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d

Concrete

Design

Strength Design

Engr. Alexander D. Co

Engr. Alexander D. Co 2

Reinforced Concrete Design

REFERENCES

Jack C. McCormac and James K. Nelson, Design of Reinforced Concrete 7th Edition, John

Wiley & Sons Inc. 2006

Arthur H. Nilson, David Darwin and Charles W. Dolan, Design of Concrete Structures,

Fourteenth Edition in SI units, Mc Graw Hill, 2010

Leonard Spiegel and George F. Limbrunner, Reinforced Concrete Design 4th Edition,

Prentice Hall

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines Inc. (ASEP), National

Structural Code of the Philippines, 6th Edition, 2010

Engr. Alexander D. Co 3

Reinforced Concrete Design

Introduction

Compressive Strength

Engr. Alexander D. Co 4

Reinforced Concrete Design

specified rate of loading. For 28 day period the cylinders are usually

kept under water or in a room with constant temperature and 100%

humidity.

Although concretes are available with 28-day ultimate

strengths from 2500 psi (17.50 MPa) up to as high as 10,000 to 20,000 psi (70

to 140 MPa), most of the concretes used fall into the 3000 to 7000 psi (21

to 49 MPa) range.

The stress-strain curves of Fig. 1.1 represent the results obtained from

compression tests of sets of 28-day-old standard cylinders of varying

strengths.

Careful study of these curves will bring out several

significant points:

a) The curves are roughly straight while the load is increased from

zero to about one-third to one-half the concretes ultimate

strength.

b) Of particular importance is the fact that regardless of strengths,

all concretes reach their ultimate strengths at strain of about

0.002.

c) Concrete does not have definite yield strength; rather, the curves

run smoothly on to the point of rupture at strain of from 0.003 to

Engr. Alexander D. Co 5

Reinforced Concrete Design

this text that concrete fails at 0.003. The reader should not that this

value, which is conservative for normal-strength concretes, may not be

conservative for higher-strength concretes in the 8000-psi and above range.

d) Many tests have clearly shown that stress-strain curves of

concrete cylinders are almost identical to those for the

compression sides of beam.

e) It should be further noticed that the weaker grades of concrete

are less brittle than the stronger ones.

Static Modulus of Elasticity (NSCP 6th ed., page 4-39)

Concrete has no clear-cut modulus of elasticity. It value varies with

different concrete strengths, concrete age, type of loading, and the

characteristics and proportions of the cement and aggregates.

1.5

Ec =wc ( 0.043 ) f ' c

wc

f 'c

3

= varying from 1500 to 2500 kg /m

approximately 2320 kg/m3 be used

or

MPa

gravel

concrete

with

mass

Ec =4700 f ' c

Concrete with strength above 6000 psi (42 MPa) are referred to as high

strength concretes. Tests have indicated that the usual ACI equations

Ec

for

when applied to high strength concretes result in value that

are too large. Based on studies at Cornell University, the expression to

f 'c

follow has been recommended for normal-weight concretes with

values greater than 42 MPa and up to 84 MPa and for light weight

f 'c

concretes with

greater than 42 MPa and up to 63 MPa.

wc

Ec =[ 3.32 f ' c +6895 ]

2320

1.5

( )

Tensile Strength

Engr. Alexander D. Co 6

Reinforced Concrete Design

compressive strength. A major reason for this small strength is the fact that

concrete is filled with fine cracks.

The tensile strength of concrete doesnt vary in direct proportion to the

f 'c

square root of

. This strength is quite difficult to measure with

direct axial tension loads because problems in gripping test specimens

so as to avoid stress concentrations and because of difficulties aligning

the loads. As a result of these problems, two rather indirect tests have

been developed to measure concretes tensile strength. These are the

modulus of rupture and the split-cylinder tests.

The tensile strength of concrete is flexure is quite important when

considering beam cracks and deflections. For these considerations the

tensile strength obtained with the modulus of rupture test have long

been used. The modulus of rupture is usually measured by loading a

6-in x 6-in x 30-in plain rectangular beam with simple supports placed

24 in. on center) to failure with equal concentrated loads at its onethird points as per ASTM C496-96.

f r=modulus of rupture=

MC 6 M

= 2

I

bd

using the flexure formula we are assuming the concrete is perfectly

elastic, with stresses varying in direct proportion to distance from the

neutral axis. These assumptions are not very good.

Based on hundreds of tests, the Code provides a modulus of rupture

f 'c

equal to 0.7 f 'c where

is in MPa.

The tensile strength of concrete may also be measured with the splitcylinder test.

Engr. Alexander D. Co 7

Reinforced Concrete Design

The cylinder will split in half from end to end when its tensile strength

is reached. The tensile strength at which splitting occurs is referred to

as the split-cylinder strength and can be calculated with the following

expression,

2P

f r=

LD

In which

and

SI BAR SIZE

Table 1.1

is the length,

Engr. Alexander D. Co 8

Reinforced Concrete Design

Engr. Alexander D. Co 9

Reinforced Concrete Design

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