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# 2.

Buckling of plates
Linear and nonlinear theory of buckling, buckling under direct stresses
(class 4 sections), buckling under shear, local loading and Eurocode approach.

various loading

## Solution is based on linearized relation of a plate

with large deflections":
2
2
4w
4w
4w
2w
*
* w
* w

D
+
2
+
+
N
+
2
N
+
N
=0
x
xy
y
4
x y
x 2 y 2 y 4
x 2
y 2
x

various boundary
conditions

lowest

## respective shapes of deflection w

(modes of buckling)

cr = k E

OK3

or

cr = k E

Euler stress
1

"Euler stress"

PE
b
1

PE

2

PE
2D
2E t
t
E =
=
=
= 189800
2
2
1 t 1 t b
12 1 b
b

k = 4

## (depends on loading and boundary

conditions, see literature)

k = 23,9

b
k = 5,34 + 4
a

for

a
1
b

## Strength of an actual (imperfect) plate

Equations of a plate with large deflections (Karmans equations):
(1)
(2)

4w
2 2w
4w
4w
2 2w 2 2w

= 0

D
+2 2 2 +
Et 2
2
+
4
4
2
2
2
x
y
x
y

x
x
y
y
y
x
x
y

2
4
4
4
2
2
2

w w
w
=0
+2 2 2 +
+

4
4
2
2

y
x y
x
x y
y

OK3

## 2 Prof. Ing. Josef Machek, DrSc.

Plate imperfections

stability
(buckling modes)

initial
deflections

cr,1

w0 = b/200

cr,1

w0

cr,1

w0

t
beff/2

beff/2
initial
deflection

max = fy

OK3

## Resulting strengths are used in

the form of reduction (buckling)
factors :

fy

beff
b

= db
0

## Eurocode 1993-1-5: Plated structural elements

1. Buckling due to direct stress (loading N, M):

p 0,055 (3 + )

2
p

1,0

p =

fy

cr

b/t
28 ,4 k

p 0,188

2
p

= 2/1

1,0

## Verification of class 4 cross sections:

a) effective width method, in which the buckling parts of plates are excluded,
b) reduced stress method, in which the stresses of full cross section are
determined and limited by buckling reduction factors x, z, w:
I
a) aAeffA, I,eff
eff

eff

b)b A,A,I I

x x

, ,
, ,
x x z z

eMe

OK3

## 2 Prof. Ing. Josef Machek, DrSc.

Note:
b) does not include stress
redistribution after buckling
among individual parts of
cross section!!!
4

## Effective width method

The effectivep area of the compression zone of a plate:

Ac,eff = Ac

## internal elements: = 1/2

2
be1

be1 =

2
beff
5

1 > 0:

beff = b

< 0:

beff = bc = b / (1-)

be2
b

bc

bt

be1

be2

be2 = 0,6 beff

Factors k

1>>0

0 > > -1

-1

-1 > > -3

4,0

8,2/(1,05+)

7,81

7,81-6,29+9,782

23,9

5,98(1-)2

OK3

## 2 Prof. Ing. Josef Machek, DrSc.

outstand elements:
beff

= 1/2

bt

1 > 0:

bc

beff = c

c
1

-1

1 -3

0,43

0,57

0,85

0,57-0,21+0,0782

beff

c /(1- )

< 0:

1 > 0:

beff = bc =

beff

beff

< 0:

beff = c

bc

bt

beff = bc =

c /(1- )

Factors k

1>>0

0>>-1

-1

0,43

0,578/(+0,34)

1,70

1,7-5+17,12

23,8

OK3

## Effective cross sections (class 4 cross sections)

axial compression

moment
eM

eM

eN
this eccentricity invokes additional moment from the axial
force due to shift of neutral axis in interaction of M - N

by common way.

1 =

NEd
M + NEd eN
+ Ed
1,0
f y Aeff
f y W eff

M0

M0
OK3

## (in stability checks:

to introduce , LT)

Stiffened plates:

Ac,eff,loc

b1,edge,eff
Examples:
- stiffened flange of a box girder,
- web of a deep girder.

b2 2

2 b 3
b1
b2 2
3
2
2
2

b1
middle part

b3,edge,eff

b2

b3

edges

## Ac,eff = c Ac,eff,loc + bedge, eff t

global buckling reduction factor
(approx. given by reduction factor of the effective stiffener - possible to calculate as
a strut in compression)

## [For more details see subject:

Stability of plates]
OK3

of a box girder:

OK3

## 2. Shear buckling (loading by shear force V):

Rotating stress field theory is used. Influence of stiffeners is included
proportionally to higher critical stress after modification agrees with tests.
Design resistance to shear (including shear buckling):
= 1,2 up to steels S460

f y hw t

235
3 M1
fy
contribution from the flanges (can be ignored)
contribution from the web

## Vb,Rd = Vbw,Rd + Vbf,Rd

Verification of ULS:

3 =

VEd
1,0
Vb,Rd

tf
hw
tf

## Shear buckling may be ignored for web slenderness:

unstiffened webs
stiffened webs
(transverse, longitudinal)

hw 72

hw 31

k
t

OK3

bf

10

## Forming of tension diagonals in panels:

Phase 1
Beam behaviour

Phase 2
Truss behaviour

Phase 3
frame behaviour
(influence of several %)

OK3

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## Contribution from the web

Vbw,Rd =

w fyw hw t
3 M1

Factor w for the contribution of the web to the shear buckling resistance
may be (in acc. to tests) increased for rigid end post and internal panels:
Slenderness

0,83 / w

0,83 / w

w < 0,83 /
0,83 / w < 1,08

1,37 / 0,7 + w

w 1,08

0,83 / w

w
1,2
1

difference 22%

Reason:
anchorage
of panels

w
OK3

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Web slenderness

fy / 3

w =

cr

hw
86,4 t

hw

w =

na

hw
37,4 t

## Critical stress factor k:

k = 5 ,34 + 4 ,00 (hw / a )
2
k = 4 ,00 + 5 ,34 (hw / a )
2

as far as a / hw 1
as far as a / hw < 1

## [For webs with longitudinal stiffeners

see course: Stability of plates]
OK3

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## 3. Buckling under local loading

3 types of loading are distinguished:
a) through the flange ,
b) through the flange and transferred directly to the other one,
c) through the flange adjacent to an unstiffened end.
Type (a)

Type (b)

Fs
ss

V1,s

Type (c)

Fs
V
V2,s

2,s

hw

ss

Fs
c

ss

Vs

FRd = Leff t w

fy

## reduction factor due to local buckling

(governed by critical stress)

M1

OK3

## effective loaded length

(governed by ss)
[In detail see Eurocode,
or course: Stability of plates]

14

OK3

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## Verification for local buckling:

2 =

FEd
=
FRd

FEd
Leff t w

fy

1,0

M1

Interaction N + M + F:

2 + 0,8 1 1,4
i.e.:

FEd
Leff t w

fy

M1

MEd + NEd eN
NEd
+ 0,8
+
1,4
fy Aeff
fy Weff

M0
M0

OK3

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