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Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

By: Akanksha Mishra

Assistant Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department


Refrigeration and Air conditioning, Manohar Prasad, New

Age International (P) Ltd. Pub.
Refrigeration and Air conditioning, C.P Arora.
Refrigeration and Air conditioning, Arora & Domkundwar.
Refrigeration and Air conditioning, Stoecker & Jones.
Refrigeration and Air conditioning, Roy J. Dossat.
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning, P.L. Baloney.

Quick Review of First Two Laws of


First law of thermodynamics

The first law of thermodynamics is simply an expression
of the conservation of energy principle i.e. It simply states
that during an interaction, energy can change from one form
to another but the total amount of energy remains constant.
That is, energy cannot be created or destroyed.,
For example: A rock falling off a cliff
picks up speed as a result of its
potential energy being converted
to kinetic energy.

Second Law of Thermodynamics

The second law of thermodynamics asserts that energy
has quality as well as quantity, and actual processes occur
in the direction of decreasing quality of energy.
Heat transfer from body at higher temperature to lower
For example: a cup of hot coffee left on a table eventually
cools, but a cup of cool coffee in the same room never gets
hot by itself.

KelvinPlanck Statement:
It is impossible for any device that operates on a cycle to
receive heat from a single reservoir and produce a net
amount of work.

A heat engine that violates the

KelvinPlanck statement of the
second law

practically Possible cycle

Clausius Statement:
It is impossible to construct a device that operates in a
cycle and produces no effect other than the transfer of
heat from a lower-temperature body to a highertemperature body

A refrigerator that violates the Clausius

statement of the second law

practically Possible cycle

Unit- 1

Difference Between Refrigeration and Air

Objective: Maintains the temperature of space lower
than surrounding by the removal of heat from a place
that needs to be cooled.
Air conditioning

Maintains the temperature according to human comfort
Maintains certain humidity
Circulate air continuously in close room
Purify the air

What is Refrigeration

Refrigeration is a science of the producing and

maintaining temperatures below that of the surrounding
Devices that produce refrigeration are called

Working of Refrigerator
Absorb heat from low
temperature reservoir
i.e. cold refrigerated
Reject heat to high
temperature reservoir
i.e. surrounding.
Work input is required
to transfer the heat from
low to high temperature

Refrigerators are cyclic
devices, and the working
refrigeration cycles are
called refrigerants.
The cycles on which they
refrigeration cycles.

Expansion valve

Methods of Refrigeration

Natural Refrigeration
Mechanical or Artificial Refrigeration

Natural Refrigeration

Ice Refrigeration: The natural method includes the utilization of ice

or snow obtained naturally in cold climate. So when it is placed in

space or system warmer than 00C, heat is absorbed by the ice and
the space is cooled. The ice then melts into water by absorbing its
latent heat. But, now-a-days, refrigeration requirements have
become so high that the natural methods are inadequate and
therefore obsolete.
Cooling by Salt Solutions: Certain substances such as common salt,
when added to water dissolve in water and absorb its heat of solution
from water (endothermic process). This reduces the temperature of the
solution (water+salt). Sodium Chloride salt (NaCl) can yield
temperatures up to -20C and Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) up to - 50C.
on the one hand, the refrigeration produced is quite small and on the
other hand, the regaining process of salt is so cumbersome that is not
feasible for commercial exploitation.

Natural Refrigeration
Evaporative Cooling: As the name indicates,
evaporative cooling is the process of reducing the
temperature of a system by evaporation of water.
Evaporative cooling has been used in India for centuries
to obtain cold water in summer by storing the water in
earthen pots. The water permeates through the pores of
earthen vessel to its outer surface where it evaporates to
the surrounding, absorbing its latent heat in part from the
vessel, which cools the water. Evaporative cooling by
placing wet straw mats on the windows is also very
common in India. The straw mat made from khus adds
its inherent perfume also to the air. Now-a-days desert
coolers are being used in hot and dry areas to provide
cooling in summer

Artificial Refrigeration

Refrigerators are the example of this type.

Based on the working principle, refrigeration
systems can be classified as vapour
compression systems, vapour absorption
systems, gas cycle systems etc.

Coefficient of Performance
Net Refrigerating Effect: The quantity of heat
that refrigerant absorbs from the refrigerated
space to produce useful cooling.
Coefficient of Performance of Refrigeration

Unit of Refrigeration
Unit of Refrigeration is ton: A ton of refrigeration is
defined as the quantity of heat to be removed in
order to form one ton of ice at 0oC in 24 hrs, from
liquid water at 0oC.

1 ton of ice=2000 pounds=909.1 kg

Latent heat of ice is= 335 kJ/kg
Amount of heat removed to form 1 ton of ice
from 0oC of water at 0oC of ice

Ordinary House Hold Refrigerator

Expansion valve (capillary tube)

Reverse Carnot Cycle

Refrigeration system works on the principle of reverse Carnot cycle.
Process 1-2: isothermal heat addition
Process 3-4: isothermal heat rejection

Process 2-3: isentropic compression

Process 4-1: isentropic expansion

Schematic of a Carnot refrigerator and T-s , h-s diagram of the reversed Carnot cycle

COP of Carnot Refrigerator

Heat extracted from the cold body = Q2-1=

Work done per cycle = heat rejected heat absorbed



(s3=s2 & s1=s4)

Difference Between Refrigeration and Heat

Refrigerators and heat pumps
operate on the same cycle but
differ in their objectives.
The objective of a refrigerator
is to maintain the refrigerated
space at a low temperature by
Discharging this heat to a
higher-temperature medium is
merely a necessary part of the
operation, not the purpose.
The objective of a refrigerator is to
remove QL from the cooled space

Difference between refrigeration and heat

The objective of a heat
pump is to maintain a
heated space at a high
absorbing heat from a
low-temperature source,
such as well water or cold
outside air in winter, and
supplying this heat to the
high-temperature medium
such as a house.
The objective of a heat pump is to
supply heat QH into the warmer space

Relation Between COP of Heat Pump and




By adding 1 in equation (a):

Application of Refrigeration

Ice making
Transport of foods above and below freezing
Chemical and related industries
Medical and surgical aids
Processing food products and beverages
Freezing food products etc.

Air Refrigeration Cycle

Throughout the cycle refrigerant remains in gaseous
It has found its application in aircraft refrigeration.
air-refrigeration can be classified as:
Close system: Air refrigerant is contained with in the
pipe line and re-circulated in the system. Usually
pressure is above atmospheric.
Open system: the difference between the open and
close system is that the air used in refrigerator is thrown
into the atmosphere instead of re-circulating in close
system .

Reversed Brayton Cycle or Bell Coleman or

Joule Cycle
Modification of the ideal reversed Carnot cycle as to make it practicable has resulted
in this cycle.
Process 2-3: constant pressure heat addition
Process 3-4: isentropic compression
Process 4-1: constant pressure heat rejection Process 1-2: isentropic expansion
COP of Reversed Brayton Cycle:



rp = compression and expansion ratio

Advantages of Air Refrigeration system

Easily available
Quit cheap
Leakage in small amount is tolerable
Low maintenance cost
Air is non toxic and non inflammable
Weight of the air refrigeration system per ton of
refrigeration is quite low compare with the other
refrigeration systems which is one of the major causes
selecting this system in aircraft.

Disadvantages of Air Refrigeration system

Heat is carried by the air from the refrigerator in the form

of sensible heat only. So the mass of air required to be
circulated is more.
COP of this system is low
The major disadvantage of this machine is the freezing
of the moisture of the air.

Types of Air Craft Refrigeration System

Basic or simple air refrigeration system

(a) without evaporative cooling
(b) with evaporative cooling
Boot strap air refrigeration system
(a) without evaporative cooling
(b) with evaporative cooling
Regenerative air refrigeration system
Reduced ambient air refrigeration system

Basic or Simple Air Refrigeration System

without Evaporative Cooling
1-2: ramming action,
2-3:compression in main compressor
3-4: cooling in heat exchanger, 4-5: expansion in the cooling turbine
This system is good for ground surface cooling and low flight speeds.
power required for the refrigeration system is given by:



Basic or Simple Air Refrigeration System

with Evaporative Cooling
1-2: ramming action,
2-3:compression in main compressor
3-4: cooling in heat exchanger, 4-4: expansion in the evaporator
4-5: expansion in the cooling turbine



Boot strap Air Refrigeration System

without Evaporative Cooling
1-2: ramming action, 2-3:compression in main compressor
3-4: cooling in primary heat exchanger,
4-5: compression in secondary compressor,
5-6: cooling in secondary heat exchanger,
6-7: expansion in the cooling turbine
This type of systems are generally used in transport type air craft.

Boot Strap Air Refrigeration System

with Evaporative Cooling
1-2: ramming action, 2-3:compression in main compressor
3-4: cooling in primary heat exchanger
4-5: compression in secondary compressor
5-5: cooling in secondary heat exchanger
5-6: cooling in evaporator, 6-7: expansion in the cooling turbine



Regenerative Air Refrigeration System

1-2: ramming action,
2-3:compression in main compressor
3-4: cooling in primary heat exchanger
4-5: Regenerative heat exchanger
6-7: expansion in the cooling turbine
This system is generally preferred in Supersonic air planes.

Reduced Ambient Air Refrigeration System

1-2: ramming action,
2-3:compression in main compressor
3-4: cooling in heat exchanger, 4-5: expansion in the cooling turbine
This system is used in an exceptionally high speed aircraft when the
ram air temperature is too high.

Dry Air Rated Temperature (DART)

Comparison of the different types of air-refrigeration
systems is made in terms of dry air rated temperature.
This is the temperature of the discharge air from the
expander if there is no condensed moisture present and is
calculated by the usual procedure, assuming the constant
pressure specific heat of 1.004 kJ/kg-K for air. Thus the dry
air rated discharge temperature will be essentially that
resulting from a calculation which assumes that air, at a
humidity so low that the expanded discharge is
unsaturated, enters the system.
The rating of aircraft system is done using the air flow rate
(in kg/s) and at the design. The cooling capacity would be:
Here-:Te: cabin exit temperature, Ti: cabin inlet temperature
Q mCp (Te Ti )