You are on page 1of 16

2.

Buckling of plates
Linear and nonlinear theory of buckling, buckling under direct stresses
(class 4 sections), buckling under shear, local loading and Eurocode approach.

Stability of an ideal (flat) plate


various loading

Solution is based on linearized relation of a plate


with large deflections":
2
2
4w
4w
4w
2w
*
* w
* w

D
+
2
+
+
N
+
2
N
+
N
=0
x
xy
y
4
x y
x 2 y 2 y 4
x 2
y 2
x

various boundary
conditions

+ relevant boundary conditions

critical stresses * (or N*) take the


lowest

Thereof infinitely many solutions:

Critical stresses are given as:

respective shapes of deflection w


(modes of buckling)

cr = k E

critical stress factor


OK3

2 Prof. Ing. Josef Machek, DrSc.

or

cr = k E

Euler stress
1

"Euler stress"

PE
b
1

PE

Auxiliary value, for a compression strut of width "1":


2

PE
2D
2E t
t
E =
=
=
= 189800
2
2
1 t 1 t b
12 1 b
b

Critical stress factor:

k = 4

(depends on loading and boundary


conditions, see literature)

k = 23,9

b
k = 5,34 + 4
a

for

a
1
b

Strength of an actual (imperfect) plate


Equations of a plate with large deflections (Karmans equations):
(1)
(2)

4w
2 2w
4w
4w
2 2w 2 2w

= 0

D
+2 2 2 +
Et 2
2
+
4
4
2
2
2
x
y
x
y

x
x
y
y
y
x
x
y

2
4
4
4
2
2
2



w w
w
=0
+2 2 2 +
+

4
4
2
2

y
x y
x
x y
y

OK3

2 Prof. Ing. Josef Machek, DrSc.

Plate imperfections

stability
(buckling modes)

initial
deflections

residual stresses due to welding

cr,1

w0 = b/200

cr,1

w0

cr,1

w0

Example of a compression plate with initial deflections and residual stresses:


t
beff/2

beff/2
initial
deflection

max = fy

OK3

2 Prof. Ing. Josef Machek, DrSc.

Resulting strengths are used in


the form of reduction (buckling)
factors :

fy

beff
b

= db
0

Eurocode 1993-1-5: Plated structural elements


1. Buckling due to direct stress (loading N, M):

p 0,055 (3 + )

2
p

1,0

p =

fy

cr

For outstand compression elements similarly: =

b/t
28 ,4 k

p 0,188

2
p

= 2/1

1,0

(for k see Eurocode)

Verification of class 4 cross sections:


a) effective width method, in which the buckling parts of plates are excluded,
b) reduced stress method, in which the stresses of full cross section are
determined and limited by buckling reduction factors x, z, w:
I
a) aAeffA, I,eff
eff

eff

b)b A,A,I I

x x

, ,
, ,
x x z z

eMe

OK3

2 Prof. Ing. Josef Machek, DrSc.

Note:
b) does not include stress
redistribution after buckling
among individual parts of
cross section!!!
4

Effective width method


The effectivep area of the compression zone of a plate:

Ac,eff = Ac

internal elements: = 1/2

2
be1

be1 =

2
beff
5

1 > 0:

beff = b

< 0:

beff = bc = b / (1-)

be2 = beff - be1

be2
b

bc

bt

be1

be2

be1 = 0,4 beff


be2 = 0,6 beff

Factors k

1>>0

0 > > -1

-1

-1 > > -3

4,0

8,2/(1,05+)

7,81

7,81-6,29+9,782

23,9

5,98(1-)2

OK3

2 Prof. Ing. Josef Machek, DrSc.

outstand elements:
beff

= 1/2

bt

1 > 0:

bc

beff = c

c
1

-1

1 -3

0,43

0,57

0,85

0,57-0,21+0,0782

beff

c /(1- )

< 0:

1 > 0:

beff = bc =

beff

beff

< 0:

beff = c

bc

bt

beff = bc =

c /(1- )

Factors k

1>>0

0>>-1

-1

0,43

0,578/(+0,34)

1,70

1,7-5+17,12

23,8

OK3

2 Prof. Ing. Josef Machek, DrSc.

Effective cross sections (class 4 cross sections)


axial compression

moment
eM

eM

eN
this eccentricity invokes additional moment from the axial
force due to shift of neutral axis in interaction of M - N

Effective parameters of class 4 cross sections (Aeff, Weff) are determined


by common way.

Verification of cross section in ULS:

1 =

NEd
M + NEd eN
+ Ed
1,0
f y Aeff
f y W eff

M0

M0
OK3

2 Prof. Ing. Josef Machek, DrSc.

(in stability checks:


to introduce , LT)

Stiffened plates:

Ac,eff,loc

b1,edge,eff
Examples:
- stiffened flange of a box girder,
- web of a deep girder.

b2 2

2 b 3
b1
b2 2
3
2
2
2

b1
middle part

b3,edge,eff

b2

b3

edges

Ac,eff = c Ac,eff,loc + bedge, eff t


global buckling reduction factor
(approx. given by reduction factor of the effective stiffener - possible to calculate as
a strut in compression)

[For more details see subject:


Stability of plates]
OK3

2 Prof. Ing. Josef Machek, DrSc.

Example of buckling of longitudinally and transversally stiffened flange


of a box girder:

OK3

2 Prof. Ing. Josef Machek, DrSc.

2. Shear buckling (loading by shear force V):


Rotating stress field theory is used. Influence of stiffeners is included
proportionally to higher critical stress after modification agrees with tests.
Design resistance to shear (including shear buckling):
= 1,2 up to steels S460

f y hw t

235
3 M1
fy
contribution from the flanges (can be ignored)
contribution from the web

Vb,Rd = Vbw,Rd + Vbf,Rd

Verification of ULS:

3 =

VEd
1,0
Vb,Rd

tf
hw
tf

Shear buckling may be ignored for web slenderness:


unstiffened webs
stiffened webs
(transverse, longitudinal)

hw 72

(i.e. 60 for S235)

hw 31

k
t

OK3

2 Prof. Ing. Josef Machek, DrSc.

bf

10

Forming of tension diagonals in panels:

Phase 1
Beam behaviour

Phase 2
Truss behaviour

Phase 3
frame behaviour
(influence of several %)

OK3

2 Prof. Ing. Josef Machek, DrSc.

11

Contribution from the web

Vbw,Rd =

w fyw hw t
3 M1

Factor w for the contribution of the web to the shear buckling resistance
may be (in acc. to tests) increased for rigid end post and internal panels:
Slenderness

Rigid end post

Non-rigid end post

0,83 / w

0,83 / w

w < 0,83 /
0,83 / w < 1,08

1,37 / 0,7 + w

w 1,08

0,83 / w

w
1,2
1

Rigid end post


difference 22%

Reason:
anchorage
of panels

Non-rigid end post

w
OK3

2 Prof. Ing. Josef Machek, DrSc.

12

Web slenderness

unstiffened webs (with the exception at the beam ends):

fy / 3

w =

cr

hw
86,4 t

webs with transverse stiffeners in distance a:


hw

w =

na

hw
37,4 t

Critical stress factor k:


k = 5 ,34 + 4 ,00 (hw / a )
2
k = 4 ,00 + 5 ,34 (hw / a )
2

as far as a / hw 1
as far as a / hw < 1

[For webs with longitudinal stiffeners


see course: Stability of plates]
OK3

2 Prof. Ing. Josef Machek, DrSc.

13

3. Buckling under local loading


3 types of loading are distinguished:
a) through the flange ,
b) through the flange and transferred directly to the other one,
c) through the flange adjacent to an unstiffened end.
Type (a)

Type (b)

Fs
ss

V1,s

Type (c)

Fs
V
V2,s

2,s

hw

ss

Fs
c

ss

Vs

Local design resistance:

FRd = Leff t w

fy

reduction factor due to local buckling


(governed by critical stress)

M1

effective length of web Leff = Fy

OK3

2 Prof. Ing. Josef Machek, DrSc.

effective loaded length


(governed by ss)
[In detail see Eurocode,
or course: Stability of plates]

14

Example of local web buckling:

OK3

2 Prof. Ing. Josef Machek, DrSc.

15

Verification for local buckling:

2 =

FEd
=
FRd

FEd
Leff t w

fy

1,0

M1

Interaction N + M + F:

2 + 0,8 1 1,4
i.e.:

FEd
Leff t w

fy

M1

MEd + NEd eN
NEd
+ 0,8
+
1,4
fy Aeff
fy Weff

M0
M0

OK3

2 Prof. Ing. Josef Machek, DrSc.

16