GEK1510AY1415S2(Tut1 Suggested Solution)

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GEK1510AY1415S2(Tut1 Suggested Solution)

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and Pre-Quantum Theory.

Name: Dr. CHING Chee Leong

:65162988

: phyccl@nus.edu.sg

Consultation: Email me to fix the convenient timings.

2/5/2015

Each tutorial class lasts for roughly 50 minutes. (Remember to sign

the attendance.)

During the tutorial:

(1) Go through set of questions.

(2) Assignments (in-class or take home, hints will be given).

(3) Clear doubts, fill in useful details missed out during lecture.

(4) Of course, teach you things that I (hopefully you as well) like!

Tutorials 5%

Assignments 15%

3 Term Tests 20%, 20%, 40%

2/5/2015

The laws of Physics are the same for all observers moving

at constant speeds w.r.t. each other (inertial frames).

The speed of light is constant regardless of the motion of the

observer or of the sender.

Einsteins 2nd postulate only applicable to real particles that

carry mass, energy and information, which satisfy E=mc2.

actually at rest or moving. Constant speed motion is relative!!

Consequences of SR:

Time dilation (includes non-simultaneity)

Length contraction

Causality (cause and effect) limited by c

2/5/2015

Lorentz/Gamma factor:

1

1 v

c2

effect is not significant.

When the speed approach that of light, becomes larger and

larger. The relativistic effect is significant. (usually we start to

consider relativistic effect for v 0.1c)

its direction of motion

L0 L

L

1 v

c2

L is the contracted length of the object.

Proper length L0 is the length of an object measured in a

reference frame in which the object is stationary.

2/5/2015

A rectangle has the dimensions of 3.0m 2.0m when viewed by someone at rest

with respect to it.

(a) When you move past the rectangle along one of its sides, the rectangle looks

like a square. Which side of the rectangle and what is the speed you are moving

along?

2m

L=2m

L0 L 3 / 2

3m

2m

2m

1

1 v

View of moving

observer

3/ 2

v 0.75c

2/5/2015

(b) What dimensions do you observe when you move at the same speed above

along the adjacent side of the rectangle?

2m

same speed: L0=2m; L=??

3m

L

??

3m

View of moving

observer

L0

4

m 1.3 m

3

therefore 3.0m1.3m since the longer side

is not contracted due to motion along the

shorter side.

t t0

t0

1 v

c2

t is the dilated time between two events.

Proper time is the time interval between two events measured

in a reference frame in which the events occur at the same

space point.

Time dilation is universal and affects all types of processes:

physical, mechanical, biological, psychological, etc

2/5/2015

As observed on earth, a certain type of bacterium is known to double

in number every 24.0 hours. Two cultures of these bacteria are

prepared, each consisting initially of one bacterium. One culture is

left on earth and the other placed on a rocket that travels at a speed of

v=0.866c relative to the earth. At a time when the earthbound culture

has grown to 256 bacteria, how many bacteria are in the culture on

the rocket, according to an earth-based observer?

Proper time for the bacteria to double its number:

t0=24 hrs= 1day

Amount of time required for the earth-based sample to

grow to 256 bacteria:

t

/ t

earth

256 28

According to an earth-based observer, the doubling time for the

space culture is

t0

1 v

c2

1 days

1

( 0.866 c ) 2

2 days

c2

(according to an earth-based observer) is

Additional Question: What is the number of space bacteria in

eight earth days according to the observer in the rocket?

2/5/2015

Mass-Energy Equivalence

Total energy E of a moving object is related to its mass and

speed by the relation:

E mc

2

mc 2

1 v

c2

E0 mc 2

of an object at rest.

Principles of energy and mass conservation are combined which

implies that mass and energy can be converted to each other!

The Suns mass is Ms=1.9891030 kg and it radiates at a rate of

Ls=3.8271026 J per second.

(a) What is the change in the Suns mass during each second that it is

radiating energy?

(b) Estimate the lifetime of the Sun from this data assuming it

converts all its mass into energy.

Change in the Suns mass during each second:

E 3.827 10 26

E (m) c m 2

4.25 109 kg s 1

8 2

c

(3 10 )

2

2/5/2015

The Suns mass is Ms=1.9891030 kg and it radiates at a rate of

Ls=3.8271026 J per second.

(b) Estimate the lifetime of the Sun from this data assuming it

converts all its mass into energy.

Estimated life time assuming the Sun converts all its mass

into energy:

1.989 1030 kg

M

t

4.678 10 20 s

9

1

m 4.252 10 kg s

The correct prediction of the lifetime of the Sun is only about

11 billion years! Nuclear fusion not covert all rest mass to

pure energy. Also, only the core of the star (roughly 20% of

the total mass) can undergo nuclear fusion.

Quantization of Electromagnetic

Radiation Photon

Planck: A blackbody can only emit radiation in DISCRETE

packets or quanta, i.e. in multiples of the minimum energy:

E hf

hc

the radiation and h=6.62610-34Js is the Plancks constant.

The Plancks constant is a new constant of nature which turns out

to be of fundamental importance in the new quantum theory.

Einstein: Light consists of particles, now known as photons. Each

photon has energy E = hf and the total energy carried by light is

always an INTEGER multiple of hf

2/5/2015

You have two light-bulbs of different power and colour. One is a 150W red and the other is a 25-W blue bulb. Take red = 650nm and blue

= 460nm. [Note: Watt = Joule/second]

(a) Which bulb emits more photons per second?

(b) Which bulb emits photons of higher energy?

(c) Calculate the number of photons emitted per second for each

bulb.

You have two light-bulbs of different power and colour. One is a

150-W red and the other is a 25-W blue bulb. Take red = 650nm

and blue = 460nm.

Energy of each photon is given by E = hc/. The bulb emitting

photons with shorter wavelength will emit photons with higher

energy, i.e. blue bulb.

Total energy emitted per second:

nhc

P

hc

nred

150 650 10 9

4.90 10 20

34

8

(6.626 10 )(3 10 )

nblue

25 460 10 9

5.80 1019

(6.626 10 34 )(3 108 )

10

2/5/2015

The phenomenon of electrons being emitted from a metal surface

when struck by incident electromagnetic radiation.

Einstein explained that the ejection of a given electron is

accomplished by a single photon (if it has enough energy). The

photon transfers all of its energy to the electron and then disappears.

Photoelectric effect equation:

K hf W

function of the metal surface (amount of energy required to free

an electron from bonding)

Zinc and cadmium have work functions given by Wz=6.931019 J

and Wc=6.751019 J respectively.

(a) If both metals are illuminated by UV radiation of the same

wavelength, which one gives off photoelectrons with the greater

maximum kinetic energy?

(b) Calculate the maximum kinetic energy of photoelectrons from each

surface if = 275nm.

Illuminating both metals by radiation of the same wavelength (i.e.

photons with same energy), electrons will be ejected with larger

kinetic energy from the metal surface with smaller work function,

i.e. cadmium metal.

11

2/5/2015

Zinc and cadmium have work functions given by Wz=6.931019 J

and Wc=6.751019 J respectively.

Energy of photons:

EUV

(6.626 10 34 ) (3 108 )

7.23 10 19 J

275 10

hc

K C EUV WC (7.23 10 19 6.75 10 19 ) J 4.8 10 20 J

A farmer has a ladder which is 10 meters long and a barn which is only 9

meters long and so, much to the farmers consternation, the ladder will not

fit in the barn. How can he fit the ladder into the barn using the length

contraction theory? See figures below.

moving (while the barn is stationary).

Hence ladder contracts in length.

L

For ladder to fit in the 9 m barn, we

set the contracted length as 9 m.

L0

1 v 2 / c 2 L0

9 10 1 v 2 / c 2

v 0.44c

more, the ladder can fit into the barn! Awesome!!!

12

2/5/2015

Hence the barn will contract in length.

sees when v=0.44c:

Lboy 9 1 (0.44c) 2 / c 2

8.1m 10m L0

Oh dear! The ladder still dun fit into the barn! Length

contraction have always worked against me!

So, do you think is there a paradox

ultimately? what are invariant measures

in S.R.?

Who is correct?

Both are correct

within their own

frame

light and spacetime-interval.

13

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