Submitted to Maharshi Dayanand University Rohtak in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of Master of Business Administration


Submitted by: Amit Saini 420/MBA/08 MBA 4th Sem.



I, Amit Saini, Roll No. 420/MBA/08, MBA 4th Sem. of P.D.M. College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh hereby declare that the project entitled “Need of Training & Development” is an original work and same has not been submitted to any other institute for the award of any other Degree. The interim report was presented to the Supervisor on __________ and the pre-submission presentation was made on ____________. The feasible suggestions have been duly incorporated in consultation with the supervisor.


Signature of Supervisor Candidate



Forwarded by

Director/Principal of the Institute


There is always a sense of gratitude which one express to other for the helpful and service they render during all work at life. I grate fully acknowledge the inspiration, encouragement, guidance, help and valuable suggestions received form all my well-wishers. I am highly grateful to Dr. Nandita Rathi, Head of the Deptt. P.D.M. College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh for their constant support during my report. I would also like to thank Mrs. Kavita, Lecturer, Deptt. of Mgt. Studies for her kind attitude towards me and for their co-operation remained as a constant source of inspiration during my report also for having spared her precious time in spite of her busy and tight schedule. I would also like to thanks all other persons, respondents and my friends for their learned advice and guidance always kindled inspiration in the face of difficulties encountered in the course of this work and o create this report. And the last but not the least I would like to thanks the Almighty God and my beloved parents for all the blessings during the project.

Amit Saini


TRAINING Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job. Training involves the development of skills that are usually necessary to perform a specific job. Its purpose is to achieve a change in the behavior of those trained and to enable them to do their jobs better. Training makes newly appointed workers fully productive in the minimum of time. It is equally necessary for the old employees whenever new machines & equipment’s are introduced and there is a change in the techniques of doing the things. In fact, training is a continuous process. The managers are continuously engaged in training their subordinates. They should ensure that any training program should attempt to bring about positive changes in the: (i) (ii) (iii) knowledge, skills, and attitudes

of the workers. Improving business performance is a journey, not a destination. Business performance rises and falls with the ebb and flow of human performances. HR professionals lead the search for ways to enhance the effectiveness of employees in their jobs today and prepare them for tomorrow. Over the years, training programs have grown into corporate with these goals in mind. Training programs should enhance performance and enrich the contributions of the workforce. The ultimate goal of training is to develop appropriate talent in the workforce internally. In India, training as an activity has been going on as a distinct field with its own roles, structures and budgets, but it is still young. This field is however; expanding fast but controversy seems to envelop any attempts to find benefits commensurate with the escalating costs of training. Training has made significant contributions to development of all kinds. Training is essential; doubts arise over its contribution in practice. Complaints are growing over its ineffectiveness and waste. The training apparatus and costs have

multiplied but not its benefits. Dissatisfaction persists and is growing at the working level where the benefits of training should show up most clearly. This disillusionment shows in many ways – reluctance to send the most promising people for training, inadequate use of personnel after training etc. With disillusionment mounting in the midst of expansion, training has entered a dangerous phase in its development. Training is neither a panacea for all ills nor is it a waste of time. What is required is an insight into what training can or cannot do and skill in designing and carrying out training effectively and economically. Training is a learning experience in that it seeks a relatively permanent change in an individual that will improve his or her ability to perform on the job. The primary objective of training is to improve individual and organization performance. Training is used–or misused–to do a variety of things from informing, motivating, rewarding to changing behaviour and improving performance. However the goal of the training professional (as shown below) is to have the training input impact the performance output of the trainee.

Training “In” Trainee/

Performance “Output” Performer

“Learning to work efficiently and accurately.” Every trainee is always a performer, operating in some performance context of expectations, consequences, varying level of resources, and varying degrees of feedback. Given this, training is but one factor in producing job performance. The training analyst must know what performance can be impacted by training and what performance can’t, and what performance factors must also be altered if the recommended training input is to result in meaningful performance output. Every trainee performer does impact organization performance in a fairly direct way. A training analyst needs to learn how the performer impacts the organization


for the training to have any impact. They must uncover that linkage between performer and organization, as obscure as it may be. A System Look at Training

As you might expect, the training function of any organization can be viewed as a key subsystem of that organization, as shown in the figure above. This system view suggests that: 1. The training function is a processing system, converting training needs data, training technology, training expertise, budget, and untrained personnel into trained personnel for the various operating functions or units (receiving systems). Training organization may perform other functions such as brokering outside training resources, which are not shown in this model for reasons of simplicity. 2. The primary inputs of training needs and untrained personnel are converted into the output of trained personnel through subsystems such as analysis, design, dev, delivery, and evaluation. 3. The training processing system is subject to the same “system laws” regarding responding to receiving systems that apply to organization and the general systems model. Two primary sources of feedback: Self-evaluation against internal criteria and evaluation by receiving systems against their criteria. As with other processing systems, the training subsystem must be responsive to its receiving systems or it will perish and/or be replaced. This means that:

1. The internal criteria must be in “synch” with the criteria used by the receiving systems and/or clients. If the client expecting increased performer and organization performance (sales increase, reduction in manufacturing costs of new products) and the training function is evaluating the quality of the training output by a “smiles test” or “happiness index,” the training subsystem may be producing an unacceptable output as far as the client is concerned. 2. The training output is going to be only as good as the training needs data input that the training subsystem is processing. This system view of training has implications for the design and management of the training function, as well as for determining needs. The quality of the training output is only as good as the training needs data input. If the training needs have not been properly identified, then both the training course and the training functions are in jeopardy. Training is quite relevant in the following four areas: a) New Employees

To provide the participants with a broad understanding of the company and its diversity.

To provide specific conceptual understanding of organization, marketing, production, financial, commercial and general management with special references to the company.

To provide opportunity for group dynamics, problem solving and decision making through case study.

To create a sense of camaraderie and pride to belong to the company.

b) Performance Improvement   To sharpen skills in key functions of their job. Introduce training on a continuous and on going process basis.


c) Operational Problems Not all problem can be corrected through training, but many can. And to determine whether or not training can be of help, the problem has to be defined. Once the problem has been defined and it is clear that it is because of lack of knowledge or skills, it can be concluded that it is a training problem. The following are some of the indicators:      Continuing mistakes and errors on the job. Excessive overtime needed to do the work. Employees requesting transfers to new jobs. Performance is low, or decreasing. Employees seem reluctant to assume further responsibility.

d) Employee Development  Developing employees for future responsibilities is a LONG TERM process. It is not something, which can be accomplished overnight. It requires a well thought out plan of action that usually is broken down into a series of specific training steps and learning experience.  All of high performers should receive at least some developmental training. Their performance in such activities will help the evaluation as to which employees have the most potential. This throws up data as to who should receive further development. Training And Development Process: “You can change the behavior in an entire organization, provided you treat training as a process rather than an event.” - Warren G. Bennis In an organization Training process moves from these three phases:


• •

Organization analysis Task/Job analysis


Define aims of objective Develop methods and TRAINING DESIGN AND Instructional procedures

• •
• •

DELIVERY Select and prepare trainees Conduct training Facilitate transfer and further development TRANSFER AND EVALUATION OF LEARNING

Conduct Evaluation

Three phases of training process are: Phase 1: Pre-training. This may also be called the preparation phase. The process starts with an understanding of the situation requiring more effective behavior. An organization’s concerns before training lie mainly in four areas: Clarifying the precise objectives of training and the use the organization expects to make of the participants after training; selection of suitable participants; building favorable expectations and motivation in the participants prior to the training; and planning for any changes that improved task performance will require in addition to training. Phase 2: Training. During the course of the training, participants focus their attention on the new impressions that seem useful, stimulating and engaging. There is no guarantee that the participants will in fact learn what they have chosen. But the main purpose remains: participants explore in a training situation


what interests them, and a training institution’s basic task is to provide the necessary opportunities. Having explored, participants try out some new behavior. If they find the new behavior useful, they try it again, check it for effectiveness and satisfaction, try it repeatedly and improve it. Finally, they incorporate this new facet into their habitual behavior in the training situation. If they do not find it useful, they discard it, try some variant, or discontinue learning in this direction. The intricate process of selection and testing is continuous and more or less conscious. It is important that work organizations meanwhile prepare the conditions for improved performance by their participants upon their return. Phase 3: Post-training. This may be called the "follow up" phase. When training per se concludes, the situation changes. When the participants return back to work from the training, a process of adjustment begins for everyone involved. The newly learned skills undergo modification to fit the work situation. Participants may find their organizations offering encouragement to use the training and also support for continuing contact with the training institution. On the other hand, they may step into a quagmire of negativity. More effective behavior of people on the job in the organization is the primary objective of the training process as a whole. In the simplest training process, improvement is a dependent variable, and participants and organizations independent variables. A model of training in its simplest form is presented in figure below:


But training is actually a more complex process than the above figure suggests. In the first place, the training system itself needs to be included. It may be a temporary system but the trainers in the system also learn through the various opportunities available for checking their effectiveness, i.e. through feedback. Thus the independent and intervening variables also become dependent variables. The elaboration is shown in next figure (2):

Employers in all fields are challenged to find, develop, and retain top talent. Their people are their most valuable strategic resource, though many executives don’t realize the importance of having highly competent people on their team. Too often employers allow themselves to be satisfied with less that adequate capacity. A major strategic advantage in this highly competitive environment will be the opportunity for training and education. Workers, dedicated to managing their own careers, will be increasingly hungry for training to build their skills so they can stay marketable. Sharp employers will invest huge amounts of resources to enhance the capacity of current employees to avoid the need to spend heavily to recruit qualified people from the outside.



Deadwood – those with low potential and low performance level. These could be outcome of faulty selection policy of the organization. Work horses – those employees with high performance level but with low potential. These good performers for the existing and routine jobs but lack confidence for higher-level responsibilities hence need training.



Problem children – employees with high potential but not willing to perform. Organization face difficulty in handling them and they need attitudinal training to develop positive attitude towards work.


Stars – the employees upon which the organization may feel pride.

Keeping in view the category of employees the major areas of organizational training are human relation, value system attitude, motivation and morale, stress management, and communication and mutual trust etc. TRAINING AND LEARNING Training and Learning: To understand what training techniques can do to improve an employee’s job performance, it need to be explained how people learn. Theories of Learning: Learning is concerned with bringing about permanent change as a result of experience. This can be done through direct experience or observation. Regardless which technique is applied to learn, it is not possible to measure. However, it is possible to measure changes in attitudes and behaviour that occur as a result of learning. There are two major theories have demonstrated learning research over the years. Cognitive view: This view argues that an individual’s purposes or intentions direct his or her actions. Environmental perspective: this proponent believes that the individual is acted upon and his or her behavior is a function of its external consequences. More recently an approach has been offered that blends both of these theorieslearning is a continuous interaction between the individual and the social environment in which he or she functions. That is called social-learning theory.

This theory acknowledges that individual learns by observing what happens to other people and just by being told about something, as well as by direct experiences. Four processes have been found to determine the influence a model will have on an individual: 1. Attentional processes: People only learn from a model when they recognize and pay attention to its critical features. Individuals tend to be most influenced by models that are attractive, repeatedly available, and similar to them. 2. Retention processes: A model’s influence depends on how the individual remember the model’s action, even after the model is no longer readily available. 3. Motor reproduction processes: After a person has seen a new behavior by observing the model, the watching must be converted to doing. This process then demonstrates that the individual can perform the modeled activities. 4. Reinforcement processes: Individuals will be motivated to exhibit the model behavior if positive incentive or rewards are provided. Principles of Learning Principles of Learning: The above processes derived from social-learning theory are frequently presented in more specific terms as principle of learning. Learning and motivation: Learning is enhanced when the learner is motivated. The experience, therefore, should be designed so learners can see how it will help them achieve goals they have set for themselves. For example, with enhanced knowledge – you get promotion. Feedback and learning: Feedback is best when it is immediate rather than delayed. The sooner the individual have some knowledge of how well they are performing, the easier for them to correct their erroneous activities. Reinforcement and learning: Learning will be facilitated by positive

reinforcement. For example, if the workers are positively praised when they are

properly performing the task, workers would be more motivated to perform better. When behavior is punished, it is temporarily suppressed but is unlikely to be extinguished. Practice and learning: Practice increases a learner’s performance. When learners actually practice what they have read, heard, or seen, they gain confidence and are less likely to make errors or to forget what they have learned. There are three way a worker can practice a job - one, practice the whole job at once; two, break it into two parts; three, break it into two, three, or what ever way is convenient for you. Learning curve: Learning begins rapidly, then plateaus. Learning rates can be expressed as a curve that usually begins with a sharp rise, then increases at a decreasing rate until a plateau is reached. Transferring learning: Learning must be transferred to the job. It does not make any sense, if you learn skills in the class-room but you cannot transfer the skills to your job.

Objectives of Training No matter what the industry, or the size of your business, training can have a positive effect on business performance and a measurable impact on the bottom line. Research shows that productivity increases even while training takes place. Staff who have received formal training have been found to be up to 230 per cent more productive than untrained colleagues working in the same role. High labor productivity will increase your business output and can open a greater share of the market, or expand the market through an increase in quality and reputation. 1. Business Objectives.  Staff Retention Training increases staff retention as it gives employees an incentive to stay on. Staff retention is a significant cost saving. The loss of one competent person can cost the equivalent of at least a year's pay and benefits. In some companies, training programs have reduced staff turnover by 70 per cent and have led to a return on investment of 7,000 per cent.

Improved quality and productivity Training appropriate to worker and employer needs increases the quality and flexibility of your services by fostering:
• • •

Accuracy and Efficiency Good work safety practices Better customer service. Most enterprises provide on-the-job training, particularly at induction. However, ongoing training almost always shows a positive return on investment.

The flow-on effect The benefits of training in one area can flow to all levels of your organization. For some retail businesses, training store managers has increased profits with sales rising up to 10 per cent and staff turnover rates declining by 37 per cent. Over time, training will not only boost the bottom line, but reduce costs by decreasing:
• • • •

Wasted time and materials Maintenance costs of machinery and equipment Workplace accidents which may result in lower future insurance premiums Recruitment costs such as advertising and induction, through the internal promotion of skilled staff Absenteeism.

Staying competitive Staying competitive in a global market place requires businesses to continually change their work practices and infrastructures. Training is used to manage and facilitate the implementation of new technology, work practices and strategies by delivering the necessary skills to your workforce. The training your staff receives will also act as benchmarks for future recruitment and quality assurance practices.


There are a variety of benefits from training other than those that directly affect profit. Businesses, which have implemented training, have reported improvements in:
• • • •

Staff morale and satisfaction 'Soft-skills' such as inter-staff communication and leadership Time management Customer satisfaction.

2. Employee benefits Regular training and learning opportunities are an investment that will allow employees to prosper and develop their careers while giving your business a highly skilled workforce and a competitive advantage in the market. Staff turnover and recruitment Studies of training across developed nations reveal that organizations with lower staff turnover spend the most on training and education. Minimizing staff turnover will benefit the organization. Replacing staff is a costly process - skills are lost, resources are disrupted and recruiting new personnel takes time and money. Staff who receive ongoing training are more likely to commit to their employers because:
• •

Completion of the training develops their careers The training enables them to take on greater responsibility and higher paid work.

Measuring potential candidates against competencies delivered in your training programs also streamlines the recruitment process and reduces the induction period. Increase workforce flexibility Training increases the skill-set of your workforce enabling it to engage in a wider range of tasks and responsibilities.


Greater confidence and motivation leads staff to become less reliant on management and supervision. Training in skills specific to your industry does not necessarily limit the benefits of flexibility. Staff who receive such targeted training often achieve improvements in:
• • • •

Communication skills Professionalism Conscientiousness Creativity and innovation.

The benefits of a trained workforce have been shown to flow through to customers who become more satisfied with the improved level of products and services. Improved staff attitude and morale People enjoy learning when the material is relevant to their interests and many will be eager to apply their new skills and knowledge in practical situations. Staff who possess diverse skills are generally more satisfied and positive in their jobs. This decreases the occurrence of work-related stress and improves the overall work environment. By investing in their training, staff often feels:
• •

Company have confidence in them to do the job The business values them and is giving something back over and above wages.

As a result, they will become self-starters, develop further competencies such as leadership and teambuilding, and be more willing to undertake further training. Training is also a perfect opportunity for business to get to know its staff, and for them to get to know each other.


Staying competitive To retain an edge over their competitors, organizations have to keep abreast of industry changes, technological advances and new industry legislation.


Nationally recognized training, which is continually reviewed and updated by industry and training experts, keeps your business up-to-date with the latest industry and global marketplace developments. 4. New business opportunities Trained and motivated staff who understand the specifics of your business operations, are a sustainable competitive advantage. They will give your business the competitive edge by:

Increasing productivity and standards in production, therefore boosting your business reputation Being able to undertake a greater variety of work and therefore allow you to expand or open up new markets Allowing you to bid for more specialized, high value contracts Assisting you to meet business objectives faster.

• •

Take advantage of new technologies Training is vital to stay ahead and take advantage of new information technologies, which play a crucial role in many organizations. Trained staff will prevent your business from suffering skill shortages in IT and all other areas relevant to your industry. Training is flexible and can occur with little disruption to your business. Vocational education and training can be delivered when and where it suits your business - after hours, on or off-the-job, and even online. Training Methods Training method is a systematic procedure or technique by which a particular skill is developed in a person/employee of an organization. The quality of any training program depends upon the combination of training methods adopted. The method by which job training is delivered often varies based on the needs of the company, the trainee, and on the task being performed. There are many different ways to train.


On the basis of their characteristics, the important training methods are classified as: A. ON THE JOB TRAINING METHODS • • • • On the job training Job Rotation Guidance and Counseling Syndicate Groups

B. SIMULATION METHODS • • • • Role Plays (d Case Method (d Management Games In Basket Exercise

C. KNOWLEDGE BASED METHODS • • • • • Lecture (d Extension Talk Group Discussion (d Seminar (d Brain Storming (d

D. SKILL BASED METHODS • • • • Assignments Practice after Demonstration Task Performance Skill Teaching

E. EXPERIENTIAL METHOD • Sensitivity Trainings- T Groups, Transactional Analysis.


A detailed description of methods is given below: Lecture A lecture is the method learners often most commonly associate with college and secondary education. Yet, it is also considered one of the least effective methods to use for adult learners. In this method, one person (the trainer) does all of the talking. He or she may use handouts, visual aids, question/answer, or posters to support the lecture. Communication is primarily one-way: from the instructor to the learner. Pros: Less time is needed for the trainer to prepare than other methods. It provides a lot of information quickly when it is less important that the trainees retain a lot of details. Cons: Does not actively involve trainees in training process. The trainees forget much information if it is presented only orally. Seminar Seminars often combine several group methods: lectures, discussions, conferences, demonstrations. Pros: Group members are involved in the training. The trainer can use many group methods as part of the seminar activity. Cons: Planning is time-consuming. The trainer must have skill in conducting a seminar. More time is needed to conduct a seminar than is needed for many other methods. Conference The conference training method is a good problem-solving approach. A group considers a specific problem or issue and they work to reach agreement on statements or solutions. Pros: There is a lot of trainee participation. The trainees build consensus and the trainer can use several methods (lecture, panel, seminar) to keep sessions interesting.


Cons: It can be difficult to control a group. Opinions generated at the conference may differ from the manager’s ideas, causing conflict. Role Playing During a role-play, the trainees assume roles and act out situations connected to the learning concepts. It is good for customer service and sales training. Pros: Trainees can learn possible results of certain behaviors in a classroom situation. They get an opportunity to practice people skills. It is possible to experiment with many different approaches to a situation without alienating any actual customers. Cons: A lot of time is spent making a single point. Trainers must be skilled and creative in helping the class learn from the situation. In some role play situations, only a few people get to practice while others watch. Case Studies A case study is a description of a real or imagined situation which contains information that trainees can use to analyze what has occurred and why. The trainees recommend solutions based on the content provided. Pros: A case study can present a real-life situation which lets trainees consider what they would do. It can present a wide variety of skills in which applying knowledge is important. Cons: Cases can be difficult to write and time-consuming to discuss. The trainer must be creative and very skilled at leading discussions, making points, and keeping trainees on track. Self-discovery Trainees discover the competencies on their own using such techniques as guided exercises, books, and research. Pros: Trainees are able to choose the learning style that works the best for them. They are able to move at their own pace and have a great deal of ownership over their learning.


Cons: Trainees can easily get side-tracked and may move slower than the trainer desires. It is also more difficult to measure the employees progress. Movies/videos/computer-based training Content for the training experience comes primarily from a videotape or computer-based program. Pros: It is easy to provide this training and the trainer can follow-up with questions and discussion. It is also easy to assure that the same information is presented to each trainee. Cons: It is expensive to develop. Most trainers choosing this option must purchase the training from an outside vendor, making the content less specific to their needs. Discussion Groups These can be set up inside or outside your job setting, with friends or co-workers. You could set up a regular brown-bag lunch group, or an after-hours discussion with peers, with or without a group leader or facilitator. Books, videos, current events, or simply topics of interest to participants could stimulate discussions. The possibilities are endless, limited only by your interest, imagination, and initiative.

On-the-job training This is the most common method of training. The trainee is placed on the job and the manager or mentor shows the trainee how to do the job. To be successful, the training should be done according to a structured program that uses task lists, job breakdowns, and performance standards as a lesson plan. Pros: The training can be made extremely specific to the employee's needs. It is highly practical and reality-based. It also helps the employee establish important relationships with his or her supervisor or mentor. Cons: Training is not standardized for employees. There is often a tendency to have a person learn by doing the job, providing no real training.

Mentoring A mentor can tutor others in their learning. Mentors help employees solve problems both through training them in skills and through modeling effective attitudes and behaviors. This system is sometimes known as a buddy system. Pros: It can take place before, during, or after a shift. It gives the trainee individual attention and immediate feedback. It also helps the trainee get information regarding the business culture and organizational structure. Cons: Training can be interrupted if the mentor moves on. If a properly trained mentor is not chosen, the trainee can pick up bad habits. When choosing from among these methods, the trainer must decide which one best suits the trainees, the environment, and the investments available. Many trainers will choose to combine methods or vary them. Others will select a single method that works best for them and never vary. With so many options, a trainer is limited only by his or her creativity. One-to-one and Small Group Training Many aspects of work are best explained in the workplace and some aspects can only be trained in the workplace. Many managers, supervisors, team leaders and specialists are thrown into the task of helping others to learn a job with little guidance on how to do it effectively. Brainstorming A problem or open questions are stated to focus upon. Few moments are given to groups to jot down their own thoughts before starting the round. All ideas are recorded on flip chart paper. When brainstorm completes group is asked to merge items and narrow to a manageable few. Establish Rules of Brainstorming: one idea per person, be wild and creative, no interruptions, no evaluation of others' comments, individuals may pass.


When to Use:
• • • •

To generate many alternative solutions to a problem To come up with new uses for things or design new products When participants represent many different backgrounds When you want to create equity within a group (break through traditional, established roles) To encourage all group members to speak To obtain the best and fullest intelligence and creativity from a combined group

• •

In Basket Exercise The in basket is simulation of manager’s workload on a typical day. The participant is required to assume the role of a manager in a hypothetical organization. He is then presented with an assortment of problems. These problems are presented to the manager in the form of letters, memos and memoranda, all put in the IN- Tray of the participant. The participant is asked to read the IN-Tray and take appropriate action within a limited time. Pros: Rooted in the real life situation of the corporate world. Hence, effectively enhance skills in decision-making and problem solving. Cons: Are expensive to construct as also to administer. It is essentially individual and non-interactive. SENSITIVITY TRAINING Sensitivity training is an experiential approach to training. It provides participants an opportunity to actually experience some concepts of management just as a manager would experience them. It attempts to develop the diagnostic ability of participants –the ability to perceive reality. The individual is made aware of himself and his impact on others. It increases sensitivity and awareness towards others and their styles. It helps in understanding how conflicts arise and are resolved.


T- Groups: A T-Group consist of eight to fifteen persons. The trainer after setting forth the objectives of the T –Group recedes into the background creating vacuum which impels participants to develop structure and meaning themselves. Data developed by the group behaviour is used to understand the ‘here and now’. Analysis is direct and immediate to see through and decipher reality from appearance and perceptions. T- Group processes concentrate on the present to the total exclusion of the past, and participants are in the act of observing while participating. Transactional analysis: This method is a communication between people and theory of personality. Learning these theories, managers can better understand others behaviours and also can assist them altering their responses so as to produce more effective results


“Training is useless unless you have a purpose, it's knowing for what purpose to train for that can break men's fulfilment.” Training needs assessment begins with identifying organizational needs in terms of capabilities, task needs assessment in terms of skill sets that are needed within the firm, and individual needs analysis to determine how employee skills fit with company needs . A training needs assessment provides vital informationrmation about the real needs of the organizationanization. This pre-training tool helps a company to strategically identify specific areas needing attention (training and non-training). The assessment results help target training more cost-effectively.

Training activities, which are ill directed and inadequately focused do not serve the purpose of the trainers, the trainees, or the organization, hence identification of

training needs become the top priority of every progressive organization. In fact, training needs analysis helps in defining the gap between what is happening and what should happen. Identification of training needs, if done properly, provides the basis on which all other training activities can be considered. “Determining training needs” is not just a training process issue. It is also a rg management issue reflecting the mission, philosophy, and strategy of the training function. A training need exists when an employee lacks the knowledge, skills or values to perform an assigned task satisfactorily. A needs analysis is the process of identifying whether training is required, and what type of training would be appropriate for the situation. It involves considering the existing skills and performance of the workforce, and the required/desired skills of the workforce now and for the future. A training needs analysis can be completed broadly across the organizationanisation, or can be completed for an individual. An analysis of the training needs of an individual is sometimes called a "skills audit".

Broadly, a needs analysis involves the following steps:

An assessment of the future needs of the organizationanisation. Is training addressing the future skills required for the organizationanisation to achieve its strategic goals' This can be done through workforce planning, and reviewing the strategic direction. For further informationrmation refer to the Workforce Planning Guide.

2. An assessment of the current situation - what is currently happening and what should be happening across broad areas of the organizationanisation. This can be done through general observation, through conducting surveys, interviews or focus groups. 3. Investigating if training is the appropriate response to the issues. Is the issue training-related or is there another solution' This can be done through reviewing the skills, knowledge and attitudes of staff, through reviewing


performance data, gathering feedback from staff and people accessing the service, observing the workflow, or through interviews and focus groups. 4. Determining what type and method of training and development will provide the appropriate solution. Prioritise delivery. 5. Reporting the informationrmation, and gaining commitment for

development of a training plan and implementation of appropriate training. BASIC APPROACHES TO DETERMINING TRAINING NEEDS Following Figure shows the linkage between training input and performance output and four approaches to determining training needs: (1) Knowledge/Skill Process/ Input Competencies (2) (3) Performer/ Repertoire or (4) Task Output Job Output Output Function (5)


A. Training Need Survey

B. Compet -ency Study

C. Task Analysis

D. Perfor-mance Analysis


Performance Analysis, starts with links 5 and 4. One can begin the needs

analysis by determining the desired process and job output and ultimately what knowledge and skill was required to perform the various tasks. This approach will also identify the other performance factors such as consequences and feedback-in addition to training-that are required if the job and process outputs are to occur.


Task Analysis, enters the linkage at point 3. if applying a task analysts

approach to determining the training needs begin by determining the tasks performed by the supervisors and then ascertaining what knowledge and skill was required to successfully perform those tasks. This approach to needs analysis is output focused but does not tie directly into job performance or address the other performance factors.

Competency Study, enters the linkage at point 2, the performer repertoire.

Begin by determining what experts in the claims function thought the competences or capabilities of a claim supervisor were and then ascertaining what knowledge and skill was required to have the capabilities to display the competencies. This approach does not directly link the rg input to performance output or address the performance context of the performer.

Training Need Survey, enters at point 1. this is a very straight forward

survey. Survey a range of informed sources within the claim function and ask what rg they thought was required by or would be beneficial for claim supervisors. This is basically an informed opinion survey and begins and ends at point 1 in the linkage. This approach to needs analysis is relatively quick but makes no direct links to performance output at any levels. Of the four approaches mentioned above where the training analyst starts the needs analysis depends on the circumstances. SOURCES OF INFORMATION FOR NEEDS ANALYSIS      Management Customers or End Users Government Workers Technology

MANAGEMENT A reactive training approach is totally and exclusively responsive to management as its source of information. Ask your management contacts the following questions:  Who will receive the training?

    

What is the nature of the population to be trained? What problems have created the need for training? What specific results would management like the training to achieve? What is the time frame for training? What is the budget for training?

CUSTOMERS OR END USERS No one can argue with a need for training that has been defined by an effective customer survey. This is especially true in light of the old saying, “The customer is always right.” Usually a company has some form of customer feedback. It may be a customer service or complaint department, market research, receptionists, shipping and expediting and so on. In fact, any area or department that regularly interfaces with the company’s customers or end users is a way to gauge customer response to your company. Here’s what one should look for: Number and pattern of complaints- Document both the weekly or monthly number of complaints and what articles, services or employees are involved.  Service records- too frequent service calls imply both inferior quality and inadequate service. If your company services hardware of any kind, look for patterns in the frequency of service, both in the items serviced and among the departments or service people themselves. Retraining might be an effective solution.  Customer service- there are few better sources of information for needs analysis than simply walking around observing how things are done. Look at how customers react to company personnel.  Customers Survey- All of us who travel are familiar with the ubiquitous customers surveys in hotels and restaurants. These are an effective source of data on how well employees are performing and whether or not they may need training.


GOVERNMENT Most managers are aware of the impact a change in government regulations has on company operations. Yet such a change seldom comes as a surprise. The government debates it, the media report it, the issues are discussed. WORKERS Frequently the workplace can tell you when some form of training or retraining may be in order. Here are some areas that can be monitored: Absenteeism and Turnover rates Union Bargaining Positions Outside Seminars Exit interviews Employee Surveys TECHNOLOGY If your department does not currently offer new managers training in word processing or computer applications, you will have to provide it sooner or later. Monitor technological changes that affect the workplace. For example, electronic mail and interactive video telephones are becoming current. TRAINING NEED ASSESSMENT INVOLVES: Assess your needs Making a decision about the right training for your organization depends on a number of factors – identifying business needs, the needs of your employees and a recognition of existing skill levels. Identify your business needs An assessment of your training needs will help you identify the gaps in skills and knowledge that are vital for your business. Your analysis can be in the form of questionnaires, interviews, observation or any type of available research. To assess your business needs consider the following questions:

Where do you want your business to go?

• • • •

What potential business areas can benefit from training? What does the business want to achieve from investing in training? How much time, equipment, money and other resources do you want or need to allocate to training? What do you expect will be the level of staff involvement in training?

Ask key leaders or managers in your organization what goals and objectives they must accomplish this year and how training could assist to accomplish them. For example, if you need to reduce production costs, targeted training can improve your production processes by decreasing re-work or rejection of defective products. Get feedback from your employees. Ask them:

What areas of the business could be improved, for example, processes, customer relations or technology?










Where and with whom are the specific skills vital to the output of your business located?

Research your industry: If you can, find out what other organizations are doing with training and then benchmark your training plan against their experiences. Also, find out benchmark statistics, such as the cost of production for a similar product. These statistics can form targets for your business to meet or exceed as a result of training. Formal records of previous training your business has conducted, including induction programs, are also useful. They can make it easier to review your training needs and ensure that future training is relevant.  Identify employee needs When evaluating the training that's required to achieve your business goals, one should also identify the training needs of your employees.


There are training options for all staff - from entry level workers to board level executives - and training needs vary based upon how your business is structured, and how responsibilities are shared and distributed. First you should assess the nature of the employees' work and the competencies that the business requires to run efficiently. Consider the following questions:
• • •

What skills and knowledge are required to perform the work of your staff? What are the measures of successful performance of their work? Are your employees reaching these levels?

Employees will be the best resource for this information. They will be able to tell you what is and isn't working. One should ensure that employees have a job description, where the skills and knowledge required to do the job are clearly outlined. This will also facilitate the assessment of your training needs. Use Training Packages: If you need help determining which competencies your staff need to achieve, you can find ideas in one of the many training packages that are offered across all industries. Training Packages outline the skills and knowledge a person must demonstrate at work and provide guidelines for assessing these competencies. Consider your employees' response In order for the training to return maximum benefits the training should also meet the needs of your employees individually. For example, answer these questions:
• • • • •

How will your employees accept the training? How do your employees prefer to learn? What expectations do they have about the training? How will training impact on your employees' regular job functions? How will the age, gender, skills and experiences of your employees affect the nature of the training?


This information will come from the employees themselves or your personal knowledge of them. You might also conduct a questionnaire or informal interview, which you could include in your training records.  Skills recognition Employees may already have the skills or knowledge that will enable them to gain a qualification without taking part in the whole training programram. Skills recognition is the acknowledgment by a training provider that an employee has gained an appropriate level of skill and knowledge that would have otherwise been developed through undertaking a course. These skills and knowledge may have been gained through some form of study, through a training provider or by self-tuition, work or life experience. Why conduct Training Need Analysis? TNA plays a critical role in planning the use of available training and development resources. Critically it ensures that money is spent on essential training and development that will help drive the business forward to meet its objectives. In the same way it can help highlight occasions where training might not be appropriate but requires alternative action such as recruitment or contracting out work. BENEFITS: Employee Benefits Employees have the opportunity to learn from performing training assessment.  “Employees begin to realize that they can make choices concerning their careers through the needs assessment programram, express concerns about the present status of their job knowledge (without having the informationrmation show up on their performance appraisal), facilitate the company in achieving its objectives and goals, and evaluate their own knowledge and learning



Organizational Benefits       “A needs assessment provides a systematic, repeatable approach for customizing training program. As a result, organizations can know what their training needs are and develop a base for sequencing and phasing in new knowledge. Firms also develop an understanding as to why they are providing particular training.” OTHER BENEFITS:      Eliminate chaos from your training efforts Set the direction and tone of your training effort Align training with your business goals and objectives Bring reason, cohesiveness and clarity to your training effort Monitor the progress of your organization in achieving its training goals Know what their training needs are. Why provide a kind of training. Develop and new knowledge. Knowing what training is being planned and why. Justifying costs in relation to training benefits.


 The effectiveness of the training programmes can be established through this study.  This study helps to understand, analyze & apply the core concepts of training in an organization.  Managers would be able to identify the need of training for its employees.  Managers would know what employees think of the training and development programmes and make changes if necessary.


Kirkpatrick (1994) has developed a model for evaluating the effectiveness of training within organization. It has four levels: Level 1: reaction- a measure of how participants feel about various aspects of the program. Level 2: learning- a measure of the knowledge acquired, skills improved or attitudes changed during training. Level 3: behavior - a measure of the extent to which participants change their behavior because of training and Level 4: results- a measure of the final results for the organization that occur due to training, including increased sales, higher productivity, and reduced employee turnover. The difficulty of standardizing measurement increases from the level on the Kirkpatrick scale. The American society of Training and Development (ASTD) benchmarking survey also includes questions around “initial skill change” as result of training, and “follow-up evaluation of performance on course objectives” (with assessments being obtained from participants and supervisors).These measures are similar but not identical to levels one and three on Kirkpatrick’s scale for measuring training effectiveness. Various correlations between learning effectiveness and institutional factor and learning effectiveness and organization outcomes may then be examined (Bassi & Ahlstrand, 2000. p12-13) The scales described above for looking at effectiveness of training focus on effects at the individual and organizational level. However, participation in training and development may also have effect for the economy as a whole. The OCED (1997) summarizes the nature of these effects as follows: For individuals: qualification, employment, job satisfaction, earnings, career progression: For organization: employee morale, absenteeism, labor turnover, productivity, quality of output, production costs, sales and profit; and For economies: level of structural unemployment, inflation, international competitiveness and economic growth (OCED, 1997, p20)


Most of these effects are measurable, either directly according to some (relatively) standard classification system (e.g. qualifications) or through a specially designed rating scale or other instrument (e.g. for job satisfaction).While some research focuses on the effects of training on these variables, other research looks at my increase skill levels, and higher skill levels are associated with higher participation in training. Training is widely understood as communication directed at a defined population for the purpose of developing skills, modifying behavior, and increasing competence. Generally, training focuses exclusively on what needs to be known. Education is a longer-term process that incorporates the goals of training and explains why certain information must be known. Education emphasizes the scientific foundation of the material presented. Both training and education induce learning, a process that modifies knowledge and behavior through teaching and experience. The research model described here pertains to both training and education. Therefore, in this document, "training" refers to both processes. In contrast to informal training (which is embedded in most instances of human exchange), formal training interventions have stated goals, content, and strategies for instruction. Our intent is to offer a general approach to intervention effectiveness research that addresses formal training across settings and topics. The model integrates primary and secondary data collection with qualitative and quantitative analyses so that the benefits of each research technique can be applied to the evaluation of training effectiveness. Training intervention effectiveness research is needed to (1) identify major variables that influence the learning process and (2) optimize resources available for training interventions. Logical and progressive study models are best suited to identify the critical elements and causal relationships that affect training effectiveness and efficiency. In training research, it is often difficult to arrive at definitive answers. Typically, many variables minimize effects and make results difficult to interpret. Furthermore, the amount of variance attributed to any one variable is usually small. Therefore, if training is to be an essential component of planned interventions, a uniform system of research is needed to explain how training is made effective and to indicate how resources for training should be organized.

The model described here recognizes that formal training interventions are affected by several real-world factors such as uneven resource availability across training settings and differing levels of experience and expertise among instructors. Accordingly, training evaluation research should be conducted in the field where possible in order to incorporate these variables into the study of effectiveness. Established techniques (such as qualitative study methods and quasi-experimental research designs) are available to deal with the difficulties of field research [Miles and Huberman 1984; Tuckman 1972]. These techniques enable researchers to develop evaluation designs appropriate for investigating many of the critical elements of effective training. As presented, the model provides a framework in which to practice these methodologies. Consequently, routine implementation of the model will lead to increased consistency and logic across training evaluation studies—and to generalization of research findings to multiple training circumstances. Comr. S. Peter, 2008 The Statute of Artificers of 1563 is the first example of state intervention and provided the legal basis for vocational training until 1814 when the 'laissez faire' attitudes of the time opposing any state regulation brought about its abolition. Nevertheless, the attitudes contained in it, notably restriction of entry and the insistence on time-serving to qualify as a craftsman, lingered on until the latter part of the 20th century. The craft trade unions that emerged from the mid-19th century insisted on apprenticeship qualifications for membership, and used craft status as a means of gaining and maintaining influence and power. And the attitudes that had brought about the abolition of the Statute of Artificers, which might be characterized as voluntarism versus state regulation or intervention, are still present in debates in the 21st century.

When Labour came to power in 1997, it inherited a situation in which there was growing evidence that the UK had more poorly qualified employees and fewer young people in training than most of its European competitors. Two 1998 Green


Papers, The Learning Age and Lifelong Learning, announced the government's commitment to lifelong learning. Also in 1998, Labour announced its 'welfare-to-work' scheme - New Deal, to get the long-term unemployed into employment. How successful this was is arguable: many of those who found jobs might have done so anyway because of the growth in the economy. There were complaints about the relevance of the training and the associated bureaucracy. This was followed by the Leitch Review of Skills 1. Published in 2006, it proposed tackling the continuing problem of low skills by (among other recommendations) proposals for the UK ultimately getting to a position where 95% of adults would achieve a Level 2 qualification, and supporting a new ‘pledge’ for employers to voluntarily commit to train all eligible employees up to Level 2. G. Balucha, 2005 Writing about recent and current events, historical perspective is lacking. The clash between voluntarism and interventionism still exists, although the influence of the European Union, with a broadly more interventionist philosophy, is increasing. Modern Apprenticeships, despite re-branding, struggle to succeed. There is still no 'training culture' among many employers, as exists more widely in certain other EU nations, and the training performance of SMEs in particular remains a real problem. The initial responses to Leitch’s call for a skills ‘pledge’ are not encouraging, particularly amongst small firms2, and there is opposition to the idea of intervention in the form of a statutory right to workplace training. There are concerns that the new work-related diplomas will be regarded as inferior to GCSEs and A-levels, although vocational qualifications sit alongside ‘academic’ qualifications easily in most of continental Europe. As part of a larger research project on evaluation, I reviewed the relevant Australian, British and American journals for the period 1970-1986. My intention was to identify themes or trends in the evaluation of T&D programs, and ultimately to extract from the literature some practical guidelines, techniques or models useful to T&D/HRD professionals, particularly in the area of management development and Human Resource programs.


I was initially surprised by the relatively small number of articles on the subject of evaluation. A total of six articles in Australian journals was found (five by Australian practitioners), and the Australian National Library has no record of any publication dealing with HRD evaluation for the period 1980-86. In British and American journals, some eighty articles were located, the most prolific period being 1982-84. The other impression one gains is of the uneven quality of this material. Much of it is rather superficial and general; some on the other hand is so academic in style it would be difficult for many practitioners to understand or apply. The lack of extensive bibliographies and literature reviews was also a surprise finding. As a result, one of the products of this research project was the development of an annotated bibliography of more than eighty articles. This is included at the end of this article. In reviewing the literature I undertook a content analysis of the articles. In this article I will relate my findings in relation to the definition of evaluation, the purpose of evaluation as expressed by the author, and the models or techniques proposed. Current evaluation practice There is ample evidence that evaluation continues to be one of the most vexing problems facing the training fraternity. Catanello and Kirkpatrick's 1968 survey of 110 industrial organisations evaluating training (Burgoyne and Cooper, 1975, 60) revealed that very few were assessing anything other than trainee reactions. Looking at similar data and the emphasis in much of the literature, one wonders if there has been much change in 20 years (see, for example, Brown, 1980, 11). Galagan (1983,48) and Del Gaizo (1984, 30) both refer to a survey of Training and Development Journal readers in which 30% of the respondents identified evaluation of training as the most difficult part of their job. Easterby-Smith and Tanton (1985, 25) report on their British survey involving HRD practitioners in


fifteen organisations. In virtually every case the only form of evaluation being done was end-of-course trainee reactions, and the data so obtained seldom used. Such findings are similar to my own 1985 survey of a sample of Public Service and private company trainers in Sydney to determine both their attitude to evaluation and what was being carried out by them in practice. All expressed a firm belief in the principle of evaluation, and all administered end of-course forms of varying degrees of complexity to gauge trainee reactions to the instructors, content, and facilities. But 75% admitted that was as far as their evaluation went, mainly because they did not know what else to do. As Easterby-Smith and Tanton (1985) observe, much current practice is only a ritual, and in many cases the evaluation that counts is done before the course is ever given; post-course data merely confirm prior judgements that the training is satisfactory. In the minds of many practitioners evaluation is viewed as a problem rather than a solution, and an end rather than a means. Where evaluation of programs is being undertaken it is often a 'seat of the pants' approach and very limited in its scope. Overawed by quantitative measurement techniques, and lacking both the budget and the time as well as the required expertise for comprehensive evaluations, trainers often revert to checking in the only way they know - post-course reactions - to reassure themselves the training is satisfactory. If the literature is a reflection of general practice, it can be assumed that many practitioners do not understand what the term evaluation encompasses, what its essential features are, and what purpose it should serve. Consequently the use of training courses far outstrips what is known of their usefulness. When such programs are evaluated, the common sources of data (other than trainee reactions) are numbers of participants, decreased absenteeism at work, high rating of instructors, etc. Many trainers are therefore making judgements on the basis of activities ("employee days of training") and not on relevant results. Many practitioners regard the development and delivery of training courses as their primary concern, and evaluation something of an afterthought.


On the other hand, adopting the premise that no news is good news, many practitioners still avoid the evaluation issue. Preferring to "remain in the dark", and worried that evaluation will only confirm their worst fears (since they have no other alternative to offer management if the current program is shown to be educationally ineffective), they choose to settle for a non-threatening survey of trainee reactions. Towards a definition Providing a sound definition is more than a lexicographic exercise; it can clarify and refine concepts, generating a framework within which to develop a pragmatic approach to the subject. Evaluation is no exception, and the apparent confusion in the minds of many as to the purposes and functions of evaluation corresponds to the ignorance or misunderstanding of what is meant by this and related terms such as research, validation, and assessment. A variety of definitions can be found in the literature, many of them stipulative, and the inconsistencies in the use of the terminology has "muddied the waters'' of training evaluation a great deal, affecting the success of evaluation efforts (Wittingslow, 1986, 8). Bramley & Newby (1984a) summarise the diversity of terminology used over the past decade, and offer a most helpful comprehensive table showing the interrelationships between various concepts of evaluation. Rackham (1974, 454) offers perhaps the most amusing and least academic definition of evaluation, referring to it as a form of training archaeology where one is obsessively digging up the past in a manner unrelated to the future! In the literature reviewed, where a definition of evaluation is given, the majority of writers tend to view it as the gathering of information in order to make a value judgement about the program, such as necessary changes or the possible cessation of the program. Williams (1976, 12) defines evaluation as the assessment of value or worth. Harper & Bell (1982, 24) refer to the planned collection, collation and analysis of information to enable judgements about value and worth. However, as Williams (1976, 12) observes, value is a rather vague concept, and this has contributed to the different interpretations of the term evaluation.


This project is an attempt to study how the development of competency among employees through training need identification and evaluation of training programme at Idea • To understand the prevailing trends of training and development with regard to the service industry. • Frame a training module incorporating the prominent training practices for effective encouragement training.

To focus on training and development as an implementation of strategic planning in IDEA

• •

To find out the extent to which the training has fulfilled the objectives. To offer policy suggestions for better implementation of the scheme.


METHODOLOGY Every project work is based on certain methodology, which is a way to systematically solve the problem or attain its objectives. It is a very important guideline and lead to completion of any project work through observation, data collection and data analysis. According to Clifford Woody, “Research Methodology comprises of defining & redefining problems, collecting, organizing &evaluating data, making deductions &researching to conclusions.” Accordingly, the methodology used in the project is as follows:  Defining the objectives of the study  Framing of questionnaire keeping objectives in mind (considering the objectives)  Feedback from the employees  Analysis of feedback  Conclusion, findings and suggestions. SELECTION OF SAMPLE SIZE In order to take a reasonable sample size and not to disturb the functioning of the organization, a sample size of reasonable strength of the Company has been taken in order to arrive at the present practices of training in the Company. Accordingly, 20 officers and 40 workers have been selected at random from all the departments of the organization and feedback forms (questionnaire) have been obtained. The data has been analyzed in order to arrive at present training practices in the organization. SAMPLING TECHNIQUE USED The technique of Random Sampling has been used in the analysis of the data. Random sampling from a finite population refers to that method of sample selection, which gives each possible sample combination an equal probability of being picked up and each item in the entire population to have an equal chance of being included in the sample. This sampling is without replacement, i.e. once an item is selected for the sample, it cannot appear in the sample again.

DATA COLLECTION To determine the appropriate data for research mainly two kinds of data was collected namely primary & secondary data as explained below: PRIMARY DATA Primary data are those, which were collected afresh & for the first time and thus happen to be original in character. However, there are many methods of collecting the primary data; all have not been used for the purpose of this project. The ones that have been used are:  Questionnaire  Informal Interviews  Observation

Secondary data is collected from previous researches and literature to fill in the respective project. The secondary data was collected through:

 Text Books  Articles  Journals  Websites
STATISTICAL TOOLS USED The main statistical tools used for the collection and analyses of data in this project are:

 Pie Charts  Tables      
Sampling Unit:Universe:Type of research:Sampling Area:Sample Size:Sample Media:Employees Finite Descriptive cum Exploratory Rohtak 50 Questionnaire 46

 

Sampling Technique:Source of Data Collection

Convenient Sampling Primary & Secondary


Idea Cellular's antecedents date back to 1995, when the Aditya Birla Group and AT&T (through Birla AT&T Communications – Maharashtra & Gujarat circle) and the Tata Group (through Tata Cellular - Andhra Pradesh circle) set up cellular networks. Both the above company closure in Indian Telecom industry. In the year 2000, the historic path-breaking merger of Tata Cellular with Birla AT&T Communications and the subsequent acquisition of RPG Cellular (Madhya Pradesh circle) in the year 2001 - helped take the company to aim even further and led to the formation of Birla Tata AT&T Limited. In year 2001, company won fourth cellular license for Delhi metro circle and in year 2002 company introduced common brand “!DEA” and changed the name to IDEA Cellular Limited. Since then, there has been no looking back for IDEA Cellular. The company launch Delhi operations in year 2002 and added a record 100,000 subscriber within one month of launch. In 2003, the company achieved the largest financial closure in Indian Telecom for all its circle. In 2004, the company entered into definitive agreement to acquire Escotel Mobile Communications (existing operator in Haryana, Kerala and UP(W)) and Escorts Telecommunications (cellular licensee holder for UP(e), Himachal Pradesh and Rajasthan) In 2005, the share of AT&T has been taken by Aditya Birla group and raised their share to 53%. Aditya Birla share has been taken care under the name of Indian Rayon of Aditya Birla. Recently in June’06, the share of Tata has been taken by Aditya Birla Group due to the regulation of TRAI. Now the combined holding of the Aditya Birla Group companies in Idea now stands at 98.3 per cent constituted between Aditya Birla

were amongst the first company to

commercially start operation in circles other than metros and achieve financial

Nuvo Ltd. (35.7 per cent), Birla TMT Holdings Ltd. (44.9 per cent), Grasim Industries Ltd. (7.6 per cent) and Hindalco Industries Ltd. (10.1 per cent). Idea is a leading cellular operator, with a subscriber base of over 8 million across the country. Idea controls a portfolio of India's most attractive and mainly contiguous properties including the 11 states of Maharashtra (excluding Mumbai), Goa, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh (West), Uttaranchal, Haryana, Kerala and Delhi (inclusive of NCR). Having operations in four of the five largest cellular circles in India, Idea is the market leader in the Maharashtra and Goa; Uttar Pradesh (West) and Madhya Pradesh and Chattisgarh circles in terms of number of subscribers. Idea's Delhi circle is also the fastest-growing fourth operator in the country, which is an achievement in itself and showcases customer confidence of a high degree. Idea covers over 3,660 small and major towns and villages along with a total highway connectivity of over 6,000 km. There are over 380 'Idea n' U' outlets and Idea shops and a network of over 44,000 retailers and dealers across the country. Thanks to the frontline technology — from Nokia, Ericsson, Alcatel and SchlumbergerSema among others — at its command, the company can offer its customers extensive coverage, quality service and minimal congestion levels. The company is the fastest growing GSM operator in its area of operation. The growth rate in the last six months has been 85 per cent as against 84 per cent of all operators in the same area of operation. Idea offers roaming across 560 operators in India and across the world. With a clear focus on providing unique, distinct innovative and tremendously valuable services to the subscribers, Idea embarked upon an initiative to set up a VAS (value-added services) factory within the company, which conceptualizes and provides tailor-made value-added services. Idea was the first and only company to bring the concept of Cellular Jockey to all its subscribers. Idea also launched Global SMS for the first time in the country, which allows the users to send and receive SMS from over 540 networks and 170 countries across technology


platforms like GSM, CDMA, TDMA and satellite phones. IDEA Cellular Ltd. is headquartered in Pune. CORE BELIEFS The company continuously harnesses the power of wireless revolution to provide world-class products and services. It aims at responding to customer needs proactively by anticipating requirements and providing ready solutions. Idea Cellular draws inspiration from the loyalty of its subscribers to keep raising the bar, to shape the future, and to change and enrich the life of each and every member of its ever-growing family of subscribers. Idea Cellular's MISSION: Innovate. Stimulate. Liberate... Through continuous innovation, Idea Cellular seeks to liberate customers from the shackles of time and space. COVERAGE Idea Cellular's footprint idea is to first achieve critical mass, then drill deep instead of spreading thin. Thereafter, it is ready for controlled expansion. In keeping with this, the company has been providing excellent service to its subscribers in various states. It controls a portfolio of India's most attractive and contiguous telecom geographies, including the states of Maharashtra (excluding Mumbai), Goa, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh and Delhi (inclusive of NCR). With a footprint dominating the map of India, Idea Cellular accesses over 45% of India's total telephony potential. With the objective of critical mass achieved, Idea Cellular turned to drilling deep Idea Cellular Ltd is adding 400 cell sites to its present strong cell site network of 500 in the Delhi circle. With this, the total number of Idea Cellular cell sites in Delhi and NCR will go upto900. The addition in the cell sites forms part of Idea

Cellular’s ambitious network expansion plan and is a result of the company’s commitment to provide enhanced coverage experience to its customers. Idea is Delhi’s only ‘congestion-free’ network and this has been made possible by scientific network planning as opposed to the usual practice of scaling the network in patches. Idea Cellular is India’s premier and fastest-growing cellular company, promoted by the country’s largest business houses — the Aditya Birla Group and the Tata Group — and the world’s largest telecom giant, AT&T Wireless, USA. Idea has a footprint in the seven states of Andhra Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra (excluding Mumbai) and Delhi. The company created history when it became the first mobile telephony company in India to notch up 100,000 subscribers within just 30 days of its launch of services in Delhi.


Idea Reaching



Idea offers a wide range of cellular services and products. Its post-paid and prepaid services are supported by a variety of package plans to suit the needs of different customers: M-coupon — These are electronic discount coupons that customers can get on their mobiles which they can use is places such as restaurants and pubs. Voice courier — Idea subscribers can send messages in their own voice to select GSM subscribers all across the country and to any land line or cellular subscriber in the US and Canada at a fraction of STD and ISD rates. M-Chat — An instant-messaging service that enables subscribers to chat with their friends in MSN, Yahoo and ICQ from Idea mobile (using the SMS feature). Idea's M-chat enables subscribers to chat with all the three chat rooms, MSN, Yahoo and ISQ, without having to tag along a laptop or computer with net connection. SMS in 9 Indian languages — Apart from English Idea subscribers can send and receive SMS in 9 Indian languages - Hindi, Gujarati, Marathi, Bengali, Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada and Punjabi. GPRS / MMS — Idea Delhi was the first mobile phone operator to launch GPRS services in Delhi. It's 3G-compatible network supports General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), which allows subscribers to access Internet websites and information portals on Idea mobile. Idea was the first company in the country to launch GPRS in November 2002. It showcased EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution) in Delhi, in July 2004. With EDGE, subscribers can enjoy live television with a data download rate of over 160 kbps. Idea subscribers also have a richer experience while watching movie previews, multimedia messages with video attachments, web-infotainment, high-speed video downloads, java game downloads and other Internet-based multi-media experiences on their EDGE53

enabled mobile phones. Customer Service and Innovation are the drivers of this Cellular Brand. With GPRS currently available on all its’ networks, for both pre and post paid customers, IDEA Cellular is the first company to commercially launch next generation EDGE technology (a 3G technology) for its Delhi circle. Ring-Tone – With this facility subscribers can download ringtones on their handsets. They just have to select the Ring-Tone out of the available ones and it will be sent to them. Idea also offers the facility of sending the Ring-Tone as a gift to a friend of yours. Cricket commentary – Idea also provides the facility of cricket commentary to its customers. Now you don’t require a TV set or a radio to listen to the commentary, you just need a handset and an idea card and you listen to the cricket commentary. Caller-Tunes- Idea provides its customers the access of this facility and let the caller listen to the exciting songs instead of the boring tring-tring. Railway Reservation- The subscribers of Idea can make ticket reservation and other enquiries related to railways by just dialing 456. Star interview- By dialing 456 one can listen to the interviews of various movie stars on his/her mobile phone. News- Idea subscribers can keep themselves updated with the recent developments going around the world using this service. Jokes- Subscribers listen to funny jokes by just dialing 456. This service can also be used to send jokes to friends and relatives. Astrology- IDEA also recently launched Ganesha Speaks by Bejan Daruwalla, a LIVE astrology service that can be accessed by dialing 181.


Commodity market- Idea subscribers can keep themselves updated with the prices prevailing in the commodity market by just dialing 456. CUSTOMER BASE IDEA Cellular Ltd., the leading cellular operator of the country, has a subscriber base of 9 lakhs in Delhi circle by the end of JUNE 2006. IDEA Cellular, through its superior network and aggressive marketing initiatives, has cornered over 29 % market share of the total net adds of GSM cellular subscribers since launch. Idea Delhi has been growing rapidly in the recent months wherein it has added 16,669 subscribers in Feb and 18,114 subscribers in March. The net additions in August ‘06 were the highest among all GSM operators in Delhi. But the celebration just does not end here. Idea Delhi is the only private GSM operator, whose revenue grew by 3.7% in the quarter Jan –March ’06 over the previous quarter, where competition showed a decline. In the last one year, Idea’s revenue market share between all the three private GSM players (Airtel, Hutch and Idea) grew from 12.3% to 14.1%.


TRAINING PROGRAMMES IN IDEA IDEA follows the philosophy to establish and build a strong performance driven culture with greater accountability and responsibility at all levels. To that extent the Company views capability as a combination of the right people in the right jobs, supported by the right processes, systems, structure and metrics. The Company organizes various training and development programmes, both inhouse and at other places in order to enhance the skills and efficiency of its employees. These training and development programmes are conducted at various levels i.e. for workers and for officers etc. TRAINING IN IDEA IDEA provides training to all its employees as per the policy of the organization. PURPOSE OF TRAINING: SCOPE: To ensure availability of trained manpower. All categories of employees



Identification of Needs

Preparation of Training Plan

Imparting Training


Induction Training

Training Effectiveness

IDENTIFICATION OF NEEDS Management Staff The Performance Appraisal form of the organization has a section in which the training and development needs are filed up. The person whom the concerned employee is reporting fills the Performance Appraisal form annually. Such person may be a branch head or department head. Identification of training need is done at the Executive Office (EO) level for the managers through the Performance Appraisal forms annually and the records are maintained at the Executive Office. Managers are nominated for the various training courses by the Executive’s Office. Managers may also be nominated to certain training programmes from the branch if the subject’s covered are found to be of interest or if they offer a learning opportunity in some emerging areas of knowledge.

Training needs for the department through their Performance Appraisal forms identifies the officers, which are filled in by the department head. Performance Appraisal forms thus give the emerging training needs. exercise is carried out annually. Staff and Workers Training needs for staff and workers are identified based on: Company’s strategy and policy. Organizational Thrust Areas. New Emerging Areas. The This

This together gives the consolidated system of needs that is prepared by the Personnel Officer and approved by the Department Head. PREPARATION OF TRAINING PLAN On the basis of identified training needs, the annual training calendar is prepared by the Personnel officer and approved by the Personnel Head. Annual Training Budget is prepared by Branch Personnel Head and is approved by Executive Office. This gives the final list of training activities in a particular year. It is attempted to carry out all the programmes to fulfill the identified needs. The Head of the Personnel Department monitors the actual training conducted vis-à-vis the identified training needs on a monthly basis. IMPARTING OF TRAINING Actual training is imparted with the help of in-house and outside agencies. The selection of these agencies is done on the basis of reputation; programmes offered by them, past experience and feedback received from the earlier participants. Training is also imparted by nominating the concerned employee for an external training programme. All records of the training are maintained at branch as per Record of Training in the Personnel folder and the same is intimated to the Executive Office Personnel through the Monthly Personnel Report.


FEEDBACK A feedback is taken from the participants through a questionnaire on the programme and their impressions in order to further improve upon the same. There are three such questionnaires available and one of these is used depending upon the nature of the training programme and the level of participants. Also, a person from the personnel department sits through the final session of the programme and takes the verbal feedback about the programme.

INDUCTION TRAINING Staff/ Officers/ Managers This is carried out as the very first step for any new entrant into the branch at the Staff/ Officer/ Manager level. The department prepares a schedule for the employee as per which he is required to spend specific time in each department. During such period, he is reporting to the respective department head. The objective of the induction programme is to familiarize the participant to the function of different department. The copies of the same are sent to the General Manager and all concerned. At the end of the induction, the trainee has to submit a report to the Personnel Department. Workers In the case of a new entrant, he is called in General shift for 2 days for training under a senior worker to familiarize him with the welfare facilities like card punching, canteen, public conveniences, rules and regulations, standing orders, shift timings, spell outs, medical facilities, leave procedures etc. After two days of training, he is deployed in the concerned department. The Personnel Officer organizes this. Management Trainee’s Training Management trainees are given a fortnight of induction programme. Corporate HR advises it as per Management Trainee Training programme designed by them. Thereafter, a detailed training programme is carried out whereby the incumbent is to understand in depth of working of each department at various locations as per

the programme given by the Corporate HR. Corporate HR maintains all relevant records pertaining to Management Trainee’s training at Bangalore.


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Hutchison Essar IDEA

Bharti Tele-Ventures MTNL


TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS For each training programme conducted in-house for IDEA Delhi branch personnel, a training brochure is developed. The brochure developed consists of the following information: Programme objectives: Need of the training and what are the objectives that this training aims to achieve, what likely outcomes are expected to come out of impact of this training. Programme content: Topics being covered during the training. Methodology adopted. Programme faculty. Personnel to be covered. Training methodology. Training effectiveness criteria and scale.

The training effectiveness is measured by measurement of the achievement of the objectives. This lists down the measurement indicators, achievement of which will ensure that programme objectives are achieved. A person gets nominated for the training programme in the following two ways: a) b) Training programme flowing from the training needs. Training programme for testing out the training/ increased

awareness/ general information/ omnibus training types etc. Training programmes flowing from training needs: The programmes are divided into three broad categories: Functional Behavioral General/ Omnibus programmes

Functional: The outcome of the training is measured by comparing the

data pre-training and post-training. A scale is developed for measuring the effectiveness of training based on the % achievement of the objectives.

Behavioral: The effectiveness of the training of this nature is measured

annually. This is seen through the training need identification for the coming

year for the employee. If the training need is repeated there, then the training provided is taken as ineffective. If the training need is repeated but with focus on a part of the need, then the training is partially effective. If not repeated, then the training is effective. 3. General: These are the training needs flowing directly from the organizational needs. Examples of these can be ISO 9000 training, ISO 14000 training and any awareness training. These are omnibus training programmes, which are run for a large number of employees. The effectiveness of the training is measured by: - Achievement of those organizational objectives within the time lines. - Number of audit issues raised on the areas covered in the training. - Any other such thing as defined in the training brochure. The effectiveness of the outside training programme is measured on the same line as above. However, no detailed brochure is prepared for the same. The measurement criterion for the programme is defined in the beginning of the programme and effectiveness measured against the same. A consolidated effectiveness report of the training programme is prepared at the end of the year. The programmes that are found to be ineffective are reworked.


TRAINING PROGRAMME FOR TESTING OUT THE TRAINING Also there are training programmes, which are not flowing directly from the training needs measurement of effectiveness of the training is not needed to be measured. TRAINING OF AN OFFICER

Identification of Training needs

Approval from the Personnel Department

Consolidation of Training needs

Annual Training Budget

Annual Training Calendar

Imparting Training

Collecting Feedback for Further Improvement

Monitoring of Actual Training vis-à-vis the Identified needs



Company Strategy and Policy

Approval from the Personnel Department

Organizational Thrust Areas

Identification Of Training needs

Annual Training Budget

New Emerging Areas

Consolidation Of Training needs

Imparting Training

Annual Training Calendar

Collecting Feedback for Further Training

Monitoring of Actual vs the Identified Training needs.


1. Does your company provides Training? Response Yes No %age 80 20

No 20%

Yes No

Yes 80%

Interpretation: • • 80% employees are agree that their company is providing training to them 20% employees are not agree with the statement.



If yes, then from when your company is providing training? Response Since 1 year 2-5 years Above 5 years %age 28 40 32

Above 5 years 32%

Since 1 year 28% Since 1 year 2-5 years Above 5 years

2-5 years 40%

Interpretation: • • • 40% employees are given training from 2-5 years. 32 % employees are given training from more than 5 years. 28% employees are given training since 1 year.



At which level , Training is provided to you? Response High level Middle Level Low level %age 40 30 30

Low level 30% High level 40% High level Middle Level Low level

Middle Level 30%

Interpretation: • • • 40% Employees are given training at high level. 30% Employees are given training at middle level. 30% Employees are given training at low level.



Does they provide to all employees? Response Yes No %age 86 14

No 14%

Yes No

Yes 86%

Interpretation: • • 86% Employees are given training. 14% Employees are not given training.



Are they adopting proper training process? Response Yes No %age 70 30

No 30%

Yes No

Yes 70%

Interpretation: •

70% Employees are given proper training. 30% Employees are not given proper training.



Which training method is adopted by your company? Response On the job Off the job Both %age 38 20 42

Both 42%

On the job 38% On the job Off the job Both

Off the job 20%

Interpretation: • • • 42% Employees are given training through on and off the job. 38% Employees are given training through on the job. 20% Employees are given training through off the job.



If on the job training is adopted then, which technique is used by

company? Response Apprenticeship Program Job relation Internship Coaching %age 20 34 26 20

Coaching 20%

Apprenticeship Program 20%

Apprenticeship Program Job relation Internship Coaching Internship 26% Job relation 34%

Interpretation: • • • • 34% Employees are given internship training. 26% Employees are given job relation. 20% Employees are given apprentice program. 20% Employees are given coaching.



If off the job training is adopted then, which technique is used by Response Conferences room/Lecturers Vestibule Training/Schools Films Case Study Computer Modeling Others %age 22 18 10 8 24 18


Others 18%

Conferences room/Lecturers 22% Conferences room/Lecturers Vestibule Training/Schools Films Case Study

Computer Modeling 24%

Vestibule Training/Schools 18%

Computer Modeling Others

Case Study 8%

Films 10%

Interpretation: • • 24% Employees are given computer modeling through off the job training. 22% employees are given conference room training trough conference room lecturers. • • • • 18% employees are given training vestibule training/school. 18% employees are given training through other methods. 18% employees are given training through films. 18% employees are given training through case study.



Do they provide training at regular interval of times? Response Yes No Can’t say %age 48 32 20

Can’t say 20%

Yes 48%

Yes No Can’t say

No 32%

Interpretation: • • • 48% employees are given training at regular period. 32% employees are not given training at regular period. 20 48% employees says nothing about this statement.



Do training is beneficial to both employers as well as employees? Response Yes No Can’t say %age 50 30 20

Can’t say 20%

Yes No Yes 50% No 30% Can’t say

Interpretation: • 50% employees says that training is beneficial to employers as well as employees. • • 30% employees are satisfied with statement. 20% employees are not satisfied with statement.



Why company is being provided training to you?

Response Increase production Low Cost Low Absenteeism Others

%age 40 20 30 10

Others 10%

Increase production 40% Low Absenteeism 30%

Increase production Low Cost Low Absenteeism Others

Low Cost 20%

Interpretation: • • • • 40% employees are provided training for increase in production. 30% employees are provided training for low absenteeism. 20% employees are provided training for low cost. 10% employees are provided training for of other reasons.



Increase training helpful in proper development? Response Yes No %age 80 20

No 20%

Yes No

Yes 80%

Interpretation: • • 24% says that training is helpful in proper development. 20% employees are not satisfied with this statement.


13. Approximately how many times in a year you receive training program?

Response Quarterly Half Yearly Yearly

%age 36 44 20

Yearly 20% Quarterly 36% Quarterly Half Yearly Yearly

Half Yearly 44%

Interpretation: • • • 44% employees are given training half yearly. 36% employees are given training quarterly. 20% employees are given training yearly.



Which are the roles and responsibilities of trainees in order to make a

training program successfully?

Response Effective & Attentive listener Positive attitude

%age 40 60

Effective & Attentive listener 40% Positive attitude 60%

Effective & Attentive listener Positive attitude

Interpretation: • 60% employees says that positive attitude is helpful in making training program successful. • 40% employees says about effective & attentive listener.



What are the main objective of training?

Response Improving skills High Production Development Others

%age 22 30 38 12

Others 12%

Improving skills 22% Improving skills High Production Development

Development 37%

Others High Production 29%

Interpretation: • • • • 38% employees says that development is main objective for training. 30% employees says about high production. 20% employees says about improving skills. 12% employees says about other methods.



Are you satisfied with current training level? Response Yes No %age 60 40

No 40% Yes No Yes 60%

Interpretation: • • 60% employees are satisfied with current training level. 40% employees are not satisfied with current training level.



If yes, at which level you are satisfied? Response Highly satisfied Moderate Satisfied Low satisfied %age 40 32 28

Low satisfied 28%

Highly satisfied 40%

Highly satisfied Moderate Satisfied Low satisfied

Moderate Satisfied 32%

Interpretation: • • • 40% employees are highly satisfied. 32% employees are moderate satisfied. 28% employees are low satisfied.



If no, what suggestions do you want? Response Changes in methods Changes in time period Others %age 50 30 20

Others 20% Changes in methods Changes in methods 50% Changes in time period 30% Changes in time period Others

Interpretation: • • • 50% employees suggest for change in methods. 30% employees suggest for change in time period. 20% employees suggest for other methods.



By whom training is provided

Response Supervisor Senior colleges Peers Others

%age 36 20 30 14

Others 14% Supervisor 36%

Supervisor Senior colleges Peers

Peers 30% Senior colleges 20%


Interpretation: • • • • 36% employees says that training is provided by supervisor. 30% employees says about senior colleges. 20% employees says about peers. 14% employees says about other methods.


The major findings of the project are enumerated as follows:  Training is considered as a positive step towards augmentation of the knowledge base by the respondents.  The objectives of the training programmes were broadly known to the respondents prior to attending them.  The training programmes were adequately designed to cater to the developmental needs of the respondents.  Some of the respondents suggested that the time period of the training programmes were less and thus need to be increased.  Some of the respondents also suggested that use of latest training methods will enhance the effectiveness of the training programmes.  Some respondents believe that the training sessions could be made more exciting if the sessions had been more interactive and in line with the current practices in the market.  The training aids used were helpful in improving the overall effectiveness of the training programmes.  The training programmes were able to improve on-the-job efficiency.  Some respondents also recommended that the number of training programmes be increased.


Based on the data collected through the questionnaire and interactions with the officials and employees of Idea Cellular, the following recommendations are made for consideration:  The organization may utilize both subjective and objective approach for the training programmes.  The organization may consider deputing each employee to attend at least one training programmes each year.  The In-house training programmes will be beneficial to the organization as well as employees since it will help employees to attend their official work while undergoing the training.  The organization can also arrange part time training programmes in the office premises for short durations, spanning over a few days, in order to avoid any interruption in the routine work.  The organization can arrange the training programmes department wise in order to give focused attention towards the departmental requirements.


The following are the limitations of the study:  The sample size was small and hence the results can have a degree of variation.  The response of the employees in giving information was lukewarm.  Organization’s resistance to share the internal information.  Questionnaire is subjected to errors.


The foregoing discussion has brought out one thing very clearly that organization has very pragmatic HRD policy to develop its employees. In spite of it outcome has not been very encouraging. The reasons could be numerous. The results of section A and B reveals that all workers and staff members are willing to go on for further training program. So what should be training areas for individuals, groups and the organization has been discussed in the ensuing section. TRAINING NEED FOR INDIVIDUALS: To combat the competitive environment, every organization need to have ‘Stars’ i.e. the employees with high performance and high potential level. As per the results of the study though the nature of training needs of employees is almost similar yet the contents required and the way of disseminating may vary as per the cadres of employees. Moreover the training needs of staff and workers are more of technical nature and behavioural ones. The specific training needs of individuals are as under: Training needs for workers  Workers should be trained in interpersonal relations to maintain sound industrial relations, which is the prime need for any organization’s success.  Work planning should be taught to the worker to enable them for maximum contribution.  Worker should be trained on communicating and listening.  Besides the above behavioural training the staff also need to be trained in the technical aspects of their jobs.


I, AmitSaini Student of MBA 2nd Year (4th Sem.) doing project on the topic “Training & Development”. I ensure you not to disclose this information elsewhere for any other purpose. Name : _____________________________________________________ Age : _____________________________________________________ Designation : _____________________________________________________ Contact No. : _____________________________________________________ 1. Does your company provides Training? Yes ( ) No ( ) 2. If yes, then from when your company is providing training? Since 1 year ( ) 2-5 years ( ) Above 5 years ( ) 3. At which level , Training is provided to you? High level ( ) Middle Level ( ) Low level ( ) 4. Does they provide to all employees? Yes ( ) No ( ) 5. Are they adopting proper training process? Yes ( ) No ( )



Which training method is adopted by your company? On the job ( ) Off the job ( ) Both ( ) 7. If on the job training is adopted then, which technique is used by company? Apprenticeship Program ( ) Job relation ( ) Internship ( ) Coaching ( ) 8. If off the job training is adopted then, which technique is used by company? Conferences room/Lecturers ( ) Vestibule Training/Schools ( ) Films ( ) Case Study ( ) Computer Modeling ( ) Others ( ) 9. Do they provide training at regular interval of times? Yes ( ) No ( ) Can’t say ( ) 10. Do training is beneficial to both employers as well as employees? Yes ( ) No ( ) Can’t say ( )



12. 13.




Why company is being provided training to you? Increase production ( ) Low Cost ( ) Low Absenteeism ( ) Others ( ) Increase training helpful in proper development? Yes ( ) No ( ) Approximately how many times in a year you receive training program? Quarterly ( ) Half Yearly ( ) Yearly ( ) Which are the roles and responsibilities of trainees in order to make a training program successfully? Effective & Attentive listener ( ) Positive attitude ( ) What are the main objective of training? Improving skills ( ) High Production ( ) Development ( ) Others ( ) Are you satisfied with current training level? Yes ( ) No ( )






If yes, at which level you are satisfied? Highly satisfied ( ) Moderate Satisfied ( ) Low satisfied ( ) If no, what suggestions do you want? Changes in methods ( ) Changes in time period ( ) Others ( ) By whom training is provided Supervisor ( ) Senior colleges ( ) Peers ( ) Others ( ) Any other Suggestions ____________________________________________________________ ____________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________


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