PROJECT REPORT ON “KEY CHALLENGES OF WORKING WOMEN IN MNCs”

Submitted for Partial Fulfilment of the Requirement of MASTER OF BUISNESS ADMINISTRATION Session 2008-2010

Submitted By: Manvi Valecha 401/MBA/08 MBA 4th Semester

P.D.M.COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, BAHADURGARH MAHARSHI DAYANAND UNIVERSITY- ROHTAK DECLARATION

1

I, Manvi Valecha, Roll No. 401/MBA/08, MBA 4th Sem. of P.D.M. College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh hereby declare that the project entitled “Key Challenges of Working Women in MNCs” is an original work and same has not been submitted to any other institute for the award of any other Degree. The interim report was presented to the Supervisor on __________ and the presubmission presentation was made on ____________. The feasible suggestions have been duly incorporated in consultation with the supervisor.

Countersigned

Signature of Supervisor Candidate

Signature

of

Forwarded by

Director/Principal of the Institute

2

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
There is always a sense of gratitude which one express to other for the helpful and service they render during all work at life. I grate fully acknowledge the inspiration, encouragement, guidance, help and valuable suggestions received form all my well-wishers. I am highly grateful to Dr. Nandita Rathi, Head of the Deptt. P.D.M. College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh for their constant support during my report. I would also like to thank Dr. Nidhi Mishra, Asst. Professor, Deptt. of Mgt. Studies for her kind attitude towards me and for their co-operation remained as a constant source of inspiration during my report also for having spared her precious time in spite of her busy and tight schedule. I would also like to thanks all other persons, respondents and my friends for their learned advice and guidance always kindled inspiration in the face of difficulties encountered in the course of this work and create this report. And the last but not the least I would like to thanks the Almighty God and my beloved parents for all the blessings during the project. MANVI VALECHA

.

3

KEY CHALLENGES OF WORKING WOMEN
The financial demands on the Indian families are becoming fiercer day by day. The sky rocketing cost of living, increasing expenses on education of children, increasing cost of housing properties in India force every family in India to look for ways and means of increasing the household income. As a result, women in India who were mostly known as homemakers are forced to go for jobs and take up even careers that were considered only suitable for men such as working in night shifts in call centers or BPOs. They are left with no option but to fend for their families in all possible ways. Working women in India are faced with lot more challenges than their counterparts in the other parts of the world. In India men do not share on most of the household chores, it is women who have to cook, clean the house, do the dishes, wash clothes, get their children ready for school etc. Men just took care of few chores that are to be dealt outside the house. So the major burden of running the family is on the shoulders of women. It was alright for women to handle all the chores as long as they were homemakers. Now with their increasing need for getting some income for the family, they have to work all the more harder. They have to take up a 9 to 5 job plus handle all the household chores that they handled as a homemaker. Men’s role has not changed much. Women have started sleeping lesser than before because only when they wake up early they can cook for the family, get themselves ready for the job, get their children ready for the schools, so on an average, women lost 2 hours of sleep per day and up to 14 hours sleep per week. If they happened to work in a highly pressurized environment, then they will bring home their work and that cuts few more hours of sleep. It is not just about the reduced sleep, but such a lifestyle builds stress. This stress is passed on to the family and frustration level builds up in the family. This leads to relationship problems. They have to handle harassments at their workplace, sometimes just to overlook things to ensure that their job is not jeopardized in anyway. Many Indian families are still living as joint families along with the parents and in-laws. This adds to their stress further because they have to please all the family members of 4

her husband.. Overall, majority of women in India look towards or live in the hope that things will change. Some of us have given up that hope and learnt to accept that nothing can be done about it. India has a long way to go before our women will be able to live their lives to the full. They have to handle harassment's at their work place, sometimes just over look Dilemmas of working women in India Women in India have come a long way! From just a skilled homemaker women today have acquired skills and capabilities of not just being a homemaker but being at par with their male counterparts. This is the new generation of women, who wants to pursue their dream career. But this life is not a bed of roses for all. “The most glaring dilemma is the time factor. More conflict arises with the working mother. One has to fulfill the demand at work followed by various demands at home. In today’s scenario the husband and wife both work towards creating a balance with their work life as well as at home with their children. But it is still difficult for women as she has to play multiple roles of a cook, a family maid, a tutor, a nurse as well as cater to the demands of office work. This can leave a working woman stressed and anxious; more so if the family is not supportive. “With equal pay come equal responsibilities “There are a lot of dilemmas that a working woman has to go through. Glass ceiling effect- asking personal questions during an interview about family and marriage, biases for promotions, sexual harassment, lack of flexible working hours, lack of women mentors and bosses in organizations are just to name a few. And even at home a woman has to look after the child no matter how supportive her family or husband is. It is the woman who is blamed if the child does not perform well in school. A working mother is also always eager to get back home as soon as possible- so there are problems of late sittings in office. There is always a guilt factor as it is tough for women to pursue their career dreams. Sometimes women do take the advantage of being the fairer sex and want equal pay; don’t want late sittings because of family problems but then they should also not crib about not getting promoted fast enough. You need to compromise somewhere. Amongst all this it is also extremely important for the woman to take care of her health as she is more susceptible to illness due to stress and age factors. It is not a 5

rosy picture but it is not that bad a scenario. Despite all the dilemmas and challenges women still find a way to pursue their dreams and dual working couples enjoy their chosen lifestyle. Hazards faced by working women in the era of globalization Out of the total 397 million workers in India, 123.9 million are women. Of these, roughly 106 million women work in rural areas and the remaining 18 million work in urban areas. Ninety six per cent of the women workers are in the unorganized sector. Overall, the female work participation rate has increased from 19.7 per cent in 1981 to 25.7 per cent in 2001. In the rural areas, it has increased from 23.1 per cent to 31 per cent and in the urban areas from 8.3 per cent to 11.6 per cent. Although more women seek work, a vast majority of them get only poorly paid jobs in the informal sector, without any job security or social security. This is because of the increasing unemployment and under employment among the male members of the family and the increasing cost of living as a result of the neo liberal economic policies. In addition to discrimination at the workplace, working women had to face several hazards even before the era of globalization; but these have increased several times with the advent of the neo-liberal policies of globalization, liberalization and privatization. In the era of globalization, working women have become more vulnerable to intense exploitation; they are exposed to more and more risks and are forced to endure more and more stress and strain, both physical and mental. The hazards faced by workingwomen can be categorized as:

The hazards, which working women face along with their male colleagues, i.e. those common to all the workers, in the era of globalization The hazards, which working women face as women, at the work place The hazards, which working women face in their families and in the society

• •

In addition, women who actively participate in trade union activities also have to encounter many other problems, which their male counterparts do not face. 6

COMMON HAZARDS The most serious hazard faced by the working class in the era of globalization is the increasing threat to job security. The informal sector is fast expanding, while the organized sector is shrinking. Contract, casual, temporary, part-time, piecerated jobs and home based work etc are increasingly replacing permanent jobs. To circumvent resistance to amendments to labour laws and to give the employers the freedom to ‘hire and fire’ workers, the governments of the day are resorting to various back door measures. The NDA government had introduced ‘fixed term’ employment through an administrative order, which continues under the present UPA regime. Special Economic Zones, which are areas deemed to be outside our territory, are being opened in large numbers throughout the country. While there is no explicit provision that labour laws would not be applied in these zones, in practice, even labour commissioners are not allowed inside these zones and the workers are practically at the mercy of the employers. Neither the central nor the state governments intervene to protect the interests of the workers. Even in the public sector, the number of contractor workers is increasing. On the pretext of abolishing ‘Inspector Raj’ attempts are being made to give a free hand to the employers to flout all labour laws with impunity. The UPA government has introduced bills giving exemption to small and medium enterprises from maintaining several records and registers, which mostly relate to the workers. It has also changed the definition of small enterprises by increasing the number of workers. Due to the strong opposition from the Left parties and trade unions, the government has agreed to remove the labour related clauses from the bills, though the bills in the new form have not yet been introduced in the parliament. All these have adverse impact not only on the working conditions of the workers, but also on their health. The workers in the informal sector, a large number of who are women, have no job security. Work is often unskilled or low skilled and low paid. Availability of work is irregular; when work is available, they have to work for long hours. Not just in the unorganized sector or in the small enterprises, but also in the modern sectors like the IT, automobile industry etc, workers are forced to work for 12 hours while the concerned governments choose to ignore this open flouting of the 7

labour laws. The uncertainties in getting work and the dire need to keep it in the midst of intense competition and the necessity to evolve strategies for this, cause mental tension, strained social relationships, psychological problems and chronic fatigue, all of which are difficult to prove as work-related. Piece rated work contributes significantly to the level of fatigue felt by the workers. The wages of piece rated workers depend on the speed with which they work. Some studies indicate that out of the workers who suffer from ‘neurosis’, 71 per cent are piece rated workers as against 26.5 per cent who receive daily or monthly wages. Several traditional industries where women work in large numbers like coir, handloom, food processing etc have undergone changes in the forms of production with the introduction of machines, power looms etc, which result in the loss of employment for large number of women. With the introduction of machines, women in manufacturing are replaced by men. Unemployment, underemployment and temporary work are more common among women than among men. The workers do not have any social security or health care benefits. As a result, the work-related illnesses, which they suffer from, remain hidden. As per available research, unemployment is harmful to health and constitutes a serious risk for the workers’ emotional stability, because it leads to poverty, deteriorates self-image and self-esteem. It is generally believed that women prefer part-time, temporary or home-based work because such jobs enable them to balance their job responsibilities with their domestic responsibilities. But in fact, making working hours flexible as per the requirement of the employers makes it more difficult for the women workers to adjust their domestic responsibilities with the working hours at their workplace and disrupts family life. Absence of clearly defined work schedule increases the stress and impacts their health. A large number of women workers complain of frequent headaches, back pain, circulatory disorders, fatigue, and emotional and mental disorders. Poor nutritional status, anemia due to poverty and the cultural practices where women eat last and 8

the increased workload due to domestic responsibilities, lead to fatigue among women. Worry, responsibility, strong emotions, concentrated attention or precision required by some jobs like embroidery, assembly of electronic or electric appliances, gems, jewellery etc, and exhaustion caused by intellectual or mental activities also produce fatigue. A large number of women workers complain of symptoms such as irritability, mood swings, and depression, sadness and concentration problems. The exhausting conditions make it difficult to recognize these states as ‘abnormal’. Fatigue is generally not considered an illness, but if it is neglected, it can lead to a variety of illnesses. Certain types of work, where the worker is subordinated to machines, which are boring and do not require any personal initiative, also cause fatigue. The attitudes of the employers or supervisors that tend to create feelings of inferiority, uselessness or inability also result in mental fatigue. Various studies show that fatigue and stress related illnesses are common in the sectors that employ mostly women. A study on data entry operators indicated high levels of fatigue and stress due to the intense pressure of their work, the high degree of job dissatisfaction and the lack of initiative and creativity required by the position. HAZARDS FACED BY WORKING WOMEN AT THE WORKPLACE Majority of women working in the organized sector have been employed in the public sector. But with restructuring and downsizing of workforce in the public sector and government departments, as a part of the neo-liberal policies, women are the first to be retrenched, because of the general perception that women’s income is supplementary. Women have been forced to go on VRS in some banks, under threat to transfer to far-off places; Coal India has formulated a special VRS package for women. Large numbers of women work in schools, hospitals, as sales persons in shops, in plantations, in construction etc. It is found that even in many government hospitals and schools, there are no separate toilets for women. Lack of such basic facilities like toilets, rest rooms, dining spaces, etc at the workplace cause a lot of physical discomfort and mental stress besides leading to several urinary tract and other diseases, particularly among pregnant women. 9

Women working in the informal sector do not have any child-care facilities. Even in the organized sector, crèches are not provided in most of the establishments. Even where they do exist, they are either ill-equipped or are not maintained properly, as a result of which women are reluctant to keep their children in such crèches. Most often women workers, particularly in the informal sector, are forced to leave their children at home, under the care of their elder children, or old people or neighbours. This causes great anxiety and emotional strain. Some studies indicate that this is a major problem for working women in the EPZs. Sexual harassment is another serious hazard faced by working women. Whether in the organized or unorganised sector, whether illiterate, low paid workers or highly educated and highly paid executives, a large number of working women face sexual harassment at the workplace. Nearly a decade after the Supreme Court judgment in the Visakha case, the government is yet to bring legislation against sexual harassment at workplace. Even the Supreme Court guidelines of constituting complaints committees, amending standing orders, creating awareness etc have not been implemented in most of the establishments. The government has decided to amend the Factories Act allowing women workers to work in the night shift. Women have been working in hospitals, in the telecom department and in the fish processing industry in the night shift. But in the era of globalization, the export oriented units in EPZs and call centres etc are employing women in large numbers in the night shift, without providing proper protection or transport facilities to them. The case of Pratibha working in the multinational company HP in Bangalore, who was brutally raped and murdered, is only an example of the serious hazard that women working in the night shifts face. Besides, women who work in the night shift generally are not in a position to take proper rest during the day because of their domestic responsibilities, impacting their health. Women working in some industries like construction, brick kilns, electronics industry etc suffer from gynecological problems, miscarriages, premature deliveries etc and give birth to babies with low birth weight or birth defects. Given the socio-economic conditions of these women, these often lead to tension and strained relations in the family, along with the physical problems. 10

The Factories Act, The Mines Act, The Dock Workers’ Act etc are some of the laws, which contain provisions for regulating the health of the workers in an establishment. The Employees’ State Insurance Act and the Workmen’s Compensation Act provide health benefits and compensation to the workers in cases of ill-health and injuries etc. But in the unorganised sector where the majority of women workers are concentrated, no occupational safety and health safeguards are in place. Even in the organized sector, where these are applicable, safeguards are rarely provided for the workers, either male or female. Usually the safety devises are designed keeping the male workers in view and become unsuitable for women workers. Besides, the social aspects of work are not considered risk factors. As a result, more emphasis is given to work related accidents than to illnesses. HAZARDS RELATED TO THE ATTITUDE OF SOCIETY AND FAMILY Though more and more women are coming out in search of paid employment and their families also need their income, the attitude towards women and their role in the family has not undergone much change. Women continue to be perceived as weak, inferior, and second-class citizens. In capitalist society, this feudal attitude is utilized by the capitalist classes to further exploit women and increase their profits. For working women, this discrimination is extended to the workplace also. Even today, looking after the family and children is generally perceived to be the primary responsibility of women. With the State retreating from its minimum responsibilities of providing welfare measures and privatization of basic services like health, education etc, and women are forced to spend more time and energies on these responsibilities towards their children and other family members. The unpaid labour of women in providing these services to the family increases their burden while at the same time helping the employers in keeping the wages low. Because of this perception, which is prevalent even among most of the working women, women have to shoulder the entire burden of domestic chores, which they try to complete before leaving for work, with little help from the other, particularly the male members of the family. Many women have reported not to have a proper meal before leaving to work. Improper and insufficient dietary 11

intakes along with the heavy workload result in nutritional disorders. In addition, this perception that they alone are responsible for the domestic work, leads to a feeling of guilt when they are not able to look after the children or the family due to their official work, often resulting in emotional disorders. HAZARDS FACED BY WOMEN TRADE UNIONISTS Working women face double burden due to their domestic and official responsibilities. That is one of the important reasons for women not coming forward to take more responsibilities in the trade unions. It is very rare to find family support for women who play an active role in trade union activities. Besides the physical burden, women trade union activists often become victims of character assassination. There have been many instances where women trade union leaders had to face physical and mental violence, including attempts to murder and murder, from family members because of their trade union activities. Problems faced by working women It is an open truth that working women have to face problems just by virtue of their being women. Working women here are referred to those who are in paid employment. Social attitude to the role of women lags much behind the law. This attitude which considers women fit for certain jobs and not others colors those who recruit employees. Thus women find employment easily as nurses, doctors, teachers the caring and nurturing sectors, secretaries or in assembling jobs-the routine submissive sectors. But even if well qualified women engineers or managers or geologists are available, preference will be given to a male of equal qualification. A gender bias creates an obstacle at the recruitment stage itself. When it comes to remuneration the law proclaims equality but it is seldom put into practice. The inbuilt conviction that women are capable of less work than men or less efficient than men governs this injustice of unequal salaries and wages for the same job. The age old belief of male superiority over women creates several hurdles for women at their place of work. Women on the way up the corporate ladder discover that they must be much better than their male colleagues to reach the top. Once at the top male colleagues and subordinates often expect much greater expertise and efficiency from a woman boss than 12

from a male boss. Conditioned by social and psychological tradition women colleagues too don’t lend support to their own sex.Working in such conditions inevitably put much greater strain on women than what men experience. These problems tend to make women less eager to progress in their careers. Indeed many of them choose less demanding jobs for which they may even be overqualified. A woman’s work is not merely confined to paid employment. She has to almost always shoulder the burden of household chores as well. A woman could still bear up with these problems if she had control over the money she earns. But in most families even now her salary is handed over to father, husband or in-laws. So the basic motive for seeking employment of getting independence is nullified in many women’s case. Problems of gender bias beset women in the industrial sector. Technological advancement results in retrenchment of women employees. No one thinks of upgrading their skills. Maternity leave is seldom given. It is much easier to terminate the woman’s employment and hire someone else. Trade Unions do little to ameliorate the lot of women workers. Women’s issues do not occur on the priority list of most of the trade unions. Women going to work are often subject to sexual harassment. Public transport system is over crowded and men take advantage of the circumstances to physically harass women. Colleagues offer unwanted attention which can still be shaken off but a woman is placed in a difficult situation if the higher officer demands sexual favours.If refused the boss can easily take it out on the woman in other ways to make life miserable for her. There have been several cases of sexual harassment recently involving even the senior women officials. On the other hand if a woman is praised for her work or promoted on merit, her colleagues do not hesitate to attribute it to sexual favours.The psychological pressure of all this can easily lead to a woman quitting her job. Most of the problems that beset working women are in reality rooted in the social perspective of the position of women. Traditionally men are seen as the bread winner and women as the house-keepers, child bearers and rearers.This typecast role model continues to put obstacles before the working women. A fundamental change is required in the attitudes of the employers, policy makers, family members and other relatives and the public at large. Working mothers face 13

an additional dizzying array of tasks and duties to be performed on a daily basis over and above those of mothers who don't work outside the home. Working mothers not only have the challenge of getting themselves and their children up and dressed and out the door, every aspect of their working lives is impacted by their parecting esponsibilities. If a child is sick, working mothers must arrange for emergency care and/or schedule a doctor appointment for the child. Working mothers also have to call out from work or negotiate with the child's father to switch off at mid-day so neither parent misses a full day of work. Some employers don't allow paid time off to care for children, so working mothers face the potential loss of pay when a child is ill or needs to have a regular medical checkup. Working mothers begin their second job when they leave the workplace every day. Dinner must be prepared, laundry done, children bathed, homework completed, dishes washed and children put to bed before mom's evening activities begin! Women Make Less Money Than Men Most people already know without even looking at statistics that women earn less money than men, and that women have fewer employment and advancement opportunities (despite the fact more women hold higher degrees than men), but here are some other areas where women are disadvantaged:
• • • • •

8 in 10 single parent families are headed by women. Women are more likely to be unemployed during a recession than are men. Women are more likely to be laid off when companies downsize. More women than men work low-wage, part-time jobs. Fewer women than men meet the eligibility qualifications for

unemployment benefits (because they earn lower wages and often are only given part-time hours).

14

During a recession men's median salaries stagnant but women's salaries For every dollar a man earns working full-time, female workers only earn Women are also less likely to be eligible for employee benefits and Lower wages and higher expenses mean women also have fewer savings

have already dropped 3%.

77 cents for the same jobs.

employment-based retirement plans such as a 401(k).

and assets than men. Women's Expenses Exceed Those of Men Men and woman pay the same high prices for food, gas, but women often bear expenses that men, with higher incomes, do not. With 8 in 10 single parent families being headed by women, it is women who have to balance the dual roles of work and parenting - not men. When dead-beat dads fail to pay child support, many women have to pick up the tab by taking on additional, low-wage jobs to try and make ends meet. Because of loopholes, changes in child support laws, and fewer affordable legal resources for women, an increasing number of men are defaulting on child support. This means more women are now paying all, or disproportionate amounts, to provide for the needs of their children. Women often pay higher insurance premiums and more out-of-pocket health care costs than men, who do not have to pay for birth control or maternity benefits, and because more women pay for health insurance for their children than do men. Women's credit scores are generally equal to or better than men's, but with lower incomes and smaller assets, to purchase a home women need to go with a "subprime" mortgage 30-40% more often than men, which means lower down payment, but higher monthly payments.

15

According to Erin Parrish in the Minnesota Press, " Women often fall victim to risky lending practices, not only because they are more likely to lack financial literacy skills, but also because they are offered subprime mortgages at a higher rate than men. Insecure lending programs are often what push women over the edge, forcing them to choose between feeding their families or paying off debt." Glass ceiling Glass ceiling refers to situations where the advancement of a qualified person within the hierarchy of an organization is stopped at a lower level because of some form of discrimination, most commonly sexism or racism. It is an invisible barrier that prevents women and minorities from advancing in businesses. This situation is referred to as a "ceiling" as there is a limitation blocking upward advancement, and "glass" (transparent) because the limitation is not immediately apparent and is normally an unwritten and unofficial policy. This invisible barrier continues to exist, even though there are no explicit obstacles keeping minorities from acquiring advanced job positions – there are no advertisements that specifically say “no minorities hired at this establishment”, nor are there any formal orders that say “minorities are not qualified” – but they do lie beneath the surface. When a company exercises said discrimination, they will usually attempt to "sugarcoat" their reasons, such as the "glass ceiling" is distinguished from formal barriers to advancement, such as education or experience requirements. Mainly this invisible barrier seems to exist in more of the developing countries, in whose businesses this effect is highly "visible". However, this glass ceiling tends to cripple working women the most this barrier prevents large numbers of women, ethnic minorities, and sexual minorities from obtaining and securing the most powerful, prestigious, and highest-grossing jobs in the workforce. This barrier makes many women feel as they are not worthy enough to have these high-ranking positions, but also they feel as if their bosses do not take them seriously or actually see them as potential candidates

16

Types of Glass Ceiling Barriers
• •

Different pay for comparable work Sexual, ethnic, racial, religious discrimination or harassment in the workplace Lack of family-friendly workplace policies (or, on the flipside, extreme family values that discriminate) Exclusion from informal networks; Stereotyping and preconceptions of women's roles and abilities; Failure of senior leadership to assume accountability for women's advancement; Lack of role models; Lack of mentoring

This gap is the difference in both the wages and earnings between males and females who have equivalent job titles, training experience, education, and professions. In most circumstances, women are paid less than men when all of these factors are comparable. It was found that customers prefer white men employees, which is why such workers may continue to earn 25 percent more than equally-well performing women and minorities. It was also found that customers who viewed videos featuring a black male, a white female, or a white male actor playing the role of an employee helping a customer were 19% more satisfied with the white male employee's performance and also were more satisfied with the store's cleanliness and appearance. This despite that all three actors performed identically, read the same script, and were in the exact same location with identical camera angles and lighting. Moreover, 45 percent of the customers were women and 41 percent were non-white, indicating that even women and minority customers prefer white men. In a second study, they found that white male doctors were rated as more approachable and competent than equally-well performing women or minority doctors. They interpret their findings to suggest that employers are willing to pay more for white male employees because employers are customer driven and customers are happier with white male employees.

17

Men tend to be highly concentrated in the top professions, such as supervisors, managers, executives, and production operators. On the other hand, women tend to be over-represented in the lowest-ranking and lowest paid professions in the workforce, such as secretaries, sales associates, teachers, nurses, and child care providers. As a result, occupations become “sex typed” as either being specifically male or female jobs. The stereotypically male-characterized occupations, in which at least 60-75% of the workers are males, are more highly paid than occupations in which 60-75% of the jobholders are women. This segregation of women into less-prestigious and lower-ranked jobs also decreases a woman’s chance of being promoted, as well as the chance of having any type of power over others. Moreover, occupational segregation reduces women’s access to insurance, benefits, and pensions. Males not only have superior statuses than women between jobs, but also within the jobs themselves] Women are concentrated into the lower-ranked and lowerpaid occupations within a given profession. If women are in management positions, they are more likely to be in personnel than in marketing professions; the averages salaries of each are $48,048 and $56,940 per year, respectively. Another example occurs within the medical field. Female doctors are much more likely to be heavily constricted in the family practice or pediatric specialties, which average about $130,000 and $126,000 per year, respectively. However, men are more likely to become surgeons and highly specialized medical practitioners, who tend to average $240,000 or more per year. This gender wage gap is present within all realms of the workforce – blue collar, managerial, and professional occupations. Only 16% of the top executive positions in America’s largest corporations and enterprises are held by women. Additionally, the median weekly income of full-time working women is only 70.5% of full-time working men. This statistic tends to hold true across all fields of work. Gender Equality is often embedded within the social hierarchy and this affects how women and men are perceived in leadership roles. Different traits are ascribed to females when compared to males that often color the selection process with unfounded bias. If a female does have other traits aside from the gendered traits that she is believed to possess, then she is viewed negatively For example, in 18

a study conducted by Thomas-Hunt and Phillips (2004) they found that when women possessed expertise they were actually viewed as less influential by others. However, expertise was positive for males. Also, female led groups were less productive than male led groups even though the women held expertise in the area just like males. Therefore, possessing expertise is not viewed as positively as it is for males. This also suggests that lack of skills is not the only reason why women are not deemed worthy of leadership roles. One consequence of sex stereotypes is that women's achievements tend to be devalued or attributed to luck or effort rather than ability or skill, and therefore this stereotype has the potential to reduce the organizational awards that they receive. It was also found that in a study conducted with 448 upper-level employees that women were less likely to be promoted than males, and if they were promoted they had stronger performance ratings than males. However, performance ratings were more strongly connected to promotions for women than men. This suggests that women had to be highly impressive to be considered eligible for leadership roles, whereas this was not the case for men. Women are more likely to choose jobs based on factors other than pay, for instance: health care and scheduling that can be managed with the duties of primary care of children for which women are still overwhelmingly responsible, and thus they may be less likely to take jobs that require travel or relocation or jobs that are hazardous. On average, women take more time off and work fewer hours, often due to the unequal distribution of childcare labor, domestic labor, medical needs specific to women, and other family issues that tend to fall to a woman's responsibility per the gender roles assigned by society. The ending result of women’s extensive obligation to attend to responsibilities of the home and children is that their wages plummet. Family demands have a downward pull on women’s earnings as they proceed throughout their life course. The earnings gap tends to widen considerably when men and women are in their early to midthirties; the gap reaches the widest point when men and women are in their fifties Another perspective on the gender wage gap comes from a 2008 research study by Judge and Livingston. They investigated the relationship(s) between gender, gender role orientation, and labor marker earnings. The study did not specifically 19

look at the gender wage gap, but focused more on the impact that the interaction between gender role orientation (people’s beliefs about what occupations are considered suitable and appropriate for males and females) and gender has on earnings. The researchers suggested that the gender wage gap cannot fully be explained through economic factors, offering that underlying psychological components and attitudes account for some of the difference. They found that while traditional gender roles were positively connected to earnings, that gender significantly predicted the amount and direction of this relationship. For instance, traditional gender role orientation was positively related with earnings for males, providing them with strong earnings. Meanwhile, traditional gender role orientation was slightly negatively associated with earnings for females, providing them weaker earnings. This suggests that men who have traditional male-female attitudes about working are rewarded in the workplace for seeking to maintain the social order, while women were neither rewarded nor punished. In general, the study indicated that even though gender role beliefs are beginning to become less traditional for men and women, traditional gender role orientation continues to intensify the gender wage gap. The Glass Ceiling and Disclosure of Sexual Orientation Promotions were defined as involving two or more of the following criteria that may occur within or between organizations: significant increases in salary; significant increases in scope of responsibility; changes in job level or rank; or becoming eligible for bonuses, incentives, and stock plans. Given this definition, respondents were asked how many promotions they had received over the past 10 years. Respondents also reported their current annual compensation, which included salary, bonuses, commissions, stock options, and profit sharing. The findings showed that those who feared more negative consequences to disclosure reported less job satisfaction, organizational commitment, satisfaction with opportunities for promotion, career commitment, and organization-based selfesteem and greater turnover intentions than those who feared less negative consequences. Women Surpassing the Glass Ceiling

20

Although there is a glass ceiling, many women recently have surpassed that hurdle. When at the top management, many women feel isolated like outsiders Most of the time they are the only female at that level and are surrounded by males. Many women have faced sexual harassment, wage inequality, blocked movement and gender stereotyped roles Women are said to have different styles of leadership and management once they break the barrier. They are generalized to be more nurturing and caring in nature than men are stereotypically, more “tough” and shrewd in business, which is sometimes seen as positive traits. Women’s traditional role is in the home, taking care of children, and keeping house. The stereotype of maternal leadership stems from that. Some men in senior management that do not want to see women climb the corporate ladder believe that they do not have the qualities to lead a company. Many believe that making assumptions about the way women act in a leadership position perpetuates the stereotypes that cause the glass ceiling there are many reasons why women have been able to break the barrier. Some believe that having women on an executive board is a positive thing been more But, the perception of a woman’s role is changing with the younger generation. All mothers share in the common task of parenting
their children and the inherent responsibilities of nurturing, teaching, guiding and loving them. . Working mothers face an additional dizzying array of tasks and duties to be performed

on a

daily basis over and above those of mothers who don't work outside the home. Working mothers not only have the challenge of getting themselves and their children up and dressed and out the door, every aspect of their working lives is impacted by their parenting responsibilities. If a child is sick, working mothers must arrange for emergency care and/or schedule a doctor appointment for the child. Working mothers also have to call out from work or negotiate with the child's father to switch off at mid-day so neither parent misses a full day of work. Some employers don't allow paid time off to care for children, so working mothers face the potential loss of pay when a child is ill or needs to have a regular medical checkup. Working mothers begin their second job when they leave the workplace every day. Dinner must be prepared, laundry done, children bathed, homework 21

completed, dishes washed and children put to bed before mom's evening activities begin! Women Make Less Money than Men Most people already know without even looking at statistics that women earn less money than men, and that women have fewer employment and advancement opportunities (despite the fact more women hold higher degrees than men), but here are some other areas where women are disadvantaged that you might now know about:
• • • • •

8 in 10 single parent families are headed by women. Women are more likely to be unemployed during a recession than are men. Women are more likely to be laid off when companies downsize. More women than men work low-wage, part-time jobs. Fewer women than men meet the eligibility qualifications for

unemployment benefits (because they earn lower wages and often are only given part-time hours).

During a recession men's median salaries stagnant but women's salaries For every dollar a man earns working full-time, female workers only earn Women are also less likely to be eligible for employee benefits and Lower wages and higher expenses mean women also have fewer savings

have already dropped 3%.

77 cents for the same jobs.

employment-based retirement plans such as a 401(k).

and assets than men. Women's Expenses Exceed Those of Men Men and woman pay the same high prices for food, gas, but women often bear expenses that men, with higher incomes, do not. With 8 in 10 single parent families being headed by women, it is women who have to balance the dual roles of work and parenting - not men. When dead-beat 22

dads fail to pay child support, many women have to pick up the tab by taking on additional, low-wage jobs to try and make ends meet. Because of loopholes, changes in child support laws, and fewer affordable legal resources for women, an increasing number of men are defaulting on child support. This means more women are now paying all, or disproportionate amounts, to provide for the needs of their children. Women often pay higher insurance premiums and more out-of-pocket health care costs than men, who do not have to pay for birth control or maternity benefits, and because more women pay for health insurance for their children than do men. Women's credit scores are generally equal to or better than men's, but with lower incomes and smaller assets, to purchase home women need to go with a "subprime" mortgage 30-40% more often than men, which means lower down payment, but higher monthly payments. According to Erin Parrish in the Minnesota Press, “Women often fall victim to risky lending practices, not only because they are more likely to lack financial literacy skills, but also because they are offered subprime mortgages at a higher rate than men. Insecure lending programs are often what push women over the edge, forcing them to choose between feeding their families or paying off debt." Telecommuting Telecommuting, e-commuting, e-work, telework, working from home (WFH), or working at home) is a work arrangement in which employees enjoy flexibility in working location and hours. In other words, the daily commute to a central place of work is replaced by telecommunication links. Many work from home, while others, occasionally also referred to as nomad workers or web commuters utilize mobile telecommunications technology to work from coffee shops or myriad other locations. Telework is a broader term, referring to substituting telecommunications for any form of work-related travel, thereby eliminating the distance restrictions of telecommuting. All telecommuters are teleworkers but not all teleworkers are telecommuters. A frequently repeated motto is that "work is 23

something you do, not something you travel to”. A successful telecommuting program requires a management style which is based on results and not on close scrutiny of individual employees. This is referred to as management by objectives as opposed to management by observation.. Technology The roots of telecommuting lay in early 1970s technology, linking satellite offices to downtown mainframes by dumb terminals using telephone lines as a network bridge. The massive ongoing decrease in cost and increase in performance and usability of personal computers forged the way to decentralize even further, moving the office to the home. By the early 1980s, these branch offices and home workers were able to connect to the company mainframe using personal computers and terminal emulation. Long distance telework is facilitated by such tools as groupware, virtual private networks, conference calling, videoconferencing and Voice over IP (VOIP). It can be efficient and useful for companies as it allows staff and workers to communicate over a large distance, saving significant amounts of travel time and cost. As broadband Internet connections become more commonplace, more and more workers have enough bandwidth at home to use these tools to link their home office to their corporate intranet and internal phone networks. Potential Benefits Telecommuting offers benefits to communities, employers, and employees. For communities, telecommuting can offer fuller employment (by increasing the employ-ability of proximal or circumstantially marginalized groups, such as Work at home parents and caregivers, the disabled, retirees, and people living in remote areas), reduces traffic congestion and traffic accidents, relieves the strain on transportation infrastructures, reduces greenhouse gases, saves fuel, reduces energy use, improves disaster preparedness, and reduces terrorism targets. For companies, telecommuting expands the talent pool, reduces the spread of illness, reduces costs, increases productivity, reduces turnover and absenteeism, 24

and improves employee morale, offers a continuity of operations strategy, improve their ability to handle business across multiple time zones, and hasten their cultural adaptability. Full-time telework can save companies approximately $20,000 per employee. For individuals, telecommuting, or more specifically, work from home arrangements, improves work-life balance, reduces their carbon footprint and fuel usage, frees up the equivalent of 15 to 25 workdays a year--time they'd have otherwise spent commuting, and saves between $4,000 and $21,000 per year in travel and work-related costs (not including daycare). When gas prices average $3.00 per gallon, the average full-time employee who commutes 5 days per week spends $138.80 per month on gasoline. Environmental Benefits The environment would be saved the equivalent of taking 15 million cars permanently off the road. - The energy potential from the gas savings would total more than twice what the U.S. currently produces from all renewable energy source combined. Employee Satisfaction Telework flexibility is a desirable perquisite for employees. today for accounting professionals. In earlier surveys, 33% considered telework the best recruiting incentive, and half considered it second best. Current Trends Telework relates to continuity of operations (COOP) and national pandemic preparedness planning, reducing dependence on foreign oil and the burden of rising gas prices, the Defense Base Closure and Realignment Commission (BRAC), and a focus on recruitment and retention. Telework centers allow people to reduce their commute yet still work in a traditional office setting. Some Telework Centers are set up by individual companies while others are established by independent organizations for use by 25

many organizations. Telework centers are attractive to people who do not have the space or inclination to work from home. They offer employers the ability to maintain a more formal structure for their workforce. These work arrangements are likely to become more popular with current trends towards greater customization of services and virtual organizing. Distributed work offers great potential for firms to reduce costs, enhance competitive advantage and agility, access a greater variety of scarce talents, and improve employee flexibility, effectiveness and productivity. Women have come a long way and today they are no less than “super women” juggling well their family and professional lives. But still women folks all over suffer from certain limitations unlike their male counterparts. In earlier days, women used to be quiet and passive in their attitude at their workplace since very few women actually stepped out of their home to do jobs. On the other hand, women today, are believed to have well utilized the optimum use of their intelligence and education to scale the heights of success unlike their predecessors who didn't have access to such wide resources of education and proper awareness. Statistics reveal that almost 40% of business school graduates are women, 38% of all businesses in America are owned and operated by women. Also 25% of doctors and lawyers are female while 43% of all students in any medical or law school are females. Famous social psychologists believe that in order to manage well both family and home they need to possess dual personality as its commonly believed that assuming a flirtatious and bubbly character at work results in wider acceptance among male workers whereas at home they are expected to be more reserved. The jobs in India for women have gone up and new career development programs are being initiated by organizations which serves as boost to job positions for women. Women have made their foray into retail jobs, finance, executive jobs and even top managerial jobs. But still women face some obstacles at their workplace which can be related to:

26

The hazards, which working women face along with their male colleagues, i.e. those risks which are common to all the workers. The risks, which working women face in their families and in the society.

Health risks faced by women at workplace: While we talk of problems faced by women at corporate level its worthy to mention that those women who are working at rural sectors are at equal risk when it comes to their health. It is generally believed that women prefer part-time or work from home jobs as such jobs enable them to balance their work along with their domestic responsibilities. But in some cases its observed that specially in case of works like-nursing jobs, contract jobs fact, flexible working hours as per the requirement of the employers makes things quite difficult for women. Its important to note that absence of clearly defined work schedule increases the stress and impacts their health. A large number of women workers is said to complain of frequent headaches, back pain, fatigue and high blood pressure. Also factors such as-- Poor nutritional status, anemia, tension, concentrated attention required by some jobs in industries related to embroidery, electric appliances, gems, jewelry etc, which demands intellectual or mental activities increases fatigue. A large number of women workers complain of symptoms such as irritability, mood swings, and depression, sadness and concentration problems. Laws protecting the rights of women at workplace: With the passage of time numerous laws have been implemented in favor of working women. Some of them are: • Equal Remuneration Act: This law is applicable to all employees including those in the private and government sectors. It states that employees of both genders doing the same or similar work of the same value be paid equal remuneration in cash and kind.

27

Maternity Benefits Act: According to this Act a woman is entitled to payment during her maternity leave at the rate at which she was working prior to the leave period.

The Factory Act of 1948, Mines Act of 1952, Plantation Labour Act of 1951 in India were passed to protect and regulate the wages of women from time to time without any discrimination.

As a working mother, you probably have stress coming at you from every direction. These tips can help you handle the difficult things life throws at you. Stress is part of every person's life, but working mothers have more than their fair share of it. If you are a working mother, you probably feel like you are juggling in order to keep both your career and your family running smoothly. Even more difficult can be to find harmony between the two. When your boss wants you to stay late, but day care will penalize you for late pickup, it may seem like the different parts of your life just do not fit together. Whatever your individual challenges, these eight stress-reduction tips can help you reduce tension and find balance in your life. Eight stress reduction tips 1. Face your stress Figure out the things that cause the most stress in your life. The easiest way to identify your stressors is to sit down and make a list of all of the things you worry about or dread doing; they will be different for everyone, so really think about what your individual triggers are. Consider not only the events that stress you, but other factors like time of day or circumstances such as being hungry. For example, are you chronically late for work because it is hard to get your toddler ready in the morning? Or, maybe you are a morning person and by nighttime you cannot deal with helping the kids with their homework. Or maybe you get upset easily when you are overtired or hungry. Whatever the issues are, identifying them is the first step toward dealing with the stress in your everyday life. 2. Prioritize 28

Once you have a list of all the things that cause stress for you – and the list may be really long – you are ready to prioritize the items on your list. First, group them by how stressful they are to you. Which things are minor stressors and which ones really cause you angst? It is impossible to remove stress from your life entirely – and some stress is good for you – but you can identify the areas where you may be able to remove worry 3. Get rid of stress It sounds easy, doesn't it? It can be. Look at your list and identify a couple of the things that cause you the most stress and that you are not the only one who can handle it. Are there things you can get rid of entirely? If not, look for items you can at least partially delegate. Be creative. Can you buy pre-made cupcakes for your turn to bring preschool treats? If your mornings are too hectic, maybe you can hire a college student to help get your kids ready for school. If you ordered lunch in, would it be easier to get out of the office on time every night? If you cannot get rid of things that are already on your plate, think about how to say no to future commitments. Saying "no" when someone asks for your time can make a big difference in how you spend your time. 4. Eliminate things that make stress worse and fend off stress with good health Skipping meals or not getting enough sleep may not actually be the cause of your stress, but they can certainly exacerbate it. Make sure you take care of yourself, physically, emotionally and spiritually. Eat healthy nutritious foods and avoid junk food. W While junk food may give you a short-term energy boost, over the long-term whole grains, fresh fruits and vegetables and lean proteins will keep you ready for action. Often, how you deal with stress is more important than the stress itself actually is. 5. Exercise Another great way to alleviate the negative impact of stress in your life is to get physical exercise. You do not have to run marathons or become a body builder to 29

see health benefits; taking walks, swimming, doing toning exercises, biking and other performing moderate activities regularly can dramatically improve your physical condition, Not only does exercise improve your physical health, it improves energy levels and contributes to a sense of emotional well-being. 6. Find emotional support While you may not be able to remove all the stress from your life, you can often lighten the load just by talking about it. Whether you confide in trusted friends, family members or a mental health professional, discussing the difficulties you encounter 7. Set aside time for yourself It often seems impossible to carve out some time for your own interests. Some of us are so busy we cannot even remember what our own interests might be. But, it is critical to step away from the obligations of your work and family occasionally to do something just for you. Whether you spend your time pursuing a hobby or just take some quiet time with a book and a bubble bath, any time you spend on yourself will make you a happier, healthier and better mother, wife and employee. Haven't taken any time in a while? Plan an overnight getaway to supercharge yourself. 8. Use relaxation techniques You know you need to get enough sleep every night, but you may need to get some more intensive relaxation. Try yoga, deep breathing or meditation to help you stay calm and control your reactions to stressful situations. If those methods are too esoteric for you, treat yourself to a massage. The relaxation in your muscles will quickly impact the rest of you.

30

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The challenges of working women can vary, depending upon a large number of factors. It depends on the nature of the organization where they are working. • • • • • This study makes us aware about the efficiency and effectiveness of working women It makes us aware about the challenges faced by working women This Research gives knowledge about perception of employees towards working women. This report is helpful in getting knowledge about dilemmas of working women. This study provides an effective tool to motivate the women employees with the help of some stress reducing tips.

31

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
1. An Exploration of Theoretical Foundations for Working Mothers’ Formal Workplace Social Networks1 It presents a multidisciplinary integrative exploratory review of possible theoretical foundations for working mothers’ formal workplace social networks. Beginning with theoretical overviews of work-life balance, career development, mentoring, psychology, and social capital it develops a plausible possible framework rooted in women’s psychological developmental theory. The authors conclude that the theoretical frameworks for human resource development (HRD) and human resource management (HRM) do not identify one unified specific framework for research and scholarly investigation of working mothers’ formal workplace social networks, while presenting a conceptual model grounded in Gilligan’s (1982) principles appears to be a good fit for enhancing the understanding of the phenomenon. The purpose of this is to examine the literature on theoretical perspectives of formal workplace networks and support groups for working mothers. The aim is to provide a foundation for a conceptual framework that supports the usefulness of these networks in organizational contexts, in order to provide a contemporary scaffold that supports the impetus for needed research on this topic. Balancing work and family is a significant social and human development challenge of our time and is a critical productivity factor in many organizations2. It is also a central issue for the field of HRD. Employed mothers constitute a with no generally heterogeneous group in many ways and on many levels,

accepted empirical theories or models to explain the personal and professional developmental needs unique to working mothers3 For business leaders to remain competitive globally, it is important that they align work and family issues with
1

Jennifer L. Schultz, Metropolitan State University & Jeanne L. Higbee, University of Minnesota
2 3

Halpern, 2005 Zedeck & Mosier, 1990 32

corporate culture, using work and family concerns as levers for change1 Developing a theoretical framework for understanding the role of support networks for working mothers is critical to future endeavors in creating viable networks and assessing their effectiveness for both participants and employers. 2. Women and Social Class- Mrs Bunn the Baker’s Wife2? Inequalities of status and reward are accepted as inevitable in a liberal-democratic society, but extensive movement between those statuses is taken as a positive sign that equality of opportunity is working itself out: individuals are reaching their full potential and the society as a whole is maximizing its human capital. The measurement of social mobility has, then, not only ethnographic but moral, political and policy implications. It also presents some of the most formidable methodological problems in social science: what indicator of social status to use; how to rank that indicator; how to measure an individual’s starting point, peak and final destination; how to incorporate changes in the industrial structure which affect both status and opportunities; whether a status group is anything to do with a class as a force for social change? Answering these questions can appear to be a purely technical matter but it also thrws up fundamental idelogical divisions. The strong feeling behind the statistical devices is nowhere more clear than in recent debates about women and social class. In 1954 D.V.Glass and his colleagues published the first systematic study of social mobility in Britain, based on interviews with 10,000 adult civilians in England, Wales and Scotland in 1949. Material was gathered on respondents’ education and occupational history, that of their spouse and of their father and father-in-law. In the case of a married woman, the occupation at the time of marriage was requested, although in allocating women to social status categories the occupation of their husband or father was used.

1

2

Wentling, 1998 Meryl Aldridge

33

3. Challenges to Working Women1 It explores challenges to understanding mothering under difficult and unusual circumstances—that is, in the context of a shelter for battered women and their children. Drawing on participant observation and interviews with staff at a local battered woman’s shelter, the authors suggest that mothering is largely invisible and subject to idealized constructions. When mothers are rendered visible in the shelter, they are observed through a lens of heightened sensitivity to abusive relations that are marked by unacceptable use of power and control. This lens is distorted in relation to mothering, and an understanding of the emotional complexities and challenges of everyday mothering is a prerequisite for practice with women with children. The article concludes with a discussion of implications for theory and practices that center on the concepts of power and maternal subjectivity in relation to battered women as mothers in shelters. 4. Women Managers in Indian Organizations2 This is a qualitative study of 140 female managers interviewed in 81 organizations in order to review trend of problems faced by women managers, the ways in which the problems affect them, and the coping strategies used by them to overcome their problems. In-depth personal interviews were conducted with the help of a structured questionnaire using open-ended questions. The narratives of managers have provided a broad base in understanding managerial life and profession of women. The implications are underlined for better organizational health and performance. It is an extract from a larger study.

1

Julia Krane , McGill University, Montreal, Canada & Linda Davies , McGill University, Montreal, Canada
2

H.L. Kaila, S.N.D.T. Women’s University, Mumbai 34

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
• • • •

To identify and monitor challenges faced by working women. To know about the perception of employees towards working women. To know about the efficiency and effectiveness of working women. To Extend material support to women

35

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem i.e. it signifies how the research is being carried out. Here we study the various steps that are adopted in studying in research problem. The methodology gives the researcher a chance to put forth his views, contentions and justifications for having adopted a certain way of doing research and ruling out other possibilities. It is with this view that this chapter has been incorporated in the present work and has been divided into following sections:• • • •

Research Design Sample Design Data Collection Research instrument

Research Design: - Descriptive The present project is Descriptive in nature because descriptive research studies are those studies which are concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular individual, or a group and situation etc. The purpose of descriptive research design is in descriptive state. The main characteristic is that the research has no control over the variables; he can only report what has happened or what is happening. The design in such studies must focus attention on the following or process in descriptive research design is as follows:a. Formulating the objective of the study. b. Designing the methods of data collection. c. Selecting the sample d. Collecting the data. e. Processing and analyzing the data. f. Reporting the findings.

36

SAMPLING DESIGN: A sample design is a definite plan for obtaining a sample form a given population. It refers to the technique or the procedure the researcher would adopt in selecting items for the sample. Sample design may as well lay down the number of item to be included in the sample i.e., the size of the sample. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION: There are two types of data: 1. Primary Data 2. Secondary Data PRIMARY DATA: The primary data are those which are collected afresh and for the first time and thus happen to be original in character. SECONDARY DATA: The secondary data are those which have already been collected by someone else and which have already been passed through statistical problem. The methods of collecting primary and secondary data differ since primary data are to be originally collected while in case of secondary data the nature of data collection work is merely that of compilation. COLLECTION OF PRIMARY DATA: We collect primary during the course of doing experiment in an experimental research but in case we do research of the descriptive and performs surveys, whether sample surveys or census surveys, then we can obtain primary data either through observation or through direct communication with respondents in one form or another through personal interviews this means that there are several methods of collecting primary data, particularly in surveys and descriptive researches. The important ones are1. Observation Method 2. Interview Method 3. Questionnaires Methods of collection of data applied are Questionnaire. 37

Questionnaire: A questionnaire consists of a number of questions printed on a set of order on a form or set of forms. The questionnaire is mailed or the respondents who in turn fill the questionnaire and mail it back. The respondent have to answer on their on own. Questionnaire made for employee is mixer of both open ended and close ended questions. However, there is only one open ended question concentrating on issues related with domestic enquiry. COLLECTION OF SECONDARY DATA: When the researches utilize the secondary data, the he has to look into various sources from where he can obtain them. Secondary data may either be published data or unpublished data. Usually published data are available in1. Various publications of the central, state and local governments. 2. Various publications of foreign governments or of international bodies and their subsidiary organizations.

SAMPLING PLAN: Sample Size =108 Employees Sample Area = Delhi and Harayana DATA COLLECTION: Data Sources:  Secondary Data through Internet  Primary Data through Questionnaire  Contact Method  Personal Interaction

38

INDUSTRY PROFILE
BANKING INDUSTRY The growth in the Indian Banking Industry has been more qualitative than quantitative and it is expected to remain the same in the coming years. Based on the projections made in the "India Vision 2020" prepared by the Planning Commission and the Draft 10th Plan, the report forecasts that the pace of expansion in the balance-sheets of banks is likely to decelerate. The total assets of all scheduled commercial banks by end-March 2010 is estimated at Rs 40,90,000 crores. That will comprise about 65 per cent of GDP at current market prices as compared to 67 per cent in 2002-03. Bank assets are expected to grow at an annual composite rate of 13.4 per cent during the rest of the decade as against the growth rate of 16.7 per cent that existed between 1994-95 and 2002-03. It is expected that there will be large additions to the capital base and reserves on the liability side. The Indian Banking Industry can be categorized into non-scheduled banks and scheduled banks. Scheduled banks constitute of commercial banks and cooperative banks. There are about 67,000 branches of Scheduled banks spread across India. As far as the present scenario is concerned the Banking Industry in India is going through a transitional phase. The Public Sector Banks (PSBs), which are the base of the Banking sector in India account for more than 78 per cent of the total banking industry assets. Unfortunately they are burdened with excessive Non Performing assets (NPAs), massive manpower and lack of modern technology. On the other hand the Private Sector Banks are making tremendous progress. They are leaders in Internet banking, mobile banking, phone banking, ATMs. As far as foreign banks are concerned they are likely to succeed in the Indian Banking Industry.

39

In the Indian Banking Industry some of the Private Sector Banks operating are IDBI Bank1, ING Vassal Bank2, SBI3 Commercial and International Bank Ltd, Bank of Rajasthan Ltd. and banks from the Public Sector include Punjab National bank, Vijay Bank, UCO Bank, Oriental Bank, Allahabad-bank4 among others. Grind lays Bank, ABN-AMRO Bank, American Express Bank Ltd, Citibank are some of the foreign banks operating in the Indian Banking Industry. The Indian banks are hopeful of becoming a global brand as they are the major source of financial sector revenue and profit growth. The financial services penetration in India continues to be healthy, thus the banking industry is also not far behind. As a result of this, the profit for the Indian banking industry will surely surge ahead. The profit pool of the Indian banking industry is probable to augment from US$ 4.8 billion in 2005 to US$ 20 billion in 2010 and further to US$ 40 billion by 2015. This growth and expansion pace would be driven by the chunk of middle class population. The increase in the number of private banks, the domestic credit market of India is estimated to grow from US$ 0.4 trillion in 2004 to US$ 23 trillion by 2050. Third largest banking hub of the globe by 2040 - is that vision too far away. VISION OF BANKS IN INDIA The banking scenario in India has already gained all the momentum, with the domestic and international banks gathering pace. The focus of all banks in India has shifted their approach to 'cost', determined by revenue minus profit. This means that all the resources should be used efficiently to better the productivity and ensure a win-win situation. To survive in the long run, it is essential to focus on cost saving. Previously, banks focused on the 'revenue' model which is equal to cost plus profit. Post the banking reforms, banks shifted their approach to the 'profit' model, which meant that banks aimed at higher profit maximization. Focus of banks in India

http://business.mapsofindia.com/banks-in-india/idbi-bank-ltd.html http://business.mapsofindia.com/banks-in-india/ing-vysya-bank-ltd.html 3 http://business.mapsofindia.com/banks-in-india/State-bank-of-india 4 http://business.mapsofindia.com/banks-in-india/allahabad
1 2

40

The banking industry is slated for growth in future with a more qualitative rather than quantitative approach. The total assets of all scheduled commercial banks by end-March 2010 is projected to touch Rs 40,90,000 crore. This is going to comprise around 65% of GDP at current market prices as compared to 67% in 2002-03. The bank's assets are estimated to grow at an annual composite rate of growth of 13.4% during the rest of the decade as against 16.7% between 1994-95 and 2002-03. Barring the asset side, on the liability perspective, there will be huge additions to the capital base and reserves. People will rely more on borrowed funds, pace of deposit growth slowing down side by side. However, advances and investments would not see a healthy growth rate. Consolidation of banks in India India would see a large number of global banks controlling huge stakes of the banking entities in the country. The overseas banking units would bring along with it capital, technology, and management skills. This would lead to higher competition in the banking frontier and ensure greater efficiency. The FDI norms in the banking sector would give more leverage to the Indian banks. Thus, a consolidation phase in the banking industry in India is expected in the near future with mergers and acquisitions gathering more pace. One might also see mergers between public sector banks or public sector banks and private banks. Credit cards, insurance are the next best strategic places where alliances can be formed Future challenges of banks in India The Indian banks are hopeful of becoming a global brand as they are the major source of financial sector revenue and profit growth. The financial services penetration in India continues to be healthy, thus the banking industry is also not far behind. As a result of this, the profit for the Indian banking industry will surely surge ahead. The profit pool of the Indian banking industry is probable to augment from US$ 4.8 billion in 2005 to US$ 20 billion in 2010 and further to US$ 40 41

billion by 2015. This growth and expansion pace would be driven by the chunk of middle class population. The increase in the number of private banks, the domestic credit market of India is estimated to grow from US$ 0.4 trillion in 2004 to US$ 23 trillion by 2050. Third largest banking hub of the globe by 2040 - is that vision too far away. The Banking Industry was once a simple and reliable business that took deposits from investors at a lower interest rate and loaned it out to borrowers at a higher rate. However deregulation and technology led to a revolution in the Banking Industry that saw it transformed. Banks have become global industrial powerhouses that have created ever more complex products that use risk and securitization Through technology development, banking services have become available 24 hours a day, 365 days a week, through ATMs, at online banking, and in electronically enabled exchanges where everything from stocks to currency contracts can be traded. The Banking Industry at its core provides access to credit. In the lenders case, this includes access to their own savings and investments, and interest payments on those amounts. In the case of borrowers, it includes access to loans for the creditworthy, at a competitive interest rate. Banking services include transactional services, such as verification of account details, account balance details and the transfer of funds, as well as advisory services, that help individuals and institutions to properly plan and manage their finances. Online banking channels have become key in the last 10 years. The collapse of the Banking Industry in the Financial Crisis, however, means that some of the more extreme risk-taking and complex securitization activities that banks increasingly engaged in since 2000 will be limited and carefully watched, to ensure that there is not another banking system meltdown in the future. Mortgage banking Mortgage banking has been encompassing for the publicity or promotion of the various mortgage loans to investors as well as individuals in the mortgage business. 42

43

Online Banking Online banking services have developed the banking practices easier worldwide. Small Business Banking Banking in the small business sector plays an important role for various banking services available for small businesses The Housing Development Finance Corporation Limited (HDFC) was amongst the first to receive an 'in principle' approval from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) to set up a bank in the private sector, as part of the RBI's liberalization of the Indian Banking Industry in 1994. The bank was incorporated in August 1994 in the name of 'HDFC Bank Limited', with its registered office in Mumbai, India. HDFC Bank commenced operations as a Scheduled Commercial Bank in January 1995. HDFC Bank began operations in 1995 with a simple mission: to be a “World-class Indian Bank". We realized that only a single-minded focus on product quality and service excellence would help us get there. Citibank is the consumer banking arm of financial services giant Citigroup. Citibank was founded in 1812 as the City Bank of New York, later First National City Bank of New York. As of June 2009, Citigroup is the fourth largest bank holding company in the United States by domestic deposits, after Bank of America, Wells Fargo, and JP Morgan Chase. Citibank has retail banking operations in more than 100 countries and territories around the world. Early history Founded in 1812 as the City Bank of New York, ownership and management of the bank was taken over by Moses Taylor, a protégé of John Jacob Astor and one of the giants of the business world in the 19th century. During Taylor's

44

ascendancy, the bank functioned largely as a treasury and finance center for Taylor's own extensive business empire In 1863, the bank joined the U.S.'s new national banking system and became The National City Bank of New York. By 1868, it was considered one of the largest banks in the United States, and in 1897, it became the first major U.S bank to establish a foreign department. In 1896, it was the first contributor to the Federal Reserve Bank of New York National City became the first U.S. national bank to open an overseas banking office when its branch in Buenos Aires, Argentina, was opened in 1914. Many of Citi's present international offices are older; offices in London, Shanghai, Calcutta, and elsewhere were opened in 1901 and 1902 by the International Banking Corporation (IBC), a company chartered to conduct banking business outside the U.S., at that time an activity forbidden to U.S. national banks. In 1918, IBC became a wholly owned subsidiary and was subsequently merged into the bank. By 1919, the bank had become the first U.S. bank to have US$1 billion in assets. In 1952, James Stillman Rockefeller1 was elected president and then chairman in 1959, serving until 1967. Citibank Following its merger with the First National Bank2, the bank changed its name to The First National City Bank of New York in 1955, and then shortened it to First National City. Automated banking card Shortly afterward, the bank launched the Citicard, which allowed customers to perform all transactions without a passbook. Branches also had terminals with simple one line displays that allowed customers to get basic account information without a bank teller. When automatic teller machines were later introduced, customers could use their existing Citicard.

1 2

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James-Stillman-Rocketeller
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First-National-Bank

45

Credit card business In the 1960s the bank entered into the credit card business. By 1968, the company created its own credit car. Citibank become the largest bank in the United States, the largest issuer of credit cards and charge cards in the world, and expand its global reach to over 90 countries. As the bank's expansion continued, the Narre Warren-Caroline Springs1 credit card company was purchased in 1981. Women's employment in banking There has been a marked increase in women's employment in the financial sector since the 1950s, in both public sector companies and private foreign-controlled banks. The increase has been most marked in metropolitan cities. By the mid1960s the number of women entering the banks increased significantly, intensifying in the 1970s end early 1980s. Challenges faced by women in banking industry The banking and insurance sectors today offer more prospects for jobs for women - both qualitatively and quantitatively. However there are some common problems faced by women managers, officers and clerical groups in banking and insurance, in the course of their careers. These include the burden of the dual role, sexual harassment in the workplace, the refusal of men to accept women as colleagues or seniors, the need to work twice as well as men to gain recognition, and the lack of solidarity among women. According to a study 50 per cent of women complained that extra work is always shunted to women. They also complained about sexual harassment from colleagues, managers, or customers. Women so felt dissatisfied that they were not sent out for training. Some obstacles arise from women's specific difficulties in demanding promotion - because promotions are linked with transfers; or they have difficulties in working late; or because women shy away from responsibility,
1

http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title-Narre-Warren-Caroline-Springs&action-edit&redlink-1

46

having a low opinion of their own abilities and a negative attitude to accept recognition. Some women employees feel that these constraints are intensified by being forced to adopt the behaviour of the 'successful manager or officer' which has been established by men. They argue that women could find their own strategies which would achieve the same result One way of improving prospects for women could be to restructure the work, for example with flexible working hours, part-time job assignments, split location positions performed partly at home, and job-sharing). As women, we are used to challenges, at home, at work, in combining the two roles, and in relationships with in-laws, neighbors, community, children, colleagues, and bosses. As we grow older, these challenges become routine matters. The discrimination experienced by women working women in banks is mainly in terms of the lack of infrastructural facilities, the transfer policy, and assumptions that women would not be interested in training or in promotions. The Women's Wing of has been taking up these issues systematically. One outcome of their work has been the charter of demands they submitted to their union confederation. These included:
• •

Infrastructural facilities such as crèches and day care centers. Provision of hostels for working women accommodation for divorced, separated and widowed women with children. Special leave with a lien on service, for up to say five years, to meet certain contingencies specific to women, extending this facility to men also whenever required.

Provision for a woman with a child less than three years old to work for fewer hours and receive proportionate pay. Family pension and voluntary retirement for men and women after twenty years of service. Provision for flexi-hours and part-time employment in suitable cases. Although maternity leave (12 weeks in all) is regarded as fairly satisfactory, additional provisions required 47 are medical benefits,

• •

hospitalization, leave for the purpose of child care, paternity leave for at least ten days, and further leave also for those who have to look after an infant in special circumstances.

Discrimination exists in our laws with regard to women especially with regard to taxation, which needs to be looked into.

The specific demands put forward by the Women's Wing include a uniform transfer policy in all banks for women officers, and a cell to deal with women's issues in every bank's personnel department. They are currently trying to formulate demands relating to training programmer and time off for women to do union work. Similarly the All India Bank Employees Association (AIBEA) has initiated a women's wing of the union to take up issues specially affecting women. The Reserve Bank of India has a Women's Forum for the same purpose. The unions in the LIC have begun to organize women-only meetings and workshops. The Insurance Employees Association decided in 1991 to organize women employees more effectively, as the number of women employees was increasing day by day, with over 75 per cent of the new recruits being women. The association has demanded crèche facilities, special leave and better working conditions for women, and the removal of hidden discrimination. The demands put forward by the Punjab National Bank Employees Union include:
• •

Inter-region transfers of women on a priority basis. Arranging pre-promotion training programmes women who want to take tests relating to promotions Displacement on promotion to be avoided. Protection for pregnant women who work on computers. Women should be given temporary transfers on request during pregnancy, etc.

• • •

The unions and the management have begun to acknowledge the separate needs of women employees and the specificity of the issues they face. Yet women employees’ concerns and aspirations have not been adequately addressed 48

by either. The training programmes organized by management do not include the vast majority of women employees. The last decade has seen a systematic rise in the employment of women in the banking and finance sector. The result of a multiplicity of factors, including: profound social changes taking place in India regarding women's education and employment; the changing policies of management, especially after the nationalization and reorganization of the LIC and of major banks; the policies of the Indian government; international changes in banking and finance and, not least, the technological changes being effected in the industry These all have a specific impact on women employees, who are being recruited in large numbers in the banking and finance sector, mainly in the clerical category. Women employees are increasingly looking at their work in terms of career prospects and are keen on learning new skills and advancing in their careers, despite severe limitations. They are organizing themselves into unions and separate women's caucuses within and outside unions.

49

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
1. Which age group do respondents belong? Particulars Below 25 25-30 30-35 Above 35 Total No. of Respondent 21 35 30 22 108 % of Respondent 19.44 32.41 27.78 20.37 100
Below 25 25-30 30-35 Above 35 19.44%

20.37%

27.78%

32.41%

Interpretation:19.44 percent respondents are below 25 years as well 32.41percent respondents are between 25 to 30.

50

2. Are respondents married? Particulars Yes No Total No. of Respondent 64 44 108 % of Respondent 59.26 40.74 100

Interpretation:64 respondents said that they are married and 44 respondents said that they are not married.

51

3. What is respondent’s gender? Particulars Male Female Total No. of Respondent 68 40 108 % of Respondent 62.96 37.04 100

Interpretation:62.96percent respondents are male and 37.04 percent respondents are female.

52

4. In which department do respondents work? Name Of Departments Marketing HR Finance R&D Production Others Total No. of Respondent 18 8 28 16 24 14 108 % of Respondent 16.67 7.41 25.93 14.81 22.22 12.96 100

Interpretation:53

Most of the employees are from finance department (25.93%) and production department (22.22%).

54

5. How long have respondents been working?

Years 0-5 years 5-10 years 10-15 years More than 15years Total

No. of Respondent 28 34 22 24 108

% of Respondent 25.93 31.48 20.37 22.22 100

55

Interpretation:Most of employees have been working for 5-10 years. 25.93% of respondent are new to organization

56

6.Do respondents feel facing challenges are inherent at the work station? Particulars Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Total No. of Respondent 46 34 18 10 108 % of Respondent 42.59 31.48 16.67 9.26 100

Interpretation:Most of the respondent said that they are facing challenges inherent at the work station.

57

7. Do respondents feel working women in India are faced with lot more challenges than their counterparts in the other parts of the world? Particulars Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Total No. of Respondent 38 32 12 26 108 % of Respondent 35.19 29.63 11.11 24.07 100

Interpretation:Quite a 35.19% respondents feel working women in India is faced with lot more challenges than their counterparts in the other parts of the world and 11.11% respondents don’t feel like so.

58

8. What do respondents feel whether personal questions during an interview about family and marriage should be asked? Particulars Yes No Can’t say Total No. of Respondent 38 56 14 108 % of Respondent 35.19 51.85 12.96 100

Interpretation:-

59

51.85% respondents don’t agree that personal questions should be asked during the interview. Some respondents agree that personal questions should be asked during the interview.

60

9. Whether there are biases for promotion, sexual harassment, lack of flexible working hours, lack of women mentors and bosses in your organization? Particulars Yes No Can’t say Total No. of Respondent 52 15 41 108 % of Respondent 48.15 13.89 37.96 100

Interpretation:61

Most of the respondents agree that there are biases in promotion etc. Some of the respondents don’t agree about the biases in promotion etc.

10. Do respondents think the most glaring dilemma for working women is the time factor? Particulars Neither agree nor disagree Agree Disagree Total No. of Respondent 12 61 35 108 % of Respondent 11.11 56.48 32.41 100

Interpretation:Most of the respondents are in favour of the most glaring dilemma for working women is the time factor. 62

11. Whether the compensation is proportional to the contribution each employee makes irrespective of gender? Particulars Neither agree nor disagree Strongly agree Total No. of Respondent 62 46 108 % of Respondent 57.41 42.59 100

Interpretation:-

63

57.41% respondents are neutral. Some respondents strongly agree with the statement stated above.

64

12. Whether both positive and negative aspects are considered before taking actions? Particulars Yes No Can’t say Total No. of Respondent 38 24 46 108 % of Respondent 35.19 22.22 42.59 100

Interpretation:65

Most of the respondent agrees that both positive and negative aspects are considered before taking actions. 22.22% respondents don’t feel positive and negative aspects are considered before taking actions.

13. Is there any law relating to the rights of women in respondent’s company? Particulars No. of Respondent Laws protecting the rights of women 26 at workplace Equal remuneration act Maternity Total 50 32 108 % of Respondent 24.07 46.30 29.63 100

66

Interpretation:46.30% of the respondents say that there is an equal remuneration act but, 24.07% respondents are aware of laws protecting the rights of women.

67

14. Whether women employees felt comfortable with rules and regulations of the company? Particulars Satisfied More satisfied Dissatisfied Total No. of Respondent 38 22 48 108 % of Respondent 35.19 20.37 44.44 100

Interpretation:-

68

35.19% respondents are satisfied with the rules and regulations of the company but on the other hand 44.44%are dissatisfied with the rules and regulations of the company.

15. What type of relations they had with their superiors, peers and subordinate? Particulars Good Average Poor Total No. of Respondent 58 32 18 108 % of Respondent 53.70 29.63 16.67 100

69

Interpretation:53.70% respondents have good relations with their superiors but 29.63% have average kind of relationship with their superiors.

70

16. When it came to execution of your task, were you provided with adequate resources and that too on timely basis? Particulars Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree Total No. of Respondent 8 46 54 108 % of Respondent 7.41 42.59 50 100

Interpretation:-

71

42.59%respondents said that they are provided with adequate resources but 7.41%do not agree with the statement.

72

17. To perform to the optimum whether women employees were provided with necessary facilities? Particulars Yes No Can’t say Total Frequency 63 27 18 108 Percent 58.33 25 16.67 100

Interpretation:73

58.3% respondents feel that they are provided with necessary facilities whereas 16.67% didn’t give any opinion about this.

18.At the workplace whether fellow employees demonstrated a positive attitude towards women employees?

Particulars Strongly disagree Neither disagree nor agree Strongly agree Total

No. of Respondent 38 22 48 108

% of Respondent 35.19 20.37 44.44 100

74

Interpretation:44.44% respondents said that they were given positive attitude by their colleagues but on the other hand 35.19% said that no positive attitude was there by their colleagues.

75

19. Were women employees allowed to share information, feelings, and thoughts? Particulars Yes No Total No. of Respondent 48 60 108 % of Respondent 44.44 55.56 100

Interpretation:76

44.44% respondents were in favour of this statement but 55.56% were against the statement.

77

20. Was there free interaction among employees each respecting other’s feelings? Particulars Yes No Can’t say Total No. of Respondent 20 52 36 108 % of Respondent 18.52 48.15 33.33 100

Interpretation:18.52% respondents said that they are free to share feeling and information in their superiors but 48.15% do not agree with the statement.

78

21. Was there free discussion and communication between seniors and subordinates? Particulars Disagree Agree Strongly agree Total No. of Respondent 32 52 24 108 % of Respondent 29.63 48.15 22.22 100

Interpretation:-

79

22.22% respondents strongly agree with the statement whereas 29.63% don’t agree with.

22. Do respondents feel free and frank communication at various levels helps in solving problems? Particulars Yes No Can’t say Total No. of Respondent 58 32 18 108 % of Respondent 53.70 29.63 16.67 100

Interpretation:53.70% of the respondents agree that feel free and frank communication at various levels helps in solving problems.

80

81

23.In your opinion whether women employees felt shy from addressing their problems? Particulars Strongly disagree Disagree Neither disagree nor agree Agree Strongly agree Total No. of Respondent 8 16 6 36 42 108 % of Respondent 7.41 14.81 5.56 33.33 38.89 100

Interpretation:7.41% respondents said that they don’t shy from addressing their problems whereas 14.81% stated that they shy to some extent from addressing their problems.

82

24. Whether moral support was offered to women employees? Particulars Disagree Neither disagree nor agree Agree Strongly agree Total No. of Respondent 48 14 28 18 108 % of Respondent 44.44 12.96 25.93 16.67 100

Interpretation:-

83

44.44% respondents disagree with the statement but 12.96% completely agree with the statement.

84

25. Do respondents feel the following tips can help working mothers combat stress? Particulars Prioritize Eliminate things that make stress worse Exercise Find emotional support Total No. of Respondent 7 13 15 73 108 % of Respondent 6.48 12.04 13.89 67.59 100

Interpretation:67.59% respondents said that emotional support can be useful tool to overcome stress whereas 12.04% respondents said that eliminate things that make stress worse. 26. Were women employees authorized to take independent action relating to their job? 85

Particulars Yes No Can’t say Total

No. of Respondent 28 43 37 108

% of Respondent 25.93 39.81 34.26 100

Interpretation:25.93% respondents said yes whereas 39.81% said no.

86

27. Are women employees encouraged to take a fresh look at how things are done?

Particulars Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree Total

No. of Respondent 10 18 56 24 108

% of Respondent 9.26 16.67 51.85 22.22 100

87

Interpretation:51.85% respondents are not in favour whereas 9.26% are agree with the statement.

88

28. Are respondents satisfied with the job you are doing at the workplace? Particulars Strongly disagree Agree Strongly agree Total No. of Respondent 42 48 18 108 % of Respondent 38.89 44.44 16.67 100

Interpretation:44.44% respondents feel that they are satisfied with the job but 38.89% are not it all satisfied.

89

29. Whether tele-commuting should be encouraged? Particulars Yes No Can’t say Total No. of Respondent 27 43 38 108 % of Respondent 25 39.81 35.19 100

Interpretation:25% respondents said it should be encouraged and 39.81% said that it should not be encouraged. 90

30. Whether women employees opinion and suggestions were given due consideration by senior management? Particulars High value Fair value Low value Very low value Total No. of Respondent 46 11 14 37 108 % of Respondent 42.59 10.19 12.96 34.26 100

Interpretation:42.59% respondents felt that women employee’s suggestions and opinion should be given due consideration by the senior management but 34.26% don’t agree with this statement.

91

31. Whether people who perform better grow faster? Particulars Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree Total No. of Respondent 18 36 30 24 108 % of Respondent 16.67 33.33 27.78 22.22 100

Interpretation:-

92

Some of the respondents stated that employees who perform better grow faster whereas mostly respondents don’t agree with the statement.

93

FINDINGS
 The management is lacking in extending material support to women  Mostly respondents agree that women employees have to face a lot more challenges than their counterparts  Most of the respondents agree that the most glaring dilemma for working women is the time factor  82 % employees are low on their commitment towards the organization mainly because they cannot see much alignment of their personal goals with that of organization  Majority of the employees agree that there are lacks of women mentors.

94

RECOMMENDATION
 It is suggested to increase the level of confidence and team work in the women employees and other employees  Salary of the employee should be linked with the performance and behavior of the employee.  The organization should lay emphasis towards respect and recognition of their employees and also provide them with enough opportunity for promotion. without any biases.  The organization should pay attention towards things which can reduce stress of women employees to some extent  The organization should create conducive work environment for women employees

95

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
However I have tried my best in collecting the relevant information yet there are always some limitations under which researcher has to work. The limitations under which I had to work to are shown below 1. Limited time:There was limited time in which this project had to be completed. Because of shortage of time and so many other constraints it is possible that some aspects might have been left untouched 2. Limited Area:The area covered in this project was only employees of banking industry 3. Sample size:The sample size was 108, which may not reflect a true picture of the consumers mind. Because of these constraints, the analysis may not be accurate and may vary, when test will take in different places and time. 4. Lack of Interest:Some respondents were not willing to respond. They were not showing any interest in filing the Questionnaire. Primary data has also been used in this study. There could be the marginal errors due to the use of the data. In every research there are chances of errors and constraints. 5. Biasness:Some Respondents gave biased responses.

96

CONCLUSION
The study was undertaken with two topics in mind: • • . To find out the challenges faced by women To find out the cultural environment of company

After the study it was found, Firstly, culture of bank is highly proactive in nature and the employees are open in nature with in there teams and with there superiors. Secondly, Research shows that satisfied and motivated employees will create higher customer satisfaction and in turn will have positively influence on organization’s performance. Convenient work location, working with young people, opportunities for promotion and career prospects, fair salary, good policies, job security and dynamic working environment without any biases are few attributes which are critically important from the view point of most of the employees. There is clear and mounting evidence that high levels of employee satisfaction keenly correlates to individual, group and corporate performance in areas such as retention, turnover, and productivity. A holistic outlook towards building employee (women) satisfaction includes understanding the employee with regard to herself and her job and appreciating the same within the context of the organization.. The key to achieve this lies in recognizing and respecting the employee’s socio-cultural background and enabling her to blend in with the organization.

97

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books:  Kothari, C.R., (2002), “Research Methodology Methods & Techniques”, Wishwa Prakashan, New Delhi  William, G. Zikmund (2003), “Business Research Methods” (7th Edition), Akash Press, New Delhi. Links:  http://business.mapsofindia.com/banks-in-india/idbi-bank-ltd.html  http://business.mapsofindia.com/banks-in-india/ing-vysya-bank-ltd.html  http://business.mapsofindia.com/banks-in-india/State-bank-of-india  http://business.mapsofindia.com/banks-in-india/allahabad  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James-Stillman-Rocketeller  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First-National-Bank  http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title-Narre-Warren-CarolineSprings&action-edit&redlink-1 Articles: • • • • • • • • Halpern, 2005 H.L. Kaila, S.N.D.T. Women’s University, Mumbai Jennifer L. Schultz, Metropolitan State University and Jeanne L. Higbee, University of Minnesota Julia Krane , McGill University, Montreal, Canada Linda Davies , McGill University, Montreal, Canada Meryl Aldridge Linda Davies , McGill University, Montreal, Canada Wentling, 1998 Zedeck & Mosier, 1990

98

QUESTIONNAIRE
I, Manvi Valecha student of MBA-4th semester, PDM College of Engineering, doing study on project “Key Challenges of Working Women” .I ensure you that your information will not be disclosed to any one for any other motive. Name ……………………… Age Group ) (c) ( ( ) (a) (a) Male Yes ( ) ( ) ( (b) No ) ) (b) Female Married Gender. 30 – 35 ( ) (d) Above 35 (a) Below 25 ( Address …………………………….. ) (b) 25 – 30 (

1. In which department do you work? a. Marketing ( c. Finance ( e. ) Production ( ) f. Any ( ( ) ) d. R&D ) b. HR

other……………... 2. How long have you been working? a. 0-5 years ) c. 10-15 years ) 3. Do you feel facing challenges are inherent at the work station? a. Strongly disagree ) c. ( Neutral ) ( 99 ) ( ) d. Agree ( ) b. Disagree ( ( ) d. Above15years ( ( ) b. 5-10 years (

e. Strongly agree

4. Do you feel working women in India are faced with lot more challenges than their counterparts in the other parts of the world? a. Strongly disagree ) c. Neutral ( ) ( ) e. Strongly agree ( ) d. Agree ( ) b. Disagree (

5. What do you feel whether personal questions during an interview about family and marriage should be asked? a. Yes ) c. Can’t say ( ) 6. Whether there are biases for promotion, sexual harassment, lack of flexible working hours, lack of women mentors and bosses in an organization? a. Yes ) c. Can’t say factor? a. Strongly disagree ) c. Neutral ) e. Strongly agree ( ) 8. Whether the compensation is proportional to the contribution each employee makes irrespective of gender? a. Strongly disagree ) c. ( Neutral ) ( ) ( ) d. Agree ( ) b. Disagree ( ( ) d. Agree ( ( ) b. Disagree ( ( ) 7. Do you think the most glaring dilemma for working women is the time ( ) b. No ( ( ) b. No (

e. Strongly agree actions?

9. Whether both positive and negative aspects are considered before taking

100

a. Yes ) b. Can’t say . 10.

( (

) )

b. No

(

Is there any law relating to the rights of women in your company? a. Laws protecting the rights of women at workplace b. Equal remuneration act c. Maternity benefits act a. Strongly disagree ( ( ( ) ) ) ( ( ( ) ) )

11. Do you feel comfortable with rules and policies of the organization? b. Disagree d. Agree ( ( ) c. Neutral ) e. Strongly agree 12. subordinate? a. ( ) c. Good ) e. Poor 13. ( ) When it comes to execution of your task, are provided with adequate resources and that too on timely basis? a. Strongly disagree ) c. Neutral ) e. Strongly agree 14. ( ) To perform to the optimum whether women employees are provided with a. Yes ( ) c. Can’t say ( ) ( ) b. No ( ) d. Agree ( ( ) b. Disagree ( ( ) d. Satisfactory ( Excellent ( ) b. Very good What type of relations are you having with your superior, peers and

adequate resources like computers, phone, work station etc.

101

15.

At the workplace whether fellow employees demonstrate a positive a. Strongly disagree ( ( ( ) ) ) b. Disagree d. Agree

attitude towards women employees? ( ( ) c. Neutral ) e. Strongly agree 16. thoughts? a. Yes ( ) c. Can’t say 17. feelings? a. Yes ( ) c. 18. subordinates? a. Strongly disagree ) c. Neutral ) e. Strongly agree solving problems? a. Yes ) c. Can’t say problems? ( ) 20. In your opinion whether women employees shy from addressing their ( ) b. No ( ( ) 19. Do you feel free and frank communication at various levels helps in ( ) d. Agree ( ( ) b. Disagree ( Can’t say ( ) Is there free discussion and communication between seniors and ( ) b. No ( ) Is there free interaction among employees each respecting other’s ( ) b. No Are women employees are allowed to share information, feelings,

102

a. Strongly disagree ) c. Neutral ) e. Strongly agree a. Strongly disagree ) c. Neutral ) e. Strongly agree a. Prioritize

( ( ( ( ( (

) ) ) ) ) )

b. Disagree d. Agree

( (

21. Whether moral support is offered to women employees? b. Disagree d. Agree ( (

22. Do you feel the following tips can help working mothers combat stress? ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) b. Eliminate things that make stress worse c. Exercise d. Find emotional support your job? a. Yes ) c. Can’t say ( ) ( ) b. No (

23. Are women employees authorized to take independent action relating to

24. Are women employees encouraged to take a fresh look at how things are done? a. Strongly disagree ) c. Neutral ) e. Strongly agree a. Strongly disagree ) 103 ( ( ) ) b. Disagree ( 25. Are you satisfied with the job you are doing at the workplace? ( ) d. Agree ( ( ) b. Disagree (

c. Neutral ) e. Strongly agree a. Yes ( 27. ) c. Can’t say consideration by senior a. It is highly valued b. It is given a fairly high

( (

) ) ( )

d. Agree

(

26. Whether tele-commuting should be encouraged? b. No

(

)

Whether women employees opinion and suggestions are given due management? ( ( ( ( ) ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) b. Disagree d. Agree ( (

c. It is given rather low value d. It is given very low value e. Strongly disagree ) c. Neutral ) e. Strongly agree (

28. Whether people who perform better grow faster?

104

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful