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Thematic Unit 1: Science and Technology

Describe the economic system, the system of government and

education system that prevails in UK, USA and Canada.
Economic system
UK: the British economy has rebounded strongly since 2013, with economic
growth of 3.1% in 2014, spurred by household consumption (60% of GDP) and the
resumption of lending. A consolidation of the growth is expected in 2015, around
2.8% of GDP.
The household debt has reached 125% of GDP. The public deficit, visibly lower, yet
rises to 5.4% of GDP. It should be lowered to 3% in 2016-2017, and again from
2018 to 2019 to be in balance. In this election year, the debate reflected short-term
considerations. Among the priority announced include reducing deficits, lower cost
of living, the level of infrastructure investment and training, the extension of
austerity measures to curb immigration.
The unemployment rate, which before was among the lowest in Europe, has
increased since the crisis. Currently it estimated at around 6%. One in five young
people under 24 are unemployed.
Breakdown of Economic
Activity By Sector
Employment by sector (in% of
total employment)
Value added (% of GDP)
Value added (annual%)










USA: United States is one of the richest nations in the world. It is also the largest
industrial producer in the world, and the world's largest trading country, with the
main trading partners China, Canada and Mexico.
The economy of the United States is a capitalist economy of mixed type that has
managed to maintain a growth rate of global GDP stable, moderate unemployment
and high levels in research and capital investment. Has been, without the colonial
empires, the world's largest since the early national economy 1890.12 currently,
most of the economy is based on service sector
It has the largest financial market and is a country noted for its influence on any
decision of economic and political kind internationally .The United States is the 5th
country in the world in individual income.

The American economic system is mixed and capitalist nature, characterized by

abundant natural resources and high productivity due to the development of their
Also, the US is the biggest importer of goods internationally and the third largest
exporter. Regarding production, the US is the third largest oil producer, producer of
electrical and nuclear energy, liquefied natural gas, sulfur, phosphates, and salt.

Canada: After contracting as a result of the global recession, Canada's GDP

growth reached 1.6% in 2013 and 2.3% in 2014. However, the economy is
benefiting by a resolver banking system and public debt It is in the process of being
Canada is a rich country with a good quality of life. The unemployment rate, which
increased with the recession, has stabilized since 2013 (around 7%). However, the
country faces increasing wage inequality, and increasing labor disputes. Finally, the
exploitation of oil sands has a disastrous environmental impact, which runs counter
the risk reduction objectives of greenhouse gas.
The services sector dominates the Canadian economy, accounting for two thirds of
GDP and employs over 75% of the workforce. The most dynamic sectors are
telecommunications, tourism, Internet (in most households used the Internet
regularly) and aeronautics
The agricultural sector accounts for 1.5% of Canada's GDP and employs 2.4% of
the population. But the agriculture and agri-food system employs about two million
people and contributes to 8% of the national wealth. Canada is a major exporter of
agricultural products in the world, particularly wheat. It produces 10% of GM crops
worldwide. Fishing is an important sector. Canada is a major producer of minerals,
particularly nickel, zinc and uranium. The country also has large reserves of oil
(third world reserves) and natural gas.
Canada has 6 major sectors of primary industry (mainly wind), forestry, hydrogen,
mining, metals and minerals, fishing (in English), gas oil and renewable energies.
The manufacturing sector accounts for about one third of GDP.

Government system
United Kingdom: The UK is a parliamentary monarchy, unlike other regimes
no written constitution, that is, of a single political code and requires special design
and reform process to determine the basic institutions of the State, its system and
territorial rights and public freedoms

United States: The United States is a democratic federal republic. The powers
are divided into Executive, Legislative and Judicial.
The executive branch is headed by the president or head of state and government,
and the vice president. The cabinet is appointed by the president with Senate
Elections are decided in the shape of the Electoral College, composed of
representatives elected by each state. The president and vice president met
periods of four years, with an option for re-election

Canada: Canada is a constitutional monarchy with a sovereign, Queen Elizabeth

II as head of state. In addition, Canada is a federal state with a parliamentary
As a constitutional monarchy, Canada's Head of State, the Queen of England,
rules in accordance with the Constitution, the highest law of the nation. It is
represented in Canada by the Governor General, who is appointed every five years
by the Queen, on the advice of the Prime Minister, head of the Canadian
The Queen is part of Parliament, playing an important non-partisan role as a
symbol of Canada, its values and principles, and as a guarantor of constitutional
The government has three branches, Executive, Legislative and Judicial, which
work interdependently to ensure the rights and freedoms of Canadians.
Each provincial and territorial government has an elected legislature to enact the
legislation. By province or territory, members of the legislature are called members
of the National Assembly, Member of Provincial Parliament or Member of the

House of Assembly. In each province, the Prime Minister plays a similar role of the
federal Prime Minister, and each fulfills a similar Lt. Governor General of Canada
role. In addition, the Commissioner represents the federal government and has a
ceremonial role

Education system
UK: In the UK, children and youth fewer than 16 must receive
education in their homes or attend college.
Public schools

All children and young people from 5-16 years of age

are entitled to a place in a public school. Most British
children attend a school of this type. Public schools
are maintained and financed by the government or by a
local education authority.

schools (also
known as
private schools
or public

There are 2,600 private schools in the UK, which educates

approximately 625,000 children and youth (6.5% of all
students in the UK). Most private schools are privately
funded through fees paid by parents of students. Many
offer scholarships and grants. Many private schools are
charities; all revenues from the fees are reinvested in
improvements to school.


A small number of students from 4-16 years receive

education in their homes, through their parents or
guardians. You can get more information about
homeschooling on the respective websites of the
governments of England, Northern Ireland, Scotland gales.
Another very useful website is Education Otherwise, a
charity in the UK that provides support to parents
concerned that their children are educated at home.

USA: is mainly public, with control and funding of the three levels of
government: federal, state and local. Early childhood education is

Before higher education, US students attending primary and secondary

school for a combined total of 12 years. These years are known as the period of
first grade to twelfth grade. The approximate age of six years, American children

start elementary school, which is commonly called "elementary school"

(elementary school). Attend this school for five or six years and then go on to
secondary school.
High schools are comprised of two programs: the first is called "middle school" or
"junior high school" (middle school) and the second program is the "high school"
(high school). In high school graduation diploma or certificate is awarded. Once
graduates (twelfth grade) high school, American students can go to "college" or
university. Studies at a college or university are known as "higher education".
Canada: The Canadian public education system level encompasses schools
kindergarten through grade 12 will. All public schools in Canada are accredited by
the provinces follow a standard curriculum, employ only certified teachers by her
government and are publicly funded.
Canada spends more on education (per capita) than any other G8 country.
Students of Canadian public high rub the World Summit on standardized tests.
Shares of Canadian high school graduation school are recognized worldwide.
Canadian public schools have accepted international students since the 1980s
have a well-developed infrastructure and support including teaching ESL (English
as a Second Language) and hosting programs carefully monitored


Nidia Lizeth Ramos Marrero