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Date

Name

Class

Lab~

Redox: Oxidation-Reduction
Reactions

Text reference: Chapter 21, pp. 613-61

Pre-Lab Disc:ussion
Oxidation is broadly defined as the loss, or apparent loss, of electrons by
an atom or ion. Srnilarly, reduction is the gain, or apparent gain, of elec
trons by an atom or ion. Neither oxidation nor reduction can ever occur
alone, Whenever electrons are lost by one substance, they must be gained
by another. Reactions involving the exchange or transfer of electrons from
atoms or ions of one substance to those of another substance are called
oxidation-reduction
reactions, or redox reactions, for short. In such
reactions, the substance that is oxidized (loses electrons) is called the
reducing aqent. The substance that is reduced (gains electrons) is called
the oxidizing aqent.
Because they are made up of two distinct processes-oxidation and
reduction-redox
reactions can be represented by two haif-reactions.
For example, the balanced equation for the reaction of sodium with
chlorine is
2Na + Cl2

2NaCl

In half-reacton form, the equation for this reaction is


2Na
~ 2Na++ 2eCl2 + 2e- ~ 2Cl-

(oxidation)
(reduction)

As the equations for these half-reactions show, the two electrons lost by
the sodium atorns are gained by the chlorine atoms. For any redox reac
tion, the number of electrons gained in the reduction half-reaction must
equal the number of electrons lost in the oxidation half-reaction.
In theory, every half-reaction is reversible. In one direction, it is an
oxidation half-reaction. In the reverse direction, it is a reduction half
reaction. The Table of Standard Electrode Potentials in Appendix A of this
lab manual lists reduction half-reactions. Thus, it is atable of reduction
potentials. However, each reaction can be reversed and written as an
oxidation half-reaction, in which case the sign of the electro de potential
(E") is reversed. For example, the reduction half-reaction Flg) + 2e- ~
2F- heads the Iist in this table. In this half-reaction, F2 is reduced and is
thus the oxidizing agent. The electrode potential for this half-reaction is
+2.87 volts. By reversing this half-reaction, you get 2F- ~ F2(g) + 2 e -,
which is an oxidation half-reaction. F- is oxidized and is thus the reducing
agent. The electrode potential for this half-reaction is -2.87 volts.
The Table o' Standard Electrode Potentials can be used to predict
whether or not a redox reaction will occur spontaneously. For a redox
reaction to occur, the reduction half-reaction must appear higher in
the table than the oxidation half-reaction. Consider the possible redox
reaction:
Fp(~l

+ Ph(NO~)~(aa) ~ Pb(s) + Fe(NO..,).,(aq)

If this reaction does occur, the half-reactons will be:


Fe(s)

Pb2+

~ Fe2+ + 2e

+ 2e- ~ Pb(s)

(oxidation)
(reduction)

In the table, the half-reaction for the reduction of Pb2+ does appear higher
on the list than that for the oxidation of Fe(s) (the reverse of the half-reac
tion for the reduction of Fe2+). Thus, the redox reaction will occur. As
another check, the algebraic sum of the EO values of two half-reactions
must be positive for the reaction to occur. In this case, EO of the reduction
reaction is -0.13, while that of the oxidation reaction is +0.44. The alge
braic sum is +0.3l.
In this experiment, you wil! prepare several different combinations of
substances and observe whether or not any visible redox reactions occur.
This lab should help provide a better understanding of redox reactions
and the use of the Table of Standard Electrode Potentials.

Purpose
Study sorne simple redox reactions. Determine the relative strengths of
sorne oxidizing agents and reducing agents.

Equipment
test tubes, 18x lOO-mm(8)
test tube rack
test tube holder
graduated cylnder, 10-mL
microspatula

dropper pipet
burner
safety goggles
lab apron or coat

Materials
0.1 M solutions 0[:

AgNO:J
Pb(N03)z
Zn(N03)2
Cu(NO:J)z

FeCl3
SnClz

6MHCl

silver foil
iron flings
l-cm strips of:
zinc
lead
copper

Safety
Handle the hydrochloric acid with extreme careo Avoid spills on your skin
or clothing. Flush any spil!s with cool water and NaHCO;) solution and
report them to your teacher. Note the caution alert symbols he re and with
certain steps of the "Procedure." Refer to page xi for the precautions
associated with each symbol. Always wear safety goggles and a lab coat
or apron when working in the lab.
/

"...

Pr
oc
ed
ur
e
PA
RT
A
RE
LAT
IVE
AC
TIVI
TY
OF
SO
ME
ME
TAL
S
1.

Add
5 mL
of 0.1
MAgN
O;)

to a
clean,
dry

test
tube.
Add
a
piece
of
coppe
r
metal
to
this
soluti
on.
Add
5 mL
of
0.1
M

Name

41

Redox: Oxidation-Reduction

Reactions

the solution. Allow both test tubes to stand for several minutes.
Record your observations.
2. Stand two test tubes in a test tube rack. Add 5 mL of 0.1 M
CU(N03)2 to each tube. Place a strip of zinc (Zn) in one tube and
a strip of lead (Pb) in the other. Allow the tubes to stand for a
few minutes. Record your observations.
3. Using two clean, dry test tubes, repeat the procedure in step
2 using 0.1 M Pb (N03)2 and strips of copper (Cu) and zinc.
Record your observations.
4. Repeat the procedure a third time, using 0.1 M Zn(N03)2 and
strips of Cu and Pb. After you have recorded your observations,
discard the materials in the test tubes as instructed. Clean and
rinse the tubes.
PART B REACTIONS OF IRON METAL ANO IRON JONS

5. Place 5 mL of 0.1 M FeCI3 in a clean, dry test tube. Using a


pipet, add SnCl2 drop by drop until a change is observed. Record
your observations.
6. Place a heaping microspatulaful of iron filings (Fe) into a
clean, dry test tube. Add 5 mL of 6 M HC!. CAUTION: Handle
this acid very carefully. It can cause painful burns. Using a test
tube holder, warm the contents of the test tube carefully over a
low burner flameo Allow the test tube to stand for several mi
nutes. Record your observations.

Observations and Data


PART A

Observations

+ AgN03:

1. Cu

+ CU(N0:J)2:

Ag

2. Zn + CU(N03)2:

+ CU(N03)2:

Pb
3. Cu

+ Pb(N03h:

Zn

+ Pb(N03)2:

4. Cu + Zn(NO:Jh:
Pb

+ Zn(NO:3h:

PART B

5. F+
6. Fe

+ Sn2+:

+ Hel:

(continued)

Equations
Write balanced chemical equations for each reaction that occurred in this
experiment. Beneath each equation, write equations for the half-reactions,
identifying each as an oxidation or reduction half-reaction.

Conclusions and Questions


Where necessary, refer to the Table of Standard Electrode Potentials in
Appendix A to help you answer these questions.
1. List the order of activity of the metals Ag, Cu, Pb, and Zn as determined
by your experimental results. Do these results agree with the positions of
these metals in the table?

2. Which metal listed in the Table of Standard Electrodo Potcntials will


replace Fe2+ but will not replace Zn2+? Explain, using the tableo

Name

41

Redox: Oxidation-Reduction

Reactions

3. Define the following: oxidation; reduction; oxidizing agent; reducing


agent.

4. Study the chemical combinations listed below. Using the table, predict
which combinations will produce a spontaneous redox reaction. For those
redox reactions that will occur:
(1) complete the balanced equation for the reaction;
(2) write the half-reactons for each reaction and identify them as oxi
dation or reduction;
(3) name the oxidizing and reducing agents in each reaction; and
(4) calculate the net EO for each reaction at standard conditions
(1 molar ion concentration, 298 K, 101.3 kPa).
a. Fe + CuClz
b. Ag + HZS04
C. Al + NaOH
d. F2 + CaCl2

(continued)

Name __li,A-'-8S

gis>

E~i:h'o/\ Date

_ Class

Redox: Oxidation-Reduction
Reactions

Text reference: Chapter 21, pp. 613-61

Pre-Lab Discussion
Oxidation is broadly defined as the loss, or apparent loss, of electrons by
an atom or ion. Sirnilarly, reduction is the gain, or apparent gain, of elec

P
r

trons by an ato m or ion. Neither oxidation nor reduction can ever occur
alone. Whenever electrons are lost by one substance, they must be gained
by another, Reactons nvolvng the exchange or transfer of electrons from
atoms or ions of one substance to those of another substance are called
oxidaton-reduction reactions, or redox reactions, for short. In such
reactions, the substance that is oxidized (loses electrons) is called the
reducing agent. The substance that is reduced (gains electrons) is called
the oxidizing aqent.
Because they are made up of two distinct processes-oxidation
and
reduction-redox
reactions can be represented by two half-reactions.
For example, the balanced equation for the reaction of sodium with
chlorine is
2Na + CI2

-->

2NaCI

In half-reaction form, the equation for this reaction is


2Na
Clz + 2e-

-->
-->

2Na++ 2e2CI-

(oxidation)
(reduction)

As the equations for the_sehalf-reactions show, the two electrons lost by


the sodium atoms are gained by the chlorine atoms. For any redox reac
tion, the number of electrons gained in the reduction half-reaction must
equal the number of electrons lost in the oxidation half-reaction.
In theory, every half-reaction is reversible. In one direction, it is an
oxidation half-reaction. In the reverse direction, it is a reduction half
reaction. The Table of Standard Electrode Potentials in Appendix A of this
lab manual lists reduction half-reactions. Thus, it is atable of reduction
potentials. However, each reaction can be reversed and written as an
oxidation half-reaction, in which case the sign of the electrode potential
(E") is reversed. For example, the reduction half-reaction F2(g) + 2e - -->
2F- heads the list in this table. In this half-reaction, F2 is reduced and is
thus the oxidizing agent. The electrode potential for this half-reaction is
+2.87 volts. By reversng this half-reaction, you get 2F- --> F2(g) + 2 e ",
whch is an oxdation half-reaction. F- is oxidized and is thus the reducing
agent. The electrode potential for this half-reaction is -2.87 volts.
The Table of Standard Electrode Potentials can be used to predict
whether or not a redox reaction will occur spontaneously. For a redox
reaction to occur, the reduction half-reaction must appear higher in
the table than the oxidation half-reaction. Consider the possible redox
reaction:

T
th
i
t
iD
e
t
h

t
a
n
o
u
o
u
L
A

If this reaction does occur, the half-reactions will be:


Fe(s)

Pb2+

+ 2e-

(oxidation)
(reduction)

In the table, the half-reaction for the reduction of Pb2+ does appear higher
on the list than that for the oxidation of Fe( s) (the reverse of the half-reac
tion for the reduction of Fe2+). Thus, the redox reaction will occur. As
another check, the algebraic sum of the EO values of two half-reactions
must be positive for the reaction to occur. In this case, EO of the reduction
reaction is -0.13, while that of the oxidation reaction is +0.44. The alge
braic surn is +0.31.
In this experiment, you will prepare several different combinations of
substances and observe whether or not any visible redox reactions occur.
This lab should help provide a better understanding of redox reactions
and the use of the Table of Standard Electrode Potentials.

Purpose
Study sorne simple redox reactions. Determine the relative strengths of
sorne oxidizing agents and reducing agents.

Equipment

Safety
Caution students to handle
the 6 M HCI with considerable
careo You may want to have
students wear rubber gloves
when they handle this acid.
Emphasize the severity of the
injuries that could occur if this
acid were to splash on their
skin or in their eyes.

Advance Preparation
Set out extra test tu bes.
Cut aluminum foil into l-cm
squares and cut metal ribbon
into l-cm lengths prior to
class.
Prepare the following solu
tions prior to class. (Instruc
tions for preparation of these
solutions are given in Appen
dix 3 of this Teacher's Edition.)
0.1 M solutions of:
AgN03
Pb(N03)2
Zn(N03h 6H20
Cu(N03 )2 3H,O
6MHCI
n 1 M ~ol_ . ::;HJl

test tubes, 18 x lOO-mm(8)


test tube rack
test tube holder
graduated cylinder, 10-rnL
microspatula

dropper pipet
burner
safety goggles
lab apron or coat

Materials
0.1 M solutions of:

AgN03
Pb(N03)2
Zn(N03)2
CU(N03)2
FeC13
SnC12

6MHCl
silver foil
iron lings
l-cm strips of:
zinc
lead
copper

Safety
Handle the hydrochloric acid wth extreme careo Avoid spills on your skin
or clothing. Flush any spills with cool water and NaHC03 solution and
report them to your teacher. Note the caution alert symbols here and with
certain steps of the "Procedure." Refer to page xi for the precautions
associated with each syrnbol. Always wear safety goggles and a lab coat
or apron when working in the lab.

Procedure
PART A RELATIVE ACTIVITY OF SOME METAlS

1. Add 5 rnL of 0.1 M AgN03 to a clean, dry test tube. Add a


nif'~f' of coooer metal to this solution. Add 5 mL of 0.1 M

Name

41

Redox: Oxidation-Reduction

Reactions

(continued)

the solution. Allow both test tubes to stand for several minutes.
Record your observations,
2. Stand two test tubes in a test tube rack. Add 5 mL of 0.1 M
CU(N03)2 to each tube. Place a strip of zinc (Zn) in one tube and
a strip of lead (Pb) in the other. Allow the tubes to stand for a
few minutes. Record your observations.
3. Usng two clean, dry test tubes, repeat the procedure in step
2 usng 0.1 M Pb (N03)2 and strips of copper (Cu) and zinc.
Record your observations.
4. Repeat the procedure a third time, using 0.1 M Zn(N03)2 and
strips of Cu and Pb. After you have recorded your observations,
discard the materials in the test tubes as instructed, Clean and
rinse the tubes.
PART B REACTIONS OF IRON METAL AND IRON IONS

5. Place 5 mL of 0.1 M FeCl3 in a clean, dry test tube. Using a


pipet, add SnCl2 drop by drop until a change is observed. Record
your observations,
6. Place a heaping microspatulaful of iron filings (Fe) into a
clean, dry test tube. Add 5 mL of 6 M HC!. CAUTION: Handle
this acid very carefullu. It can cause painful burns. Using a test
tube holder, warm the contents of the test tube carefully over a
low burner flameo Allow the test tube to stand for several mi
nutes. Record your observations.

Observations and Data


PART A

Observations
A dark solid forms and the solution

turns b!ue.

The sample observations and


data given here are intended
to be used as a basis for com
parison with student re
sponses. In most cases, student
responses will var somewhat
from these sample responses.

No visible reaction
Bubbling

occurs and a dark brownish

solid forms.

Bubbling

occurs and a dark brownish

solid forms.

No visible reaction
Bubbling

occurs and a dark solid forms.

No visible reaction
No visible reaction

Pb + Zn(N03):~:

The yellowish-brown

solution

turns colorless.

PART B

6. Fe + HCl:

The iron filings

react and disappear

as a gas is evolved, producing

a cloudy appeararu

Equations
Write balaneed ehemieal equations for eaeh reaetion that oeeurred in this
experimento Beneath eaeh equation, write equations for the half-reaetions,
identifying eaeh as an oxidation or reduetion half-reaetion.
a. Cu

Cu

2AgN03
CU2~

->

2Ag -

Zn

2 e-

Ze "

Pb2 -

-->

Cu2-

d. Zn
Zn

->

Pb2

.i,

2e-

Zn2

(oxidation)

Sn2 -

Sn4

f. Fe + HCI ~

Cu

(reduction)

->

Pb -1- Zn(N03)2

->

- -1-->

(reduction)
2FeC12+ SnCI4

2e 2Fe2

(oxidation)
-

(reduction)

FeCI2 + H2

. Fe" - -'- 2e -

2H - + 2e -

(oxidation)

Pb

->

+ SnCI2

Fe

2e -

+ 2e-

e. 2FeCI3

+ 2e

(reduction)
Cu -'- Pb(N03h

-->

2e -

--->

(oxidation)

->

Pb(N03)2

2Fe3-

(reduction)

Cu

-->

CU(N03)2

(oxidation)

Ag

->

c. Pb + CU(N03)2
Pb

2e-

Zn2 - -1- 2e -

-->

Cu2+

2Ag

->

-->

H2

(oxidation)
(reduction)

Conclusions and Questions


Where neeessary, refer to the Table of Standard Eleetrode Potentials in
Appendix A to help you answer these questions.
1. List the order of aetivity of the metals Ag, Cu, Pb, and Zn as determined
by your experimental results. Do these results agree with the positions of
these metals in the table?
Most active to least active: Zn, Pb, Cu, Ag. These results agree with the positions

of these metals in the table.

2. Whieh metal listed in the Table of Standard Eleetrode Potentials will


replaee Fe2+ but will not re~lace Zn2+,? Explain, using the table.
Chromium

(Cr) will replace Fe . in a reaction

below Fe in the table but is above Zn.

but will not replace Zn2

-.

Cr is

Name_

41

Redox: Oxidation-Reduction

Reactions

3. Define the following: oxidation; reduction; oxidizing agent; reducing


agent.
Oxidation

is a loss of electrons. Reduction

is a gain of electrons. An oxidizing

agent is the substance that is reduced in a reaction.

A reducing

agent

is the

substance that is oxidized in a reaction.

4. Study the chemical combinations listed below. Using the table, predict
which combinations will produce a spontaneous redox reaction. For those
redox reactions that will occur:
(1) complete the balanced equation for the reaction;
(2) write the half-reactions for each reaction and identify them as oxi
dation or reduction;
(3) name the oxidizing and reducing agents in each reaction; and
(4) calculate the net EO for each reaction at standard conditions
(1 molar ion concentration, 298 K, 101.3kPa)_
a. Fe + CuCl2
b. Ag

H2S04

c. Al + NaOH
d. F2 + CaCl2

Balanced equation
a. Fe -'-CuCI2

Half-reactions
FeCI2

-t-

Cu

Oxidation:
Fe - Fe2 reducing
agent
Reduction:
Cu2 - - 2e
oxidizing
agent

b. Ag + 1-12502 ~ No reaction
c. Al
NaOI-l ~ No reaction
d. F2..,.. CaCI2 ~ CaF2 + CI2

Net

0.78 volt
2e

--7

_j_

Reduction:
F + 2e
oxidizing
agent

Cu

2F

Oxidation:
2CI
CI2+2ereducing
agent

Net
1.48 volts

(continued)