You are on page 1of 14

Written Work Instruction: Sheet Piles Installation

WRITTEN WORK INSTRUCTION


SHEET PILES INSTALLATION
1.

Purpose

This procedure is to introduce the method of installation of sheet piles. This manual aims
to show the importance of predicting the drivability of piling sections following a
complete evaluation of all ground conditions (Geo technical engineering). The aim of this
document is to briefly describe the practical information that should always be considered
in order to ensure proper installation of sheet piles.
2.

Standards

To be able to install the sheet piles. The interactions between the pile and soil shall
establish the modes of failure and estimate the settlements from soil deformation under
dead load, service load etc.; the design should comply with the following requirements:
EN 12063/ 1999- Execution of Special Geo Technical Work.
Building Operations and Works of Engineering Construction (Safety)
Regulations, 1986.
According to EN 12063/ 1999 Execution of Special Geo Technical Work, it should
ensure adequate safety against failure: The factor of safety used depends on the
importance of the structure and on the reliability of the soil parameters and the loading
systems used in the design.
3. Scope

b. Site conditions
Before the installation of sheet pile, there should be assessment to be done. Topography
describes the particular environment of the site and it details working restrictions such as
noise and vibration.
Geological conditions refer to the vertical characteristics of the soil layer. In order to
achieve the required penetration of the sheet pilings, a site investigation of the soils,
coupled with various field and laboratory tests.

Page12

a. Type of piles
A sheet pile in the form of a plank driven in close contact or interlocking with others to
provide a tight wall to resist the lateral pressure of water, adjacent earth or other
materials. A sheet pile may be tongued and grooved if made of timber or concrete. The
installation will use the Steel sheet pile (Hat type sheet pile).

Written Work Instruction: Sheet Piles Installation

The type of soils is maybe Cohesive soil. Cohesive soils are hard to break up when dry
and exhibits significant cohesion when submerged. Cohesive soils found on our site is
typical Clay for the sheet piles installation.
c. Driving pile
The pile will be driven using Hydraulic machines. This type of hammer consists of a
segmental drive guided by two external supports. The drive is lifted by hydraulic pressure
to a pre-set height and allowed to free fall onto the anvil or driving cap. The weight and
the height of the drop of the drive can be varied to suit the piling section and the site
conditions.
4. Roles and Responsibilities
i.

Geotechnical Engineer
Performs geotechnical investigations plan to explore the subsurface. Walking around
to observe the physical conditions at the site. Determine necessary soil parameters
through fields and lab testing. Design the foundation in the safest and most
economical manner. Estimate the magnitude and location of the loads to be supported.

ii.

Surveyor
Making a record of the distances, directions and angles between two points on the
ground using agreed- upon reference points, called benchmarks, as a starting point.

iii.

Operator
Moves control of machine to expand corrugating plates and position spacers between
pile. Operator also will place tube in opening plate. Besides that, operator will pull
levers to close cradle remove spacers and pump water into tube forcing tube walls to
conform to shape of corrugated plates.

iv.

Supervisor

Page12

Supervise and coordinates activities of workers engaged in driving pilings into ground
to provide foundations for structures, such as buildings and bridges. Direct workers
engaged in setting charges of explosives to remove defective piling. Supervise
contractors at the site and enforce compliance and administering disciplinary actions
as required.

Written Work Instruction: Sheet Piles Installation

v.

Banksman

Charge of the crane movement from the point of loading and unloading process in
piling site. Banksman also control the movements of excavator and carefully
monitoring the bucket from any obstructions or underground services. Banksman also
will use the system of hand signals or radio link to communicate with operator when
the sheet pile driving.

vi.

Safety Officer
Safety officer will have the responsibility and authority for checking the hazardous
points (JHA) and instructing the site supervisor for safe working condition and
supervise during the installation of sheet piles.

vii.

Rigger
Rigger will clear land to prepare it for construction load and position the hydraulic
machines over piling. Rigger also will prepare which piling to be driven.

5. General control measures, safety:


a. Piling should be handled by trained personnel only.
b. All personnel assessing the site required to wear Personal Protective Equipment
(PPE).
c. Any injury is to be reported to the supervisor immediately.
d. If any, especially electric cables should be avoided to prevent undue accident
during site clearing work.
e. In view of the prevailing need to conserve the environment and protection of piling
machinery that generate excessive vibration, noise, smoke or other pollutants
should not use in build-up areas.
The stability of structures adjoining areas to be piled such sheet pile should be
supported by bracing or pitch and alignment to make sure it maintains vertically to
prevent collapse structure.

g. All pile driving equipment shall be daily inspected by an operator before the start
of work and every defect shall be immediately reported.

Page12

f.

Written Work Instruction: Sheet Piles Installation

h. Reasonably practicable measures shall be taken to warn persons not to approach


within 50 metres of a pile under test.
i.
j.

All machines must be placed under a strong event surfaces.


All hydraulic machines and piling equipment plant should be well maintained
throughout the piling work.

k. Felling trees should be done by trained personnel to safeguard public safety and to
prevent damage to public property. Where the site is located is the immediate
vicinity of a build-up area, hoarding should be erected with proper and adequate
signs to prevent unauthorized entry.

Note: If any situations deviate from procedure/ JHA, re-assess the procedure / Stop
work policy.
6. Work Procedure
Toolbox talks must be carried out prior to commencement of activities. All the piling
work, e.g. pitch and alignment must be inspecting before proceed to installation process.
All personnel must have proper Personal Protective Equipment and completed the safety
induction before carry out the piling work.
Pre Job meeting (Toolbox talks)
Pre job meeting shall be conducted prior to the actual work commencing. Attendees at
the meeting shall include the following:
-

Geo technical engineer


Surveyor
Site supervisor
Operator
Rigger
Banksman
Safety officer

Page12

Pre job meeting shall discussions but not limited to the following:
- Safety requirements i.e. work permits, safety equipment and JHAs.
- Clarify responsibilities of all the members of the work team.
- Discuss pile tests sequence and procedure.
- Emergency Response Team

Written Work Instruction: Sheet Piles Installation

7. Piles Definition
A sheet piles in close contact or interlocking with others to provide a tight wall to resist
the lateral pressure of water, adjacent earth or other materials. A sheet pile may be
tongued and grooved if made of timber or concrete or interlocking if made of metal.
Before the installation begins:
Before the installation of sheet piles begin, there are so many considerations that has to
be follow. Such as:
Hydraulic machines to be used in sheet piling driving section. Sheet pile to be driven in
the soft soils suited to vibratory driving. The sheet piles estimations and dimension need
to follow drawing classifications. Below here are sectional properties of sheet piles
design that suitable with hydraulic hammer:

Figure 7.1: NS-SP-10H


Dimension
Type

Per pile

Effective
width W
mm

Effective
height h
mm

Thickness
tm

Sectional
area cm

900

230

10.8

110.0

Moment
of
inertia
cm4
9,430

Section
modulus
cm

Unit
mass
Kg/m

812

86.4

NS-SP-10H

Type

Per 1m of pile wall width


Sectional
area
cm/m
122.2

Moment
of inertia
cm4/m
902

Section
modulus
cm/m
902

Unit
mass
kg/m
96.0

Page12

NS-SP-10H

Written Work Instruction: Sheet Piles Installation

a. Sheet piles height

Page12

Figure A: The height of sheet piles

Written Work Instruction: Sheet Piles Installation

8. Site Conditions
For the successful driving of sheet pilings, it is essential that a good knowledge of the site
conditions be acquired in order to enable an accurate assessment of the topographical and
geological conditions.
Topography describes the particular environment of the site and it details working
restrictions such as noise and vibration. Geological conditions refer to the vertical
characteristics of the soil strata (layer).
The site conditions for the installations of sheet pile is covered by cohesive soil. Cohesive
soil is hard to break up when dry and exhibits significant cohesion when submerged. The
investigation found that the area is cover by clay which is cohesive soil. The result of
cohesive soil based on pressure meter test is 7-12 pl, 110-175 Em. The consistency of the
soil is soft to firm which the undrained shear strength is between 840-1050.
The consistency of cohesive soil found in the investigation is in relation to SPT, CPT and
pressuremeter test result is as follows:
SPT
n30
<2
2-4

CPT
qs
Kips / ft
5
5-10

Pressuremeter
test

Consistency

pl
Em
Kips / ft
<3
30
3-7
30-100

Em

4-8

10-20

7-12

110175

8-15

20-40

15-30

40-85

>30

>85

1220
2040
>40

175420
420840
>840

Very soft
Soft

Undrained
shear
strength
Lbs / ft
320
320-840

Soft to firm

840-1050

Firm

1050-1570

Firm to stif
Stif

1570-2090
2090-3150

Very stif

3150-4175

Hard

>4175

Soil Drilling Process


In order to install the sheet pile, drilling is the process to made a holes in the soils to
make easy installation of sheet piles. Holes of about 12in./30cm diameter are drilled at

Page12

*SPT - Standard penetration test (in-situ penetration test designed to provide information
on the geotechnical engineering properties of soils.
*CPT Cone penetrometer test to determine the geotechnical engineering process
properties of soils and delineating soil stratigraphy.

Written Work Instruction: Sheet Piles Installation

centres of the system width of a pair of pilings. This spacing is to reduce the difficult
driving conditions.
9. Ancillary Equipment
To better facilitate the handling, setting and driving of the piling process. The following
aids should be considered. Sheet pile must put in safe handle in order to ensure the
position vertically and straight to prevent trapping and sagging.

Figure 9, Shackle use to lock sheet piles in open position


Here is some step to pull up the sheet piles using shackles:

Page12

a. Retract main pin on shackles until locked in open position. Slide shackle over pile
head. Pull looped wire to release pin, ensuring it is fully located through hole in
pile and into shackle body. Attach a length of soft rope to pin-release wire.
b. Hoist pile into position and attach pile threader.
c. Locate pile threader and tie pin- release rope on shackle to threader (to prevent
trapping and sagging). The sheet pile is then pulled up into threading position.
d. After threading has been completed, release shackle by pulling pin release rope.

Written Work Instruction: Sheet Piles Installation

Figure 9.1 Step to pull up the sheet pile vertically before put the pitch and
alignment.
10. Sheet Piling Drive and Presses.
The sheet piling presses operated with hydraulic machines in the cohesive soils.
Hydraulic machines are device using a hydraulic cylinder to generate a compressive
force. This presses will take most of reaction force from the friction of the other driven
pilings.
In sheet piling, the engine consists of a hydraulic drives and the hydraulic power. Sheet
pilings are installed in a panel and the hydraulic machines press the pile until the layer of
the soil, so that the sheet pile height and wall must be tough while the hammer produce
vibration to operate it.
Every precaution must be taken to maintain the necessary standards of safety while at the
same time, setting required alignment and verticality of the installed pilings. The first
sheet pile should be installed according to the procedures to ensure that it is vertical in
both planes of the wall.

Page12

Before being released and having hydraulic applied. It is essential that subsequent piling
be interlocked sufficiently with the preceding pile. This can be achieved by a preliminary
dug-out trench in the wall line, which automatically reduces the driving length.

Written Work Instruction: Sheet Piles Installation

10.1 Set and Drive


This method, where each sheet pile is driven to full depth before setting the next one is
the simplest way of driving, but it can be utilized only in loose soils and with short piling.
The free leading interlock is constantly in danger of deviation. For cohesive soils- or in
possible case of obstructions. Panel driving is recommended.

Page12

Figure 9.1 pitch and drive

Written Work Instruction: Sheet Piles Installation

10.2 Panel Driving

Page12

First, sheet piling installed with panel driving technique in order both to ensure verticality
and alignment is achieved and to minimize the risk of installation difficulties or driving
out of interlock. Positioning put in vertically. The hydraulic machines will press the sheet
to the ground and finish it. First thing to do is panel the piles vertically. Refer to figure
10.2.

Written Work Instruction: Sheet Piles Installation

Figure 11: hydraulic machines use to install sheet piles

Page12

11. Hydraulic machines presses:

Written Work Instruction: Sheet Piles Installation

12. Sheet Pile Installation Process:

Page12

The sheet piles are press by hydraulic machines and ready to install. Refer to figure 12 to
view.

Written Work Instruction: Sheet Piles Installation

13. Driving Corrections


In order to avoid the tendency of sheet piling to lean, the hydraulic should be positioned
over the center of gravity of the pilings being driven and should be held vertically and
firmly on the pilings by means of efficient grips.
Transverse leaning of sheet pilings is eliminated by use of efficient guide wailings. If the
pilings develop of transverse lean which needs to be corrected, the piling should be
extracted and re-driven again.

Page12

Longitudinal leaning in the direction of driving which can either be caused by friction
between the last previously driven pile and the pile being driven or by incorrect use of
machines should be counteracted as soon as it becomes apparent, otherwise the
conditions could become uncontrollable.