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facility makes the circuit breaker the most versatile , although

the most expensive , protective device .

( Vacuum Type Circuit Breakers :
The technique of AC interruption in vacuum consists of
separating a pair of current carrying contacts in a high vacuum
environment . The arc is shortened by the condensation of metal
ions and vapors on the contacts and shields .
Vacuum circuit breakers offer the following advantages :
i - Long life with minimum maintenance .
ii - Completely enclosed and sealed construction .
iii- Extremely short and consistent arcing and total break times
iv - Suitability for very fast automatic reclosure .
v - No fire risk .
vi - No noise and no emission of gas or air during operation .
( SF6 Circuit Breakers :
The superior arc quenching ability of SF6 gas can be attributed to the fact of
its electronegative nature which means that its molecules rapidly absorb the free
electrons in the arc path between the breaker contracts to form negatively charged
. ions

Advantages of SF6 circuit Breakers :

i . The low gas velocity and pressure employed minimize any
tendency towards current chopping , thereby the capacitive
currents can be interrupted without restriking .

ii - The closed circuit gas cycle coupled with low gas velocity
gives quite operation as there is no exhaust top atmosphere as
in air blast breakers .
iii - The closed gas circuit keeps the interior dry so that there is
no moisture problem .
iv - The arc extinguish properties of SF6 gas result in very short
arcing times .
v - There is no carbon deposits so that insulation break-down is
eliminated .
vi - Electrical clearances can be reduced due to the insulating
properties of the gas .
vii - As the circuit breaker is totally enclosed and sealed from
atmosphere , it is suitable for use in mines or petroleum
industries where explosion hazard exists .
Meanwhile . Figure (10.1) shows the types of circuit
breakers . Fig. (10.2) shows the breaking operation principles ,
and fig. (10.3) shows the method of removing the heat produced
by the electric arc .

(10.3 ) Switchgear Cells And Panels :

High voltage substations comprise high voltage
switchgear cells as well as medium voltage panels forming
switchboards . The high voltage switchgear cells are open
rooms in a built H.V. hall , as shown in the layout and cross
sections of the 66/11 kV substation in Figs, (8.2) and (8.3) .

Meanwhile there are open areas for an outdoor substation as

fig. (10.4) and (10.5).
For the highest level of performance in MV switchboards
incorporating either circuit breakers or contractors , many
international and national companies manufacture metal clad
switchgear , fixed or with drawable , for all types of
applications and networks with rated voltages up to 36 kV ,
4000 A and a short circuit level of 50 kA .

(10.4) Instrument Transformers :

Instrument transformers include current transformers and
voltage transformers .
The instrument transformer can be described as the eyes
of a protection system . If an instrument transformer fails to
measure the signal accurately , the protection system may not
perform as required . The design of the instrument transformer
must represent the ultimate in reliability .
In tank type designs , companies use quartz and oil filling
in the instrument transformer . The use of quartz results in a
relatively small oil volume , thus enabling a hermetically sealed
and simple expansion system without bellows . Also the quartz
has a positive effect on the aging process of the insulation . This
is an extremely reliable design , and has been in successful
operation for more than 40 year .

Due to shorter primary conductors , current transformers

(CTs) of top core design are often preferable in the range 300500 kV and for high currents . For this design companies use an
elastic bellow system of synthetic material for handling oil
expansion , equally proven since many years to be extremely
reliable .
ABBs capacitor voltage transformers (CVTs) utilize a
dielectricum or paper-polypropylene film impregnated with a
synthetic oil called Faradol 300 . It offers a unique long term
stability and temperature independence . Other important
features include on-site accuracy adjustment possibilities, and a
simple and reliable saturable reactor system for ferroresonance
damping .
Fig. (10.6) and (10.7) shows the current transformer and
potential transformer .

(10.5) Support Insulators And Bushings :

The installation of substation equipment and switchgear necessitates the use of
highly reliable support insulators and bushings . These should have high electrical
and mechanical properties to meet the insulation requirements and the mechanical
stresses to which switchgear such as bus bars , circuit breakers , isolating
switchgear , transformers (including instrument transformers) are subjected . Fig.
. (10.8), (10.9) & (10.10) show some of these switchgear insulation