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Structured Questions Answers

Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) ZnCl 2 (aq) + H 2 (g) [1]


The pressure increases due to the formation of hydrogen gas. [2]
Heat change at constant volume is equal to change in internal energy. [1]
The pressure remains constant. [1]
The hydrogen gas produced from the reaction has to push back the air in the atmosphere,
thus doing work and consuming energy. [2]
(c) Less heat will be released. [1]

(a) (i)
(ii)
(iii)
(b) (i)
(ii)

(a) An exothermic reaction is a reaction that gives out heat. [1]


(b) The reaction mixture becomes hot [1] as heat is released from the reacting system to the
surroundings. [1]
(c) Both reactions will give out more or less the same amount of heat. [1] Although the number of
moles of H+(aq) ions of 2 M HCl is doubled than that of 1 M HCl, the number of moles of
OH(aq) ions available for the reaction is the same. [1] As a result, the number of moles of
H+(aq) ions of both solutions used for neutralization is the same. [1]

(a) CH 4 (g) + 2O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + 2H 2 O(l) [1]


(b) Burning methane is an exothermic reaction. [1]
(c) During the course of the combustion reaction, four CH bonds and two OO bonds are broken.
[1] These bond-breaking processes are endothermic. [1] To complete the reaction, two CO
bonds and four OH bonds are formed [1] and these bond-forming processes are exothermic. [1]
The formation of two CO bonds and four OH bonds give out more energy than that is needed
for the breaking of four CH bonds and two OO bonds. [1] Therefore, the combustion of
methane is an overall exothermic reaction. [1]
(a) Bond-forming processes: 4 OH bonds [2]
Bond-breaking processes: 2 HH bonds [2] and 1 OO bond [2]
(b)
4H + 2O

Enthalpy

2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g)
reactants
2H 2 O(l)

H = ve

products
Reaction coordinate

[3]

(c) No pollutants are produced. [1] This reaction is highly exothermic, thus a large amount of energy
is released for the propulsion of space shuttles. [1]

(a) Since the reaction is exothermic, [1] the enthalpy change is negative. [1]
(b) The reaction is not very rapid as the effect of hand-warmer can last for several hours. [1]
(c) No. [1] The rate of rusting is too slow. [1] He needs some catalyst to speed up the rate of the
exothermic reaction. [1]
(d) (i) This type of hand-warmer can be reused. [1]
(ii) During the generation of heat, the chemical energy is released from the reaction mixture as
heat. [1] During the recharging by heating the warmer, heat energy is stored as chemical
energy prepared to be used next time. [1]

(a) The reaction is exothermic. [1]


(b) It is readily oxidized, as it has only 2 electrons in its valence shell. [2]
(c) It acts as a catalyst. [1]
(d) Mg(s) + 2H 2 O(l) Mg(OH) 2 (aq) + H 2 (g) [2]
(e) (i) Fe2+(aq) + Mg(s) Fe(s) + Mg2+(aq) [2]
(ii) It is a redox/displacement reaction. [1]

(a) 16H 2 S(g) + 8SO 2 (g) 16H 2 O(l) + 3S 8 (s) [2]


(b) It is exothermic. [1]
(c) HS bonds and S=O bonds are broken during the reaction. [2]
(d) HO bonds and SS bonds are formed during the reaction. [2]
(e)

Enthalpy

32H + 16O + 24S

16H 2 S(g) + 8SO 2 (g)


reactants

H = ve
16H 2 O(l) + 3S 8 (s)
products

Reaction coordinate

(a) The above reaction is exothermic [1] because it is a combustion reaction. [1]
(b)
CH 4 (g) + 2O 2 (g)
Enthalpy

[3]

H is negative
CO 2 (g) + 2H 2 O(l)
Reaction coordinate

[3]
(c) The reverse reaction is endothermic. [1]

(a) Endothermic. [1] Energy is needed to overcome the intermolecular forces (hydrogen bonds)
between water molecules. [1]
(b) Endothermic. [1] Energy is needed to break the ionic bond between ammonium nitrate. [1]
(c) Endothermic. [1] Energy is needed to break the covalent bond between hydrogen atoms. [1]

10

(a) In an endothermic reaction, bond-forming processes give out less energy than that is required in
the bond-breaking processes. [1] Then, heat is taken in from the surroundings. [1] The enthalpies
of products are relatively higher than that of reactants. [1] Thus, the above statement is incorrect.
[1]
(b) Dissolving ammonium nitrate in water is an endothermic process. [1]

Enthalpy

NH 4 +(aq) + NO 3 (aq)
H = +ve
NH 4 NO 3 (aq) +
Reaction coordinate

11

[3]

(a) Any TWO of the following:


Fossil fuels/hydroelectric power/nuclear power/wind power/power from biomass [2]
(b) (i) The temperature may be increased by 10.0C. [1]
(ii) It is impossible to produce the temperature rise of 20.0C as Mg is limited. [1]
4.0 g
= 0.1 mol [1]
(c) (i) Number of moles of Ca =
40.1 g mol 1

Since 1 mole of Ca completely burned will release 800.0 kJ of energy,


the amount of energy released = 800.0 kJ mol1 0.1 mol = 80.0 kJ [1]

Enthalpy

(ii)
Ca(s) + Cl 2 (g)
H = 80.0 kJ
CaCl 2 (s)
Reaction coordinate

12

(a) (i)

[3]

When the pack is squeezed, the two inner bags are broken. [1] Then ammonium nitrate and
water inside the pack are allowed to mix. [1] The dissolving of ammonium nitrate in water is
an endothermic process which absorbs heat from the surroundings. Thus, it gives a cooling
effect. [1]

(ii) NH 4 NO 3 (s) + aq NH 4 +(aq) + NO 3 (aq)


H soln = +ve [2]
(b) Ammonium chloride [1]
(c) Use the pack with greater amount of reactants which can absorb more heat from the

surroundings. [1]
13

(a) For methane, CH 4 (g) + 2O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + 2H 2 O(l) [1]


For butane, C 4 H 10 (g) +

13
O 2 (g) 4CO 2 (g) + 5H 2 O(l) [1]
2

For hydrogen, 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2H 2 O(l) [1]


(b) Heat change when burning 1.0 g methane
1.0 g
= 890.0 kJ mol1
= 55.625 kJ
(12.0 1.0 4) g mol 1
Hence, the heat released is 55.625 kJ. [1]
Heat change when burning 1.0 g butane
1.0 g
= 49.6 kJ
= 2877.0 kJ mol1
(12.0 4 1.0 10) g mol 1
Hence, the heat released is 49.6 kJ [1]
Heat change when burning 1.0 g hydrogen
1.0 g
= 286.0 kJ mol1
= 143.0 kJ
(1.0 2) g mol 1
Hence, the heat released is 143.0 kJ. [1]
(c) Hydrogen is the best rocket fuel as it can release the largest amount of energy when burning the
same mass of fuel. [2]
14

(a) Energy released by burning 1.0 g CH 3 OH =

843.0 kJ mol 1
(12.0 1.0 4 16.0) g mol 1

= 26.34 kJ g1 [1]
Energy released by burning 1.0 g C 2 H 5 OH =

1371 kJ mol 1
(12.0 2 1.0 6 16.0) g mol 1

= 29.80 kJ g1 [1]
Energy released by burning 1.0 g C 3 H 7 OH =

2010 kJ mol 1
(12.0 3 1.0 8 16.0) g mol 1

= 33.50 kJ g1 [1]
Hence, C 3 H 7 OH releases the largest amount of energy per gram of substance burnt. [1]
(b) C 3 H 7 OH is the most appropriate for using as a fuel as it can release the largest amount of energy
when burning the same mass of the alkanols. [2]
15

(a) Calcium chloride (accept any other possible answers) [1]


(b) The packs become hot when calcium chloride and water inside the packs are allowed to mix. [1]
The dissolving of calcium chloride in water is an exothermic process which releases a large
amount of heat and then gives a heating effect. [1]
(c) CaCl 2 (s) + aq Ca2+(aq) + 2Cl(aq)

16

H soln = x kJ mol1 [2]

(a) Mass of the reaction mixture = (50.0 + 50.0) cm3 1.0 g cm3 = 100.0 g

Heat released = m c T
= 100.0 g 4.2 J g1 K1 13.0 K
= 5460 J [1]
Number of moles of HCl used =

50.0
dm 3 2.0 mol dm3 = 0.1 mol
1000

50.0
dm 3 2.0 mol dm3 = 0.1 mol
1000
number of moles of H 2 O formed = 0.1 mol [1]
5460 J
= 54 600 J mol1
Heat released per mole of H 2 O formed =
0.1 mol
Number of moles of NaOH used =

= 54.6 kJ mol1
the enthalpy change of neutralization is 54.6 kJ mol1. [1]
(b) Mass of the reaction mixture = (100.0 + 100.0) cm3 1.0 g cm3 = 200.0 g [1]
Number of moles of HCl used =

100.0 3
dm 2.0 mol dm3 = 0.2 mol
1000

100.0 3
dm 2.0 mol dm3 = 0.2 mol
1000
number of moles of H 2 O formed = 0.2 mol [1]

Number of moles of NaOH used =

Heat released of 0.2 mole of H 2 O = 54.6 kJ mol1 0.2 mol = 10.92 kJ


Heat released = m c T
10 920 J = 200.0 g 4.2 J g1 K1 T
T = 13.0 K [1]
The temperature rise is 13.0C. [1] Although the volumes of two solutions are doubled, the
number of moles of H+(aq) and OH(aq) ions reacting are also doubled. [1] Twice as much heat is
given out, but this is used to heat up twice the volume of the solution. [1] For this reason, both
experiments have the same rise in temperature.
17

(a) (i)

The volume of NaOH needed to neutralize the acid completely is 20.0 cm3. [1]

(ii) The temperature rises by 18.0C (38.0C 20.0C). [1]


(b) HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H 2 O(l) [2]
(c) Standard enthalpy change of neutralization is the enthalpy change when one mole of water is
formed from neutralization between an acid and an alkali under standard conditions. [2]
(d) Mass of the reaction mixture = (20.0 + 20.0) cm3 1.0 g cm3 = 40.0 g
Heat released = m c T
= 40.0 g 4.2 J g1 K1 [(273 + 38) (273 + 20)] K
= 3024 J [1]
Number of moles of HCl used =

20.0
dm 3 3.0 mol dm3 = 0.06 mol
1000

Number of moles of NaOH used =

20.0
dm 3 3.0 mol dm3 = 0.06 mol
1000

number of moles of H 2 O formed = 0.06 mol [1]


3024 J
= 50 400 J mol1
Heat released per mole of H 2 O formed =
0.06 mol

= 50.4 kJ mol1
the enthalpy change of neutralization is 50.4 kJ mol1. [1]
(e) It was due to the heat loss to the environment in the course of reaction. [1] In addition, the
specific heat capacity of the reaction mixture was not the same as that of water. [1]
(f) Replace the expanded polystyrene cup with a vacuum flask. [1] The specific heat capacity of the
reaction mixture should be pre-determined. [1]
18

(a) C 6 H 12 O 6 (aq) 2CH 3 CH 2 OH(aq) + 2CO 2 (g) [2]


(b) Mass of the reaction mixture = 20 000 cm3 1.0 g cm3 = 20 000 g [1]
Minimum amount of heat generated
= m c T
= 20 000 g 4.2 J g1 K1 [(273 + 34.5) (273 + 20.0)] K
= 1218 kJ [1]
(c) Molar mass of glucose = 12.0 6 + 1.0 12 + 16.0 6 g mol1 = 180.0 g mol1
600.0 g
Number of moles of glucose =
= 3.33 mol [1]
180.0 g mol 1
Heat released per mole of glucose fermented =

1218 kJ
= 365.8 kJ mol1
3.33 mol

the enthalpy change for the fermentation of glucose is 365.8 kJ mol1. [1]

19

(a) The reaction is exothermic. [1]


(b) KOH(aq) + HCl(aq) KCl(aq) + H 2 O(l) [1]
(c) The purpose is to minimize the heat loss to the surroundings. [1]/The heat will be given out very
quickly. [1]
(d) Mass of the reaction mixture = (50.0 + 50.0) cm3 1.0 g cm3 = 100.0 g [1]
Heat released = m c T
= 100.0 g 4.2 J g1 K1 [(273 + 23.1) (273 + 19.6)] K
= 1470 J [1]
Number of moles of HCl used =

50.0
dm 3 0.5 mol dm3 = 0.025 mol
1000

50.0
dm 3 0.5 mol dm3 = 0.025 mol
1000
number of moles of H 2 O formed = 0.025 mol [1]
1470 J
= 58 800 J mol1
Heat released per mole of H 2 O formed =
0.025 mol
Number of moles of NaOH used =

= 58.8 kJ mol1
the enthalpy change of reaction is 58.8 kJ mol1. [1]

(e) The experiment was carried out in a glass beaker which caused a large amount of heat loss to the
surroundings. [1]
Surrounding the glass beaker with the insulating material e.g. cotton wool. [1]/
Use an expanded polystyrene cup with a lid instead of the glass beaker. [1]
(f) The temperature change would be more or less the same, and the temperature rise would be
around 3.5C. [1] Although the amount of HCl was increased, the amount of NaOH reacted was
limited. [1] The number of moles of water formed would be the same. Therefore, the temperature
change would be the same. [1]
20

(a) (i)

The experimental value is smaller that the theoretical value as some heat energy from the
surroundings is absorbed during the reaction. [1] Therefore, lower temperature drop of the
solution will be observed. [1]
(ii) The experiment should be carried out in an expanded polystyrene cup with a lid. [1] The
polystyrene cup should be surrounded by cotton wool. [1]
(b) Mass of water = density volume
= 1.0 g cm3 50.0 cm3
= 50.0 g [1]
Heat released = m c T
= 50.0 g 4.2 J g1 K1 [(273 + 25.4) (273 + 21.1)] K
= 903.0 J [1]
Number of moles of AgNO 3 = 0.1 mol dm3 0.050 dm3 = 0.005 mol
903.0 J
the enthalpy change of the reaction =
= 180 600 J mol1
0.005 mol
= 180.6 kJ mol1 [1]

21

(a) Heat transferred to water


= mcT [1]
= 250.0 g 4.2 J g1 K1 [(273 + 59.0) (273 + 19.0)] K
= 42 000 J [1]
(221.4 219.1) g
= 0.05 mol
Number of moles of ethanol burnt =
46.0 g mol 1
Heat released per mole of ethanol burnt =

42 000 J
= 840 000 J mol1
0.05 mol

the enthalpy change of combustion of ethanol is 840.0 kJ mol1. [1]

(b) There is heat loss to the surroundings. [1]


(c) Any TWO of the following:
Perform the experiment in a bomb calorimeter. [1]/
Take the specific heat capacity of the container into consideration. [1]/
Cover the beaker with a lid. [1]/
Surround the beaker with mineral wool. [1]

22

(a) 2HNO 3 (aq) + Ba(OH) 2 (aq) Ba(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2H 2 O(l) [1]


(b) Mass of the reaction mixture = (40.0 + 40.0) cm3 1.0 g cm3 = 80.0 g [1]
Heat released = m c T
= 80.0 g 4.2 J g1 K1 [(273 + 22.0) (273 + 18.0) K
= 1344 J [1]
Number of moles of HNO 3 used = 0.6 mol dm3 0.040 dm3 = 0.024 mol
Number of moles of Ba(OH) 2 used = 0.6 mol dm3 0.040 dm3 = 0.024 mol
number of moles of H 2 O = 0.024 mol [1]
1344 J
= 56 000 J mol1
Heat released per mole of H 2 O formed =
0.024 mol
the standard enthalpy change of neutralization = 56.0 kJ mol1. [1]

(c) 2HNO 3 (aq) + Ba(OH) 2 (aq) Ba(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2H 2 O(l) H neut = 56.0 kJ mol1 [2]
(d) The calculated value would be less negative than the theoretical value. [1] There was heat loss to
the surroundings. [1] The specific heat capacities of the calorimeter and the thermometer were
not taken into account. [1]
23

(a) NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) NaCl(aq) + H 2 O(l) [1]


(b) Mass of the reaction mixture = (30.0 + 50.0) cm3 1.0 g cm3 = 80.0 g [1]
Heat released = m c T
= 80.0 g 4.2 J g1 K1 [(24.4 + 273) (20.3 + 273)] K
= 1377.6 J [1]
Number of moles of HCl = 1.0 mol dm3 0.03 dm3 = 0.03 mol
Number of moles of NaOH = 0.50 mol dm3 0.05 dm3 = 0.025 mol
Since mole ratio of HCl : NaOH = 1 : 1
number of moles of H 2 O formed = 0.025 mol [1]
1377.6 J
= 55 104 J mol1 [1]
Heat released per mole of H 2 O formed =
0.025 mol
the enthalpy change of neutralization between HCl and NaOH is 55.1 kJ mol1. [1]

(The negative sign is added to denote that the change is exothermic.)


(c) Compared to the theoretical value of 57.1 kJ mol1, the calculated value is 2.0 kJ mol1 smaller.
[1] It is due to the heat loss to the surroundings in the course of neutralization. [1]
(d) The standard enthalpy change of neutralization between ethanoic acid and sodium hydroxide is
less negative. [1] Since ethanoic acid is a weak acid, some energy has to be supplied for complete
ionization of ethanoic acid. [1]
24

(a) Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) ZnCl 2 (aq) + H 2 (g) [2]


(b) The reaction is exothermic as the temperature rose after the reaction. [2]
(c) The temperature rise will be greater. [1] Since magnesium is more reactive than zinc, the reaction
between magnesium and dilute hydrochloric acid is more vigorous and releases more energy. [2]

25

(a) The experiment should be carried out in an expanded polystyrene cup with a lid. [1] The
polystyrene cup should be surrounded by cotton wool. [1]
(b) Mass of the reaction mixture = (30.0 + 40.0) cm3 1.0 g cm3 = 70.0 g [1]
Heat released = m c T
= 70.0 g 4.2 J g1 K1 4.3 K
= 1264.2 J [1]
Number of moles of NaOH = 0.6 mol dm3 0.040 dm3 = 0.024 mol
1264.2 J
= 52 675 J mol1
Heat released per mole of H 2 O formed =
0.024 mol
the enthalpy change of neutralization = 52.7 kJ mol1. [1]

(c) The temperature would decrease, as no further exothermic neutralization occurs. [1]
26

(a) CH 2 O(g) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) H c = 517.5 kJ mol1 [2]


(b) Molar mass of methanal = 12.0 + 1.0 2 + 16.0 g mol1 = 30.0 g mol1
2.0 g
= 0.0667 mol [1]
Number of moles of 2.0 g methanal =
30.0 g mol 1
heat released when burning 2.0 g methanal = 517.5 kJ mol1 0.0667 mol

= 34.5 kJ [1]
Molar mass of ethanal = 12.0 2 + 1.0 4 + 16.0 g mol1 = 44.0 g mol1
2.0 g
= 0.0455 mol [1]
Number of moles of 2.0 g ethanal =
44.0 g mol 1
heat released when burning 2.0 g ethanal = 1063.5 kJ mol1 0.0455 mol

= 48.4 kJ [1]
Molar mass of methanol = 12.0 + 1.0 4 + 16.0 g mol1 = 32.0 g mol1
2.0 g
= 0.0625 mol [1]
Number of moles of 2.0 g methanol =
32.0 g mol 1
heat released when burning 2.0 g methanol = 715.0 kJ mol1 0.0625 mol

= 44.7 kJ [1]
Molar mass of ethanol = 12.0 2+ 1.0 6 + 16.0 g mol1 = 46.0 g mol1
2.0 g
Number of moles of 2.0 g ethanol =
= 0.0435 mol [1]
46.0 g mol 1
heat released when burning 2.0 g ethanol = 1371.0 kJ mol1 0.0435 mol

= 59.6 kJ [1]
Therefore, the organic compound is ethanol. [1]
(c) Ethanol is the best for use as fuel in motor cars as it can release the largest amount of energy for
the same mass of fuel carried. [2]
27

(a) CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OH(l) +

9
O 2 (g) 3CO 2 (g) + 4H 2 O(l) [1]
2

(b) Placing cotton wool around the beaker./Covering the beaker with a lid. [1]
(c) Heat transferred to water = m c T
= 500.0 cm3 1.0 g cm3 4.2 J g1 K1 46.0 K
= 96 600 J [1]
2.88 g
Number of moles of propan-1-ol burnt =
(12.0 3 1.0 8 16.0) g mol 1
= 0.048 mol
96 600 J
= 2012.5 kJ mol1
Heat released per mole of propan-1-ol burnt =
0.048 mol
the enthalpy change of combustion of propan-1-ol is 2012.5 kJ mol1. [1]

(No mark if negative sign is omitted.)


(d) (i) They were carbon soot. [1]
(ii) They were formed because of the incomplete combustion of propane-1-ol. [1]
(e) Since the experiment was not carried out under standard conditions, the enthalpy change cannot
be called as standard enthalpy change. [1]
28

(a) 2HCl(aq) + Na 2 CO 3 (aq) 2NaCl(aq) + CO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) [1]


(b) The temperature of the solution rises. [1]
Gas bubbles are evolved. [1]
(c) Mass of the reaction mixture = (20.0 + 10.0) cm3 1.0 g cm3 = 30.0 g [1]
Heat released = m c T
= 30.0 g 4.2 J g1 K1 15.0 K
= 1890 J [1]
Number of moles of HCl = 1.0 mol dm3 0.02 dm3 = 0.02 mol
Number of moles of Na 2 CO 3 = 1.0 mol dm3 0.01 dm3 = 0.01 mol
number of moles of H 2 O formed = 0.01 mol [1]
1890 J
= 189.0 kJ mol1
Heat released per mole of H 2 O formed =
0.01 mol
the enthalpy change of the reaction is 189.0 kJ mol1. [1]

(No mark if negative sign is omitted.)


(d) The carbon dioxide released brings away some of the heat energy. [1]
There is heat loss from the reaction mixture to the surroundings. [1]
(Accept any other possible reasons.)
29

(a) There was no heat loss to the surroundings. [1]


(b) Heat transferred to water
= m c T
= 650.0 g 4.2 J g1 K1 [(58.0 +273) (25.0 + 273)] K
= 90 090 J [1]

Heat released per mole of propanol burnt =

90 090 J
Number of moles of propanol

2 010 000 J =

90 090 J
Number of moles of propanol

Number of moles of propanol = 0.0448 mol [1]


Molar mass of propanol = 12.0 3 + 1.0 8 + 16.0 g mol1 = 60.0 g mol1 [1]
the actual mass of propanol used to heat the water = 0.0448 mol 60.0 g mol1 = 2.69 g [1]
2.69 g
100% = 53.8 % [1]
(c) Percentage purity of propanol =
5.0 g
The low percentage purity of propanol showed that there were many impurities in the sample of
propanol. [1] The impurities may also have standard enthalpy changes of combustion. Therefore,
the temperature rise of water may not be contributed by the combustion of propanol only. [1]
30

(a) Neutralization. [1] The standard enthalpy change of neutralization is the enthalpy change when
one mole of water is formed from neutralization between an acid and an alkali under standard
conditions. [2]
(b) There was no heat loss to the surroundings. [1]
(c) Mass of the reaction mixture = (40.0 + 50.0) cm3 1.0 g cm3 = 90.0 g [1]
Heat released = m c T
= 90.0 g 4.2 J g1 K1 [(50.0 + 273) (25.0 + 273)] K
= 9450 J [1]
H 2 SO 4 (aq) + 2NaOH(aq) Na 2 SO 4 (aq) + 2H 2 O(l)
Number of moles of sulphuric acid =

40.0
dm 3 0.55 mol dm3
1000

= 0.022 mol
Number of moles of sodium hydroxide =

50.0
dm 3 1.2 mol dm3
1000

= 0.06 mol
number of moles of water formed = 0.022 mol 2 = 0.044 mol [1]
9450 J
= 214 772.7 J mol1
Heat released per mole of water formed =
0.044 mol
the standard enthalpy change of the reaction is 214.77 kJ mol1. [1]

31

(a) Standard enthalpy change of combustion is the enthalpy change when one mole of the substance
is completely burnt in oxygen under standard conditions. [2]
(b) C 6 H 12 O 6 (s) + 6O 2 (g) 6CO 2 (g) + 6H 2 O(l) [1]
(c)

C 6 H 12 O 6 (s) + 6O 2 (g)

6CO 2 (g) + 6H 2 O(l)

+6O 2 (g
H) 2

+9O 2 (g)
H 1

+3O 2 (g
H 3 )

6C(s) + 6H 2 (g)

[3]

By applying Hesss Law,


H + H 1 = H 2 + H 3 [1]
H = 6 H c [C(s)] + 6 H c [H 2 (g)] H f [C 6 H 12 O 6 (s)]
= 6 (394.0) + 6 (286.0) (1286) kJ mol1
= 2794 kJ mol1 [1]
The standard enthalpy change of combustion of glucose is 2794 kJ mol1.
Molar mass of glucose = 12.0 6 + 1.0 12 + 16.0 6 g mol1 = 180.0 g mol1
1.0 g
= 0.00556 mol [1]
Number of moles of 1.0 g glucose =
180.0 g mol 1
the standard enthalpy change of combustion of 1.0 g glucose

= 2794 kJ mol1 0.00556 mol


= 15.53 kJ [1]
32

(a) CH 3 COCH 3 (l) + 4O 2 (g) 3CO 2 (g) + 3H 2 O(l) [1]


(b)
CH 3 COCH 3 (l) + 4O 2 (g)
9
+ O 2 (g)
2
H 1

+ 3O 2 (g)
H 2

3C(s) + 3H 2 (g)

3CO 2 (g) + 3H 2 O(l)

H 3

3
+ O 2 (g)
2
[3]

By applying Hesss Law,


H + H 1 = H 2 + H 3 [1]
H = 3 H f [CO 2 (g)] + 3 H f [H 2 O(l)] H f [CH 3 COCH 3 (l)]
= 3 (395.0) + 3 (286.0) (250.0) kJ mol1
= 1793 kJ mol1
The standard enthalpy change of combustion of CH 3 COCH 3 (l) is 1793 kJ mol1. [1]
33

(a) Reaction I involves breaking NN bond and OO bond and forming 2 NO bonds. [1] Since the
NN bond and OO bond are very strong covalent bonds, a large amount of energy is needed to
break these bonds. [1] The bond-forming process gives out less energy than that is needed for the
bond-breaking process. [1] Therefore, reaction I is endothermic in nature.
(b)

N 2 (g) +

5
O 2 (g)
2

N 2 O 5 (g)

H 1 O 2 (g)
2NO(g)
H 2 O 2 (g)

H 3

1
+ O 2 (g)
2

2NO 2 (g)

[3]

By applying Hesss Law,


H = H 1 + H 2 + H 3 [1]
H = 180.0 + (114.0) + (55.0) kJ mol1
= 11.0 kJ mol1
The standard enthalpy change of formation of N 2 O 5 (g) is +11.0 kJ mol1. [1]
(c) It is used for the preparation of explosives. [1]
34

(a) The standard enthalpy change of combustion of a substance is the heat given out when one mole
of that substance under its standard state is completely burned in oxygen. [1] Thus, the correct
equation should be C 4 H 10 (g) +

13
O 2 (g) 4CO 2 (g) + 5H 2 O(l). [1]
2

(b) His suggestion is correct. During the combustion process, heat will be lost to the surroundings.
[1] If the beaker is not covered with a lid, the temperature rise of water will be less than the
actual value. [1]
(c) Mass of water = 500.0 cm3 1.0 g cm3 = 500.0 g
Energy released = m c T
= 500.0 g 4.2 J g1 K1 40 K = 84.0 kJ [1]
Molar mass of butane = 12.0 4 + 1.0 10 g mol1 = 58.0 g mol1
4.1 g
= 0.0707 mol [1]
Number of moles of butane =
58.0 g mol 1
the standard enthalpy change of combustion of butane =

84.0 kJ
0.0707 mol

= 1188 kJ mol1 [1]


35

(a)
(b)

1
Cl 2 (g) + O 2 (g) ClO 2 (g)
2

H f = +102.0 kJ mol1 [2]

2AgClO 3 (s) + Cl 2 (g)


+3O 2 (g)
H 1

H 2

2AgCl(s) + 2ClO 2 (g) +


+3O 2 (g
H 3 )

2Ag(s) + 2Cl 2 (g)

[3]

By applying Hesss Law,


H + H 1 = H 2 + H 3 [1]
H = 2 H f [AgCl(s)] + 2 H f [ClO 2 (g)] 2 H f [AgClO 3 (s)]
= 2 (127.0) + 2 (+102.0) 2 (30.0) kJ mol1
= +10.0 kJ mol1
The standard enthalpy change of the reaction is +10.0 kJ mol1. [1]
36

25
O 2 (g) 8CO 2 (g) + 9H 2 O(l) [1]
2

(a) C 8 H 18 (l) +
(b)
C 8 H 18 (l) +
+

25
O 2 (g)
2

25
O 2 (g)
2
H 1

H
+8O 2 (g
H) 2

8CO 2 (g) + 9H 2 O(l)

H 3

9
+ O 2 (g)
2

8C(s) + 9H 2 (g)

[3]

By applying Hesss Law,


H + H 1 = H 2 + H 3 [1]
H = 8 H f [CO 2 (g)] + 9 H f [H 2 O(l)] H f [C 8 H 18 (l)]
= 8 (394.0) + 9 (286.0) (250.0) kJ mol1
= 5476 kJ mol1
The standard enthalpy change of combustion of C 8 H 18 (l) is 5476 kJ mol1. [1]
(c) Molar mass of C 8 H 18 (l) = 12.0 8 + 1.0 18 g mol1 = 114.0 g mol1 [1]
200.0 g
= 1.754 mol [1]
Number of moles of C 8 H 18 (l) =
114.0 g mol 1

the enthalpy change involved in the combustion of 0.2 kg of C 8 H 18 (l)


= 5476 kJ mol1 1.754 mol = 9607 kJ. [1]

37

(a) SO 2 (g) +
(b)

1
O 2 (g) SO 3 (g) [1]
2

SO 2 (g) +

1
O 2 (g)
2

SO 3 (g)

H f [SO 2 (g)]

H f [SO 3 (g)]

S(s) +

3
O 2 (g)
2

[3]

By applying Hesss Law,


H = H f [SO 3 (g)] H f [SO 2 (g)] [1]
= 396.0 (297.0) kJ mol1
= 99.0 kJ mol1
the standard enthalpy change of reaction is 99.0 kJ mol1. [1]
(c)
SO 3 (g) + H 2 O(l)

H f [SO 3 (g)] + H f

H 2 SO 4 (l)
H f [H 2 SO 4 (l)]

S(s) + H 2 (g) + 2O 2 (g)

[3]

By applying Hesss Law,


H = H f [H 2 SO 4 (l)] H f [SO 3 (g)] H f [H 2 O(l)] [1]
= 814.0 (396.0) (286.0) kJ mol1
= 132.0 kJ mol1
the standard enthalpy change of reaction is 132.0 kJ mol1. [1]
38

(a) Fe 2 O 3 (s) +

3
3
C(s) 2Fe(s) + CO 2 (g) [1]
2
2

(b)
Fe 2 O 3 (s) +

3
C(s)
2

1
H 2
2

3
CO 2 (g)
2

3
H 1
2
2Fe(s) +

3
3
C(s) + O 2 (g)
2
2

By applying Hesss Law,


H =

2Fe(s) +

3
1
H 1 H 2 [1]
2
2

[3]

3
1
(393.5) (1648) kJ mol1
2
2

= +233.8 kJ mol1 [1]


(c) The reaction in (a) is an endothermic reaction. [1]
39

(a)
2Al(s) + Fe 2 O 3 (s)

Al 2 O 3 (s) + 2Fe(s)
H f [Al 2 O 3 (s)]

H f [Fe 2 O 3 (s)]
2Al(s) + 2Fe(s) +

3
O 2 (g)
2

[3]

By applying Hesss Law,


H = H f [Al 2 O 3 (s)] H f [Fe 2 O 3 (s)] [1]
= 1676 (824.0) kJ mol1
= 852.0 kJ mol1
The standard enthalpy change of the thermite reaction is 852.0 kJ mol1. [1]
(b) When 1 mol of Fe 2 O 3 is reacted, 1 mol of Al 2 O 3 and 2 mol of Fe are produced. [1]
Specific heat capacity of the product mixture
= 1 mol 79.0 J mol1 K1 + 2 mol 25.1 J mol1 K1 = 129.2 J K1
129.2 J of energy is required to raise the product mixture by 1 K. [1]
(c) Initial temperature = 298.0 K
Total heat released by the reaction = 852.0 kJ mol1 1 mol = 852.0 kJ = 852 000 kJ
The rise in temperature of the product mixture
852 000 J
= 6605 K [1]
=
129.0 J K 1

the final temperature = 298.0 + 6605 K = 6903 K [1]

(d) The heat released by the thermite reaction is capable of heating its products far above the melting
point of iron. Since iron is a major component of steel, steel can be welded. [1]
40

(a) CaCO 3 (s) CaO(s) + CO 2 (g) [1]


(b)
CaCO 3 (s)

CaO(s) + CO 2 (g)

+2HCl(aq)
H 1
CaCl 2 (aq) + H 2 O(l) +
By applying Hesss Law,

+2HCl(aq)
H 2
[3]

H = H 1 H 2 [1]
= 364.0 (192.0) kJ mol1
= 172.0 kJ mol1
The standard enthalpy change of decomposition of calcium carbonate is 172.0 kJ mol1. [1]
41

(a) The standard enthalpy change of formation of a substance is the enthalpy change when one mole
of it is formed from its elements in their standard states under standard conditions. [2]
(b) CS 2 (l) + 3O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + 2SO 2 (g) [2]
(c)
H

C(s) + 2S(s)
+O 2 (g)
H 1

CS 2 (l)

+2O 2 (g)
H 2

+3O 2 (g)
H 3

CO 2 (g) + 2SO 2 (g)

[3]

By applying Hesss Law,


H + H 3 = H 1 + H 2 [1]
H = H 1 + H 2 H 3
H = H f [CO 2 (g)] + 2 H f [SO 2 (g)] H c [CS 2 (l)]
= 395.0 + 2 (297.0) (1076) kJ mol1
= 87.0 kJ mol1
The standard enthalpy change of formation of carbon disulphide is +87.0 kJ mol1. [1]
42

(a) The standard enthalpy change of formation of a substance is the enthalpy change when one mole
of it is formed from its elements in their standard states under standard conditions. [2]
(b) The overall enthalpy change of a chemical reaction is the same, regardless of the route by which
the reaction takes place. [2]
(c) (i)
H

2C(s) + 2H 2 (g)
+2O 2 (g)
2H 1

C 2 H 4 (g)

+O 2 (g)
2H 2

+3O 2 (g)
H 3

2CO 2 (g) + 2H 2 O(l)

[3]

(ii) By applying Hesss Law,


H + H 3 = H 1 + H 2 [1]
H = H 1 + H 2 H 3
H = 2 (395.0) + 2 (286.0) (1409) kJ mol1

= 47.0 kJ mol1
The standard enthalpy change of formation of ethylene is +47.0 kJ mol1. [1]
43

(a) Standard enthalpy change of combustion of a substance is the enthalpy change when one mole of
it is completely burnt in oxygen under standard conditions. [2]
(b) C 12 H 22 O 11 (s) + 12O 2 (g) 12CO 2 (g) + 11H 2 O(l) [1]
(c) Heat transferred to water
= 550.0 g 4.2 J g1 K1 [(273 + 41.2) (273 + 25.5)] K
= 36 267 J [1]
2.2 g
Number of moles of sucrose burnt =
(12.0 12 1.0 22 16.0 11) g mol 1
= 0.00643 mol [1]
36 267 J
= 5640 kJ mol1
Heat released per mole of sucrose burnt =
0.00643 mol
the standard enthalpy change of combustion of sucrose is 5640 kJ mol1. [1]

(d) 12C(s) + 11H 2 (g) +

11
O 2 (g) C 12 H 22 O 11 (s) [1]
2

(e)
12C(s) + 11H 2 (g) +

11
O 2 (g)
2

+12O 2 (g)

H f

C 12 H 22 O 11 (s)
+12O 2 (g)

11H f [H 2 O(l)]

H c [C 12 H 22 O 11 (s)]

12H f [CO 2 (g)]


12CO 2 (g) + 11H 2 O(l)

[3]

By applying Hesss Law,


H f + H c [C 12 H 22 O 11 (s)] = 12 H f [CO 2 (g)] + 11 H f [H 2 O(l)] [1]
H f = 12(394.0) + 11(286.0) (5640) kJ mol1
= 2234 kJ mol1 [2]
44

(a) C 6 H 4 (OH) 2 (aq) + H 2 O 2 (aq) C 6 H 4 O 2 (aq) + 2H 2 O(l) [1]


(b)
C 6 H 4 (OH) 2 (aq) +
H O ( )
H 1

H r
1
H 2
2

C 6 H 4 O 2 (aq) + H 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) +


By applying Hesss Law,

C 6 H 4 O 2 (aq) + 2H 2 O(l)

H 3
1
O 2 (g)
2

[3]

H r = H 1 +

1
H 2 + H 3 [1]
2

= 177.0 +

1
(190.0) + (286.0) kJ mol1
2

= 204.0 kJ mol1
the standard enthalpy change of reaction is 204.0 kJ mol1. [1]
(c) The origin of hot spray is the reaction between hydroquinone and hydrogen peroxide. [1] It is an
exothermic reaction. [1] The heat generated from the reaction is used to boil the liquid or water
inside the abdomen of the beetle. [1] Then the hot vapour is released in the form of a hot spray.
[1]
45

(a) Standard enthalpy change of formation of a substance is the enthalpy change when one mole of it
is formed from its elements in their standard states under standard conditions. [2]
(b) This is because no heat changes are involved when an element is formed from itself. [1]
(c) (i) The reactions are exothermic because the standard enthalpy changes of reaction are negative
in value. [2]
(ii)
S (rhombic)

H r

H 2

S (monoclinic)
H 1
+O 2 (g)

+O 2 (g)
SO 2 (g)

[3]

By applying Hesss Law,


H 2 = H r + H 1 [1]
H r = H 2 H 1
= 296.83 (297.16) kJ mol1
= 0.33 kJ mol1
the enthalpy change for the reaction is 0.33 kJ mol1. [1]
46

(a)
1
H 3
Cl 2 (g)
2
+e
e
H 2
H 1

Ag(s) +

Ag+(aq) + Cl(aq)
By applying Hesss Law,

AgCl(s)

H r
[3]

H 3 = H 1 + H 2 + H r [1]
H r = 127.07 105.56 (167.15) kJ mol1
= 65.48 kJ mol1
The standard enthalpy change of reaction is 65.48 kJ mol1. [1]
(b) (i) AgNO 3 (aq) + HCl(aq) AgCl(s) + HNO 3 (aq) [1]
(ii) The reaction is exothermic. [1]
(iii) Mass of the reaction mixture = (50.0 + 50.0) cm3 1.0 g cm3 = 100.0 g
Heat released = m c T
= 100.0 g 4.2 J g1 K1 2.8 K
= 1176 J [1]
Number of moles of AgNO 3 used = 0.1 mol dm3 0.05 dm3 = 0.005 mol
Number of moles of HCl used = 0.1 mol dm3 0.05 dm3 = 0.005 mol
Number of moles of AgCl formed = 0.005 mol [1]
1176 J
= 235.2 kJ mol1
Heat given out per mole of AgCl formed =
0.005 mol
the standard enthalpy change of reaction is 235.2 kJ mol1. [1]

(iv) A calorimeter [1]


(c) This is because some of the formation reactions cannot be easily or safely carried out in a
calorimeter [1] and some reactions involve the formation of side products. [1] Take the formation
of carbon monoxide as an example. When carbon and oxygen react, a mixture of carbon
monoxide and carbon dioxide may be formed. [1] Hence, the heat change measured is not only
due to the formation of carbon monoxide. [1]
47

(a)
Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 2Al(s)

H r

2Fe(s) + Al 2 O 3 (s)
+ 3 O 2 (g)

+ 3 O 2 (g)
2

H 2

H 1

2Fe(s) + 2Al(s)
By applying Hesss Law,
H r + H 1 = H 2 [1]
H r = H 2 H 1
= H f [Al 2 O 3 (s)] H f [Fe 2 O 3 (s)]
=1669 kJ mol1 (822.0 kJ mol1)
= 847.0 kJ mol1 [1]
(b) From the result above, the reaction is exothermic. [1]
(c)

[3]

Enthalpy

Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 2Al(s)
H r = 847.0 kJ mol1
2Fe(s) + Al 2 O 3 (s)
Reaction coordinate
[3]
48

1
(a) C 6 H 14 (g) + 9 O 2 (g) 6CO 2 (g) + 7H 2 O(l) [1]
2
(b)
H c [C 6 H 14 (g)]

C 6 H 14 (g) +
9

O 2 (g)
+ 9 1 O 2 (g)

6CO 2 (g) +

+6O 2 (g
)H 2

H 1

+ 7 O 2 (g)
2

H 3

6C(s) + 7H 2 (g)

[3]

By applying Hesss Law,


H c [C 6 H 14 (g)] + H 1 = H 2 + H 3 [1]
H c [C 6 H 14 (g)] = 6 H f [CO 2 (g)] + 7 H f [H 2 O(l)] H f [C 6 H 14 (g)] [1]
= 6 (394.0) + 7 (286.0) (167.0) kJ mol1
= 4199 kJ mol1
The standard enthalpy change of combustion of hexane is 4199 kJ mol1. [1]
49

(a) O 2 (g) + 2Cl 2 (g) 2OCl 2 (g) [2]


(b)
OCl 2 (g) + H 2 O(g)
1
+ O 2 (g)
2
H f [OCl 2 (g)]

H 1

1
+ O 2 (g)
2
H 2
Cl 2 (s) + H 2 (g)

O 2 (g) + 2HCl(g)
+O 2 (g)
H 3
[3]

By applying Hesss Law,


H f [OCl 2 (g)] + H 1 + H 2 = H 3 [1]
H f [OCl 2 (g)] = 2 H f [HCl(g)] H H f [H 2 O(g)]
= 2 (92.3) (46.0) (242.0) kJ mol1
= 103.4 kJ mol1
The standard enthalpy change of formation of OCl 2 (g) is 103.4 kJ mol1. [1]

50

(a) (i) N 2 (g) + 2H 2 (g) N 2 H 4 (l) [1]


(ii)
N 2 (g) + 2H 2 (g)

H f [N 2 H 4 (l)]
+O 2 (g)
2 H 2

+2O 2 (g)
2 H 1

N 2 H 4 (l)
+3O 2 (g)
H 3

2NO 2 (g) + 2H 2 O(g)

[3]

By applying Hesss Law,


2 H 1 + 2 H 2 = H f [N 2 H 4 (l)] + H 3
H f [N 2 H 4 (l)] = 2H 1 + 2H 2 H 3 [1]
(b) (i) N 2 H 4 (l) + 2H 2 O 2 (l) N 2 (g) + 4H 2 O(g) [1]
(ii)
N 2 H 4 (l) + 2H 2 O 2 (l)

H r

N 2 (g) + 4H 2 O(g)

H 2
H 1

+2O 2 (g
H 3
)
N 2 (g) + 4H 2 (g)

+2O 2 (g)

[3]

By applying Hesss Law,


H r + H 1 + H 2 = H 3 [1]
H r = 4 H f [H 2 O(g)] H f [N 2 H 4 (l)] 2 H f [H 2 O 2 (l)]
= 4 (285.8) (50.6) 2 (187.8) kJ mol1
= 818.2 kJ mol1
the standard enthalpy change of reaction is 818.2 kJ mol1. [1]
51

(a) C(s) + 2H 2 (g) CH 4 (g)


(b)
CH 4 (g)

H r

H 1

H f = 74.0 kJ mol1 [2]

C(g) + 4H(g)
H 2

C(s) + 2H 2 (g)
By applying Hesss Law,
H r + H 1 = H 2 [1]

[3]

H r = H 2 H 1

= 717.0 + 4 (218.0) (74.0) kJ mol1


= 1663 kJ mol1
the standard enthalpy change of reaction is 1663 kJ mol1. [1]
52

(a) 2N 2 H 4 + N 2 O 4 3N 2 + 4H 2 O [1]
(b) By applying Hesss Law,
H = H f (products) H f (reactants) [1]
= 3(0) + 4(241.8) 2(50.6) 9.16 kJ mol1
= 1077.56 kJ mol1 [1]
(c) Heat change = 1077.56 kJ mol1

0.08 mol
[1]
2

= 43.1 kJ
the heat released is 43.1 kJ. [1]
53

(a) C 3 H 8 (g) + 5O 2 (g) 3CO 2 (g) + 4H 2 O(l) [1]


350.0 kJ
= 0.158 mol [1]
(b) Number of moles of propane required =
2220 kJ mol 1
Mass of propane required = 0.158 mol (12.0 3 + 1.0 8) g mol1 = 6.95 g [1]
(c) Flammable [1]
(d) (i) 3C(s) + 4H 2 (g) C 3 H 8 (g) [1]
(ii) By applying Hesss Law,
H = H c (reactants) H c (products) [1]
= 3(394.0) + 4(285.0) (2220) kJ mol1
= 102 kJ mol1 [1]
(iii) The formation process of propane is exothermic. [1] Because the enthalpy change is
negative in sign which indicates heat is released. [1]

54

(a) CH 3 OH(l) +

3
O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + 2H 2 O(l) [2]
2

(b) By applying Hesss Law,


H = H f (products) H f (reactants) [1]
= 393.5 + 2(241.8) (238.7) kJ mol1
= 638.4 kJ mol1 [1]
(c) Enthalpy change of combustion of 50.0 g liquid methanol
50.0 g
[1]
= 638.4 kJ mol1
(12.0 1.0 4 16.0) g mol 1
= 997.5 kJ [1]