You are on page 1of 22

Current Mirrors

Dr.D.Meganathan,
MIT

Current Mirror
Properties
(i) Superior to insensitivity of circuit performance
to variation in power supply and temperature
(ii) More economical than resistors in terms of die
area
(iii) Output Current equals to input current
multiplied by gain factor.
(iv) Ideal condition current mirror gain is
independent of frequency

Current Mirror
Output Resistance of the current mirror directly
affects the performance of the many circuit
that use current mirror.

Output Resistance
Output Current
Maximum Operating Frequency

Gain Errors
Systematic
Random (Due to unintended mismatches
between matched elements)

A simple Current Mirror

Minimum Output Voltage required


to keep M2 device in saturation is

A simple Current Mirror

Cascode Current Mirror


Since VDS3 = VGS3,
shows that VDS1 = VDS3 when
VGS2 = VGS4.
Under this condition, the systematic gain error
of the cascode current mirror is zero
because M1 and M3 are
identically biased. In practice, VGS2 is not exactly
equal to VGS4 even with perfect matching unless
VOUT = VIN because of channel-length
modulation.
As a result, VDS1 VDS3 and
The input voltage of the MOS cascode current
mirror

Cascode Current Mirror


If the transistors all have equal overdrives,

On the other hand,M2 operates in the triode region if VOUT < VOUT(min), and bothM1
andM2 operate in the triode region if VOUT < Vov1

Cascode Current Mirror

(a) Cascode current mirror using MOS transistors

(b) I-V characteristic.

Cascode Current Mirror


from the biasing of the drain-source voltage of
M1 so that

Ignoring the body effect and assuming that M1M4 all operate in the active region with equal
overdrives,

High Swing Current Mirror (with


battery arrangement)

MOS cascode current mirror with improved biasing for maximum voltage
swing.

High Swing Current Mirror (Without


battery arrangement)

Cascode Current Mirror


Practical implementation
Limitation

Level Shifter stage is required

(a) MOS cascode current mirror with improved biasing for maximum
voltage swing.
(b) Practical implementation

Sooch Cascode Current Mirror

(a) Circuit that forces M5 to operate in the triode region. (b) Sooch cascode current mirror
using the circuit in (a).

Sooch Cascode Current Mirror


M6 forcesM5 to operate in the triode region.
To choose the aspect ratios of the transistors so that
the drain-source voltage of M5 is Vov . Since M6
operates in the active region.

Since M5 operates in the triode region,

The goal is to set VDS5 = Vov When VGS6 = Vt + Vov

Sooch Cascode Current Mirror


Assume that M3 is simply diode connected. The
difference between the voltages to ground from
the gates of M1 and M2 is set by the drain-source
voltage of M5.
The drain-source voltage of M5 is Vov and M1 is
biased at the edge of the active region. The
output resistance, minimum output voltage,
input voltage, and systematic gain error are the
same as in

Sooch Cascode Current Mirror


Now we will consider the effect of transistor M4. The
purpose of M4 is to set the drain source voltage of M3
equal to that of M1.
Without M4, these drain-source voltages differ by a
threshold, causing nonzero systematic gain error.

If M2 also operates in the active region under these


conditions, VDS3 = VDS1. As a result, the systematic gain
error is
. Therefore, the purpose of M4 is to equalize
the drain-source voltages of M3 and M1 to reduce the
systematic gain error.
Therefore, the purpose of M4 is to equalize the drain-source voltages of M3 and M1 to reduce
the systematic gain error.

Sooch Cascode Current Mirror


For M4 to operate in the active region, VDS4 > Vov is
required. Since

The main limitation of the high-swing cascode


current mirrors is large input voltage.

The input voltage of the high-swing cascode current mirror may limit the minimum
power-supply voltage because a transistor-level implementation of the input current
source requires some nonzero drop for proper operation. With threshold voltages of
about 1 V, the cascode current mirrors can operate properly for power-supply voltages
greater than about 3 V.

High-swing current mirror with two


input branches

Circuit is most suitable for above


2V power supply.

MOS high-swing current mirror with two input branches.

Find the output resistance of the cascode current mirror shown in


Figure. Assume all the transistors operate in the active region with ID =
10 A, VA = 50 V, and gmro = 50. Neglect body effect

Ro2 = ro2(1 + gm2ro1) + ro1

Find the output resistance of the double-cascode current mirror shown


in Figure. Assume all the transistors operate in the active region with
ID = 10 A, VA = 50 V, and gmro = 50. Neglect body effect.