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- sometimes referred to as clay products or silicate industries

- are on the manufacture of materials that could withstand high temperatures, resist
great pressures, have superior mechanical properties, possess special electrical
characteristics, or can protect against corrosive chemicals.
Ceramics comprise all engineering materials or products that are chemically
inorganic, except metals and metal alloys, and are usually rendered serviceable
through high temperature processing.
Ceramics are regarded as "non-metallic, inorganic substances that are
manufactured through a process of molding or shaping and exposure to high
Ceramics is derived from the Greek word keramos, which means "burned clay."
Archeologists have uncovered human-made ceramics that date back to at least 24,0
BC. These ceramics were found in Czechoslovakia and were in the form of animal
and human figurines, slabs, and balls. These ceramics were made of animal fat and
bone mixed with bone ash and a fine claylike material. After forming, the ceramics
were fired at temperatures between 500-800C in domed and horseshoe shaped kilns
partially dug into the ground with less walls.
first use of
functional pottery vessels is thought to be in 9,000 BC. These vessels were most likely
used to hold and store grain and other foods.
It is thought that ancient glass manufacture is closely related to pottery making, whi
flourished in Upper Egypt about 8,000 BC. While firing pottery, the presence of
calcium oxide (CaO) containing sand combined with soda and the overheating of the
pottery kiln may have resulted in a colored glaze on the ceramic pot. Experts believe
that it was not until 1,500 BC that glass was produced independently of ceramics and
fashioned into separate items.
1. Glass - Amorphous substance made by fusing and forming minerals such as silica,
limestone and soda ash.
2. Cement - Fine powder made by mixing, firing and grinding minerals such as
limestone and silica, which bind stone and sand through hydration to make
3. Refractories - Able to withstand high temperatures: used in the construction of kilns
for making iron, steel and glass.

4. Grinding Wheel - Made by binding fine-grain alumina and silicon carbide.

5. Porcelain Enamel - Metal plate coated with fused glass.
6. Pottery and Ceramics - Made by forming and firing raw materials including clay and
pottery stones. They are divided into several categories, such as earthenware and
porcelain, depending on such factors as raw material composition, firing
temperatures and water absorption. Fine Ceramics are primarily composed of
unique minerals such as alumina porcelain.
a) Earthenware - Includes clay biscuit vessels that are kneaded, shaped and fired at
low temperatures (approx. 800C/1,472F).
b) Pottery - Includes glazed ceramics fired at higher temperatures than
earthenware (1,000 - 1,250C/1,832 - 2,282F), but which possess water
absorption properties.
c) Stoneware - These ceramics are composed of purer clay, fire-hardened and
lacking water absorption properties.
d) Porcelain - Includes colorfully glazed, white ceramics hardened by forming and
firing mixtures of high-purity clays (or pottery stones), silica and feldspar. They
were developed during China's Sui and Tang Dynasties (600 - 700 A.D.) and
adopted worldwide.
e) Fine Ceramics - Engineered materials with chemical compositions that are
precisely adjusted using refined or synthesized raw powders and well-controlled
methods of forming, sintering and processing. With higher levels of functionality
compared to conventional ceramics, they are widely used in fields such as
semiconductors, automobiles and industrial machinery. Fine Ceramics are also
called new ceramics or advanced ceramics.
A. CLAY -- are more-or-less impure hydrated aluminum silicates that have
resulted from the weathering of igneous rocks in which feldspar was a
noteworthy original mineral. Clay is the plastic component, giving shaping
abilities to the unfired product and also serving as a glass former during
B. FELDSPAR -- is of great importance as a fluxing constituent in ceramic
formulas. Feldspar serves as a fluxing agent, lowering the melting
temperatures of the mixture.
C. SAND or flint (the common name used in the industry for all forms of
silica) serves as a filler, lending strength to the shaped body before and
during firing.


The KYOCERA Corporation
A multinational electronics and ceramics manufacturer headquartered in
Kyoto, Japan. It was founded as Kyoto Ceramic Company, Limited in1959 by Kazuo
Inamori and renamed in 1982. The company has diversified its founding technology
in ceramic materials through internal development as well as strategic mergers and
acquisitions. It manufactures industrial ceramics, solar power generating systems,
telecommunications equipment, office document imaging equipment, electronic
components, semiconductor packages, cutting tools, and components for medical
and dental implant systems.
April 1959 with capital of 3 million yen and 28 staff members, Kyoto Ceramic Co.,
Ltd. (now KYOCERA Corporation) is founded in Kyoto, Japan as a company
specializing in fine ceramics. The companys facilities include a headquarters and
April 1960 KYOCERAs Tokyo office opens in Tokyo, Japan.
July 1969 KYOCERA International, Inc. is established as KYOCERAs North
American sales company.
December 1977 KYOCERA (Hong Kong) Ltd. (now KYOCERA Asia Pacific Pte. Ltd.)
begins business in Hong Kong.
September 1979 KYOCERA invests capital in Cybernet Electronics Corp.
October 1979 Central Research Laboratory opens in Kokubu (now Kirishima City),
Kagoshima, Japan.
December 1979 Kagoshima Electronics Co., Ltd. is established in Kagoshima,
May 1981 KYOCERA Business Machines Co., Ltd. (now KYOCERA Communications
Systems Co., Ltd) is established in Japan.
October 1982 Four affiliates, including Cybernet Electronics Corp., merge with
Kyoto Ceramic Co., Ltd to form KYOCRA Corporation.
April 1990 KYOCERA Industrial Ceramics Corp. is established in Vancouver,
Washington, USA.
September 1995 KYOCERA Communication Systems Co., Ltd. is established in
Kyoto, Japan.
September 1996 Kyocera Solar Corp. is established in Kyoto, Japan.
January 2000 Mita Corp. is reorganized to become KYOCERA Mita Corp. (now
KYOCERA Document Solutions Inc.)
February 2000 KYOCERA Wireless Corp. (now KYOCERA Communications, Inc.) is
established in California USA.

January 2001 Tycom Corp. (now KYOCERA Precision Tools Inc. ) joins the
August 2002 Toshiba Chemical Corp. is reorganized to become KYOCERA
Chemical Corp.
August 2003 Kinseki Limited (now KYOCERA Crystal Device Corp.) becomes a
wholly owned subsidiary of KYOCERA Corp.
- KYOCERA SLC Technologies Corp. (now KYOCERA Circuit Solutions
Inc.) is established in Shiga, Japan.
September 2004 Japan Medical Materials Corp. (now KYOCERA Medical Corp.) is
established in Osaka, Japan.
July 2011 Unimerco Group (now KYOCERA UNIMERCO A/S) joins the KYOCERA
August 2011- KYOCERA Vietnam Management Company Ltd. (now KYOCERA
Vietnam Co., Ltd.) is established in Vietnam.
February 2012 - Optrex Corporation (now KYOCERA Display Corporation) joins the
June 2012 KYOCERA CTC Precision Tools Private Limited is established in India as
a cutting tool manufacturer.
October 2013 - NEC Toppan Circuit Solutions, Inc. (now KYOCERA Circuit Solutions,
Inc.) joins the KYOCERA Group.
A. Raw materials
1) Barium titanate (3) - Used for capacitors due to its high dielectric constant
and superiority in storing electricity. Additives can drastically change its dielectric
2) Lead zirconate titanate ((, )3 ) - A piezoelectric material vibrates when
electrical signals are applied, and also converts vibration into electrical signals. Lead
zirconate titanate offers strong piezoelectric properties for electronic component
applications, such as resonators, buzzers and filters.
3) Ferrite (2+ 2 3 ) - This magnetic ceramic exhibits high permeability, electrical
resistance and abrasion resistance. It is widely used in magnetic heads and magnetic
cores for high frequency electronics.
4) Forsterite (2 2 ) - Characterized by low microwave loss, superior high
temperature insulating properties and a smooth surface, forsterite is suitable for
use in electron tubes and circuit boards. In addition, its high coefficient of thermal
expansion is close to that of metals and glass, allowing forsterite to be joined or
bonded to these materials reliably.
5) Zirconia (2) - Zirconia is the strongest and toughest material among Fine
Ceramics. It is used to create special blades for high-performance scissors and
knives, once considered impossible applications. Single-crystal zirconia is also used

in decorative applications and jewelry due to its high refractive index, which
produces a diamond-like brilliance.
6) Zircon (2 2 ) - With a low coefficient of thermal expansion and superior
thermal shock resistance, this material is used for heat-resistant components, wirewound resistive bobbins and electron tube components.
7) Mullite (33 22 ) - Mullite offers heat resistance, thermal shock resistance and
excellent resistance to the structural fatigue mechanism known as "creep." It also
displays a coefficient of thermal expansion similar to silicon semiconductor chips,
making it useful in semiconductor package applications.
8) Steatite ( 2) - This material offers electrical and mechanical properties
superior to conventional porcelains, and excellent machinability.
9) Cordierite (2 22 3 52 ) - Low thermal expansion gives cordierite
superior thermal shock resistance. Due to its porous properties, it is used for
honeycomb carriers as well as refractories for electric heaters and industrial
chemical equipment materials.
10)Aluminum nitride () - With excellent thermal conductivity, aluminum nitride is
used in applications that require heat dissipation, such as semiconductor packages.
11)Silicon nitride (3 4 ) - Among Fine Ceramics, this lightweight, corrosion resistant
material offers the highest level of toughness and thermal shock resistance at high
temperatures, making it ideal for use in engine components.
12)Silicon Carbide () - This artificial compound is synthesized from silica sand and
carbon. It provides the best combination of heat resistance, light weight and
corrosion resistance, and maintains its strength at high temperatures (1,500oC /
B. Process
1) Milling/Mixing
Raw material milling and mixing are important processes in the
production of Fine Ceramics that determine the material properties, quality
and stability of finished products. Raw powder and solvating media (such as
water) are fed into a mill with ceramic balls. This ball mill is then rotated or
shaken to create a uniform mixture (called a slurry), with evenly distributed
particles of various sizes. Adjustments are made by adding raw powder and
binder dispersants throughout this process.
2) Spraying/Drying
A slurry adjusted through raw material milling and mixing is sprayed
and dried in a hot-air spray dryer to form a granulated powder of spherical
bodies. Enhancing the spherical composition of the raw material helps
facilitate the next process: filling the forming dies.

3) Forming
a) Cold Isostatic Press (CIP)
This forming method involves pressing dried and granulated raw
materials into a shape close to that of the finished product.
The granulated raw materials are poured into a rubber mold. The
mold is then put in a high-pressure container, where hydraulic pressure is
applied evenly from all directions (isostatic pressing) in order to provide
uniform, highly dense compaction. This method is ideal for forming products
with large dimensions.
b) Cutting
Because ceramics are very hard, cutting them after they have been
sintered requires considerable energy and specialized tools such as diamond
wheels. Considering this, engineers strive to cut or process ceramics into a
shape as close to the finished shape as possible before sintering, which
involves estimating the degree of shrinkage that will take place during the
sintering process. Super hard tools and drills are used in this process.
c) Dry Pressing
This forming method involves filling a die with dried and granulated
raw materials, and pressing them into a shape close to that of the finished
Granulated raw materials fill a metallic mold, and pressure is applied
from the top and bottom (uniaxial press) to achieve highly dense compaction.
This method is ideal for mass-producing semi-complex machinery parts
which require high levels of dimensional accuracy.
d) Hot Pressing
This forming method involves applying pressure at high temperatures
in order to reduce porosity (voids) and produce dense sintered bodies.
A carbon mold is filled with raw powder, which is then heated and
pressurized simultaneously from the top and bottom to make a sintered
body. This method yields ceramic bodies of simple shapes.
e) Injection/Casting
This is a forming method in which dried and granulated raw materials
are mixed with additives to provide a degree of fluidity. The raw material is
then pressure-filled into a forming die that gives it a shape close to that of the
finished product.
In the injection molding process, raw materials are mixed with resin
in order to provide the necessary degree of fluidity, and then injected into the

molding die. The mold is then cooled to harden the binder and produce a
"green" compact part (also known as an unsintered powder compact).
In the casting process, mixed raw materials are combined with
solvating media and a dispersant, and then fed into an absorbent die. The
materials are then dehydrated and solidified to make a compact.
Both methods are suitable for complex, three-dimensionally shaped
products requiring high levels of dimensional accuracy.
f) Tape Casting
This method is used to produce continuous thin compacts using
slurries composed of raw powder, binder and solvating media.
The tape casting process generally employs a "doctor blade" to spread
the slurry into a thin film. This process is ideal for preparing the "green"
(unfired ceramic) tape used in manufacturing multilayer ceramic integrated
circuit packages and ceramic chip capacitors.
g) Extrusion
This is a forming method in which dried and granulated raw materials
are mixed with water, binder, a plasticizing agent and a dispersing agent. The
resulting clay-like, plastic body is then extruded into the desired shape under
This method is ideal for long products with continuous and
unchanging cross-sections.
4) Firing
a) Sintering
In the firing process, raw materials that are compression-molded
(volumetric filling rate: approx. 60%) are heated at temperatures below their
melting points to sinter powder and create density. Ceramic powder particles
induce mass transfer at high temperatures through contact points between
particles, combining in a manner similar to water droplets. Depending on the
intended application, a variety of sintering methods may be used such as
vacuum sintering, atmosphere sintering and sintering in non-oxidizing
b) Hot Isostatic Press (HIP)
In this process, gas pressure is applied isostatically at high
temperatures to enhance sintering and produce dense bodies. After materials
are pre-sintered, and their density is increased to almost 95 percent of the
theoretical density, they are placed in a pressure container equipped with a
furnace. Gas pressure is then applied isostatically at 1,000 to 2,000
atmospheres while being heated.

5) Grinding/Bonding
a) Grinding/Polishing
This important process is designed to fabricate products with high
levels of dimensional accuracy and mirror-finished surfaces. It is generally
performed using a diamond wheel. Because ceramics are extremely hard, it is
necessary to use diamond for the grinding and polishing process.
b) Metallization
Metallization refers to the process of affixing a metallic layer to the
surface of a sintered body to form conductive patterns or provide hermetic
One method involves coating the ceramic surface with a paste
containing metallic powder, and then applying high temperatures to burn
this metallic layer onto the surface of the ceramic. A related method involves
applying metallic layers through an electroplating process.
c) Bonding
This is an important and value-adding process for joining multiple
ceramic products, or joining ceramic products to metallic or resin materials.
Several methods may be employed to combine these items, including
mechanical joining or other processes using adhesives, glass or wax.
6) Inspection
Products are delivered after rigorous inspection. This inspection
ensures that all products are tested to perform at the highest level and allows
customers to use them with confidence.

Mariano Marcos State University

Department of Chemical Engineering

CHE 132

Eunice A. Flores

Engr. Eric R. Halabaso