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I.

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Research

English becomes increasingly important in various fields such as business,

finance, industry and education. Most people; especially students hope they can

speak English fluently. Besides, English is very important to be learnt, we have been

referring to English as global language. Some people say that English will be the

second language of the whole people in the world.

In Indonesian, English has been officially adopted as a foreign language

which is first learnt at elementary school up to university level. It means that all

Indonesian students start learning English at elementary school. In Indonesian

education curriculum, English is also one of the lessons that are examined in national

examination. And one of skills in English is speaking.

Speaking is the process of building and sharing meaning through the use of

verbal and non-verbal symbols, in a variety of contexts (Richard, 1999: 204).

Speaking is a crucial part of second and foreign language learning and teaching.

Despite its importance, for many years, teaching speaking has been undervalued and

English language teachers have continued to teach speaking just as a repetition of

drills or memorization of dialogues. However, today's world requires that the goal of

teaching speaking should improve students' communicative skills, because, only in

that way, students can express themselves and learn how to follow the social and

cultural rules appropriate in each communicative circumstance.

Method is one the important teacher successful factor in learning process.

When a teacher used a good technique in their teaching activities, the student will be

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motivated. Having high motivation will give good effect on students in improving

their performance. Therefore, the teachers have to pay any attention on the technique

and method used in their teaching learning process of speaking. Many techniques the

teacher use to motivating their students. One of them is Audio-Lingual Method to

improving students’ speaking skill. The method will be used by the teacher in

teaching and learning process of speaking to the first year students of MAS

Darussa’adah Cot Bada.

Larsen-Freeman (1986:31) said that the goal of teachers who use audio

lingual method is that they want their students to be able to use the target language

communicatively. In order to do this, they believe students need over learn the target

language, to learn to use it automatically without stopping to think. Their students

achieve this by forming new habit in the target language and overcoming the old

habits of their native language.

Based on the explanation above the writer thinks that it is reasonable enough

to be the reason why the writer is interested to do a classroom action research under

the title improving speaking by using audio lingual method. Besides, this research is

also deemed essential to be done in order to find an appropriate way of how to teach

speaking and to find the effect of using this method that hopefully help the teacher

and students of MAS Darussa’adah Cot Bada in teaching and learning process of

speaking. And finally it is hope that the implementation of the method will facilitate

the student to improve their speaking ability.


1.2 The Problem of the Research

The problems of this research are in the following:

1. Can the first year students of MAS Darussa’adah Cot Bada improve their

speaking ability when the teacher uses Audio-Lingual Method?

2. What are the advantages of using Audio-Lingual Method in teaching and

learning process of speaking to the first year students of MAS Darussa’adah

Cot Bada?

1.3 Purpose of the Research

The purposes of this research based on the problem of this research are as

follows:

1. To know if the first year students of MAS Darussa’adah Cot Bada can

improve their speaking ability when the teacher uses Audio-Lingual Method.

2. To find out the advantages of using Audio-Lingual Method in teaching

speaking to the first year students of MAS Darussa’adah Cot Bada.

1.4 The Significance of the Study

This study is hope can give meaningful knowledge both for theoretical and

practical concerns. Theoretically, the study will give reasonable benefit in describing

the mastering of speaking through Audio-Lingual Method, especially to the first year

students of MAS Darussa’adah Cot Bada. Practically, the finding of the research is

expected to the teacher can give a priority measures in teaching speaking. Meanwhile

for the students, they are hoped to be able to improve their speaking ability through

Audio-Lingual Method, so that they can communicate their ideas as clear as they

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would like.

1.5 The Scope of the Research

The scope of the study is focused on teaching speaking through Audio-

Lingual Method at MAS Darussa’adah Cot Bada. The writer wants to know whether

the Audio-Lingual Method has the better effect in improving students’ speaking skill.

The writer will focus on dialogue concerning with the meeting and parting

expression.

1.5 The Definition of the Key Terms

In this thesis, the writer gives some explanation about a few key terms. These

key terms’ function is to make the reader understand exactly about a few words or

phrases.

1. Speaking

Speaking is the process of building and sharing meaning through the use of

verbal and non-verbal symbols, in a variety of contexts (Richard, 1999:204).

Speaking is an activity which involves two or more people reaction to what they hear

and contribute and they can understand each other (Harmer, 2006:6). This research is

not going to study on speaking in all languages but only on English speaking,

especially on using the meeting and parting expression.

2. Audio-Lingual Method

Audio-Lingual Method is a method that is used by the teachers who want

their students to be able to use the target language in daily speaking communicatively

(Larsen-Freeman, 1986:31).
3. Classroom Action Research

Classroom Action Research (CAR) is a form of reflective research that is

conducted by teacher which its result can be used as a tool to improve the teaching

and learning (McNiff, 1992:1 in Asrori, 2008:4).

1.7 The Review of the Related Literature

Chaney (1998: 13) says that speaking is the process of building and sharing

meaning through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols, in a variety of contexts.

Speaking is a crucial part of second and foreign language learning and teaching.

Despite its importance, for many years, teaching speaking has been undervalued and

English language teachers have continued to teach speaking just as a repetition of

drills or memorization of dialogues. However, today's world requires that the goal of

teaching speaking should improve students' communicative skills, because, only in

that way, students can express themselves and learn how to follow the social and

cultural rules appropriate in each communicative circumstance.

Furthermore speaking is one of the central elements of communication. In

EFL (English as Foreigner language) teaching, it is an aspect that needs special

attention and instruction. In order to provide effective attention, it is necessary for a

teacher of EFL to carefully examine the factors, condition and components that

underlie speaking effectiveness. Effective instruction derived from the careful

analysis of this area, together with sufficient language input and speech-promotion

activities will gradually help learners improve their English speaking ability

(Richards, 1999:230).

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Many factors cause students reluctant to communicate in English; some of

those are cultural factors, linguistic factors or ineffectual factor. Here the writer only

provides you detail explanation of effective factors since it is strongly related with

the research being done by the writer. The ineffectual factors include culture shock,

previous negative social and political experiences, lack of motivation, anxiety and

shyness in class, especially if their previous learning experiences were negative

(Nunan, 1999:231).

Furthermore, students seem to possess a reluctance to speak in English may

be due to the students’ fear of looking and feeling foolish when they make a mistake

that would make the others ridicule them or even look down on them. This method

proposes to help remove the students’ resistance to learning spoken language by

making them forget their barriers to learning. Yet, countless studies and experiments

in human learning have shown that motivation is a key in learning (Brown, (1994:

23).

Besides, method is one of the decisive teacher successful factors in learning

process. When a teacher used a good technique in their teaching activities, the

student will be motivated. Having high motivation will give good effect on students

in improving their performance. Therefore, the teachers have to pay any attention on

the technique used in their teaching learning process of speaking. Many techniques

the teacher use to motivating their students. One of them is Audio-Lingual Method to

improving students’ speaking skill. The techniques will be used by the teacher in

teaching learning process of speaking to the first year students of MAS Darussa’adah

Cot Bada.
Larsen-Freeman (1986:31) said that the goal of teachers who use Audio-

Lingual Method is that they want their students to be able to use the target language

communicatively. In order to do this, they believe students need over learn the target

language, to learn to use it automatically without stopping to think. Their students

achieve this by forming new habit in the target language and overcoming the old

habits of their native language.

Based on the explanation above, the researcher concludes that teaching

speaking is a hard job that a teacher needs to be careful in examining thing

underlying in speaking. Moreover it is an evident that is a very effective tool to get

students speaks without feeling worried of making mistake.

1.8 The Methodology of the Research

The methodology of this research will be done through the following

explanation below.

1.8.1 The Design of the Research

The design of the study is Classroom Action Research. As it explained by

Asrori (2008: 45) that Classroom Action Research is kind of research that aims to

improve teaching practical quality, contribute teaching theoretical development or

educational and teacher career progression.

Asrori (2008:100) also give explanation about the procedure and

implementation of the CAR process. There are some stages that will be done in

repeated cycles. Each cycle consists of four stages; planning, action, observation and

reflection. The activities that will be done in each stage are the following:

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1. Planning

In this stage the researcher will prepare an action plan, designing a lesson

plan and prepare some teaching materials that will be used in action to the students’

class, designing instrument and criteria of success.

2. Action

In this stage, the researcher will implement the planning which has been

prepared by the researcher at the previous stage.

3. Observation

In this stage, the writer will observe the students, the atmosphere of the class,

and the students’ motivation and behavior to collect data during the implementation

of action.

4. Reflection

In this stage, the researcher will analyze the data that has been collected from

action and observation stage.

If the action of each cycle was considered not being successful, the researcher

revised the plan and continues the next cycle. But if the action has met the proposed

criteria, another cycle will be carried out to prove the result of the first cycle.

In this research, the procedures employed are adapted from Kemmis and

McTaggert’s Action Research model. The visual illustration of the steps is shown in

figure 1.1.
Report
1.1 Classroom Action Research Model (Adapted from Kemmis & McTaggert, 1988)
Conclusion
Successful
ANALYSIS AND Unsuccessful
FINDING

The students have low ability in speaking


The strategic used in the teaching and learning process are not varied and uninteresting.

IMPLEMENTING THE PLAN PLANNING THE ACTION


hing and learning process
Designing basedplan
a lesson on the
for lesson
Englishplan.
speaking through Audio-Lingual Method.
Preparing instrument, field notes and criteria of success.

OBSERVING

data about the effect of implementations of the action.

REFLECTING ON THE ACTION

lected data
ther the action is successful or unsuccessful

Revised Plan

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1.8.2. The Setting and the Subject of the Research

The study was conducted at MAS Darussa’adah Cot Bada which is located in

Cot Bada, Peusangan Sub-district, Bireuen District. The sum totals of the class in the

school are one class of the first grade, one class of the second grade, and one class

for the third grade. The subjects of the study were the first year students of MAS

Darussa’adah Cot Bada. The researcher chose class X.1 as the subject of the

research. This class consisted of thirty (30) students. The reason why the researcher

chooses one class only is because Classroom Action Research is conducted in one

class. Classroom is the place where a group of students in the same time receive the

same lesson from the teacher (Suharsimi in Asrori, 2008: 5).

1.8.3. The Technique of Data Collecting

In collecting data, the researcher will ask the subject of research to answer the

pre-test. This is done before teaching process. And after teaching process, the

researcher will give them the post-test.

The observation sheets also will be used as an instrument in collecting data. Their

functions are below:

1. To assess the students during the learning process.

2. To check the students’ understanding about Audio-Lingual Method.

3. To find out the advantages of using Audio-Lingual Method in

teaching English speaking.

4. To check the students’ attitude while participating in the learning

process.

For the completion of Research methodology will be explained further in


chapter III.

1.9 The Schedule of the Research

The research will be done as soon as this proposal approved by the

supervisors or the authorized lecturer of Al Muslim University. The writer also

provides the schedule in a simple table as the following:

August September October November

Preparing to do Implementing to Implementing to Implementing to do the


the first cycle do the first cycle do the second third cycle (if it is
cycle considered required)

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