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) Definition of Law

The principles and regulations established in a community by someauthority and applicable to its p
eople, whether in the form of legislationor of custom and policies recognized and enforced by judici
al decision.
Written or positive rule or collection of rules prescribed under theauthority of the state or nation, as
by the people in its constitution.
Compare bylaw, statute law.
a binding custom or practice of a community : a rule of conduct or action prescribed or formally
recognized as binding or enforced by a controlling authority the whole body of such customs,
practices, or rules.
Rule of conduct established by authority or custom.

2.) Origin and sources of the laws

The constitution is the most important part in organizing a state. It contains not only the national
territory, but more importantly, it states the set of rules and principles which serve as the fundamental
law of the land.
Among the guidelines which are set by the constitution are the matters of: form and duties of the
government; the distribution of powers of the branches of the government; and the basic rights of the
citizens of the state.
The Philippine Constitution has been rewritten seven times starting from the Biak-na-Bato Constitution
to the 1987 Constitution. The political evolution and every significant event in the Philippine history
resulted a change in the constitution.
The first Philippine constitution is the Biyak-na-Bato Constitution that was enacted in
1897. It outlined the revolutionary objectives of independence from Spain.
Two years later, the president decreed the creation of the Malolos Constitution. A new central
government was set up with executive, legislative and judiciary branches. It governed the First
Philippine Republic proclaimed in the Barasoain Church in the same year.
Due to the turbulent times of the early governments, the first two constitution were not fully enforced.
What is considered the first Philippine Constitution to be fully enforced was drafted by the virtue of the
Tydings-McDuffie Law in 1934 during the Commonwealth Period. It was enforced from 1935 - 1943.
During World War II, a short lived constitution (The 1943 Constitution) was sponsored by the Japanese
invaders within their own program of Japanization.
When the political independence was granted by the United States in 1946, the constitution was
revised and was enforced from 1946 to 1973.

Eventually considered inadequate against the changing needs of Filipinos, the 1935 Constitution was
replaced with a new one ratified in 1973. The 1973 Constitution was approved for ratification two
months after the imposition of the martial law on November 29, 1972.
When Ferdinand E. Marcos was ousted in 1986, the new government led by Corazon C. Aquino
promulgated what is now known as the Freedom Constitution. This 1987 Constitution restored the
presidential form of government.
To date, the 1987 Constitution still stands, although some sectors have started to lobby for change in
certain provisions as well as the change of the whole constitution.

3.) CE Laws in the Philippines

Republic Act (RA) 544 - An act to regulate the practice of Civil Engineering in the Philippines
Presidential Decree (PD) 1594 Prescribes policies, guidelines, rules and regulations for government
infrastructure contracts.

Article 1: Section 2 of R.A 544

Scope of the practice of civil engineering encompasses the provision of professional services in
connection with services of civil engineering structures and facilities and may include, but are not
limited to:
(1) Technical, economic and financial feasibility studies, project promotional services, planning and
(2) Pre-design services such as, but not limited to, consultation, consultancy, giving written advice and
directions, evaluations, surveys, investigations, quantity surveys, appraisals and adjustments,
environmental impact assessment and studies, schematic design, and design development;
(3) Preparation, signing, sealing of plans, specifications, calculations, bill of materials, cost estimates,
tender documents, invitation for bids/proposals, instructions to bidders/offerors, general conditions,
special conditions, and contract documents;
(4) Construction and proj ect management, giving geueral management, administration, supervision,
coordination and responsible direction of the planning, designing, construction, reconstruction, erection,

alteration, conversion, enlargement or demolition, renovation of civil engineering structures and

facilities, including all their components, sites and environs, intended for private or public use;
(5) Plam1ing, lay-outing and utilization of spaces within and surrounding such civil engineering
structures and facilities including their sites, interiors, spaces, utilities systems, equipment, and fixtures;
(6) Programming, administration, construction arbitration, conservation and restoration;
(7) All works which relate to the scientific and orderly coordination of all works and branches of the
work, systems and processes necessary for the production of complete civil engineering structures and
facilities, whether for public or private use, in order to enhance and safeguard life, health and property
and the promotion and enrichment of the quality life;
(8) All other works, projects and activities which require the professional competence of a civil engineer,
including teaching of professional civil engineering subjects and civil engineering computer-aided
design and computer-aided mapping.

4.) Other laws governing the practice of Civil Engineering in the Philippines

5.) Differentiate Justice and Equity

- the maintenance or administration of what is just especially by the impartial adjustment of conflicting
claims or the assignment of merited rewards or punishments.
-the administration of law; especially: the establishment or determination of rights according to the rules of
law or equity.
-the principle or ideal of just dealing or right action; conformity to truth, fact, or reason

-justice according to natural law or right; specifically: freedom from bias or favoritism

-a system of law originating in the English chancery and comprising a settled and formal body of legal and
procedural rules and doctrines that supplement, aid, or override common and statute law and are designed
to protect rights and enforce duties fixed by substantive law
-trial or remedial justice under or by the rules and doctrines of equity
-a body of legal doctrines and rules developed to enlarge, supplement, or override a narrow rigid system of

6.) Law agencies in the Construction Industry

Construction Industry Authority of the Philippines (CIAP)

It was created to promote, accelerate, and regulate the growth and development of the construction
industry. It exercises jurisdiction and supervision over the following implementing boards; the Philippine
Contractors Accreditation Board (PCAB),which issues, suspends, and revokes licenses of contractors; the
Philippine Domestic Construction Board (PDCB), assigned to formulate , recommend, and implement
policies, guidelines, plans, and programs for the efficient implementation of public and private construction
in the country; the Philippine Overseas Construction Board (POCB) which assigned to formulate strategies
and programs for developing the country's overseas construction industry; and the last one was the
Construction Industry Arbitration Commission (CIAC) which takes charge odf disputes arising from, or
connected with government and private contracts.