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Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform: 6 1 / 12

Fourier Series as T

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

n=

Un ei2nF t

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Fourier Transform: 6 2 / 12

Fourier Series as T

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

n=

Un ei2nF t

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Fourier Transform: 6 2 / 12

Fourier Series as T

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

n=

Un ei2nF t

As T gets larger, the harmonic spacing becomes smaller.

e.g. T = 1 s F = 1 Hz

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Fourier Transform: 6 2 / 12

Fourier Series as T

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

n=

Un ei2nF t

As T gets larger, the harmonic spacing becomes smaller.

e.g. T = 1 s F = 1 Hz

T = 1 day F = 11.57 Hz

Fourier Transform: 6 2 / 12

Fourier Series as T

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

n=

Un ei2nF t

As T gets larger, the harmonic spacing becomes smaller.

e.g. T = 1 s F = 1 Hz

T = 1 day F = 11.57 Hz

If T then the harmonic spacing becomes zero, the sum becomes an

integral and we get the Fourier Transform:

u(t) =

R +

i2f t

U

(f

)e

df

f =

Fourier Transform: 6 2 / 12

Fourier Series as T

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

n=

Un ei2nF t

As T gets larger, the harmonic spacing becomes smaller.

e.g. T = 1 s F = 1 Hz

T = 1 day F = 11.57 Hz

If T then the harmonic spacing becomes zero, the sum becomes an

integral and we get the Fourier Transform:

u(t) =

R +

i2f t

U

(f

)e

df

f =

Fourier Transform: 6 2 / 12

Fourier Series as T

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

n=

Un ei2nF t

As T gets larger, the harmonic spacing becomes smaller.

e.g. T = 1 s F = 1 Hz

T = 1 day F = 11.57 Hz

If T then the harmonic spacing becomes zero, the sum becomes an

integral and we get the Fourier Transform:

u(t) =

R +

i2f t

U

(f

)e

df

f =

U (f ) is a continuous function of f .

Fourier Transform: 6 2 / 12

Fourier Series as T

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

n=

Un ei2nF t

As T gets larger, the harmonic spacing becomes smaller.

e.g. T = 1 s F = 1 Hz

If T then the harmonic spacing becomes zero, the sum becomes an

integral and we get the Fourier Transform:

u(t) =

R +

i2f t

U

(f

)e

df

f =

U (f ) is a continuous function of f .

U (f ) is complex-valued.

Fourier Transform: 6 2 / 12

Fourier Series as T

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

n=

Un ei2nF t

As T gets larger, the harmonic spacing becomes smaller.

e.g. T = 1 s F = 1 Hz

If T then the harmonic spacing becomes zero, the sum becomes an

integral and we get the Fourier Transform:

u(t) =

R +

i2f t

U

(f

)e

df

f =

U (f ) is a continuous function of f .

U (f ) is complex-valued.

u(t) real U (f ) is conjugate symmetric U (f ) = U (f ) .

Fourier Transform: 6 2 / 12

Fourier Series as T

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

n=

Un ei2nF t

As T gets larger, the harmonic spacing becomes smaller.

e.g. T = 1 s F = 1 Hz

If T then the harmonic spacing becomes zero, the sum becomes an

integral and we get the Fourier Transform:

u(t) =

R +

i2f t

U

(f

)e

df

f =

U (f ) is a continuous function of f .

U (f ) is complex-valued.

u(t) real U (f ) is conjugate symmetric U (f ) = U (f ) .

Units: if u(t) is in volts, then U (f )df must also be in volts

U (f ) is in volts/Hz (hence spectral density).

Fourier Transform: 6 2 / 12

Fourier Transform

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

Fourier Series:

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

u(t) =

n=

Un ei2nF t

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Fourier Transform: 6 3 / 12

Fourier Transform

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Fourier Series:

u(t) =

n=

Un ei2nF t

fn = nF where the spacing between them is f = F = T1 .

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Fourier Transform: 6 3 / 12

Fourier Transform

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

u(t) =

Fourier Series:

n=

Un ei2nF t

fn = nF where the spacing between them is f = F = T1 .

i2nF t

Un = u(t)e

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Fourier Transform: 6 3 / 12

Fourier Transform

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

u(t) =

Fourier Series:

n=

Un ei2nF t

fn = nF where the spacing between them is f = F = T1 .

i2nF t

Un = u(t)e

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

= f

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2nF t dt

Fourier Transform: 6 3 / 12

Fourier Transform

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

u(t) =

Fourier Series:

n=

Un ei2nF t

fn = nF where the spacing between them is f = F = T1 .

i2nF t

Un = u(t)e

= f

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2nF t dt

Fourier Transform: 6 3 / 12

Fourier Transform

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

u(t) =

Fourier Series:

n=

Un ei2nF t

fn = nF where the spacing between them is f = F = T1 .

i2nF t

Un = u(t)e

= f

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2nF t dt

Un

define a spectral density, U (fn ) = f

, on the set of frequencies {fn }:

U (fn ) =

Un

f

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2fn t dt

Fourier Transform: 6 3 / 12

Fourier Transform

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

u(t) =

Fourier Series:

n=

Un ei2nF t

fn = nF where the spacing between them is f = F = T1 .

i2nF t

Un = u(t)e

= f

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2nF t dt

Un

define a spectral density, U (fn ) = f

, on the set of frequencies {fn }:

U (fn ) =

Un

f

we can write

u(t) =

n=

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2fn t dt

[Substitute Un = U (fn )f ]

U (fn )ei2fn t f

Fourier Transform: 6 3 / 12

Fourier Transform

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

u(t) =

Fourier Series:

n=

Un ei2nF t

fn = nF where the spacing between them is f = F = T1 .

i2nF t

Un = u(t)e

= f

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2nF t dt

Un

define a spectral density, U (fn ) = f

, on the set of frequencies {fn }:

U (fn ) =

Un

f

we can write

u(t) =

n=

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2fn t dt

[Substitute Un = U (fn )f ]

U (fn )ei2fn t f

u(t) =

i2f t

U

(f

)e

df

Fourier Transform: 6 3 / 12

Fourier Transform

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

u(t) =

Fourier Series:

n=

Un ei2nF t

fn = nF where the spacing between them is f = F = T1 .

i2nF t

Un = u(t)e

= f

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2nF t dt

Un

define a spectral density, U (fn ) = f

, on the set of frequencies {fn }:

U (fn ) =

Un

f

we can write

u(t) =

n=

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2fn t dt

[Substitute Un = U (fn )f ]

U (fn )ei2fn t f

i2f t

U

(f

)e

df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

u(t) =

Fourier Transform: 6 3 / 12

Fourier Transform

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

u(t) =

Fourier Series:

n=

Un ei2nF t

fn = nF where the spacing between them is f = F = T1 .

i2nF t

Un = u(t)e

= f

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2nF t dt

Un

define a spectral density, U (fn ) = f

, on the set of frequencies {fn }:

U (fn ) =

Un

f

we can write

u(t) =

n=

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2fn t dt

[Substitute Un = U (fn )f ]

U (fn )ei2fn t f

i2f t

U

(f

)e

df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

u(t) =

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

Fourier Transform: 6 3 / 12

Fourier Transform

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

u(t) =

Fourier Series:

n=

Un ei2nF t

fn = nF where the spacing between them is f = F = T1 .

i2nF t

Un = u(t)e

= f

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2nF t dt

Un

define a spectral density, U (fn ) = f

, on the set of frequencies {fn }:

U (fn ) =

Un

f

we can write

u(t) =

n=

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2fn t dt

[Substitute Un = U (fn )f ]

U (fn )ei2fn t f

i2f t

U

(f

)e

df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

u(t) =

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

Un

For non-periodic signals Un 0 as f 0 and U (fn ) = f

remains

finite.

Fourier Transform: 6 3 / 12

Fourier Transform

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

u(t) =

Fourier Series:

n=

Un ei2nF t

fn = nF where the spacing between them is f = F = T1 .

i2nF t

Un = u(t)e

= f

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2nF t dt

Un

define a spectral density, U (fn ) = f

, on the set of frequencies {fn }:

U (fn ) =

Un

f

we can write

u(t) =

n=

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2fn t dt

[Substitute Un = U (fn )f ]

U (fn )ei2fn t f

i2f t

U

(f

)e

df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

u(t) =

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

Un

For non-periodic signals Un 0 as f 0 and U (fn ) = f

remains

finite. However, if u(t) contains an exactly periodic component, then the

corresponding U (fn ) will become infinite as f 0.

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 3 / 12

Fourier Transform

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

u(t) =

Fourier Series:

n=

Un ei2nF t

fn = nF where the spacing between them is f = F = T1 .

i2nF t

Un = u(t)e

= f

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2nF t dt

Un

define a spectral density, U (fn ) = f

, on the set of frequencies {fn }:

U (fn ) =

Un

f

we can write

u(t) =

n=

R 0.5T

t=0.5T

u(t)ei2fn t dt

[Substitute Un = U (fn )f ]

U (fn )ei2fn t f

i2f t

U

(f

)e

df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

u(t) =

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

Un

For non-periodic signals Un 0 as f 0 and U (fn ) = f

remains

finite. However, if u(t) contains an exactly periodic component, then the

corresponding U (fn ) will become infinite as f 0. We will deal with it.

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 3 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Example(1:

u(t) =

eat t 0

0

t<0

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Example(1:

u(t) =

eat t 0

0

t<0

1

u(t)

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

a=2

0.5

0

-5

0

Time (s)

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Example(1:

eat t 0

u(t) =

0

t<0

R

U (f ) = u(t)ei2f t dt

1

u(t)

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

a=2

0.5

0

-5

0

Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Example(1:

eat t 0

u(t) =

0

t<0

R

U (f ) = u(t)ei2f t dt

R at i2f t

dt

= 0 e e

1

u(t)

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

a=2

0.5

0

-5

0

Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Example(1:

eat t 0

u(t) =

0

t<0

R

U (f ) = u(t)ei2f t dt

R at i2f t

dt

= 0 e e

R (ai2f )t

dt

= 0 e

1

u(t)

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

a=2

0.5

0

-5

0

Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Example(1:

eat t 0

u(t) =

0

t<0

R

U (f ) = u(t)ei2f t dt

R at i2f t

dt

= 0 e e

R (ai2f )t

dt

= 0 e

(ai2f )t

1

= a+i2f e

=

0

1

u(t)

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

a=2

0.5

0

-5

0

Time (s)

1

a+i2f

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

eat t 0

u(t) =

0

t<0

R

U (f ) = u(t)ei2f t dt

R at i2f t

dt

= 0 e e

R (ai2f )t

dt

= 0 e

(ai2f )t

1

= a+i2f e

=

0

1

u(t)

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Example(1:

a=2

0.5

0

|U(f)|

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

-5

-5

0

Time (s)

0

Frequency (Hz)

1

a+i2f

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

u(t)

eat t 0

u(t) =

0

t<0

R

U (f ) = u(t)ei2f t dt

R at i2f t

dt

= 0 e e

R (ai2f )t

dt

= 0 e

(ai2f )t

1

= a+i2f e

=

0

a=2

0.5

0

|U(f)|

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Example(1:

<U(f) (rad/pi)

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

-5

-5

0

Time (s)

0

Frequency (Hz)

0

Frequence (Hz)

0.5

0

-0.5

-5

1

a+i2f

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

u(t)

u(t) =

0

t<0

R

U (f ) = u(t)ei2f t dt

R at i2f t

dt

= 0 e e

R (ai2f )t

dt

= 0 e

(ai2f )t

1

= a+i2f e

=

0

a=2

0.5

0

|U(f)|

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Example(1:

<U(f) (rad/pi)

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

-5

-5

0

Time (s)

0

Frequency (Hz)

0

Frequence (Hz)

0.5

0

-0.5

-5

1

a+i2f

Example 2:

v(t) = ea|t|

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Example 2:

v(t) = ea|t|

u(t)

a=2

0.5

0

|U(f)|

Examples

u(t) =

0

t<0

R

U (f ) = u(t)ei2f t dt

R at i2f t

dt

= 0 e e

R (ai2f )t

dt

= 0 e

(ai2f )t

1

= a+i2f e

=

0

<U(f) (rad/pi)

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Example(1:

-5

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

-5

0

Time (s)

0

Frequency (Hz)

0

Frequence (Hz)

0.5

0

-0.5

-5

1

a+i2f

1

v(t)

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

a=2

0.5

0

-5

0

Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Example 2:

v(t) = ea|t|

R

V (f ) = v(t)ei2f t dt

u(t)

a=2

0.5

0

|U(f)|

Examples

u(t) =

0

t<0

R

U (f ) = u(t)ei2f t dt

R at i2f t

dt

= 0 e e

R (ai2f )t

dt

= 0 e

(ai2f )t

1

= a+i2f e

=

0

<U(f) (rad/pi)

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Example(1:

-5

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

-5

0

Time (s)

0

Frequency (Hz)

0

Frequence (Hz)

0.5

0

-0.5

-5

1

a+i2f

1

v(t)

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

a=2

0.5

0

-5

0

Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Example 2:

-5

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

-5

0

Time (s)

0

Frequency (Hz)

0

Frequence (Hz)

0.5

0

-0.5

-5

u(t)

1

a+i2f

1

a=2

0.5

0

v(t) = ea|t|

R

V (f ) = v(t)ei2f t dt

R at i2f t

R0

at i2f t

dt

dt + 0 e e

= e e

a=2

0.5

0

|U(f)|

Examples

u(t) =

0

t<0

R

U (f ) = u(t)ei2f t dt

R at i2f t

dt

= 0 e e

R (ai2f )t

dt

= 0 e

(ai2f )t

1

= a+i2f e

=

0

<U(f) (rad/pi)

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Example(1:

v(t)

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

-5

0

Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Example 2:

u(t)

a=2

0.5

0

|U(f)|

Examples

u(t) =

0

t<0

R

U (f ) = u(t)ei2f t dt

R at i2f t

dt

= 0 e e

R (ai2f )t

dt

= 0 e

(ai2f )t

1

= a+i2f e

=

0

<U(f) (rad/pi)

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Example(1:

-5

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

-5

0

Time (s)

0

Frequency (Hz)

0

Frequence (Hz)

0.5

0

-0.5

-5

a=2

0.5

0

-5

Time (s)

v(t) = ea|t|

R

V (f ) = v(t)ei2f t dt

R at i2f t

R0

at i2f t

dt

dt + 0 e e

= e e

(ai2f )t 0

(ai2f )t

1

1

+ a+i2f e

= ai2f e

1

a+i2f

v(t)

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Example 2:

u(t)

a=2

0.5

0

|U(f)|

Examples

u(t) =

0

t<0

R

U (f ) = u(t)ei2f t dt

R at i2f t

dt

= 0 e e

R (ai2f )t

dt

= 0 e

(ai2f )t

1

= a+i2f e

=

0

<U(f) (rad/pi)

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Example(1:

-5

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

-5

0

Time (s)

0

Frequency (Hz)

0

Frequence (Hz)

0.5

0

-0.5

-5

a=2

0.5

0

-5

Time (s)

v(t) = ea|t|

R

V (f ) = v(t)ei2f t dt

R at i2f t

R0

at i2f t

dt

dt + 0 e e

= e e

(ai2f )t 0

(ai2f )t

1

1

+ a+i2f e

= ai2f e

0

1

1

= ai2f + a+i2f

1

a+i2f

v(t)

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Example 2:

u(t)

a=2

0.5

0

|U(f)|

Examples

u(t) =

0

t<0

R

U (f ) = u(t)ei2f t dt

R at i2f t

dt

= 0 e e

R (ai2f )t

dt

= 0 e

(ai2f )t

1

= a+i2f e

=

0

<U(f) (rad/pi)

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Example(1:

-5

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

-5

0

Time (s)

0

Frequency (Hz)

0

Frequence (Hz)

0.5

0

-0.5

-5

a=2

0.5

0

-5

Time (s)

v(t) = ea|t|

R

V (f ) = v(t)ei2f t dt

R at i2f t

R0

at i2f t

dt

dt + 0 e e

= e e

(ai2f )t 0

(ai2f )t

1

1

+ a+i2f e

= ai2f e

0

1

1

2a

= ai2f + a+i2f = a2 +42 f 2

1

a+i2f

v(t)

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Example 2:

u(t)

a=2

0.5

0

|U(f)|

Examples

u(t) =

0

t<0

R

U (f ) = u(t)ei2f t dt

R at i2f t

dt

= 0 e e

R (ai2f )t

dt

= 0 e

(ai2f )t

1

= a+i2f e

=

0

<U(f) (rad/pi)

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Example(1:

-5

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

-5

0

Time (s)

0

Frequency (Hz)

0

Frequence (Hz)

0.5

0

-0.5

-5

1

a+i2f

1

v(t)

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

a=2

0.5

0

-5

|V(f)|

Time (s)

v(t) = ea|t|

1

R

0.5

V (f ) = v(t)ei2f t dt

0

-5

0

Frequency (Hz)

R at i2f t

R0

at i2f t

dt

dt + 0 e e

= e e

(ai2f )t 0

(ai2f )t

1

1

+ a+i2f e

= ai2f e

0

1

1

2a

= ai2f + a+i2f = a2 +42 f 2

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Example 2:

u(t)

a=2

0.5

0

|U(f)|

Examples

u(t) =

0

t<0

R

U (f ) = u(t)ei2f t dt

R at i2f t

dt

= 0 e e

R (ai2f )t

dt

= 0 e

(ai2f )t

1

= a+i2f e

=

0

<U(f) (rad/pi)

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Example(1:

-5

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

-5

0

Time (s)

0

Frequency (Hz)

0

Frequence (Hz)

0.5

0

-0.5

-5

1

a+i2f

1

v(t)

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

a=2

0.5

0

-5

|V(f)|

Time (s)

v(t) = ea|t|

1

R

0.5

V (f ) = v(t)ei2f t dt

0

-5

0

5

Frequency (Hz)

R at i2f t

R0

at i2f t

dt

dt + 0 e e

= e e

(ai2f )t 0

(ai2f )t

1

1

+ a+i2f e

= ai2f e

0

1

1

2a

= ai2f + a+i2f = a2 +42 f 2

[v(t) real+symmetric

V (f ) real+symmetric]

Fourier Transform: 6 4 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

dw (x) =

1

w

0.5w x 0.5w

otherwise

4

2

3(x)

0

-3

-2

-1

0

x

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Fourier Transform: 6 5 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

dw (x) =

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

1

w

0.5w x 0.5w

otherwise

4

2

3(x)

0

-3

-2

-1

0

x

1 for all values of w:

x=

dw (x)dx = 1

Fourier Transform: 6 5 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

dw (x) =

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

1

w

0.5w x 0.5w

otherwise

4

0.5(x)

3(x)

0

-3

-2

-1

0

x

1 for all values of w:

x=

dw (x)dx = 1

Fourier Transform: 6 5 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

dw (x) =

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

1

w

0.5w x 0.5w

otherwise

0.2(x)

0.5(x)

3(x)

0

-3

-2

-1

0

x

1 for all values of w:

x=

dw (x)dx = 1

Fourier Transform: 6 5 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

dw (x) =

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

1

w

0.5w x 0.5w

otherwise

0.2(x)

0.5(x)

3(x)

0

-3

-2

-1

0

x

1 for all values of w:

x=

dw (x)dx = 1

We define the Dirac delta function as (x) = limw0 dw (x)

Fourier Transform: 6 5 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

dw (x) =

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

1

w

0.5w x 0.5w

otherwise

0.2(x)

0.5(x)

3(x)

0

-3

-2

-1

0

x

1 for all values of w:

x=

dw (x)dx = 1

We define the Dirac delta function as (x) = limw0 dw (x)

Fourier Transform: 6 5 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

dw (x) =

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

1

w

0.5w x 0.5w

otherwise

0.2(x)

0.5(x)

3(x)

0

-3

-2

-1

0

x

1 for all values of w:

x=

dw (x)dx = 1

We define the Dirac delta function as (x) = limw0 dw (x)

R

However its area still equals 1 (x)dx = 1

Fourier Transform: 6 5 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

dw (x) =

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

1

w

0.5w x 0.5w

otherwise

1 for all values of w:

x=

dw (x)dx = 1

0.2(x)

0.5(x)

3(x)

0

-3

-2

-1

0

x

1

(x)

0.5

0

-3

-2

-1

0

x

We define the Dirac delta function as (x) = limw0 dw (x)

R

However its area still equals 1 (x)dx = 1

We plot the height of (x) as its area rather than its true height of .

Fourier Transform: 6 5 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

dw (x) =

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

1

w

0.5w x 0.5w

otherwise

1 for all values of w:

x=

dw (x)dx = 1

0.2(x)

0.5(x)

3(x)

0

-3

-2

-1

0

x

1

(x)

0.5

0

-3

-2

-1

0

x

We define the Dirac delta function as (x) = limw0 dw (x)

R

However its area still equals 1 (x)dx = 1

We plot the height of (x) as its area rather than its true height of .

(x) is not quite a proper function: it is called a generalized function.

Fourier Transform: 6 5 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0

(x)

1

0

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

-1

-3

-2

-1

0

x

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0

(x a) is a pulse at x = a

Dirac Delta Function:

(x)

(x-2)

0

-1

-3

-2

-1

0

x

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0

(x a) is a pulse at x = a

(x-2)

0

-1

-3

(x)

-2

-1

0

x

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0

(x a) is a pulse at x = a

Amplitude Scaling: b(x)

(x-2)

0

-1

-3

(x)

-2

-1

0

x

(x)dx = 1

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0

(x a) is a pulse at x = a

-0.5(x+2)

(x-2)

0

-1

-3

(x)

-2

-1

0

x

(x)dx = 1

b(x)

has an area of b since

R

(b(x)) dx

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0

(x a) is a pulse at x = a

-0.5(x+2)

(x-2)

0

-1

-3

(x)

-2

-1

0

x

(x)dx = 1

b(x)

has an area of b since

R

R

(b(x)) dx = b (x)dx

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0

(x a) is a pulse at x = a

-0.5(x+2)

(x-2)

0

-1

-3

(x)

-2

-1

0

x

(x)dx = 1

b(x)

has an area of b since

R

R

(b(x)) dx = b (x)dx = b

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0

(x a) is a pulse at x = a

-0.5(x+2)

(x-2)

0

-1

-3

(x)

-2

-1

0

x

(x)dx = 1

b(x)

has an area of b since

R

R

(b(x)) dx = b (x)dx = b

b can be a complex number (on a graph, we then plot only its magnitude)

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0

(x a) is a pulse at x = a

-0.5(x+2)

(x-2)

0

-1

-3

(x)

-2

-1

0

x

(x)dx = 1

b(x)

has an area of b since

R

R

(b(x)) dx = b (x)dx = b

b can be a complex number (on a graph, we then plot only its magnitude)

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0

(x a) is a pulse at x = a

-0.5(x+2)

(x-2)

0

-1

-3

(x)

-2

-1

0

x

(x)dx = 1

b(x)

has an area of b since

R

R

(b(x)) dx = b (x)dx = b

b can be a complex number (on a graph, we then plot only its magnitude)

c > 0:

x=

(cx)dx

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0

(x a) is a pulse at x = a

-0.5(x+2)

(x-2)

0

-1

-3

(x)

-2

-1

0

x

(x)dx = 1

b(x)

has an area of b since

R

R

(b(x)) dx = b (x)dx = b

b can be a complex number (on a graph, we then plot only its magnitude)

c > 0:

(cx)dx =

x=

dy

(y)

c

y=

[sub y = cx]

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0

(x a) is a pulse at x = a

-0.5(x+2)

(x-2)

0

-1

-3

(x)

-2

-1

0

x

(x)dx = 1

b(x)

has an area of b since

R

R

(b(x)) dx = b (x)dx = b

b can be a complex number (on a graph, we then plot only its magnitude)

R

c > 0: x= (cx)dx = y= (y) dy

c

R

= 1c y= (y)dy

R

[sub y = cx]

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0

(x a) is a pulse at x = a

-0.5(x+2)

(x-2)

0

-1

-3

(x)

-2

-1

0

x

(x)dx = 1

b(x)

has an area of b since

R

R

(b(x)) dx = b (x)dx = b

b can be a complex number (on a graph, we then plot only its magnitude)

R

c > 0: x= (cx)dx = y= (y) dy

c

R

= 1c y= (y)dy =

R

[sub y = cx]

1

c

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0

(x a) is a pulse at x = a

-0.5(x+2)

(x-2)

0

-1

-3

(x)

-2

-1

0

x

(x)dx = 1

b(x)

has an area of b since

R

R

(b(x)) dx = b (x)dx = b

b can be a complex number (on a graph, we then plot only its magnitude)

R

c > 0: x= (cx)dx = y= (y) dy

c

R

= 1c y= (y)dy =

R

c < 0: x= (cx)dx

R

[sub y = cx]

1

c

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0

(x a) is a pulse at x = a

-0.5(x+2)

(x-2)

0

-1

-3

(x)

-2

-1

0

x

(x)dx = 1

b(x)

has an area of b since

R

R

(b(x)) dx = b (x)dx = b

b can be a complex number (on a graph, we then plot only its magnitude)

R

c > 0: x= (cx)dx = y= (y) dy

c

R

= 1c y= (y)dy =

R

R

c < 0: x= (cx)dx = y=+ (y) dy

c

R

[sub y = cx]

1

c

[sub y = cx]

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0

(x a) is a pulse at x = a

-0.5(x+2)

(x-2)

0

-1

-3

(x)

-2

-1

0

x

(x)dx = 1

b(x)

has an area of b since

R

R

(b(x)) dx = b (x)dx = b

b can be a complex number (on a graph, we then plot only its magnitude)

R

c > 0: x= (cx)dx = y= (y) dy

c

R

= 1c y= (y)dy =

R

R

c < 0: x= (cx)dx = y=+ (y) dy

c

R

+

(y)dy

= 1

c

y=

R

[sub y = cx]

1

c

[sub y = cx]

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0

(x a) is a pulse at x = a

-0.5(x+2)

(x-2)

0

-1

-3

(x)

-2

-1

0

x

(x)dx = 1

b(x)

has an area of b since

R

R

(b(x)) dx = b (x)dx = b

b can be a complex number (on a graph, we then plot only its magnitude)

R

c > 0: x= (cx)dx = y= (y) dy

c

R

= 1c y= (y)dy = 1c

R

R

c < 0: x= (cx)dx = y=+ (y) dy

c

R

+

1

(y)dy

=

= 1

c

c

y=

R

[sub y = cx]

[sub y = cx]

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0

(x a) is a pulse at x = a

0

-0.5(x+2)

-1

-3

-2

(x-2)

-1

0

x

(x)dx = 1

b(x)

has an area of b since

R

R

(b(x)) dx = b (x)dx = b

b can be a complex number (on a graph, we then plot only its magnitude)

R

c > 0: x= (cx)dx = y= (y) dy

c

R

1

= 1c y= (y)dy = 1c = |c|

R

R

c < 0: x= (cx)dx = y=+ (y) dy

c

R

+

1

(y)dy

=

= 1

c

c =

y=

R

[sub y = cx]

[sub y = cx]

1

|c|

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0

(x a) is a pulse at x = a

0

-0.5(x+2)

-1

-3

-2

(x-2)

-1

0

x

(x)dx = 1

b(x)

has an area of b since

R

R

(b(x)) dx = b (x)dx = b

b can be a complex number (on a graph, we then plot only its magnitude)

R

c > 0: x= (cx)dx = y= (y) dy

c

R

1

= 1c y= (y)dy = 1c = |c|

R

R

c < 0: x= (cx)dx = y=+ (y) dy

c

R

+

1

(y)dy

=

= 1

c

c =

y=

R

1

In general, (cx) = |c|

(x) for c 6= 0

[sub y = cx]

[sub y = cx]

1

|c|

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0

(x a) is a pulse at x = a

0

-0.5(x+2)

-1

-3

-2

-1

(x)dx = 1

b(x)

has an area of b since

R

R

(b(x)) dx = b (x)dx = b

(x-2)

0

x

1

(4x) = 0.25 (x)

0

-1

-3

-2

-1

0

x

b can be a complex number (on a graph, we then plot only its magnitude)

R

c > 0: x= (cx)dx = y= (y) dy

c

R

1

= 1c y= (y)dy = 1c = |c|

R

R

c < 0: x= (cx)dx = y=+ (y) dy

c

R

+

1

(y)dy

=

= 1

c

c =

y=

R

1

In general, (cx) = |c|

(x) for c 6= 0

[sub y = cx]

[sub y = cx]

1

|c|

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Translation: (x a)

(x)

(x) is a pulse at x = 0

(x a) is a pulse at x = a

0

-0.5(x+2)

-1

-3

-2

(x)dx = 1

b(x)

has an area of b since

R

R

(b(x)) dx = b (x)dx = b

(x-2)

-1

0

x

1

(4x) = 0.25 (x)

-3(-4x-8) = -0.75(x+2)

-2

-1

0

1

2

x

-1

-3

b can be a complex number (on a graph, we then plot only its magnitude)

R

c > 0: x= (cx)dx = y= (y) dy

c

R

1

= 1c y= (y)dy = 1c = |c|

R

R

c < 0: x= (cx)dx = y=+ (y) dy

c

R

+

1

(y)dy

=

= 1

c

c =

y=

R

1

In general, (cx) = |c|

(x) for c 6= 0

[sub y = cx]

[sub y = cx]

1

|c|

Fourier Transform: 6 6 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

If we multiply (x a) by a function of x:

y = x2 (x 2)

y=x2

4

2

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

0

-1

x

6

y=(x-2)

4

2

0

-1

0

x

Fourier Transform: 6 7 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

If we multiply (x a) by a function of x:

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

y = x2 (x 2)

The product is 0 everywhere except at x = 2.

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

y=x2

4

2

0

-1

x

6

y=(x-2)

4

2

0

-1

0

x

Fourier Transform: 6 7 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

If we multiply (x a) by a function of x:

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

y = x2 (x 2)

The product is 0 everywhere except at x = 2.

So (x 2) is multiplied by the value taken by

x2 at x = 2:

2

2

x (x 2) = x x=2 (x 2)

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

y=x2

4

2

0

-1

x

6

y=(x-2)

4

2

0

-1

0

x

Fourier Transform: 6 7 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

If we multiply (x a) by a function of x:

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

y = x2 (x 2)

The product is 0 everywhere except at x = 2.

So (x 2) is multiplied by the value taken by

x2 at x = 2:

2

2

x (x 2) = x x=2 (x 2)

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

= 4 (x 2)

y=x2

4

2

0

-1

x

6

y=(x-2)

4

2

0

-1

0

x

y=22(x-2) = 4(x-2)

4

2

0

-1

Fourier Transform: 6 7 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

If we multiply (x a) by a function of x:

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

y = x2 (x 2)

The product is 0 everywhere except at x = 2.

So (x 2) is multiplied by the value taken by

x2 at x = 2:

2

2

x (x 2) = x x=2 (x 2)

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

= 4 (x 2)

y=x2

4

2

0

-1

x

6

y=(x-2)

4

2

0

-1

0

x

y=22(x-2) = 4(x-2)

4

2

0

-1

Fourier Transform: 6 7 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

If we multiply (x a) by a function of x:

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

The product is 0 everywhere except at x = 2.

So (x 2) is multiplied by the value taken by

x2 at x = 2:

2

2

x (x 2) = x x=2 (x 2)

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

= 4 (x 2)

y=x2

4

2

0

-1

x

6

y=(x-2)

4

2

0

-1

0

x

continuous at x = a,

f (x)(x a) = f (a)(x a)

y=22(x-2) = 4(x-2)

4

2

0

-1

Fourier Transform: 6 7 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

If we multiply (x a) by a function of x:

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

The product is 0 everywhere except at x = 2.

So (x 2) is multiplied by the value taken by

x2 at x = 2:

2

2

x (x 2) = x x=2 (x 2)

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

y=x2

4

2

0

-1

x

6

y=(x-2)

4

2

= 4 (x 2)

0

-1

0

x

continuous at x = a,

6

4

2

f (x)(x a) = f (a)(x a)

0

-1

Integrals:

y=22(x-2) = 4(x-2)

f (x)(x a)dx =

f (a)(x a)dx

[if f (x) continuous at a]

Fourier Transform: 6 7 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

If we multiply (x a) by a function of x:

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

The product is 0 everywhere except at x = 2.

So (x 2) is multiplied by the value taken by

x2 at x = 2:

2

2

x (x 2) = x x=2 (x 2)

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

= 4 (x 2)

y=x2

4

2

0

-1

x

6

y=(x-2)

4

2

0

-1

0

x

continuous at x = a,

f (x)(x a) = f (a)(x a)

y=22(x-2) = 4(x-2)

4

2

0

-1

Integrals:

R

= f (a) (x a)dx

[if f (x) continuous at a]

Fourier Transform: 6 7 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

If we multiply (x a) by a function of x:

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

The product is 0 everywhere except at x = 2.

So (x 2) is multiplied by the value taken by

x2 at x = 2:

2

2

x (x 2) = x x=2 (x 2)

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

= 4 (x 2)

y=x2

4

2

0

-1

x

6

y=(x-2)

4

2

0

-1

0

x

continuous at x = a,

f (x)(x a) = f (a)(x a)

y=22(x-2) = 4(x-2)

4

2

0

-1

Integrals:

R

= f (a) (x a)dx

= f (a)

[if f (x) continuous at a]

Fourier Transform: 6 7 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

If we multiply (x a) by a function of x:

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

The product is 0 everywhere except at x = 2.

So (x 2) is multiplied by the value taken by

x2 at x = 2:

2

2

x (x 2) = x x=2 (x 2)

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

= 4 (x 2)

y=x2

4

2

0

-1

x

6

y=(x-2)

4

2

0

-1

0

x

continuous at x = a,

f (x)(x a) = f (a)(x a)

y=22(x-2) = 4(x-2)

4

2

0

-1

Integrals:

R

= f (a) (x a)dx

= f (a)

[if f (x) continuous at a]

2

R

2

Example: 3x 2x (x 2)dx = 3x 2x x=2 = 8

Fourier Transform: 6 7 / 12

Periodic Signals

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

R

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Fourier Transform: 6 8 / 12

Periodic Signals

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

R

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

Example: U (f ) = 1.5(f + 2) + 1.5(f 2)

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

1.5

1.5(f+2)

1.5(f-2)

1

0.5

0

-3

-2

-1

0

1

Frequency (Hz)

Fourier Transform: 6 8 / 12

Periodic Signals

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

R

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

Example: U (f ) = 1.5(f + 2) + 1.5(f 2)

u(t) =

U (f )ei2f t df

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

1.5

1.5(f+2)

1.5(f-2)

1

0.5

0

-3

-2

-1

0

1

Frequency (Hz)

Fourier Transform: 6 8 / 12

Periodic Signals

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

R

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

Example: U (f ) = 1.5(f + 2) + 1.5(f 2)

R

u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

= 1.5(f + 2)ei2f t df

R

+ 1.5(f 2)ei2f t df

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

1.5

1.5(f+2)

1.5(f-2)

1

0.5

0

-3

-2

-1

0

1

Frequency (Hz)

Fourier Transform: 6 8 / 12

Periodic Signals

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

Example: U (f ) = 1.5(f + 2) + 1.5(f 2)

R

u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

= 1.5(f + 2)ei2f t df

R

+ 1.5(f 2)ei2f t df

i2f t

i2f t

+ 1.5 e

= 1.5 e

f =+2

f =2

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

1.5

1.5(f+2)

1.5(f-2)

1

0.5

0

-3

-2

-1

0

1

Frequency (Hz)

Fourier Transform: 6 8 / 12

Periodic Signals

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

Example: U (f ) = 1.5(f + 2) + 1.5(f 2)

R

u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

= 1.5(f + 2)ei2f t df

R

+ 1.5(f 2)ei2f t df

i2f t

i2f t

+ 1.5 e

= 1.5 e

f =+2

f =2

= 1.5 ei4t + ei4t

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

1.5

1.5(f+2)

1.5(f-2)

1

0.5

0

-3

-2

-1

0

1

Frequency (Hz)

Fourier Transform: 6 8 / 12

Periodic Signals

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

Example: U (f ) = 1.5(f + 2) + 1.5(f 2)

R

u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

= 1.5(f + 2)ei2f t df

R

+ 1.5(f 2)ei2f t df

i2f t

i2f t

+ 1.5 e

= 1.5 e

f =+2

f =2

= 1.5 ei4t + ei4t = 3 cos 4t

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

1.5

1.5(f+2)

1.5(f-2)

1

0.5

0

-3

-2

-1

0

1

Frequency (Hz)

Fourier Transform: 6 8 / 12

Periodic Signals

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

Example: U (f ) = 1.5(f + 2) + 1.5(f 2)

R

u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

= 1.5(f + 2)ei2f t df

R

+ 1.5(f 2)ei2f t df

i2f t

i2f t

+ 1.5 e

= 1.5 e

f =+2

f =2

= 1.5 ei4t + ei4t = 3 cos 4t

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

1.5

1.5(f+2)

1.5(f-2)

1

0.5

0

-3

-2

-1

0

1

Frequency (Hz)

4 3cos(4t)

2

0

-2

0

2

3

Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 8 / 12

Periodic Signals

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

Example: U (f ) = 1.5(f + 2) + 1.5(f 2)

R

u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

= 1.5(f + 2)ei2f t df

R

+ 1.5(f 2)ei2f t df

i2f t

i2f t

+ 1.5 e

= 1.5 e

f =+2

f =2

= 1.5 ei4t + ei4t = 3 cos 4t

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

1.5

1.5(f+2)

1.5(f-2)

1

0.5

0

-3

-2

-1

0

1

Frequency (Hz)

4 3cos(4t)

2

0

-2

0

2

3

Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 8 / 12

Periodic Signals

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

R

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

1.5

1.5(f+2)

1.5(f-2)

u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

= 1.5(f + 2)ei2f t df

R

+ 1.5(f 2)ei2f t df

i2f t

i2f t

+ 1.5 e

= 1.5 e

f =+2

f =2

= 1.5 ei4t + ei4t = 3 cos 4t

0.5

0

-3

-2

-1

0

1

Frequency (Hz)

4 3cos(4t)

2

0

-2

0

2

3

Time (s)

u(t) =

n=

i2nF t

Un e

U (f ) =

n=

Un (f nF )

Fourier Transform: 6 8 / 12

Periodic Signals

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

R

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

1.5

1.5(f+2)

1.5(f-2)

u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

= 1.5(f + 2)ei2f t df

R

+ 1.5(f 2)ei2f t df

i2f t

i2f t

+ 1.5 e

= 1.5 e

f =+2

f =2

= 1.5 ei4t + ei4t = 3 cos 4t

0.5

0

-3

-2

-1

0

1

Frequency (Hz)

4 3cos(4t)

2

0

-2

0

2

3

Time (s)

u(t) =

n=

i2nF t

Un e

R

U (f ) =

n=

Un (f nF )

Fourier Transform: 6 8 / 12

Periodic Signals

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

R

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

1.5

1.5(f+2)

1.5(f-2)

u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

= 1.5(f + 2)ei2f t df

R

+ 1.5(f 2)ei2f t df

i2f t

i2f t

+ 1.5 e

= 1.5 e

f =+2

f =2

= 1.5 ei4t + ei4t = 3 cos 4t

0.5

0

-3

-2

-1

0

1

Frequency (Hz)

4 3cos(4t)

2

0

-2

0

2

3

Time (s)

u(t) =

i2nF t

n=

Un e

R

U (f ) =

n=

Un (f nF )

R P

i2f t

U

(f

nF

)

e

df

n

n=

Fourier Transform: 6 8 / 12

Periodic Signals

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

R

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

1.5

1.5(f+2)

1.5(f-2)

u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

= 1.5(f + 2)ei2f t df

R

+ 1.5(f 2)ei2f t df

i2f t

i2f t

+ 1.5 e

= 1.5 e

f =+2

f =2

= 1.5 ei4t + ei4t = 3 cos 4t

0.5

0

-3

-2

-1

0

1

Frequency (Hz)

4 3cos(4t)

2

0

-2

0

2

3

Time (s)

u(t) =

i2nF t

n=

Un e

R

U (f ) =

n=

Un (f nF )

R P

i2f t

U

(f

nF

)

e

df

n

n=

R

P

= n= Un (f nF ) ei2f t df

Fourier Transform: 6 8 / 12

Periodic Signals

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

R

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

1.5

1.5(f+2)

1.5(f-2)

u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

= 1.5(f + 2)ei2f t df

R

+ 1.5(f 2)ei2f t df

i2f t

i2f t

+ 1.5 e

= 1.5 e

f =+2

f =2

= 1.5 ei4t + ei4t = 3 cos 4t

0.5

0

-3

-2

-1

0

1

Frequency (Hz)

4 3cos(4t)

2

0

-2

0

2

3

Time (s)

u(t) =

i2nF t

n=

Un e

R

U (f ) =

n=

Un (f nF )

R P

i2f t

U

(f

nF

)

e

df

n

n=

R

P

= n= Un (f nF ) ei2f t df

P

= n= Un ei2nF t

Fourier Transform: 6 8 / 12

Duality

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

R

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Fourier Transform: 6 9 / 12

Duality

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

R

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

Dual transform:

Suppose v(t) = U (t)

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Fourier Transform: 6 9 / 12

Duality

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

R

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

Dual transform:

Suppose v(t) = U (t), then

V (f ) =

i2f t

v(t)e

d

t=

Fourier Transform: 6 9 / 12

Duality

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

R

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

Dual transform:

Suppose v(t) = U (t), then

R

V (f ) = t= v(t)ei2f t d

R

V (g) = t= U (t)ei2gt dt

Fourier Transform: 6 9 / 12

Duality

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

R

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

Dual transform:

Suppose v(t) = U (t), then

R

V (f ) = t= v(t)ei2f t d

R

V (g) = t= U (t)ei2gt dt [substitute f = g , v(t) = U (t)]

R

= f = U (f )ei2gf df

[substitute t = f ]

Fourier Transform: 6 9 / 12

Duality

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

R

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

Dual transform:

Suppose v(t) = U (t), then

R

V (f ) = t= v(t)ei2f t d

R

V (g) = t= U (t)ei2gt dt [substitute f = g , v(t) = U (t)]

R

= f = U (f )ei2gf df

[substitute t = f ]

= u(g)

Fourier Transform: 6 9 / 12

Duality

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

R

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

Dual transform:

Suppose v(t) = U (t), then

R

V (f ) = t= v(t)ei2f t d

R

V (g) = t= U (t)ei2gt dt [substitute f = g , v(t) = U (t)]

R

= f = U (f )ei2gf df

[substitute t = f ]

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

So:

= u(g)

v(t) = U (t) V (f ) = u(f )

Fourier Transform: 6 9 / 12

Duality

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

R

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

Dual transform:

Suppose v(t) = U (t), then

R

V (f ) = t= v(t)ei2f t d

R

V (g) = t= U (t)ei2gt dt [substitute f = g , v(t) = U (t)]

R

= f = U (f )ei2gf df

[substitute t = f ]

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

So:

= u(g)

v(t) = U (t) V (f ) = u(f )

Example:

u(t) = e|t|

Fourier Transform: 6 9 / 12

Duality

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

R

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

Dual transform:

Suppose v(t) = U (t), then

V (f ) = t= v(t)ei2f t d

R

V (g) = t= U (t)ei2gt dt [substitute f = g , v(t) = U (t)]

R

= f = U (f )ei2gf df

[substitute t = f ]

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

So:

= u(g)

v(t) = U (t) V (f ) = u(f )

Example:

u(t) = e|t|

U (f ) =

2

1+4 2 f 2

[from earlier]

Fourier Transform: 6 9 / 12

Duality

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

R

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

Dual transform:

Suppose v(t) = U (t), then

V (f ) = t= v(t)ei2f t d

R

V (g) = t= U (t)ei2gt dt [substitute f = g , v(t) = U (t)]

R

= f = U (f )ei2gf df

[substitute t = f ]

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

So:

= u(g)

v(t) = U (t) V (f ) = u(f )

Example:

u(t) = e|t|

v(t) =

U (f ) =

2

1+4 2 f 2

[from earlier]

2

1+4 2 t2

Fourier Transform: 6 9 / 12

Duality

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

R

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

Dual transform:

Suppose v(t) = U (t), then

V (f ) = t= v(t)ei2f t d

R

V (g) = t= U (t)ei2gt dt [substitute f = g , v(t) = U (t)]

R

= f = U (f )ei2gf df

[substitute t = f ]

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

So:

= u(g)

v(t) = U (t) V (f ) = u(f )

Example:

u(t) = e|t|

v(t) =

2

1+4 2 t2

2

1+4 2 f 2

U (f ) =

V (f ) = e|f |

[from earlier]

Fourier Transform: 6 9 / 12

Duality

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

R

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

Dual transform:

Suppose v(t) = U (t), then

V (f ) = t= v(t)ei2f t d

R

V (g) = t= U (t)ei2gt dt [substitute f = g , v(t) = U (t)]

R

= f = U (f )ei2gf df

[substitute t = f ]

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

So:

= u(g)

v(t) = U (t) V (f ) = u(f )

Example:

u(t) = e|t|

v(t) =

2

1+4 2 t2

2

1+4 2 f 2

U (f ) =

V (f ) = e|f | = e|f |

[from earlier]

Fourier Transform: 6 9 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

R

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Fourier Transform: 6 10 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

R

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Fourier Transform: 6 10 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

R

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

V (f ) =

t=

u(at + b)ei2f t dt

Fourier Transform: 6 10 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

R

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

V (f ) =

t=

u(at + b)ei2f t dt

[now sub = at + b]

Fourier Transform: 6 10 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

R

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

[now sub = at + b]

u(at + b)ei2f t dt

R

i2f ( b

a ) 1 d

= sgn(a) = u( )e

a

V (f ) =

t=

Fourier Transform: 6 10 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

R

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

[now sub = at + b]

u(at + b)ei2f t dt

R

i2f ( b

a ) 1 d

= sgn(a) = u( )e

a

(

1

a>0

note that limits swap if a < 0 hence sgn(a) =

1 a < 0

V (f ) =

t=

Fourier Transform: 6 10 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

R

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

[now sub = at + b]

u(at + b)ei2f t dt

R

i2f ( b

a ) 1 d

= sgn(a) = u( )e

a

(

1

a>0

note that limits swap if a < 0 hence sgn(a) =

1 a < 0

b R

1 i 2f

i2 fa

a

u(

)e

= |a| e

d

=

V (f ) =

t=

Fourier Transform: 6 10 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

R

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

[now sub = at + b]

u(at + b)ei2f t dt

R

i2f ( b

a ) 1 d

= sgn(a) = u( )e

a

(

1

a>0

note that limits swap if a < 0 hence sgn(a) =

1 a < 0

b R

1 i 2f

i2 fa

a

u(

)e

= |a| e

d

=

b

1 i 2f

= |a| e a U fa

V (f ) =

t=

Fourier Transform: 6 10 / 12

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

R

Fourier Transform: u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

[Fourier Synthesis]

[Fourier Analysis]

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

[now sub = at + b]

u(at + b)ei2f t dt

R

i2f ( b

a ) 1 d

= sgn(a) = u( )e

a

(

1

a>0

note that limits swap if a < 0 hence sgn(a) =

1 a < 0

b R

1 i 2f

i2 fa

a

u(

)e

= |a| e

d

=

b

1 i 2f

= |a| e a U fa

V (f ) =

So:

t=

v(t) = u(at + b)

V (f ) =

b

1 i 2f

a U

e

|a|

f

a

Fourier Transform: 6 10 / 12

Gaussian Pulse

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

t

2

2

1

e

2

2

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Fourier Transform: 6 11 / 12

Gaussian Pulse

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

t

2

2

1

e

2

2

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

u(t)

0.4

=1

0.2

0

-4

-2

0

Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 11 / 12

Gaussian Pulse

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

t

2

2

1

e

2

2

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

u(t)

0.4

=1

0.2

0

-4

-2

0

Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 11 / 12

Gaussian Pulse

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

t

2

2

1

e

2

2

U (f ) =

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

i2f t

u(t)e

dt

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

u(t)

0.4

=1

0.2

0

-4

-2

0

Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 11 / 12

Gaussian Pulse

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

t

2

2

1

e

2

2

U (f ) =

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

i2f t

u(t)e

dt =

1

2 2

t

2

2 i2f t

dt

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

u(t)

0.4

=1

0.2

0

-4

-2

0

Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 11 / 12

Gaussian Pulse

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

t

2

2

1

e

2

2

Dirac Delta Function:

U (f ) =

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

u(t)e

R

1

2 2

0.4

u(t)

R t i2f t

1

dt = 22 e 22 e

dt

21 2 (t2 +i4 2 f t)

i2f t

dt

=1

0.2

0

-4

-2

0

Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 11 / 12

Gaussian Pulse

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

t

2

2

1

e

2

2

Dirac Delta Function:

U (f ) =

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

u(t)e

R

1

2 2

1

2 2

0.4

u(t)

R t i2f t

1

dt = 22 e 22 e

dt

21 2 (t2 +i4 2 f t)

i2f t

dt

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

22 t +i4 f t+(i2 f ) (i2 f )

dt

=1

0.2

0

-4

-2

0

Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 11 / 12

Gaussian Pulse

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

t

2

2

1

e

2

2

Dirac Delta Function:

U (f ) =

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

=

=

u(t)e

R

1

2 2

dt

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

22 t +i4 f t+(i2 f ) (i2 f )

R

1

e

2 2

2

2

1

i2

f

(

)

1

e 22

2 2

0.4

u(t)

R t i2f t

1

dt = 22 e 22 e

dt

21 2 (t2 +i4 2 f t)

i2f t

21 2 (t+i2 2 f )

dt

dt

=1

0.2

0

-4

-2

0

Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 11 / 12

Gaussian Pulse

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

t

2

2

1

e

2

2

Dirac Delta Function:

U (f ) =

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

u(t)e

R

1

2 2

dt

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

22 t +i4 f t+(i2 f ) (i2 f )

R

1

= 22 e

2

2

1

i2

f

(

)

1

= e 22

2 2

2

2

1

(i)

i2

f

(

)

2

2

=e

0.4

u(t)

R t i2f t

1

dt = 22 e 22 e

dt

21 2 (t2 +i4 2 f t)

i2f t

21 2 (t+i2 2 f )

dt

dt

=1

0.2

0

-4

-2

0

Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 11 / 12

Gaussian Pulse

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

t

2

2

1

e

2

2

Dirac Delta Function:

U (f ) =

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

u(t)e

R

1

2 2

dt

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

22 t +i4 f t+(i2 f ) (i2 f )

R

1

= 22 e

2

2

1

i2

f

(

)

1

= e 22

2 2

2

2

1

(i)

i2

f

(

)

2

2

u(t)

21 2 (t+i2 2 f )

dt

dt

=e

[(i) uses a result from complex analysis theory that:

R 1 (t+i22 f )2

R 1 t2

1

1

2

e 2

e 22 dt = 1]

dt =

2 2

0.4

R t i2f t

1

dt = 22 e 22 e

dt

21 2 (t2 +i4 2 f t)

i2f t

2 2

=1

0.2

0

-4

-2

0

Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 11 / 12

Gaussian Pulse

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

t

2

2

1

e

2

2

Dirac Delta Function:

U (f ) =

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

u(t)e

R

1

2 2

R t i2f t

1

dt = 22 e 22 e

dt

21 2 (t2 +i4 2 f t)

i2f t

dt

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

22 t +i4 f t+(i2 f ) (i2 f )

R

1

= 22 e

2

R 1 (t+i22 f )2

2

1

i2

f

1

(

)

e 22

dt

= e 22

2 2

2

2

1

(i)

i2

f

(

)

12 (2f )2

2

2

=e

=e

[(i) uses a result from complex analysis theory that:

R 1 (t+i22 f )2

R 1 t2

1

1

2

e 2

e 22 dt = 1]

dt =

2 2

u(t)

0.4

dt

2 2

=1

0.2

0

-4

-2

0

Time (s)

Fourier Transform: 6 11 / 12

Gaussian Pulse

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

t

2

2

1

e

2

2

Dirac Delta Function:

U (f ) =

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

u(t)e

R

1

2 2

R t i2f t

1

dt = 22 e 22 e

dt

21 2 (t2 +i4 2 f t)

i2f t

dt

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

22 t +i4 f t+(i2 f ) (i2 f )

R

1

= 22 e

2

R 1 (t+i22 f )2

2

1

i2

f

1

(

)

e 22

dt

= e 22

2 2

2

2

1

(i)

i2

f

(

)

12 (2f )2

2

2

=e

=e

[(i) uses a result from complex analysis theory that:

R 1 (t+i22 f )2

R 1 t2

1

1

2

e 2

e 22 dt = 1]

dt =

2 2

2 2

=1

0.2

0

-4

-2

0

Time (s)

1/(2)=0.159

|U(f)|

u(t)

0.4

dt

0.5

0

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0

0.2

Frequency (Hz)

0.4

0.6

Fourier Transform: 6 11 / 12

Gaussian Pulse

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

t

2

2

1

e

2

2

Dirac Delta Function:

U (f ) =

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

u(t)e

R

1

2 2

R t i2f t

1

dt = 22 e 22 e

dt

21 2 (t2 +i4 2 f t)

i2f t

dt

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

22 t +i4 f t+(i2 f ) (i2 f )

R

1

= 22 e

2

R 1 (t+i22 f )2

2

1

i2

f

1

(

)

e 22

dt

= e 22

2 2

2

2

1

(i)

i2

f

(

)

12 (2f )2

2

2

=e

=e

[(i) uses a result from complex analysis theory that:

R 1 (t+i22 f )2

R 1 t2

1

1

2

e 2

e 22 dt = 1]

dt =

2 2

2 2

=1

0.2

0

-4

-2

0

Time (s)

1/(2)=0.159

|U(f)|

u(t)

0.4

dt

0.5

0

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0

0.2

Frequency (Hz)

0.4

0.6

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 11 / 12

Summary

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Fourier Transform:

R

Inverse transform (synthesis): u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Fourier Transform: 6 12 / 12

Summary

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Fourier Transform:

R

Inverse transform (synthesis): u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

Forward transform (analysis): U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Fourier Transform: 6 12 / 12

Summary

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Fourier Transform:

R

Inverse transform (synthesis): u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

Forward transform (analysis): U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

U (f ) is the spectral density function (e.g. Volts/Hz)

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Fourier Transform: 6 12 / 12

Summary

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Fourier Transform:

R

Inverse transform (synthesis): u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

Forward transform (analysis): U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

U (f ) is the spectral density function (e.g. Volts/Hz)

Dirac Delta Function:

R

(t) is a zero-width infinite-height pulse with (t)dt = 1

Fourier Transform: 6 12 / 12

Summary

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Fourier Transform:

R

Inverse transform (synthesis): u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

Forward transform (analysis): U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

U (f ) is the spectral density function (e.g. Volts/Hz)

Dirac Delta Function:

R

(t) is a zero-width infinite-height pulse with (t)dt = 1

R

Integral: f (t)(t a) = f (a)

Fourier Transform: 6 12 / 12

Summary

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Fourier Transform:

R

Inverse transform (synthesis): u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

Forward transform (analysis): U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

U (f ) is the spectral density function (e.g. Volts/Hz)

Dirac Delta Function:

R

(t) is a zero-width infinite-height pulse with (t)dt = 1

R

Integral: f (t)(t a) = f (a)

Scaling: (ct) =

1

|c| (t)

Fourier Transform: 6 12 / 12

Summary

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Fourier Transform:

R

Inverse transform (synthesis): u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

Forward transform (analysis): U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

U (f ) is the spectral density function (e.g. Volts/Hz)

Dirac Delta Function:

R

(t) is a zero-width infinite-height pulse with (t)dt = 1

R

Integral: f (t)(t a) = f (a)

1

|c| (t)

P

u(t) = n=

Scaling: (ct) =

Periodic Signals:

Un ei2nF t

P

U (f ) = n= Un (f nF )

Fourier Transform: 6 12 / 12

Summary

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Fourier Transform:

R

Inverse transform (synthesis): u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

Forward transform (analysis): U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

U (f ) is the spectral density function (e.g. Volts/Hz)

Dirac Delta Function:

R

(t) is a zero-width infinite-height pulse with (t)dt = 1

R

Integral: f (t)(t a) = f (a)

1

|c| (t)

P

u(t) = n=

Scaling: (ct) =

Periodic Signals:

Un ei2nF t

P

U (f ) = n= Un (f nF )

v(t) = U (t)

V (f ) = u(f )

Fourier Transform: 6 12 / 12

Summary

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

Fourier Transform:

R

Inverse transform (synthesis): u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

Forward transform (analysis): U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

U (f ) is the spectral density function (e.g. Volts/Hz)

Dirac Delta Function:

R

(t) is a zero-width infinite-height pulse with (t)dt = 1

R

Integral: f (t)(t a) = f (a)

1

|c| (t)

P

u(t) = n=

Scaling: (ct) =

Periodic Signals:

Un ei2nF t

P

U (f ) = n= Un (f nF )

v(t) = U (t)

V (f ) = u(f )

b

1 i 2f

v(t) = u(at + b)

V (f ) = |a| e a U fa

Fourier Transform: 6 12 / 12

Summary

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

R

Inverse transform (synthesis): u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

Forward transform (analysis): U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

U (f ) is the spectral density function (e.g. Volts/Hz)

Dirac Delta Function:

R

(t) is a zero-width infinite-height pulse with (t)dt = 1

R

Integral: f (t)(t a) = f (a)

1

|c| (t)

P

u(t) = n=

Scaling: (ct) =

Periodic Signals:

Un ei2nF t

P

U (f ) = n= Un (f nF )

v(t) = U (t)

V (f ) = u(f )

b

1 i 2f

v(t) = u(at + b)

V (f ) = |a| e a U fa

v(t) =

21 ( t )

1

e

2 2

V (f ) = e 2 (2f )

Fourier Transform: 6 12 / 12

Summary

6: Fourier Transform

Fourier Series as

T

Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform

Examples

Dirac Delta Function:

Scaling and Translation

Dirac Delta Function:

Products and Integrals

Periodic Signals

Duality

Time Shifting and Scaling

Gaussian Pulse

Summary

R

Inverse transform (synthesis): u(t) = U (f )ei2f t df

R

Forward transform (analysis): U (f ) = t= u(t)ei2f t dt

U (f ) is the spectral density function (e.g. Volts/Hz)

Dirac Delta Function:

R

(t) is a zero-width infinite-height pulse with (t)dt = 1

R

Integral: f (t)(t a) = f (a)

1

|c| (t)

P

u(t) = n=

Scaling: (ct) =

Periodic Signals:

Un ei2nF t

P

U (f ) = n= Un (f nF )

v(t) = U (t)

V (f ) = u(f )

b

1 i 2f

v(t) = u(at + b)

V (f ) = |a| e a U fa

v(t) =

21 ( t )

1

e

2 2

V (f ) = e 2 (2f )

E1.10 Fourier Series and Transforms (2014-5559)

Fourier Transform: 6 12 / 12

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