PROJECT
6MW SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER PLANT
CLIENT
ARHYAMA SOLAR POWER PRIVATE LIMITED
EPC CONTRACTOR
CIRUS SOLAR PRIVATE LIMITED
CONTRACTOR
PnU ENGINEERING PVT LTD, HYDERABAD
DOCUMENT TITLE
EARTHING LAYOUT
33KV EARTHING CALCULATIONS
22/02/2013
EARTHING CALCULATIONS
AJAY
RRK
RRK
DATE
Rev : NO
DESCRIPTION
DESIGNED
CHECKED
APPROVED
DOCUMENT NO : PU1302007
Sheet 1 of 1
BLOCK1
33KV Switchyard
Reference Documents
a) Electrical resistivity test report at plant site for 132kv Switch Yard, Vishnupuram
b) IEEE802000
c) CBIP Manual on substation publication number : 223
1.0 DESIGN BASIS
1) Resistivity data has been taken from the available report .
14 M
EQUIVALENT
AREA
10.6 M
(Fig1)
Switch yard
Length of the area
14
Width of the area
10.6
Ground Grid Area
148.4
Assuming conductor spacing D
No. of conductors parallel to length side( nl)
No. of conductors parallel to width side ( ns)
Therefore buried length in grid area Lc = (nl x length)+(ns x width)
Total buried length
LC =
133.6 M
Sheet 1 of 1
Subject : EARTHING DESIGN CALCULATION FOR 33 KV SUBSTATION
1)
IEEE 802000
2)
CBIP Manual on substation publication number : 223
1.0)
Earthing conductor sizing for main earth gridInput data :(i)
Conductor material
GI
(ii)
System Voltage
33
kV
(iii)
Fault Current, If
25
kA
(iv)
Fault Duration, tc
sec
(v)
Max. Allowable Temperature, Tm
620
(vi)
Ambient Temperature, Ta
50
(vii)
Reference temp for material constant,Tr
20
(viii)
Thermal Coeff.of resistivity at reference
=
Temperature, r
(ix)
o
0.0032 1/ C
Resistivity of Ground Conductor at ref.
Temperature, r
20.1
/cm3
(x)
Thermal Capacity Factor, TCAP
3.93
J/cm3/oC
(xi)
K0 = (1/r) Tr
292.5
Conductor Size :As per Eq.37 of IEEE Std 802000, conductor size is given by
tc r r x 104
TCAP
A
If
Ko + Tm
ln
Ko + Ta
Substituting the input data, we get
Conductor size, A
By considering 30% allowance A
A
A
Hence the CONDUCTOR size selected,
323
=
=
=
=
sq.mm
420.015758 mm2
900
mm2
L*B
75
12
GI FLAT
Sheet 1 of 1
2
2.1)
CALCULATIONS FOR TOLERABLE TOUCH VOLTAGE (Etouch ) AND STEP VOLTAGE( Estep)
Input Data :
(i)
System Voltage, Vs
33
kV
(ii)
System fault Current, If
25
KA
(iii)
Fault Duration, tc(as per Specification)
sec
(iv.1)
Length of Earth grid
14
metre
(iv.2)
Width of Earth grid
10.6
metre
(iv.3)
Area of Earth grid, A
148.4
sq.metre
(v)
Conductor Size for main grid
900
sq.mm
(vi)
Depth of burial w.r.t. ground level, h
0.6
metre
(vii.1)
Length of one earth mat conductor Lx
14
metre
(vii.2)
Width of one earth mat conductor Ly
10.6
metre
(vii.3)
Additional length of conductor considered
(for interconnecting earthing system)
Grid conductor combined length, Lc
10
metre
144
metre
(vii.4)
(viii.1) Total no. of ground electrodes
LA
Generator Transformers
Switchyard corners
Towers
(viii.2) length of each rod in m Lr
(viii.3) Total ground rod length, LR
Effective length of buried conductorLT = LR + Lc
length in M no. of electrodes
2.75
3
2.75
0
2.75
2
2.75
0
=
2.75
meter
=
13.75
metre
=
157
metre
(viii.3) Effective Buried Length for mesh voltage, LM
184.02
metre
(viii.4) Effective Buried Length for step voltage, LS
119.39
metre
(ix)
Soil Resistivityconsidered for design,
10
metre
(x)
Surface Resistivity, s
3000
metre
(xi)
Spacing for Earthing Mat ,D
(xii)
Corrective weighting factor, Kii
(xiii)
Reference Depth of grid, h0
metre
(xvi)
Thickness of Concrete , hs
0.15
metre
(xvii)
Fault Current division factor (Sf)
0.7
metre
Sheet 1 of 5
2.2)
a)
Calculation of Tolerable Etouch & Estep Voltage :
Tolerable Etouch50 :
From IEEE Std 802000
[(1000 + 1.5CS S) 0.116/ tS ]
Tolerable Etouch50=
( From eq.32of IEEE Std 802000 )
Where,
Cs = Reduction factor for derating the nominal value of surface layer
resistivity.
( From eq.27 of IEEE Std 802000 )
Cs = 1  0.09 [(1/s)/(2hs + 0.09)]
Cs
=
0.7700
tS = Duration of shock current in seconds =
0.5
( from clause 16.2.2 of IEEE Std 802000 )
Substituting the above values,
Tolerable Etouch50
=
732.48 Volts
b)
Tolerable Estep50
[(1000 + 6CS S) 0.116/ tS ]
(from eq.29 of IEEE Std 802000)
Substituting the values,
Tolerable Estep50
2437.76 Volts
2.3) Calculation of Grid Resistance, Rg :
As per Eq.53 of IEEE Std 802000,
R1 R2  Rm2
The total system resistance, Rg
=
R1 + R2  2Rm
Where,
R1
Ground resistance of grid conductors in
R2
Ground resistance of of all ground rods in
Rm
Mutual ground resistance between the group of grid conductors, R1 and
group of ground rods, R2 in
Ground resistance of the grid, R1
k1 Lc
2 Lc
ln
Lc
 k2
+
a
'
From eq.54 of IEEE Std 802000
Where,
Lc
=
=
Soil Resistivity in m
Total length of all connected grid conductors in m
a'
2a
=
=
A
k1
=
=
a.2h
for conductors buried at depth h in m
Diameter of conductor in m
Area covered by conductors in m2
Coefficient from fig 25(a) of IEEE Std 802000
k2
10
144
ohmm
m
0.3000 m
0.08 m
2
148.4 m
1.06
k1= 0.05*(Lx/Ly) + 1.13
Coefficient from fig 25(b) of IEEE Std 802000
4.33
k2= 0.05*(Lx/Ly) + 4.40
Coefficient K1 and k2 of schwarz's fromula IEEE Std 802000 )
R1
0.3341
Sheet 2 of 5
Ground resistance of the rod bed, R2
From eq.55 of IEEE Std 802000
R2
4 LR
ln
2 k1 . Lr
( nR  1 )2
1 +
b
2 nRLR
Where,
Lr
2b
nR
=
=
=
length of each rod in m
diameter of rod in m
number of rods placed in area A
2.75
0.08
5
LR
Total length of ground rods
13.75
k1
Coefficient from fig 25(a) of IEEE Std 802000
R2
m
m
1.06
0.163
Mutual ground resistance between the grid and the rod bed, Rm
From eq.56 of IEEE Std 802000
Rm
k1 Lc
2 Lc
ln
 k2 + 1
Lc
Lr
Rm
=
0.3071
Subtituting the above values,
Rg
=
0.3403
2.4)
Calculation of Maximum Ground Potential Rise :
Max. Ground potential above remote earth, GPR
Where,
IG = grid current
If x Sf
=
IG
IG x RG
Volts
17.5 KA
Substituting the values,
Ground Potential Rise, GPR
5954.71 Volts
Since, GPR > Estep50 (as per Figure 33 of IEEE Std 802000),calculate Attainable Emesh and Attainable
Estep voltages
2.5)
Calculation of Attainable Emesh Voltage :
From Eq.80 of IEEE Std 802000, for Grid rods in the periphery,
Emesh = [ Km Ki IG / LM ]
Lr
LM = Lc + 1.55+1.22
Lr
From eq.91 of IEEE Std 802000
L2x + L2y
Where,
Lr
Lx
Ly
Length of each ground rod
=
=
Maximum length of grid conductor in xdirection =
Maximum length of grid conductor in ydirection =
20
14
10.6
m
m
Sheet 3 of 5
IG
grid current
17.5
Ki
corrective Factor,
1.51
13.75
LR
=
Total length of ground rods
Subtituting the above values,
LM
184.02
As per Eq.81 of IEEE Std 802000, the Spacing Factor for Mesh Voltage,
D2
1
Km =
(D + 2h)2
ln
+
16hd
8Dd
(2n1)
Kh
0.0339 metre
( From eq.83 of IEEE Std 802000 )
Kh
No. of Parallel Paths, n
Where,
8
ln
4d
Equ. Diameter of Earth conductor, d
Kh = 1 + h / h0
Kii
h

1.26
na nb nc nd (From eq.84 of IEEE Std 802000)
Lp
From eq.85 to 88 of IEEE Std 802000
na
(2 Lc)/Lp
=
nb
=
4 A
0.7 A
Lx Ly
Lx Ly
nc
Dm
nd
I
L2x + L2y
A
Where,
Lp
Dm
Peripheral length of the grid
Maximum distance between any two points
on the grid
Substituting the above values,
na
5.84
nb
1.005
nc
nd
1.00
5.87
As per Eq.89 of IEEE 802000,
The corrective Factor, Ki
49.2
17.6
Rounded of to nearest digit
0.644 + ( 0.148 x n )
1.51
0.4251
611.23 Volts
From eq.89of IEEE Std 802000
Substituting the values,
Km
AttainableEmesh Voltage
Sheet 4 of 5
2.6)
Calculation of Attainable Estep voltage :
From Eq.92 of IEEE Std 802000,
Attainable Estep = [ Ks Ki IG / LS ]
From eq.92 of IEEE Std 802000
As per Eq.94 of IEEE Std 802000, the Spacing Factor for Step Voltage,
1
Ks =
1
+
1
(1  0.5n2)
+
D+h
2h
From eq.94of IEEE Std 802000
No. of Parallel paths, n
n
As per Eq.89 of IEEE 802000,
The corrective Factor, Ki
=
=
=
6
6
0.644 + ( 0.148 x n )
Ki
1.51
Ks
0.4527
As per Eq.93 of IEEE Std 802000,
Ls
Lc
0.75 Lc + 0.85 LR
From eq.93of IEEE Std 802000
Total length of all connected grid conductors in m
LR
Total length of ground rods
Ls
119.3875 m
Substituting the values,
Attainable Estep
3
1003.47 Volts
CONCLUSION :
Tolerable
Etouch
732.48 Volts
Attainable
Emesh
611.23 Volts
Tolerable
Estep
2437.76 Volts
Attainable
Estep
1003.47 Volts
SAFE
0.3403 ohms
SAFE
Grid Resistance =
SAFE
1)
From the above results,it can be seen that the Attainable Emesh and Voltages are less
2)
3)
than the Tolerable Etouch.
The grid resistance is less than 1 ohms.
Hence the design value of conductor size and length of conductor are adiquate and safe.
Sheet 5 of 5