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Learning is the discovery of personal meaning and relevance of ideas

Learning is something that can only happen when the student is open to ideas; they
have to be interested, engaged and driven to learn. Teachers can facilitate learning by
meeting their students needs, finding out what motivates them and teaching them in a way
they can understand. Mrs. Melegrito did a great job on applying this principle because
before the start of the lesson, she asked the students what they want to learn for today.
She let her students discover the answer to the activities that she gave instead of spoon
feeding them with the answers. The first day I observed, her lesson was about the story
written by Alberto Tolentino, The World is an Apple. She let the students read the story
and made them share their ideas about it. The teacher also asked them to relate some
parts of the story to their experiences. She reiterated the good points on the story that
should be followed, and she pointed out the things that the students must not do.

3. Learning is a consequence of experience.

This one is also similar to this idea, Learning is an experience which occurs inside
the learner and is activated by the learner. In this case, Mrs. Melegrito conducted different
activities that were related to the lesson so that the students will achieve mastery. One of
it was the role playing activity that they did. Selected students acted as the characters.
Another one is an essay type, wherein she let the students incorporate their experiences
with the story. Lastly, she also let them interpret the purpose and ideas of the author
through art, and it was a group activity. So technically, the class is more experiential.

4. Learning is a cooperative and collaborative process.

Two heads is better than one. Definitely, Mrs. Melegrito applied this principle
through the activities that she provided the students like the role playing activity and group
art activity (mentioned on answer #3). As I observed, the learners understood the lesson
and the concept of the story much better because they were given a chance to work
together and share ideas. They were also very cooperative and enthusiastic about the
activity because they can work with people that they prefer to work with. That made their
learning more interesting.

5. Learning is an evolutionary process.

Mrs. Melegrito understood that the some of the students may not be able to
understand the lesson right away so she let them have homework. That homework is like
sort of a review, because she tasked them to re-read the story and answer the
corresponding questions included there so that the next day, they can answer and discuss
again for more understanding. Learners behavioral change may not happen in a blink of an
eye. It requires effort, patience, and diligence.

6. Learning is sometimes a painful process.

Learning requires sacrifices, hard work, and patience. Without mistakes, you will not
learn, because you will never have a chance to correct it. For example, one team from the
class encountered a major problem because one of their members accidentally spilt some
paint on their artwork. But then, the art genius of the team was able to find ways to mend
the artwork and it turned out to be much better that the first output that they have. The
process is painful, because they throw hurtful words to each other and everyone panicked
but later on they survived it, realizing that it is much better not to blame anyone and just
help each other to change it. Leadership, cooperation, and forgiveness were developed
among the group members.

7. One of the richest resources of learning is the learner himself.

Learning might not take place unless the learners let themselves involve with the
learning. Yes, the teacher, Mrs. Melegrito, was able to take out learning from her students
because she let them perform different activities that only show how vast their thinking
was. Each student shared their ideas and experiences. They learned from each other. That

proves that the learner can definitely be a source of leaning based on his prior knowledge
and life experiences.

8. The Process of Learning is emotional as well as intellectual.

People can feel, and people can think, thats why when their feelings and thoughts
are in harmony, learning is maximized. On their said lesson about the story The World is
an Apple, the students were able to appreciate the message because some of them can
relate their own experiences with it. They already felt the feelings that the characters have,
and it makes them think that they should have done something right to avoid it from
happening. On the other hand, the teacher also praise or give prizes to those students who
performed and answered well, thats why the students were motivated to participate.

9. The Process of Problem Solving and learning are highly unique and individual.
Each student has their own way of solving the problems they encounter. As they
become more aware of how they learn and how they solve problems they feel satisfied.
And it shows on their performances, especially on their group activities. Each member
shared their own idea to improve the work. Every learner has their own talent of problem
solving and learning and the teacher guided the class to unleash the best in them. And it
all happened because the teacher used different strategies that catered the students
different learning styles.

My Analysis
1. What is the impact of the Resource Teachers observance of these principles on the
teaching-learning process and on the learners?
Observing the principles of teaching in my Resource teachers class created a great
impact on the teaching-learning process because it ensured mastery and
understating of the lesson. Though not all of the principles were frequently used in
the process, at least she used it once or twice.

2. Which Principle was applied most?

Based on what I have observed, the learning principles that were being applied most
were, Learning is cooperative and collaborative process. And The Process of
learning is emotional as well as intellectual.
Mrs. Melegrito always makes sure that she has group activities to give so that every
student can participate and can share their own ideas. On the other hand, as the
students work together on groups, it challenges them to defeat other groups, so all
of them participates and gives everything they know in the activity. Furthermore, she
always applies the principle, Learning is emotional as well as intellectual because
on every lesson being discussed, she incorporates emotions.
3. Which Learning Principle was applied least or not at all applied.
The principles applied least were the following, Learning is an evolutionary
process. It only happens during their review of lessons and answering the students
assignment. And The Process of Problem Solving and the learning are highly unique
and individual. She can apply this depending on the activity and topic that they
4. Do you agree with these principles of learning? Or have you discovered that they are
not always correct?
Yes, I truly agree with these principles of learning because as a student myself, and a
student-observer, these principles can be clearly seen and observed in a teachinglearning process. I even experienced all of them as a student. Though there are
times that these principles may not be applied altogether at one time because it
really depends on the teacher, on how she tackles her class, and it can be definitely
depends on the learners too since they are the main reason why we have these
principles. A principle may be incorrect depending on the learning styles of your

Learning is Innate.
Learning is being able to discover what you need and what you need to learn.
Learning is a result of experiences, good or bad.
Learning is more enjoyable with cooperation and collaboration.
Learning is continuous even outside the classroom.
There are times that you need to undergo painful experiences to learn.
The learners themselves could be a source of learning based on their schema.

8. Cognitive and affective domain should go together for a better learning.

9. Each learner has different learning styles which is only unique to them.

Episode 2- Table


Share lesson objectives with the students

Before Mrs. Melegrito starts her class, she shares the objective with her students
so that it will serve as their guide to determine the things that they need to
accomplish by the end of the class. For example, the 2 nd day that I observed, she
stated her objective which is identifying pronouns and they will construct
meaningful sentences with pronouns.

2. Lesson objectives must be in the 2 or 3 domains- cognitive, skill, and affective or

cognitive and affective or skill or affective.
Based on the entire learning process happened in the 2 nd day, I can conclude that
my resource teachers lesson objective is holistic because it does not only focuses
on cognitive domain, but on affective and skill domain as well. The lesson is really
cognitive because they will identify pronouns, but she made a twist on it. What
makes a lesson objective affective is that she read a certain story and let the
students write the pronouns that they can identify. At the same time, she let her
students identify the lesson of the story and share their own experiences. She
was also able to apply the skill domain here by letting the students have a group
activity (Boys vs. Girls) and the first one to finish their answer to the board will be
the winner. In totality, she was able to apply all the domains.
3. Work on Significant and relevant lesson objectives.
Our resource teacher worked on a very significant and relevant lesson objective
because there are some students who cannot identify what is a pronoun. At their
age and year level (4th year), they should have mastered the lesson already. The

lesson is significant because this will surely be included in the entrance exams for
colleges and universities, and teaching the lesson will help them on this matter.
4. Lesson objectives must lead to the development of critical and creative thinking.
The teacher let the students identify pronouns in a selection (which develops
critical thinking) and let the students create meaningful sentences with pronouns
(which develops creative thinking).
My Analysis
1. Identify pronouns and write sentences with pronouns creatively.
2. Since we have the same objectives, then it is easy really applied in the teaching
learning process. Yes, lesson objectives in the lesson plan are always followed
because it serves as the guide as the teacher progress into the learning process.
Without the objective, the teaching process will be confusing and chaotic. Lesson
objectives are like guiding stars, when you lost your way just follow it, and you
will find yourself back into the right track. Lesson objectives are the backbone of
your lesson, without it the foundation will not be firm.
3. I found it easy to write down the resource teachers lesson objectives of the day
because she mentioned it at the beginning of the class and it were applied all
throughout the lesson. These objectives also served as the students personal
target so that they will become self-motivated and they will be interested to see
how they progress on the lesson.
4. Yes, the lesson objectives of my resource teacher are SMART (Specific,
Measurable, Attainable, Reliable and Time-bound). It is Specific because it was
stated direct to the point, Measurable because she gave different activities that
measure the students progress on the lesson, Attainable, Result-Oriented, and
Time-bounded, because she was able to finish the lesson on time with impressive
results and feedback from the learners.

Episode 3
A. For the cognitive lesson.
1. What is the lesson about?
The lesson is about the Classes of Pronouns and how to identify them
2. What are the examples of facts mentioned in the lesson?
The teacher gave the definition of pronouns, what are the differences between
pronouns and nouns, and what are the classes of pronouns.
3. Did the lesson end with facts? Or did these facts lead to understanding of
concepts? Prove your answer.
Yes the lesson ended with facts and leads the students in understanding the
lessons because they were able to differentiate pronouns to nouns, they were
also able to identify pronouns in the selection that they have read excellently,
and they were able to make sentences using pronouns creatively. One
student (Ms. Shanelle Dela Cruz from IV-17) even thanked the teacher
because she was now able to see the difference between pronouns and nouns,
because she really thought that they are just the same.
4. Write down instances of treating the topic in depth (giving examples,
examining cause and effect relationships, relating ideas or concepts to one
The teacher was able to expound more the concept of identifying pronouns by
letting the students read a selection. She asked them to write down as many
pronouns and nouns that they can identify in the selection. Later on, she let
them make sentences using those words that they gathered (separate
sentences for pronouns and nouns). After 15 minutes, she called some
students to read their sentences on the class and asked them if they noticed
some differences from the sentences with pronouns and sentences with
nouns. She then further explained the concept after that.
5. Cite instance/instances when students were encouraged to ask questions, to
talk about and reflect on what they have learned.
Like what I have mentioned on my answer to the question #4, yes there are a
lot of instances that the teacher let the students reflect on what they have
learned. On the other hand, after each explanation that she gave, she always
asks her students for more questions so she could clarify it. On every activity
that they have, she always let them enumerate the things that they have
learned. For example, after the reading selection and the sentence making

activity that they have about pronouns, she called some students to share
their sentences and what they have learned about it. The students told her
that they were not aware about the differences among pronouns and nouns.
At the same time, there are also some students who raised their questions like
Can we use pronouns and nouns in a sentence at the same time? which the
teacher accurately and enthusiastically answered.