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SPE 164316

Coiled Tubing As A Sucker Rod As Well As Production String In Dual Zone


Completion
Rathin P.Parekh-Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University,Krupesh Desai- Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University

Copyright 2013, Society of Petroleum Engineers


This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference held in Manama, Bahrain, 1013 March 2013.
This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE program committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper have not been
reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material does not necessarily reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its
officers, or members. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is prohibited. Permission to
reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of SPE copyright.

Abstract
Technological advances in coiled tubing, Coiled Tubing handling equipment, and application techniques have provided new
opportunities for the effective, economic use of Coiled Tubing in various fields of petroleum industry. The technology is still
in the process of testing its boundaries and limitations. However, this is a necessary phase in the learning curve. Probably the
most logical approach is to consider the market or application niches best suited to coiled tubing drilling technology.
Evolution of the coiled tubing Production process is one of the most exciting and fastest growing sections of the coiled tubing
industry. In Dual zone completion, production is conventionally carried out using parallel tubing string completion or tubing
annulus completion. In this case implementation of artificial lifts is difficult. This difficulty could be overcome by the use of
coiled tubing, sliding sleeve and an anchor.
This paper presents a review of the CT capabilities that can be used in dual hole completions. This paper intends to discusses
the guidelines of applicability of Coiled Tubing and design considerations for using Coiled Tubing as a sucker rod and also as
production string in dual zone along with the pros and cons of coiled tubing. We have concluded our paper with some
relevant recommendation on some operational and design strategies as well as future direction for integration of additional
variable
Introduction
Once considered high risk and applicable for only niche services, Coiled tubing is now an essential tool for many operations.
The use of Coiled Tubing as sucker rod was first introduced in Argentina followed by United States of America and Canada.
The use of coiled tubing as sucker rod has various advantages. It reduces overall cost of the project as the coiled tubing
doubles up as a production string along with the sucker rod, thus reducing overall cost of the project. Use of coiled tubing
also provides a means in reduction of time during various well intervention jobs carried out on the well. The use of coiled
tubing provides an opportunity to carry out various operations on live wells, without using kill fluids which can harm the
well.
Selection
Various types of coiled tubing are available. In order to select the best type of coiled tubing various factors should be
evaluated.

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Coiled Tubing Material


Conventional coiled tubing used in various oil fields world over is made of low alloy carbon steel. Carbon steel coiled tubing
is adequate to meet the needs of most field operations. Although depending upon various requirements in onshore & offshore
fields many developments have taken place over the years:
QT-16Cr is a relatively new corrosion resistant alloy (CRA) that was specifically developed for long term direct
exposure to wet CO2 environments. QT-16Cr was commercially introduced in early 2003. It has been successfully
installed to depths greater than 18,000 ft. The material has also exhibited much improved abrasion resistance as well
as demonstrating superior low cycle fatigue life when compared to its equivalent in carbon steel.
HS-80-CRA is another corrosion resistant material being developed for use in downhole completion application in
H2S and CO2 environments. This product is a lean duplex material that is laser welded.
A composite made of fibers embedded in a resin matrix is one more material used for coiled tubing. The fibers
(usually glass and carbon) are wound around an extruded thermoplastic tube (works as pressure barrier) and
saturated with a resin, such as epoxy. Composite coiled tubing can be manufactured with a wide range of
performance characteristics by changing the mix of fibers, the orientation of their windings, and the resin matrix
properties.
Coiled tubing are also made of titanium or stainless steel for highly corrosive environments. The very high cost of
these materials has severely limited their use. Titanium was thoroughly explored for use in this application, but it is
difficult to weld and costs approximately 10 times as much as carbon steel.

A properly sized CT string must have the following attributes for the planned operation:
1. Enough mechanical strength to safely withstand the combination of forces imposed by the job.
2. Adequate stiffness to RIH to the required depth and/or push with the required force.
3. Light weight to reduce logistics problems and total cost.
4. Maximum possible working life.
Fatigue failure
Fatigue is the progressive, localized, and permanent structural damage that occurs when a material is subjected to cyclic or
fluctuating strains at nominal stresses that have maximum values less than (often much less than) the static yield strength of
the material. Fatigue failure is the biggest threat to coiled tubing while using as sucker rod pump due to dynamic and
fluctuating stresses. It has been observed that situation becomes worse in humid environment or high water to oil production.
Number of years(N) v/s Stroke rate(S) curve is one of the parameters to determine the optimum stroke rate in order to reduce
the fatigue on the material increase the life of the material. The N v/s S curve for coiled tubing having Outer diameter =1.5
inch, thickness=0.1340 inch, Yield strength=100000 psi, CT Weld Reduction Factor=1, Stress Concentration Factor=1
Fatigue Strength Coefficient=125000, Pumping Fluid Density (ppg)=8.33,Pumping Stroke Length (in)=74 CT, Length
(ft)=6000 is shown in figure 1.
Corrosion:
QT-16 Cr has been tested in several wet CO2 environment & results are compared with standard coiled tubing and 13%
Chromium jointed tubulars.The comparison between various material for coiled tubing on the basis of the result from the wet
CO2 susceptibilty corrosion test is shown in the figure 2

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Completion
Multiple completion is used to maximize production from a well economically. Multiple completion which started with
single tubing completion with the improvement in perforation, packer and other related technologies expanded to dual zone
completion. In the dual zone completion, both the zones can be produced simultaneously, if the zones have same pressures.
But if the pressures of the zones are not similar it is difficult to produce both the zones at the same time using the same
completion.

Non Return Valves


As shown in the figure 3, A Non Return Valve(NRV) is introduced near the perforations. The NRV will not allow production
from one zone to enter another one. The NRV used near the completion will help to control and monitor bottom hole
pressures of the zones using the electrical cable. The length of the NRV depends on the length of perforated zone. The width
of the NRV depends on the thickness of the perforated zone. If sand cuts are observed during the production, sand screens
can be introduced near the NRV to prevent sand formation.
Gas Seperation
Gas Interference reduces the efficiency of the pump. This problem can be identified with the use of a liquid level instrument
and a Dynamometer. If the liquid level measurement shows high gaseous liquid in the pump but the dynamometer shows
incomplete pump fillage, then there is a problem of gas interference with the pump. Proper gas separation techniques should
be used in order to prevent gas from entering the pump. One such method to separate gas from the liquid can be shown in the
fig. 3
In this method a sliding sleeve or perforated nipple can be installed above the perforation and at least 10 ft above the pump.
The gas liquid can be separated by inlet diverter and gravitational force. Force of gravity dominates in the separation of Oil
and Gas. The separated gas rises above and via sliding sleeve/perforated nipple enters the coiled tubing. The separated oil
enters the tubing from the pump. The mixture of Oil and Gas is produced at the surface which can be separated easily using
various methods on the surface. As a result of such completion the gas interference problems can be minimized.
The gas introduced in the tubing also helps in driving the oil to the surface further decreasing the pumping cost. As a result
high pumping rate is achieved at low costs. If the gas is available in high quantities GLV(Gas lift valves) are introduced at
various intervals. The Produced gas is used in the GLVs to drive oil to the surface along with the reciprocating pump. The
completion for reservoir having high gas reservoir is shown in figure 4.
Lubrication
As the Oil is produced in the Coiled tubing, the produced fluid provides sufficient lubrication to the pump and the tubing.
The friction between Coiled Tubing and Casing is very critical, thus the gas should be vented regularly from the annulus until
a mist of oil comes out. This will wet the outer surface of coiled tubing and inner surface of coiled tubing.
Anchors
Since the production tubing is eliminated in this completion the barrel of anchor pump needs to be anchored similar to an
insert pump. Special design considerations are required because the insert pump anchors are available for limited sizes (upto
4 inch).Thus a modified anchor which is available for larger diameters should be designed. The anchors should allow the
fluid to migrate around it.
Centralizers
The Roller Guides should be used at various depths in order to centralize the coiled tubing.The depths of the Rollers can be
decided on the basis of various parameters such as :-deviation angle,rate of deviation angle,azimuth angle,rate of azimuth
angle, rate of dog leg,friction factor. The roller guides can also be used to prevent wear and tear of tubing with the casing.

SPE 164316

Surface facilities
The connector is one of the crucial part in this completion.It connects the coiled tubing to the various hollow pipes.The
connector undergoes cyclic stresses with each stroke and is being subjected to inertia. There are various types of connectors
that are available as shown in the figure 5 .The main reservation was the o-ring seal.In order for coiled tubing to work
properly a constant hydraulic seal should be available.
The Coiled tubing unit needs to be used on several occasions. The coiled tubing unit is shown n the figure 6.
The coiled tubing unit is comprised of four basic elements : Reel - for storage and transport of the CT
Injector Head - to provide the surface drive force to run and retrieve the CT
Control Cabin - from which the equipment operator monitors and controls the CT
Power Pack - to generate hydraulic and pneumatic power required to operate
the CT unit
The produced fluid is transferred to the Flow line via a hose. The hose needs to be kept above the ground and prevented from
entangling around the wellhose. Hence a standpipe can be installed.This standpipe can be directly connected to the flowline.It
can be shown in the figure 7.
Conclusion

It can be shown that the use of coiled tubing as a sucker rod has great benefits but longer field histories needed.
Roller Guides should be used for Coiled tubing
Gas separation should be used for better efficiency of the pump.
Improvements are required for the anchoring system.

Acknowledgement
I would like to thank Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University for giving us the permission to present this paper. I would also
like to thank Mohinder Verma and T.Bhiksham for their time and support.
Refrences
K. Falk, S. Rowland, John Stewart, L. Birkelbach Artificial Lift So;ution Using Coiled Tubing-SPE 74832 presented
at SPE/ICoTA coiled tubing conference and exhibition held in Houston, Texas, USA. April,2002
Humberto F. Leniek, Dr. William C. Maurer Artificial Lift Utilizing CT as a Hollow Sucker Rod
F.S.Flores-Avila, J.M.Riano, M. Javier-Martinez, T.Hammond, J. Cantu, J. Ramos Using coiled tubing as sucker rods
for SRP-SPE 154447. Presented at the SPE/ICoTA coiled tubing conference and exhibition held in Houston, Texas, USA.
March,2012.
Fernando Solanet, Luis Paz, Humberto Leniek Coiled Tubing Used as a Continuous Sucker-Rod System in Slim
Holes: Successful Field Experience- SPE 56671. Presented at the 1999 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition
held in Houston, Texas, October 1999.
Yang, Y.S., Avakov, V.A., Smith, D.E., Martin, J.R., and Wu, J., Coiled Tubing Fatigue Damage on Floating
Vessels, Paper No. SPE46252, Third Annual SPE/ICoTA North American Coiled Tubing Roundtable, April 1998.
Humberto Leniek, Luis Ayestaran, Y. S. Yang, Pumping with Coiled Tubing - A New Coiled Tubing Application
presented at the 2000 SPE/ICoTA Coiled Tubing Roundtable held in Houston, TX, April 2000

SPE 164316

International coiled tubing association (ICTA) An Introduction to Coiled Tubing History, Applications, and
Benefits
Article printed in JPT June, 2008:Coiled Tubing Applications- John Misselbrook
Web site:
http://www.medcotas.com/manuals/FACT%20Manual.pdf visited on 07/09/2012
http://www.icota.com/tubing.htm visited on 05/12/2012
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coiled_tubing visited on 07/04/2012
http://www.oilandgasonline.com/doc.mvc/Sucker-Rod-Centralizer-0001visitedon04/01/2012

Fig 1.- N v/s S curve for Coiled Tubing

Fig 2.-Comparrison of various coiled tubing materials on the basis of Wet CO2
susceptibility Corrosion Test

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Fig 3.Completion showing NRV near the perforated zone

Fig 4.Completion showing solution for Gas interferences

Fig 5.Coiled Tubing Connectors

Fig 6.Coiled Tubing Unit

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Fig 7.Surface Production Equipment