You are on page 1of 100

INFRASTRUKTUR TEKNOLOGI INFORMASI

INTRODUCTION

Information technology infrastructure -


Shared technology resources that provide
the platform for the firm’s specific
information system application

A-2
Infrastructure IT consists of

• A set of physical devices and software


application that required to operate the entire
enterprise.
• A set of firm wide services budgeted by
management and comprising both human
and technical capabilities.
The services include the following:

• Computing platform used to provide computing


services that connect employees, customers and
suppliers into a coherent digital environment, ex.;
large mainframe, desktop, laptop computers, PDA,
Internet application.
• Telecommunication services that provide data, voice
and video connectivity to employee, customers, and
supplier.
• Data management services that storage and
manage corporate data and provide capabilities to
analyzing the data.
• Application software services that provide enterprise
wide capabilities such as ERP, CRM, SCM, KMS.
The services…. (cont….)

• Physical facilities management services that develop and


manage the physical installations required for computing,
telecommunication, and data management services.
• IT management services that plan and develop the
infrastructure, coordinate with the business unit for IT
services, manage accounting for the IT expenditure, and
provide project management services.
• IT standard services that provide the firm and its business
units with policies that determine which IT will be used,
when and how.
The services…. (cont….)

• IT education services that provide training in


system use to employees and offers
managers training in how to plan for and
manage IT investment.
• IT research and development services that
provide the firm with research on potential
future IT project and investment that could
help the firm differentiate itself in the
marketplace.
• Adanya program-program layanan tersebut
membantu memahami nilai bisnis investasi
dalam infrastruktur TI. Contoh: penggunaan
layanan Internet berkecepatan tinggi akan
menghemat waktu karyawan rata-rata 1 jam
perhari untuk mendapatkan informasi
Internet.
Information technology (IT) – any
computer-based tool that people use to work
with information and support the information
and information-processing needs of an
organization

A-8
Infrastructure Component

1. Computer hardware platforms


2. Computer software platforms
3. Enterprise software application
4. Data management and storage
5. Networking/telecommunication platforms
6. Internet platforms
7. Consulting and system integrationservices
The change in IT infrastructure have
resulted from development in computer
processing, memory chip, storage
devices, telecommunications and
networking hardware and software, and
software design that have exponentially
increased computing power while
exponentially reducing costs.
Technology drivers of infrastructure
evolution

• Moore’s Law - Microprocessor Power


• The Law of Mass Digital Storage
• Metcalfe’s Law - Network Economics
• Declining communication cost and the
Internet
• Standards and network effects
Moore’s Law _ Microprocessor Power

Since the first microprocessor chip was introduced


in 1959, the number of components on a chip with
the smallest manufacturing cost per component
(generally transistors) had doubled each year.
1. The power of microprocessors doubles every 18
months
2. Computing power doubles every 18 months
3. The price of computing falls by half every 18
months
 The exponential growth in the number of transistor
and the power of processors coupled with the an
exponential decline in computing costs
Back
The Law of Mass Digital Storage

• The exponential decrease in the cost of


storing data and the number of kilobytes of
data that can be stored on magnetic media
for $1 roughly doubles every 15 months.

Back
Metcalfe’s Law - Network Economics

• The value or power of a network grows


exponentially as a function of the number of
network members. As the number of
members in a network grows linearly , the
value of the entire system grows
exponentially and continues to grow forever
as members increase. Demand for IT has
been driven by the social and business
values of digital networks, which rapidly
multiply the number of actual and potential
links among network members.
Back
Declining communication cost and Internet

• Rapid decline in costs of communication and


Internet has driven the exploding computer
use. To take the advantage of the business
value associated with the Internet, firm must
greatly expand their Internet connections,
including wireless connectivity, and greatly
expand the power of their client/server
networks, desktop clients, and mobile
computing devices.

Back
Standards and network effects
• Growing agreement in the technology industry to use computing and
communication standards.
• Technology standards unleash powerful economics of scale and result in
price declines as manufactures focus on the products built to a single
standard.
• Some important standards in computing:
-ASCII (mesin komputer dari pabrik yang berbeda bisa saling bertukar
data)
-COBOL (bahasa program yang digunakan oleh programer untuk
membuat program yang berhubungan dengan bisnis).
-IP/Internet Protocol (Protokol komunikasi yang memungkinkan jutaan
komputer saling terhubung dalam sebuah jaringan global (Internet)
-WWW/World Wide Web (standar untuk menyimpan, mencari,
mengformat dan menampilkan informasi dari sebuah web page
Back Next
Hubungan antara perusahaan, Infrastruktur
TI dan Kapabilitas Bisnis

Business
strategy

Customer
IT services services
IT strategy & Supplier
infrastructure services
Enterprise
services

IT
Hardware Platform Trend and Emerging
Technologies

• The Integration of Computing and


Telecommunication Platforms
• Grid Computing
• On-Demand Computing (Utility Computing)
• Autonomic Computing and Edge Computing
• Virtualization and Multicore Processors
Software Platform Trend and Emerging
Technologies

• Linux and open source software


• Java
• Enterprise software
• Web services and services-oriented
architecture
• Mashups and Web-based software
applications
• Software outsourcing
Management Issues

• Dealing with infrastructure change


• Management and Governance
• Making wise infrastructure investments
-competitive forces model for IT infrastructure
investments
Many Tools of IT

A-21
Key Technology Categories
Computer hardware platform

• Hardware – the physical devices that make


up a computer (often referred to as the
computer system)

A-23
Six Categories of Hardware

1. Input device – tool that you use to enter


information and commands
2. Output device – tool you use to hear, see,
hear, or otherwise recognize the results of
your information-processing requests
3. Storage device – tool you use to store
information for use at a later date

A-24
Six Categories of Hardware

4. Central processing unit (CPU) – the


hardware that interprets and executes
software and coordinates all hardware
Random access memory (RAM) –
temporary holding area for information, as
well as system and application software
instructions

A-25
Six Categories of Hardware

5. Telecommunications device – tool you


use to send information to and receive it
from another person or computer in a
network
6. Connecting hardware – any hardware that
lets you connect peripherals to your
computer, such as cables, ports, expansion
boards, etc.

A-26
Six Categories of Hardware

A-27
CATEGORIES OF COMPUTERS BY
SIZE

• Personal digital assistant (PDA) – small


hand-held computer for personal tasks like
appointment scheduling and address book
maintenance

• Tablet PC – pen-based computer with the


functionality of a notebook or desktop

A-28
CATEGORIES OF COMPUTERS BY
SIZE

• Notebook computer – small, portable, fully


functional, battery-powered computer

• Desktop computer – most popular type of


personal computer

A-29
PDA, Tablet PC, Notebook, Desktop

A-30
Minicomputers, Mainframes, and
Supercomputers

• Minicomputer (mid-range computer) –


meets needs of several people
simultaneously in a small or medium-sized
business
• Mainframe computer – meets needs of
hundreds of people in a large business
• Supercomputer – fastest, most powerful,
and most expensive type of computer

A-31
Minicomputers, Mainframes, and
Supercomputers

A-32
Komputer mainframe

• Komputer terbesar dengan kemampuan


pengolahan yang sangat cepat dan memiliki
kapasitas memori besar, biasanya digunakan
untuk bisnis skala besar, aplikasi ilmiah atau
militer
Komputer menengah

• Komputer berukuran sedang yang mampu


mendukung komputasi pada organisasi kecil
atau untuk mengelola jaringan dari komputer
lain.
Minikomputer

• Komputer yang memiliki daya cakup


menengah digunakan dalam sistem untuk
universitas, pabrik atau laboratorium
penelitian
Workstation

• Komputer kecil yang memiliki kemampuan


pengolahan grafis dan matematika yang
besar dan sanggup menjalankan beberapa
tugas rumit secara bersamaan.
Komputer klien/server

• Komputer klien: poin pemasukan dari


pengguna sebagai fungsi yang diperlukan
dalam komputasi klien/server, biasanya
berupa mikrokomputer, workstation, atau
laptop komputer
• Komputer server:komputer yang secara
khusus dibuat untuk menyediakan perangkat
lunak dan sumber-sumber bagi komputer lain
melalui jaringan.
Information Representation

A-38
Common Input Devices

A-39
Categories of Input Devices

A-40
Input Devices for Information and
Commands

• Keyboards – most frequently input devices


for notebooks and desktops to enter
information and commands
• Stylus – most frequently used input devices
for PDAs and tablet PCs to enter information
and commands

A-41
Input Devices for Commands

• Pointing Device – used to input commands


– Mouse – device you use to click on icons and
buttons
– Trackball – similar to a mechanical mouse, but
with the ball on top

A-42
Input Devices for Commands

– Touchpad – dark rectangle you use to


move the cursor with your finger
– Pointing stick – a little rod, used mostly
on notebooks

A-43
Game Controllers

• Game controller – used for gaming to


control screen action
– Gaming wheel – steering wheel and foot pedals
for virtual driving

A-44
Game Controllers

– Joystick – controls action with a vertical handle


and programmable buttons
– Gamepad – device with programmable buttons,
thumb sticks, and a directional pad

A-45
Scanners

• Scanners – used to convert information that


exists in visible form into electronic form
– Image scanner – captures images, photos, text,
and artwork
– Bar code scanner – reads information in the form
of vertical bars

A-46
Scanners

– Optical mark reader – detects the presence or


absence of a mark
– Optical character reader – reads characters that
appear on paper or sales tag (used in POS
systems)
– Biometric scanner – scans a human physical
attribute, like a fingerprint or iris, for security
purposes

A-47
Digital Cameras

• Digital camera – captures still image or


video as a series of 1s and 0s
– Digital still camera – digitally captures still
images in varying resolutions
– Digital video camera – captures video digitally
– Webcam – captures digital video for the Web

A-48
Categories of Output Devices

A-49
Monitors

A-50
Monitors

• CRT – monitors that look like traditional TV


sets
• Flat-panel display – thin, lightweight
monitors that take up much less space than
CRTs

A-51
Monitors

• Two types of flat-panel displays


– Liquid crystal display (LCD) monitor – sends
electricity through crystallized liquid between
layers of glass or plastic
– Gas plasma display – sends electricity through
gas trapped between layers of glass or plastic

A-52
Important Considerations

• Viewable image size (VIS) – the size of the


image on a monitor
• Resolution of a screen – the number of
pixels it has
• Pixels (picture elements) – the dots that
make up the image
• Dot pitch – the distance between the centers
of two like-colored pixels

A-53
Printers

A-54
Printers

• Resolution of a printer – the number of dots


per square inch (dpi) it produces
• Types
– Inkjet printer – makes images by forcing ink
through nozzles
– Laser printer – forms images using the same
electrostatic process that photocopiers use
– Multifunction printer – scan, copy, and fax, as
well as print
A-55
Categories of Storage Devices

A-56
Capacity of Storage Devices

• Megabyte (MB or M or Meg) – about 1


million bytes
• Gigabyte (GB or Gig) – about 1 billion bytes
• Terabyte (TB) – about 1 trillion bytes

A-57
Magnetic Storage Devices and Media

A-58
Magnetic Storage Media

• Hard disk – magnetic storage with one or


more thin metal platters sealed inside the
drive
• Zip disk – high capacity (100 MB, 250 MB,
and 750 MB) removable storage medium
• Floppy disk – removable storage medium
that holds 1.44 MB

A-59
Optical Storage Media

A-60
Optical (or Laser) Storage Media

• Optical storage media – plastic discs on


which information is stored, deleted, and
changed using laser technology
• Two types
– CDs
– DVDs

A-61
CDs

• CD-ROM (compact disc read-only


memory) – information cannot be changed
• CD-R (compact disc – recordable) – write
one time only
• CD-RW (compact disc – rewritable) – save,
change, and delete files repeatedly

A-62
DVDs

• DVD-ROM – high capacity; information


cannot be changed
• DVD-R or DVD+R (DVD – recordable) –
high capacity; write one time only
• DVD-RW or DVD+R (depending on
manufacturer) – save, change, delete
repeatedly

A-63
Flash Memory Devices and Cards

• Flash memory device – very small storage


device that plugs into USB port
• Flash memory card – high capacity storage
laminated inside a small piece of plastic

A-64
Common Types of Flash Memory

A-65
Flash Memory Cards

• xD-Picture (xD) card – rectangular; smaller


than a penny and about as thick with one
curved side
• Secure Digital (SD) card and
MultiMediaCard (MMC) – look the same but
SD has copy protection; are both larger and
thicker than a quarter (but rectangular)

A-66
Flash Memory Cards

• CompactFlash (CF) card – almost square;


larger than a half-dollar
• SmartMedia (SM) card – rectangular; longer
than CF
• Memory Stick Media card – elongated card
as wide as a penny developed by Sony

A-67
CPU and RAM

A-68
CPU and RAM

• CPU and RAM work together to form the


brain of your computer
• CPU speed measured in gigahertz (GHz)
– GHz – number of billions of CPU cycles per
second
– CPU (machine) cycle – retrieve, decode, and
execute instruction, then return result to RAM if
necessary

A-69
CPU Components

• CPU components
– Control unit – directs what happens in the CPU
and the rest of your computer
– Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) – performs
arithmetic, comparison, and logic operations
– CPU cache – CPU memory where instructions
wait until they’re needed
– CPU clock – beats to keep instructions and
information moving in synchronized fashion

A-70
System Bus

• System bus – electrical pathways that move


information between motherboard
components, especially between CPU and
RAM

A-71
CPU and RAM at Work

A-72
CPU (Machine) Cycle

1. Retrieve: The control unit sends to RAM for


the instructions and information it needs
2. Decode: CPU gets the instruction out of
cache and examines it to see what to do
3. Execute: Does what the instruction says to
do
4. Store: Sends the result of processing to be
stored in RAM if necessary

A-73
Notebook CPUs and RAM

• Mobile CPU – type of CPU that changes


speed, and therefore power consumption, in
response to fluctuation in use
• RAM for notebooks comes in smaller
modules than RAM for desktops

A-74
Categories of Connectors and Ports

A-75
Connecting Hardware Outside to the
Hardware Inside

• Port – place on your system unit, monitor, or


keyboard through which information and
instructions flow to and from computer

A-76
Connecting Hardware Outside to the
Hardware Inside

• Some ports work with plug-and-play and hot-


swap ports and devices
– Plug and play – operating system feature that
finds and installs the driver for the device
– Hot swap – operating system feature that allows
you to plug or unplug a device while the computer
is running

A-77
Ports

• USB (universal serial bus) port – fits small,


flat, plug-and-play, hot-swap USB connectors
• Firewire port (IEEE1394 or I-Link) – fits hot-
swap, plug-and-play Firewire connectors

A-78
Ports

• PS/2 port – fits PS/2 connectors (used for


keyboards and mice)
• Parallel port – fits parallel large flat parallel
connectors found on printers

A-79
Common Ports and Connectors

A-80
Wireless Connections

• Infrared IR or IrDA (infrared data


association) – uses red light to send and
receive information
• Bluetooth – transmits information as radio
waves for a distance of 30 feet
• WiFi (wireless fidelity) or IEEE 802.11a, b,
or g – transmits information as radio waves
for a distance of up to 300 feet

A-81
Expansion Bus, Slots and Card

A-82
Expansion Cards and Slots

• Expansion card (board) – circuit board that


you insert into the expansion slot and
connect to a peripheral device
• Expansion slot – long skinny socket on the
motherboard for expansion card
• Expansion bus – pathways along which
information moves between devices (outside
the motherboard) and the CPU

A-83
Expansion for Notebooks

• PC Card – expansion card for a notebook


• PC Card slot – opening on side or front of a
notebook, into which you plug a PC Card

A-84
PC Card for a Notebook

A-85
Computer software platform

• Software – the set of instruction that your


hardware executes to carry out a specific
task for you
Three Major Categories of Software

1. Application
software –
enables you to
solve specific
problems or
perform
specific tasks

A-87
Three Major Categories of Software

2. System software - handles tasks specific to


technology management and coordinates
the interaction of all technology devices
– Operating system software – controls
application software and manages hardware
devices

A-88
Three Major Categories of Software

3. Utility software – provides additional


functionality to your operating system
software

A-89
SOFTWARE – YOUR INTELLECTUAL
INTERFACE

• Personal productivity software – helps you


perform personal tasks
– Writing memos
– Creating graphs
– Creating slide presentations
• Software suite – several applications
bundled together (usually productivity
software)

A-90
Application Software

• Word processing – helps you create letters,


memos, and other basic documents
• Spreadsheet – helps you work with
numbers, perform calculations and create
graphs

A-91
Application Software

• Presentation – helps you create and edit


information that will appear in slides
• Desktop publishing – extends word
processing by including design and
formatting techniques to enhance the
appearance of the document

A-92
Application Software

• Personal information management (PIM) –


helps you create and maintain to-do lists,
appointments, calendars, etc.
• Personal finance – helps you maintain your
checkbook and handle other personal finance
tasks

A-93
Application Software

• Web authoring – helps you design and


develop Web sites
• Graphics – helps you create and edit photos
and art
• Communications – helps you communicate
with others

A-94
Application Software

• Database management system (DBMS) –


helps you specify the logical organization for
a database; access and use the information
within a database

A-95
Vertical and Horizontal Market Software

• Vertical market software – application


software for a specific industry
– Patient-scheduling software
– Restaurant management software
• Horizontal market software – application
software suitable for use in many industries
– Payroll, inventory, and billing

A-96
System Software

• Operating system software


– Microsoft Windows XP Home – update of Office
– Microsoft Windows XP Pro – update of Office
Pro
– Mac OS – Operating system for Macs
– Linux – powerful open-source operating system

A-97
Multitasking

• Multitasking
– working with
more than one
application at
a time

A-98
Utility Software

• Anti-virus software – detects and removes


or quarantines computer viruses
• Crash-proof software – helps save
information if your system crashes
• Uninstaller software – removes software
from your hard disk
• Disk optimization software – organizes
information on your hard disk

A-99
CAN YOU…

1. Define information technology (IT) and its two


basic categories: Hardware and software
2. Describe the categories of computers based on
size
3. Compare the roles of vertical market, and
horizontal market software
4. Describe the roles of operating system and utility
software as components of system software
5. Describe the technology drivers of IT
infrastructure evolution
A-100