Ratios?

U1

U3

U2

UD

with Displacement at DOF 1

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Displacement and Frame Displacement

Displacement, in.

3.00

DDamper

evice

Lateral

Frame

A=10

C=40

2.00

1.00

0.00

-1.00

A/C=0.25

-2.00

-3.00

0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

T im e, Seconds

Displacement, in

3.00

D evice

Damper

Lateral

Frame

A=50

C=40

2.00

1.00

0.00

-1.00

A/C=1.25

-2.00

-3.00

0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

T im e, sec

0.6

0.2

2

0.0

1

0.4

-0.2

-0.4

0.0

1

-0.4

-0.2

0.0

0.2

0.4

-0.4

-0.4

-0.2

0.0

0.2

0.4

-0.6

-0.6

0.6

C=30

C=40

0.4

0.2

IMAGINARY

0.0

1

-0.2

U3

-0.4

3

-0.2

-0.2

0.0

REAL

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.6

0.4

-0.4

-0.4

REAL

0.6

0.2

IMAGINARY

REAL

0.6

-0.6

-0.6

-0.4

REAL

0.4

0.0

-0.2

-0.6

-0.6

0.6

-0.2

33

C=20

0.2

C=50

0.2

IMAGINARY

IMAGINARY

C=10

0.4

0.2

-0.6

-0.6

0.6

IMAGINARY

C=0

IMAGINARY

0.4

0.6

0.0

1

2

0.0

1

-0.2

-0.2

-0.4

-0.4

U1

U2

-0.6

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

REAL

-0.6

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

REAL

Modeling and Analysis (1)

reducing damaging deformations in structures.

are non-classical, and must be modeled explicitly

using dynamic time history analysis.

(it may provide unconservative results)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Modeling and Analysis (2)

information that is essential in assessing and

improving the efficiency of viscously damped

systems. This is particularly t