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(CHANNEL)

AIM:

Shear center of an open section determination.

THEORY:

For any unsymmetrical section there exists a point at which any vertical

force does not produce a twist of that section. This point is known as shear

center.

The location of this shear center is important in the design of beams of

open sections when they should bend without twisting, as they are weak in

resisting torsion. A thin walled channel section with its web vertical has a

horizontal axis of symmetry and the shear center lies on it. The aim of the

experiment is to determine its location on this axis if the applied shear to the tip

section is vertical (i.e. along the direction of one of the principal axes of the

section) and passes through the shear center tip, all other sections of the beam

do not twist.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

A thin uniform cantilever beam of channel section as shown in the figure.

At the free end extension pieces are attached on either side of the web to

facilitate vertical loading.

Two dial gauges are mounted firmly on this section, a known distance

apart, over the top flange. This enables the determination of the twist, if

any, experienced by the section.

A steel support structure to mount the channel section as cantilever.

Two loading hooks each weighing about 0.1Kg.

1

. A-side dial gauge rotate in anticlockwise direction. Dial gauge to be mounted as near to the web as possible. Set the dial gauge readings to zero. This determines the shear center. This procedure ensures that while the magnitude of the resultant vertical force remains the same its line of action shifts by a known amount along AB every time a load piece is shifted. 2 .4 kilogram. the twist of the section is zero for this location of the resultant vertical load).2 kilograms load at A (loading hook and six load pieces will make up this value).PROCEDURE: 1. Record the dial gauge readings. Mount two dial gauges on the flange at a known distance apart at the free end of the beam (see fig). Now remove one load piece from the hook at A and place in hook at B. 3. Noting each time the dial gauge readings. This means that the total vertical load on this section remains 1. 4. B-side dial gauge rotate in clockwise direction. 2. For every load case calculate the algebraic difference between the dial gauge is (u-v) readings as the measure of the angle of twist suffered by the section.e. 6. Transfer carefully all the load pieces to B one by one. Calculate the distance ‘e’ (see fig) of the line of action from the web thus: AB (Wa-Wb) e= 2Wv 5. Place a total of say 1. Note the dial gauge readings (Hooks also weigh a 100 grams each). Note down the dial gauge reading. Plot against e and obtain the meeting point of the curve (a straight line in this case) with the e-axis (i. 7.

2 kilograms for the total load is suggested it can be less.Though a nominal value of 1. Wa Wb d1 d2 d1-d2 e 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Plot e versus (d1-d2) curve and determine where this meets the e axis and locate the shear center. 3 . In that event the number of readings taken will reduce proportionately. No.6mm Distance between the two hook stations (AB) : 30cm Theoretical location of the shear center (e): = 3b / [6+ (h/b)] Vertical load Wv = (Wa+Wb) S. READINGS AND CALCULATIONS TABLE Dimensions of the beam and the section: Length of the beam (L) : 50cm Height of the web (h) : 10cm Width of the flange (b) : 5cm Thickness of the sheet (t) : 1.

The dial gauges must be mounted firmly.PRECAUTIONS 1. This shift happens due to both backlash and slippages at the points of contact between the dial gauges and the sheet surfaces and can induce errors if not taken care of. Weights given 200 gm . Repeat the experiments with identical settings several times to ensure consistency in the readings.6 4 . Every time before taking the readings tap the set up (not the gauges) gently several times until the reading pointers on the gauges settle down and do not shift any further. For the section supplied there are limits on the maximum value of loads to obtain acceptable experimental results. 2. Beyond these the section could undergo excessive permanent deformation and damage the beam forever. Do not therefore exceed the suggested values for the loads.

3 1.57 1 1. From centre to centre of load = 30 (1.4 1.3-0.714 29 42.3 528 66 462 1.5 0.4 5 0.N o Wa in Kg Wb in Kg 1 1.857 14 0 42.1) --------------21.9 0.4 7 0.714 3 128.86 cm.3 167 431 -264 1. Draw the graph 5 .7 0.4 2 1.1 1.1 452 140 312 1.5 0.1 102 501 -399 1.857 1 85.875cm Where AB = length of the centre to centre hook distance.4 ethe eexp d1 in mm = 3b --------.4 3 4 0.TABLE OF READINGS e = AB (Wa-Wb)/ (2×Wv) Wv=Wa+Wb AB =300 mm READINGS AND CALCULATIONS FOR JAIN(CHANNEL) Sl.4 6 0.4 = 12.9 378 212 166 1.= 6+ (h/b) = AB (Wa-Wb) ---------------2Wv d2 in mm 35 ----------6+ (10/5) (d1-d2) mm = in Wv in Kg e in mm 128.57 14 85.7 237 311 356 282 -119 29 1.3 0.1 0.

Read point e distance from 0 positions in the graph.875 GRAPH (ONLY FOR GUIDANCE) Conclusion: eth>eexp and nearer to the value. The difference due to error may be noting down the readings. 6 . eexp = (from graph) eth is 1. This shift happens due to both backlash and slippages at the points of contact between the dial gauges and the sheet surfaces and can induce errors if not taken care of. Repeat the experiments with identical settings several times to ensure consistency in the readings.

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