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Oliver Schulten

Mai 2012 Februar 2014


Kontakt: oliverschulten@web.de

Der ostafrikanische Sklavenhandel.


Eine Bibliographie.

Allgemeine Geschichte der Ostkste:

Ajayi, J.:
General History of Africa. Vol. VI: Africa in the Nineteenth Century until the 1880s.
S.: 79-99: The East African Coast and Hinterland, 1800-1880. Paris / Oxford / Berkeley
1998.
Alimen, H.:
The Prehistory of Africa. S.: 194-225: East Africa. London 1957.
Allen, J.:
Swahili Origins. London 1993.
Allen, J.; Wilson, T.:
From Zinj to Zanzibar: Studies in History, Trade and Society on the Eastern Coast of Africa.
Paideuma 28. Wiesbaden 1982.
Alpers, E.:
Gujarat and the Trade of East Africa, 1500-1800. In: International Journal of African
Historical Studies 9, 22-44. 1976.
Moqdiso in the 19th Century. In: International Journal of African Historical Studies 24, 441459. 1983.
East Africa and the Indian Ocean. Princeton 2009.
Alpers, E.; Ehret, C.:
Eastern Africa. In: Cambridge History of Africa 4, 469-536. Cambridge 1975.
Anene, J.:
The Omani Empire and Its Impact on East African Societies. In: Anene, J.; Brown, G.: Africa
in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, 440-457. Ibadan 1966.
Axelson, E.:
The Portuguese in South-East Africa 1600-1700. Johannesburg 1960.
The Portuguese in South-East Africa 1488-1600. Cape Town 1973.
Ayot, H.:
Topics in East African History, 1000-1976. Kampala 1976.
Aziz, E.:
Towards a History of Islam in East Africa. In: KHR 3, 147-158. 1975.
Beachey, R.:
The East African Ivory Trade in the Nineteenth Century. In: Journal of African History 7/2.
1967.
A history of East Africa. 1592-1902. London/New York 1996.
Bennett, N.:
Studies in East African History. Boston 1963.

A History of the Arab State of Zanzibar. London 1978.


Arab versus European: Diplomacy and War in Nineteenth Century East Central Africa. New
York 1986.
Berg, F.:
The Swahili Community of Mombasa, 1500-1900. In: Journal of African History 9/1, 35-56.
1968.
Birmingham, D.; Gray, R.:
Pre-Colonial African Trade. Essays on Trade in Central and Eastern Africa before 1900.
London 1970.
Boahen, A.:
General History of Africa. Vol. VII: Africa under Colonial Domination 1880-1935. S.: 72-82:
African Initiatives and Resistance in East Africa, 1880-1914. Paris/London 1990.
Boxer, C.:
Fort Jesus and the Portuguese in Mombasa. London 1960.
Bradley, J.:
History of the Seychelles Islands. Port Victoria 1940.
Brett, E.:
Colonialism and Underdevelopment in East Africa 1919-1939. London 1973.
Brode, H.:
British and German East Africa. London 1911.
Burgh-Edwardes, S.:
The History of Mauritius, 1507-1914. London 1921.
Burke, E.:
African and Seychellois Socio-Cultural Ties, Mid-18th Century to Present Day. In: Hadith 6,
86-110. 1976.
Burton, A.; Charton-Bigot, H.:
Generations Past: Youth in East African History. University of Ohio 2010.
Chami, F.:
The Tanzanian Coast in the First Millennium AD. Uppsala 1994.
The First Millennium AD on the East Coast: a new look at the cultural sequence and
interactions. In: Azania 29/30, 232-237. 1995/1996.
Chami, F.; Msemwa, P.:
A new look at culture and trade on the Azanian Coast. In: Current Anthropology 38/4, 673677. 1997.
Chaudhuri, K.:

The Trading World of Asia and the English East African Company, 1660-1760. Cambridge
1978.
Chittick, N.:
Kilwa and the Arab Settlement of the East African Coast. In: Journal of African History 4/2,
179-190. 1963.
The Shirazi Colonization of East Africa. In: Journal of African History 6/3, 263-273. 1965.
The Coast of East Africa. In: Shinnie, P.: The African Iron Age, 108-141. Oxford 1971.
Kilwa: An Islamic Trading City on the East African Coast. 2 Bde. Nairobi 1974.
The East Coast, Madagascar and the Indian Ocean. In: Oliver, R.: Cambridge History of
Africa, Vol. 3, c. 1050-1600, S.: 183-231. Cambridge 1977.
Medieval Mogadishu. In: Paideuma 28, 45-62. 1982.
Chittick, N.; Rotberg, R.:
East Africa and the Orient. New York/London 1975.
Cole, S.:
The Prehistory of East Africa. London 1954.
Collins, R.; Burns, J.:
A History of Sub-Saharan Africa. S.: 96-113: East Africa and the Indian Ocean World.
Cambridge 2007.
Connah, G.:
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Cities of the East African Coast and Islands. Cambridge 2001.
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Stuttgart 2006.
Coupland, R.:
East Africa and Its Invaders. Oxford 1938.
Datoo, B. :
Port Development in East Africa: Spatial Patterns from the Ninth to the Sixteenth Centuries.
Nairobi 1975.
Davidson, B. :
Eastern African History. New York 1964.
Delf, G.:
Asians in East Africa. London 1963.
Deschamps, H.:
Histoire de Madagascar. Paris 1960.
Diagram Group:
History of East Africa. New York 2003.
Doresse, J.:

Histoire sommaire de la Corne Orientale de lAfrique. Paris 1971.


Ehret, C.:
An African Classical Age. Eastern and Southern Africa in World History, 1000 BC to AD 400.
Oxford 1998.
The Civilizations of Africa. A History to 1800. S.: 275-284: Eastern Africa, 300-1450.
Charlottesville 2002.
Ehret, C.; Posnansky, M.:
Archaeological and Linguistic Reconstruction of East African History. Berkeley 1982.
El-Tahtany, H.:
Die Ausfuhrgter der ostafrikanischen Kste im Mittelalter. Wien 1972.
Freeman-Grenville, G.:
Medieval History of the Coast of Tanganyika. Oxford 1962.
The East African Coast: Selected Documents from the First to the Earlier Nineteenth Century.
Oxford 1975.
The Swahili Coast, 2nd to 19th Centuries. London 1988.
Gailey, H.:
History of Africa. Vol. I: From Earliest Times to 1800. S. 201-226: East Africa. New York
1981.
Garlake, P.:
The Early Islamic Architecture of the East African Coast. Nairobi 1966.
Glamann, K.:
The Dutch-Asiatic Trade 1620-1740. Kopenhagen 1958.
Goodrich, L.:
Negros in China. In: Bulletin of the Catholic University of Peking 8. Peking 1931.
Gordon, C.:
The Horn of Africa. New York 1994.
Graham, G.:
Great Britain in the Indian Ocean 1810-1850. Oxford 1967.
Gray, J.:
History of Zanzibar. Oxford 1962.
Gregory, R.:
India and East Africa. Oxford 1971.
Guillain, M.:
Documents sur lHistoire, la Gographie et le Commerce de lAfrique Orientale. 3 Bde. Paris
1856.

Harlow, V.; Chilver, E.:


History of East Africa, Vol. II. Oxford 1965.
Harries, L.:
Islam in East Africa. London 1954.
Hawley, J.:
India in Africa, Africa in India. Bloomington 2008.
Herzog, J.:
Geschichte Tansanias. Berlin 1986.
Hollingsworth, L.:
A Short History of the East Coast of Africa. London 1929.
The Asians of East Africa. London 1960.
Hornsby, C.:
Kenya. A history since Independence. London 2012.
Horton, M.:
Shanga: The Archaeology of a Muslim Trading Community on the Coast of East Africa.
London 1996.
Hughes, A.:
East Africa. Harmondsworth 1969.
Iliffe, J.:
A Modern History of Tanganyika. Cambridge 1979.
Geschichte Afrikas. S.: 142-148: Ostafrika. Mnchen 1997.
Ingrams, W.:
Zanzibar. Its History and its People. London 1931.
Jackson, F.:
Early Days in East Africa. London 1930.
July, R.:
A History of the African People. S.: 70-91: The Cosmopolitan World of East Africa. Prospect
Heights / Illinois 1992.
Kaur, S.:
History of East Africa. Oxford 2003.
Kent, R.:
Madagascar in History. Albany 1979.

Kenyatta, J.:
Facing Mount Kenya. New York 1965.
Kimambo, I.; Temu, A.:
A History of Tanzania. Nairobi 1969.
Kirk, W.:
The North-East Monsoon and some aspects of African History. In: Journal of African
History 3. 1962.
Kirkman, J.:
The Arab City of Gedi. Oxford 1954.
Men and Monuments of the East African Coast. London 1964.
The Coast of Kenya as a factor in the Trade and Culture of the Indian Ocean. In: Socits et
Compagnies de Commerce en Orient et dans lOcan Indien, 247-253. Paris 1970.
Ki-Zerbo, J.; Niane, D.:
General History of Africa. Vol. IV: Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century. S.: 181190: The Development of Swahili Civilization. Paris / Oxford / Berkeley 1997.
Kusimba, C.:
The Rise and fall of the Swahili States. Walnut Creek 1999.
Lewcock, R.:
Architectural Connections between Africa and Parts of the Indian Ocean Littoral. London
1976.
Lewis, I.:
A Modern History of the Somali. Athens 2002.
Low, D.; Smith, A.:
History of East Africa, Vol. III. Oxford 1976.
Marissel, J.:
Le commerce zanzibarite dans lAfrique des Grands Lacs au XIXe sicle. In: Revue
Francaise dHistoire dOutre-Mer. 1978.
Marsh, Z.; Kingsnorth, G.:
A History of East Africa. An Introductory Survey. Cambridge 1972.
Martin, B.:
Arab Migrations to East Africa in Medieval Times. In: International Journal of African
Historical Studies 7, 367-390. 1974.
Mathew, G.:
Recent Discoveries in East African Archaeology. In: Antiquity. December 1953.
The Culture of the East African Coast in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. In:
Man 61. 1956.
The East Coast Cultures. In: Africa South 2/2, 59 ff. 1958.
The Land of Zanj. In: Oliver, R.: The Dawn of African History. S.: 45-52. Oxford 1961.

Maugham, R.:
Portuguese East Africa. Cambridge 2009.
Maxon, R.:
East Africa: An Introductory History. University of West Virginia 2009.
Maxon, R.; Ofcansky, T.:
Historical Dictionary of Kenya. Lanham 2000.
Mazrui, A.; Shariff, I.:
The Swahili. Idiom and Identity of an African People. Trenton 1994.
McCall, D.:
Eastern African History. New York 1969.
Middleton, J.:
The World of the Swahili. New Haven 1992.
Newitt, M.:
The Comoro Islands in Indian Ocean Trade before the 19th Century. In: Cahiers dtudes
Africaines 33, 139-154. 1974.
East Africa and Indian Ocean Trade, 1500-1800. In: Das Gupta, A.; Pearson, M.: India and
the Indian Ocean, 201-223. Calcutta 1987.
A History of Mozambique. London 1995.
Nicholls, C.:
The Swahili Coast 1798-1856. London 1971.
Ochieng, W.:
A Modern History of Kenya 1895-1980. London 1989.
Odhiambo, A.:
A History of East Africa. London 1978.
Ofcansky, T.; Yeager, R.:
Historical Dictionary of Tanzania. Lanham 1997.
Ogot, B.:
Zamani, a Survey of East African History: Nairobi 1974.
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S.: 368-380: East Africa: The Coast. Paris / Oxford / Berkeley 1999.
Okello, B.:
A History of East Africa. Kampala 2002.
Oliver, R.:
The Missionary Factor in East Africa. London 1952.

Oliver, R.; Mathew, G.:


History of East Africa, Vol. I. Oxford 1963.
Oliver, R.; Fagan, B.:
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World, 1000-1400. Cambridge 1975.
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Pearce, F.:
Zanzibar: The Island Metropolis of Eastern Africa. London 1920.
Pearson, M.:
Port Cities and Intruders: The Swahili Coast, India, and Portugal in the Early Modern Era.
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African Archaeology. S.: 221-224: The East Coast of Africa. Cambridge 1993.
Posnansky, M.:
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Pouwels, R.:
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Rashidi, R.:
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Reid, R.:
Warfare in Pre-Colonial Eastern Africa. Oxford 2007.
Reusch, R.:
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Richards, A.:
The Multi-Cultural States of East Africa. Montreal 1970.
Ricks, T.:
Persian Gulf Seafaring and East Africa, Ninth Twelfth Centuries. In: International Journal
of African Historical Studies 3, 339-357. 1970.

Roberts, A.:
Tanzania before 1900. Nairobi 1968.
Rushohora, N.:
Pre-Colonial East Africa: A Historical Anthropology Guide. Saarbrcken 2012.
Saeed, M.; Setia, G.:
India and East Africa. Delhi 1986.
Salim, A.:
State Formation in Eastern Africa. Nairobi 1984.
Sarfo, K.:
History of Africa. S.: 65-78: History of East Africa. Dubuque/Iowa 1993.
Schmidt, P.:
Iron Technology in East Africa. Bloomington 1997.
Schoff, W.:
The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. London 1912.
Schuerkens, U.:
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Sheriff, A.:
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The History of Black Africa. Vol. 1, Part Two, Chapter IV. Black Africa in the Age of
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Smith, A.:
The Indian Ocean Zone. In: Birmingham, D.; Martin, P.: History of Central Africa, Vol. I, S.:
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Spear, T.:
Kenyas Past. London 1981.
Stigand, C.:
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Strandes, J.:
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Stuhlmann, F.:
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Sutton, J.:
The East African Coast. Nairobi 1966.
Early Trade in Eastern Africa. Nairobi 1973.

A Thousand Years of East Africa. Nairobi 1990.


Toussaint, A.:
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Trimingham, J.:
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Verin, P.:
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Ward, K.; Wild-Wood, E.:
East Africa Revival. History and Legacies. Burlington 2012.
Ward, W.; White, L.:
East Africa. A Century of Change 1870-1970. New York 1971.
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Wheathley, P.:
The Land of Zanj. London 1904.
Wheeler, M.:
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Wright, M.:
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Sklaverei und Sklavenhandel:

Abdussamad H. Ahmad:
Trading in Slaves in Bela-Shangul and Gumuz, Ethiopia, 1897-1938. In: Journal of African
History 40/3, 433-446. 1999.
Abir, M.:
The Ethiopian Slave Trade and its relation to the Islamic World. In: Willis, J.: The Servile
Estate, 121-134. London 1986.
Ahmad, A.:
Ethiopian Slave Exports at Matamma, Massawa and Tajura, 1830-1885. In: Slavery &
Abolition 9/3, 93-102. 1988.
Akinola, G.:
Slavery and Slave Revolts in the Sultanate of Zanzibar in the Nineteenth Century. In: Journal
of the Historical Society of Nigeria 6/2, 215-228. 1972.
Allen, R.:
Economic Marginality and the Rise of the Free Population of Colour in Mauritius, 1767-1830.
In: Slavery & Abolition 10/2, 126-150. 1989.
Slaves, Freedmen and Indentured Laborers in Colonial Mauritius. Cambridge 1999.
Licentious and Unbridled Proceedings. The Illegal Slave Trade to Mauritius and the
Seychelles during the Early Nineteenth Century. In: Journal of African History 42/1, 91-116.
2001.
The Mascarene Slave Trade and Labour Migration in the Indian Ocean during the Eighteenth
and Nineteenth Centuries. In: Slavery & Abolition 24/2, 33-50. 2003.
Free Women of Colour and Socio-Economic Marginality in Mauritius 1767-1830. In: Slavery
& Abolition 26/2, 181-197. 2005.
The constant demand of the French: The Mascarene Slave Trade and the Worlds of the Indian
Ocean and Atlantic during the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. In: Journal of African
History 49/1, 43-72. 2008.
Alpers, E.:
The East African Slave Trade. Nairobi 1967.
The French Slave Trade in East Africa 1721-1810. In: Cahiers dEtudes Africaines 10/1, 80124. 1970.
Ivory and Slaves in East Central Africa. Berkeley / Los Angeles 1975.
The East African Slave Trade. In: Konczacki, Z.: An Economic History of Tropical Africa.
Vol. 1: The Pre-Colonial Period, 206-216. London 1977.
The Impact of the Slave Trade on East Central Africa in the Nineteenth Century. In: Inikori,
J.: Forced Migration. The Impact of the Export Slave Trade on African Societies, S. 242-274.
London 1982.

The Story of Swema: Female Vulnerability in Nineteenth Century East Africa. In: Robertson,
C.; Klein, M.: Women and Slavery in Africa, 185-219. Madison 1983
Slave Trade: Eastern Africa. In: Middleton, J.: Encyclopedia of Africa South of the Sahara,
Vol. 4. S. 94-97. New York 1997.
Flight to Freedom: Escape from Slavery among bonded Africans in the Indian Ocean World,
1750-1962. In: Slavery & Abolition 24/2, 51-68. 2003.
The Idea of Marronage: Reflections on Literature and Politics in Runion. In: Slavery &
Abolition 25/2, 18-29. 2004.
Mozambique and Mozambiques: Slave Trade and Diaspora on a Global Scale. In: Benigna
Zimba; et al.: Slave Routes and Oral Tradition in Southeastern Africa, 39-61. Maputo 2005.
Representations of Children in the East African Slave Trade. In: Slavery & Abolition 30/1,
27-40. 2009.
Slavery in the Great Lakes Region of East Africa. In: Slavery & Abolition 30/1, 139-141.
2009.
Alpers, E.; Campbell, G.:
Resisting Bondage in Indian Ocean, Africa and Asia. London / New York 2006.
Alpers, E.; Teelock, V.:
History, Memory and Identity. Port Louis 2001.
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Anonymous:
Die Antisklaverei-Bewegung und Deutsch-Ostafrika. In: Deutsche Kolonialzeitung 1, 349355. 1888.
Anonymous:
Sklavenverkufe in Dar es Salaam. In: Vorwrts, 25. August 1900.
Anonymous:
Slavery in East Africa. In: Church Missionary Intelligencer 26, 620-622. 1901.
Anonymous:
Slavery in German East Africa. In: The Moslem World, 437. 1917.
Armstrong, J.:
Madagascar and the Slave Trade in the Seventeenth Century. In: Omaly sy Anio 17/20, 213216. 1984.
Asante, M.:
The History of Africa. The Quest for Eternal Harmony. S.: 222-256: Resisting European and
Arab Slave Traders. London/New York 2007.
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La rvolte des esclaves dans les Mascareignes. Sainte Clotilde 1980.
Atmore, A.:
Eastern Africa: The Trading Sphere of the Swahili Arabs. In: Oliver, R.; Sanderson, G.: The
Cambridge History of Africa, Vol. 6: from 1870 to 1905. S. 70-77. Cambridge 1985.

Austen, R.A:
The Islamic Red Sea Slave Trade. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on
Ethiopian Studies, 443-467. Chicago 1979.
From the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean: European Abolition, the African Slave Trade, and
Asian Economic Structures. In: Eltis, D.; Walvin, J.: The Abolition of the Atlantic Slave
Trade, 117-139. Madison 1981.
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Baker, A.:
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Baker, S.:
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Trade. 2 Bde. London 1874.
Ballantyne, D.:
Black Ivory: A Tale of Adventure among the Slavers of East Africa. London 1873.
Barker, A.:
Distorting the Record of Slavery and Abolition: The British Anti Slavery Movement and
Mauritius. In: Slavery & Abolition 14/3, 185-207. 1993.
Slavery and Antislavery in Mauritius 1810-1833. New York 1996.
Bauss, R.:
The Portuguese Slave Trade from Mocambique to Portuguese India and Macau and
Comments on Timor 1750-1850. In: Camoes Center Quarterly 6/7, 21-26. 1997.
Beachey, R.:
A Collection of Documents on the Slave Trade of Eastern Africa. London 1976.
The Slave Trade of Eastern Africa. London 1976.
Some Observations on the Volume of the Slave Trade of Eastern Africa in the 19th Century. In:
African Historical Demography, S. 365-372. Edinburgh 1977.
Beech, M.:
Slavery on the East Coast of Africa. In: Journal of the African Society 15/58, 145-149. 1916.
Benedict, B.:
Slavery and Indenture in Mauritius and Seychelles. In: Watson, J.: Asian and African Systems
of Slavery, 135-168. Oxford 1980.
Bialuschewski, A.:
Pirates, Slavers and the Indigenous Population in Madagascar, 1690-1715. In: International
Journal of African Historical Studies 38/3, 401-425. 2005.
Bilger, H.:
Verfhrung und Last der Freiheit. Probleme der Entwicklungspolitik dargestellt an den
Beispielen Kenya und Tanzania. S.: 67-75: Sklaverei und Sklavenhandel. Konstanz 1972.

Bissoondoyal, U.; Servansing, S.:


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Bloch, M.:
Modes of Production and Slavery in Madagascar. In: Watson, J.: Asian and African Systems
of Slavery. Berkeley 1980.
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The Slave Trade of Eastern Africa. London 1976.
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Tippo Tib. London 1907.
Brown, Y.:
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Slavery & Abolition 9/3, 166-193. 1988.
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Studies 22, 1-26. 1989.
Disease, Cattle, and Slaves: The Development of Trade between Natal and Madagascar, 18751904. In: African Economic History 19, 105-135. 1990 / 1991.
The Structure of Slavery in Indian Ocean, Africa and Asia. London / New York 2003.
Introduction: Slavery and other forms of unfree labour in the Indian Ocean World. In: Slavery
& Abolition 24/2, 9-32. 2003.
Abolition and its Aftermath in Indian Ocean, Africa and Asia. London / New York 2005.
African Diaspora in Asia. In: Encyclopedia of Diasporas Part I, 3-15. 2005.
Sklaverei und andere Formen unfreier Arbeit in der Welt des Indischen Ozeans. In: Eckert, A.;
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Campbell, G. ; Alpers, E. :
Slavery, Forced Labour and Resistance in Indian Ocean Africa and Asia. In: Slavery &
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Campbell, G.; Miers, S.; Miller, J.:
Women and Slavery. Africa, the Indian Ocean World and the Medieval North Atlantic. Athens
2007.

Capela, J.; Medeiros, E.:


O trfico de escravos de Mocambique para as ilhas do Indico 1720-1902. Maputo 1987.
Caplan, P.:
Madagascar and the Slave Trade, 1810-1895. In: Journal of African History 22, 203-227.
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The East African Slave Trade, 1861-1895. In: International Journal of African Historical
Studies 22, 1-26. 1989.
Captain Colomb, R.:
Slave-Catching in the Indian Ocean. London 1873.
Carter, M.:
Slavery and unfree Labour in the Indian Ocean. In: History Compass 4/5, 800-813. 2006.
Cassanelli, L.:
Social Construction on the Somali Frontier: Bantu Former Slave Communities in the
Nineteenth Century. In: Kopytoff, I.: The African Frontier, 216-238. Bloomington 1987.
The Ending of Slavery in Italian Somalia: Liberty and the Control of Labor, 1890-1935. In:
Miers, S.; Roberts, R.: The End of Slavery in Africa, 308-331. Wisconsin 1988.
Chang Hsing-lang:
The Importation of Negro Slaves to China under the Tang Dynasty. In: Bulletin of the
Catholic University of Peking 7. Peking 1930.
Chattopadhyay, A.:
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Chauhan, R.:
African in India. From Slavery to Royalty. New Delhi 1995.
Church Missionary Society:
The Slave Trade of East Africa. London 1868.
Clarence-Smith, G.:
The Economics of the Indian Ocean Slave Trade in the Nineteenth Century. London 1989.
Clarence-Smith, W.:
Islam and the Abolition of Slavery. Oxford 2006.
Collins, R.:
The African Slave Trade to Asia and the Indian Ocean Islands. In: African and Asian Studies
5/3-4, 325-347. 2006.
Collins, R.; Burns, J.:
A History of Sub-Saharan Africa. S.: 228-250: The Asian Slave Trade. Cambridge 2007.
Cooper, F.:
The Treatment of Slaves on the Kenya Coast in the Nineteenth Century. In: Kenya Historical
Review 1/2, 87-108. 1973.
Plantation Slavery on the East Coast of Africa. New Haven 1977.

From Slaves to Squatters: Plantation Labour and Agriculture in Zanzibar and Coastal Kenya,
1890-1925. London 1980.
Islam and Cultural Hegemony: The Ideology of Slaveowners on the East African Coast. In:
Lovejoy, P.: The Ideology of Slavery in Africa, 270-307. Beverly Hills 1981.
Cornevin, R. und M.:
Geschichte Afrikas von den Anfngen bis zur Gegenwart. S.: 308-309: Die Sansibar Araber
und der Sklavenhandel. Frankfurt/M./Berlin/Wien 1980.
Coupland, R.:
The Exploitation of East Africa 1856-1890. The Slave Trade and the Scramble. London 1968.
Curtin, P.:
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