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# PROJECT

CLIENT

EPC CONTRACTOR

CONTRACTOR

DOCUMENT TITLE

EARTHING LAYOUT

## 33KV EARTHING CALCULATIONS

22/02/2013

EARTHING CALCULATIONS

AJAY

RRK

RRK

DATE

Rev : NO

DESCRIPTION

DESIGNED

CHECKED

APPROVED

DOCUMENT NO : PU-13-02-007
Sheet 1 of 1

BLOCK1

33KV Switchyard

Reference Documents
a) Electrical resistivity test report at plant site for 132kv Switch Yard, Vishnupuram
b) IEEE80-2000
c) CBIP Manual on substation publication number : 223

## 1.0 DESIGN BASIS

1) Resistivity data has been taken from the available report .

14 M

EQUIVALENT
AREA

10.6 M
(Fig-1)
Switch yard

14

10.6

148.4

## Therefore buried length in grid area Lc = (nl x length)+(ns x width)

Total buried length

LC =

133.6 M

Sheet 1 of 1

1)

IEEE 80-2000

2)

1.0)

## Earthing conductor sizing for main earth gridInput data :(i)

Conductor material

GI

(ii)

System Voltage

33

kV

(iii)

Fault Current, If

25

kA

(iv)

Fault Duration, tc

sec

(v)

## Max. Allowable Temperature, Tm

620

(vi)

Ambient Temperature, Ta

50

(vii)

20

(viii)

=

Temperature, r

(ix)

o
0.0032 1/ C

Temperature, r

20.1

/cm3

(x)

## Thermal Capacity Factor, TCAP

3.93

J/cm3/oC

(xi)

K0 = (1/r) -Tr

292.5

Conductor Size :As per Eq.37 of IEEE Std 80-2000, conductor size is given by
tc r r x 104

TCAP
A

If

Ko + Tm
ln
Ko + Ta

## Substituting the input data, we get

Conductor size, A
By considering 30% allowance A
A
A
Hence the CONDUCTOR size selected,

323

=
=
=
=

sq.mm

420.015758 mm2
900
mm2
L*B

75

12

GI FLAT

Sheet 1 of 1

2
2.1)

CALCULATIONS FOR TOLERABLE TOUCH VOLTAGE (Etouch ) AND STEP VOLTAGE( Estep)
Input Data :

(i)

System Voltage, Vs

33

kV

(ii)

25

KA

(iii)

sec

(iv.1)

14

metre

(iv.2)

10.6

metre

(iv.3)

148.4

sq.metre

(v)

900

sq.mm

(vi)

0.6

metre

(vii.1)

14

metre

(vii.2)

10.6

metre

(vii.3)

## Additional length of conductor considered

(for interconnecting earthing system)
Grid conductor combined length, Lc

10

metre

144

metre

(vii.4)

## (viii.1) Total no. of ground electrodes

LA
Generator Transformers
Switchyard corners
Towers
(viii.2) length of each rod in m Lr
(viii.3) Total ground rod length, LR
Effective length of buried conductorLT = LR + Lc

2.75
3
2.75
0
2.75
2
2.75
0
=
2.75
meter
=
13.75
metre
=

157

metre

184.02

metre

119.39

metre

(ix)

## Soil Resistivityconsidered for design,

10

-metre

(x)

Surface Resistivity, s

3000

-metre

(xi)

(xii)

(xiii)

## Reference Depth of grid, h0

metre

(xvi)

Thickness of Concrete , hs

0.15

metre

(xvii)

0.7

metre

Sheet 1 of 5

2.2)
a)

## Calculation of Tolerable Etouch & Estep Voltage :

Tolerable Etouch50 :
From IEEE Std 80-2000
[(1000 + 1.5CS S) 0.116/ tS ]
Tolerable Etouch50=
( From eq.32of IEEE Std 80-2000 )
Where,
Cs = Reduction factor for derating the nominal value of surface layer
resistivity.
( From eq.27 of IEEE Std 80-2000 )

## Cs = 1 - 0.09 [(1-/s)/(2hs + 0.09)]

Cs

=
0.7700
tS = Duration of shock current in seconds =
0.5
( from clause 16.2.2 of IEEE Std 80-2000 )
Substituting the above values,
Tolerable Etouch50
=
732.48 Volts

b)

Tolerable Estep50

## Substituting the values,

Tolerable Estep50

2437.76 Volts

## 2.3) Calculation of Grid Resistance, Rg :

As per Eq.53 of IEEE Std 80-2000,
R1 R2 - Rm2
The total system resistance, Rg

=
R1 + R2 - 2Rm

Where,
R1

R2

Rm

## Mutual ground resistance between the group of grid conductors, R1 and

group of ground rods, R2 in

k1 Lc

2 Lc

ln
Lc

- k2

+
a

'

## From eq.54 of IEEE Std 80-2000

Where,

Lc

=
=

Soil Resistivity in -m
Total length of all connected grid conductors in m

a'
2a

=
=

A
k1

=
=

a.2h
for conductors buried at depth h in m
Diameter of conductor in m
Area covered by conductors in m2
Coefficient from fig 25(a) of IEEE Std 80-2000

k2

10
144

ohm-m
m

0.3000 m
0.08 m
2
148.4 m
1.06

4.33

R1

0.3341

Sheet 2 of 5

## Ground resistance of the rod bed, R2

From eq.55 of IEEE Std 80-2000

R2

4 LR

ln

2 k1 . Lr
( nR - 1 )2

-1 +
b

2 nRLR

Where,
Lr
2b
nR

=
=
=

## length of each rod in m

diameter of rod in m
number of rods placed in area A

2.75
0.08
5

LR

13.75

k1

## Coefficient from fig 25(a) of IEEE Std 80-2000

R2

m
m

1.06

0.163

Mutual ground resistance between the grid and the rod bed, Rm
From eq.56 of IEEE Std 80-2000

Rm

k1 Lc

2 Lc

ln

- k2 + 1

Lc

Lr

Rm
=
0.3071
Subtituting the above values,
Rg
=
0.3403
2.4)

## Calculation of Maximum Ground Potential Rise :

Max. Ground potential above remote earth, GPR
Where,
IG = grid current
If x Sf
=

IG

IG x RG

Volts

17.5 KA

## Substituting the values,

Ground Potential Rise, GPR

5954.71 Volts

Since, GPR > Estep50 (as per Figure 33 of IEEE Std 80-2000),calculate Attainable Emesh and Attainable
Estep voltages
2.5)

## Calculation of Attainable Emesh Voltage :

From Eq.80 of IEEE Std 80-2000, for Grid rods in the periphery,
Emesh = [ Km Ki IG / LM ]

Lr
LM = Lc + 1.55+1.22

Lr

L2x + L2y
Where,
Lr
Lx
Ly

=
=

## Maximum length of grid conductor in x-direction =

Maximum length of grid conductor in y-direction =

20

14
10.6

m
m

Sheet 3 of 5

IG

grid current

17.5

Ki

corrective Factor,

1.51

13.75

LR
=
Total length of ground rods
Subtituting the above values,
LM

184.02

As per Eq.81 of IEEE Std 80-2000, the Spacing Factor for Mesh Voltage,
D2

1
Km =

(D + 2h)2

ln

+
16hd

8Dd

(2n-1)

Kh

0.0339 metre

Kh

Where,

8
ln

4d

## Equ. Diameter of Earth conductor, d

Kh = 1 + h / h0

Kii

h
-

1.26
na nb nc nd (From eq.84 of IEEE Std 80-2000)
Lp

na
(2 Lc)/Lp
=

nb

=
4 A

0.7 A
Lx Ly

Lx Ly
nc

Dm
nd

I
L2x + L2y

A
Where,
Lp

Dm

## Maximum distance between any two points

on the grid
Substituting the above values,
na

5.84

nb

1.005

nc

nd

1.00

5.87

## As per Eq.89 of IEEE 80-2000,

The corrective Factor, Ki

49.2

17.6

## Rounded of to nearest digit

0.644 + ( 0.148 x n )

1.51

0.4251

611.23 Volts

## Substituting the values,

Km
AttainableEmesh Voltage

Sheet 4 of 5

2.6)

## Calculation of Attainable Estep voltage :

From Eq.92 of IEEE Std 80-2000,
Attainable Estep = [ Ks Ki IG / LS ]

## From eq.92 of IEEE Std 80-2000

As per Eq.94 of IEEE Std 80-2000, the Spacing Factor for Step Voltage,
1

Ks =

1
+

1
(1 - 0.5n-2)

+
D+h

2h

## No. of Parallel paths, n

n
As per Eq.89 of IEEE 80-2000,
The corrective Factor, Ki

=
=
=

6
6
0.644 + ( 0.148 x n )

Ki

1.51

Ks

0.4527

## As per Eq.93 of IEEE Std 80-2000,

Ls

Lc

0.75 Lc + 0.85 LR

## From eq.93of IEEE Std 80-2000

Total length of all connected grid conductors in m

LR

Ls

119.3875 m

## Substituting the values,

Attainable Estep
3

1003.47 Volts

CONCLUSION :
Tolerable
Etouch

732.48 Volts

Attainable
Emesh

611.23 Volts

Tolerable
Estep

2437.76 Volts

Attainable
Estep

1003.47 Volts

SAFE

0.3403 ohms

SAFE

Grid Resistance =

SAFE

1)

From the above results,it can be seen that the Attainable Emesh and Voltages are less

2)
3)

## than the Tolerable Etouch.

The grid resistance is less than 1 ohms.
Hence the design value of conductor size and length of conductor are adiquate and safe.

Sheet 5 of 5