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INDUSTRY STANDARD FOR

REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPES


WITH FLEXIBLE
THERMOPLASTIC LININGS
WSA 1132002

WATER SERVICES ASSOCIATION


of Australia

WSA 1132002

PREFACE
This Standard was prepared by Power and Water Authority of the Northern Territory with the
assistance of the Water Corporation of Western Australia for the Water Services Association of
Australia (WSAA). WSAA also acknowledges the significant technical input of CSR Humes.
The objective of this Standard is to provide design, manufacturing and performance
requirements for manufacturers of thermoplastic lined reinforced concrete pipes. Given that a
standard for this product is not available from other overseas standards organisations, it is likely
that further improvements to this initial standard may be necessary as experience is gained with
its use.
Attention is drawn to the proposed publication of WSAA Rulings to this Standard. Where rulings
of public significance are issued, they will be available from the WSAA website
http://www.wsaa.asn.au/. When rulings are included in an amendment, the specific ruling will be
withdrawn at the time of publication of the amendment. Inquiries should be directed to WSAA
Sydney Office.
WSAA also invites comments and suggestions for amendments to this Standard. Please email
to david.cox@standards.com.au.
WSAA proposes to submit this Standard to Standards Australia International for development
into an Australian Standard.
Statements expressed in mandatory terms in notes to tables and figures are deemed to be
requirements of this Standard.
The terms normative and informative have been used in this Standard to define the
application of the appendix to which they apply. A normative appendix is an integral part of a
Standard, whereas an informative appendix is only for information and guidance.
This Standard will be withdrawn upon publication of an Australian Standard for thermoplastic
lined reinforced concrete pipe.
Comments should be forwarded to:
National Codes Manager
Water Services Association of Australia
GPO Box 5420, Sydney, NSW, 2001, Australia

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CONTENTS
page
PREFACE ...................................................................................................................................1
SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL .......................................................................................5
1.1 SCOPE..................................................................................................................................5
1.2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS ..............................................................................................5
1.3 DEFINITIONS........................................................................................................................6
1.3.1 Lining arc ......................................................................................................................6
1.3.2 Lining blanket ................................................................................................................6
1.3.3 Lining continuity ............................................................................................................6
1.3.4 Lining defect..................................................................................................................6
1.3.5 Lining keys ....................................................................................................................6
1.3.6 Lining sheet...................................................................................................................6
SECTION 2 MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS ......................................................................7
2.1 GENERAL .............................................................................................................................7
2.2 REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPE MATERIALS ....................................................................7
2.3 LINING MATERIAL................................................................................................................7
2.3.1 PVC...............................................................................................................................7
2.3.2 PE .................................................................................................................................7
2.4 LINING COMPONENTS ........................................................................................................7
2.5 LINING COLOUR ..................................................................................................................7
2.6 LINING SHEET PHYSICAL PROPERTIES ...........................................................................8
2.7 LINING SHEET CHEMICAL RESISTANCE PROPERTIES ...................................................8
2.7.1 General .........................................................................................................................8
2.7.2 Specimens for change in mass tests .............................................................................8
2.7.3 Short Term Chemical Resistance..................................................................................8
2.7.4 Long Term Chemical Resistance ..................................................................................9
2.8 LINING COMPONENTS DEFECTS.......................................................................................9
SECTION 3 DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE .........................................................................11
3.1 REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPE .......................................................................................11
3.2 LINING SHEET AND COMPONENTS.................................................................................11
3.2.1 LINING SHEET KEYS .................................................................................................11
3.2.2 LINING COMPONENTS DIMENSIONS ......................................................................11
3.2.2.1 Lining Sheets .....................................................................................................11
3.2.2.2 Welding Strips....................................................................................................12
3.2.2.3 Joint Strips .........................................................................................................12
3.2.2.4 Lining Blankets...................................................................................................12
3.2.3 LINING SHEET WEIGHT ............................................................................................12
3.2.4 PIPE LINING FABRICATION ......................................................................................12
3.2.5 LINING ARC................................................................................................................12
3.3 LINING OF PIPE .................................................................................................................13
3.3.1 LINING OF HORIZONTALLY CAST PIPE...................................................................13
3.3.2 LINING OF VERTICALLY CAST PIPE ........................................................................13
3.4 WELDER QUALIFICATIONS ..............................................................................................14
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SECTION 4 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS ..................................................................15


4.1 GENERAL ...........................................................................................................................15
4.2 LINING KEY PULL-OUT RESISTANCE ..............................................................................15
4.3 LINING CONTINUITY..........................................................................................................15
4.4 LINING KEY EMBEDMENT.................................................................................................15
4.5 LINING FINISH....................................................................................................................15
4.6 JOINT LAP TENSILE STRENGTH ......................................................................................15
4.7 CONCRETE DEFECTS.......................................................................................................15
SECTION 5 SECTION 5

MARKING AND PACKAGING ..................................................17

5.1 LINING SHEET MARKING ..................................................................................................17


5.2 PIPE MARKING ..................................................................................................................17
5.3 PACKAGING .......................................................................................................................17
5.4 INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS .......................................................................................17
APPENDIX A PURCHASING GUIDELINES .............................................................................18
A1 SCOPE ................................................................................................................................18
A2 INFORMATION TO BE SUPPLIED BY THE PURCHASER .................................................18
A3 INFORMATION TO BE SUPPLIED BY THE MANUFACTURER..........................................18
APPENDIX B MEANS FOR DEMONSTRATING COMPLIANCE WITH THIS STANDARD......19
B1 SCOPE ................................................................................................................................19
B2 RELEVANCE .......................................................................................................................19
B3 PRODUCT CERTIFICATION ...............................................................................................19
B4 TESTING .............................................................................................................................19
B4.1 GENERAL....................................................................................................................19
B4.2 RETESTING ................................................................................................................19
B4.3 REJECTION AFTER RETEST .....................................................................................20
B5 DEFINITIONS ......................................................................................................................21
B5.1 ACCEPTABLE QUALITY LEVEL (AQL).......................................................................21
B5.2 MATERIAL OR COMPOUND BATCH..........................................................................21
B5.3 PIPE BATCH ...............................................................................................................21
B5.4 PRODUCTION BATCH................................................................................................21
B5.5 LOT..............................................................................................................................22
B5.6 SAMPLE ......................................................................................................................22
B5.7 SAMPLING PLAN ........................................................................................................22
B5.8 PROCESS VERIFICATION TEST (PVT) .....................................................................22
B5.9 BATCH RELEASE TEST (BRT)...................................................................................22
B5.10 TYPE TESTING (TT) .................................................................................................22
B5.11 NEW FORMULATION................................................................................................22
APPENDIX C LINING KEY PULL-OUT RESISTANCE.............................................................23
C1 SCOPE ................................................................................................................................23
C2 PRINCIPLE..........................................................................................................................23
C3 APPARATUS .......................................................................................................................23
C4 PROCEDURE ......................................................................................................................23
C5 TEST REPORT....................................................................................................................24

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APPENDIX D LINING CONTINUITY.........................................................................................25


D1 SCOPE ................................................................................................................................25
D2 PRINCIPLE..........................................................................................................................25
D3 APPARATUS .......................................................................................................................25
D4 PROCEDURE ......................................................................................................................25
D5 TEST REPORT....................................................................................................................26
APPENDIX E LINING DEFECTS AND REPAIR .......................................................................27
E1 DEFECTS CLASSIFICATION ..............................................................................................27
E2 DEFECTS TO BE REPAIRED..............................................................................................27
E3 WELDING STRIPS FOR REPAIR ........................................................................................27
E4 REPAIR METHODS.............................................................................................................27
E4.1 Pinholes, Cuts and Tears.............................................................................................27
E4.2 Damaged Sections.......................................................................................................27
E4.3 Short Incomplete Welds...............................................................................................28
E4.4 Long Incomplete Welds ...............................................................................................28
E4.5 Charred and Overheated Welds ..................................................................................28
E4.6 Unembedded Keys and Lining Depressions and Projections .......................................28
E5 WELDING STRIP PULL TEST .............................................................................................28
APPENDIX F HANDLING, STORAGE AND TRANSPORT ......................................................29

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S E C T I O N

S C O P E

A N D

G E N E R A L

1.1 SCOPE
This standard applies to the manufacture of reinforced concrete pipes with flexible thermoplastic
lining sheet for the purpose of protecting the concrete from corrosion in aggressive sewage
environments. This standard applies to pipe sizes DN 600 and larger and to linings having flaps
to overlap joints and thus provide continuous corrosion protection.

1.2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS


The following documents are referred to in this standard:
AS
1199

Sampling procedures and tables for inspection by attributes

1741

Vitrified clay pipes and fittings with flexible jointsSewer quality

2758

Aggregates and rock for engineering purposes

2758.1

Concrete aggregates

3735
Supp 1

Concrete structures for retaining liquidsCommentary (Supplement to AS 37351991)

3894

Site testing of protective coatings

3894.1

Non-conductive coatingsContinuity testingHigh voltage (brush) method

4058

Precast concrete pipes (pressure and non-pressure)

ISO
37

Rubber, Vulcanized and ThermoplasticDetermination of Tensile StressStrain


Properties

62

PlasticDetermination of Water Absorption (Equivalent to ASTM D 570)

175

PlasticsDetermination of Resistance to Liquid Chemicals

176

Determination of the Loss of Plasticizers from Plastics by the Activated Carbon


Method

178

PlasticsDetermination of Flexural Properties of Rigid Plastics

527-1

PlasticsDetermination of Tensile PropertiesPart 1: General Principles (Equivalent


to ASTM D 638)

868

PlasticsDetermination of Indentation Hardness of Means of a Durometer: Shore


Hardness

1043-1

Plastics SymbolsBasic Polymers and their special characteristics

1043-2

Plastics SymbolsFillers and Reinforcing Materials

1043-3

Plastics SymbolsPlasticizers

2039-1

PlasticsDetermination of HardnessPart 1: Ball Indentation Method

2039-2

PlasticsDetermination of HardnessPart 2: Rockwell Hardness

4599

PlasticsDetermination of Resistance to Environmental Stress Cracking (ESC)


Bent Strip Method

4661-1

Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplasticPreparation of samples and test piecesPart

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1: Physical Tests
ASTM
A276

Standard specification for stainless and heat-resisting steel bars and shapes

D412

Standard Test Method for Vulcanized Rubber and Thermoplastic Rubbers and
Thermoplastic Elastomers - Tension (References ISO 37)

D543

Standard Practice for Evaluating the Resistance of Plastics to Chemical Reagents


(References ISO 175 and ISO 4599)

D570

Standard Test Method for Water Absorption of Plastics (Equivalent to ISO 62)

D1004

Standard Test Method for Initial Tear Resistance of Plastic Film and Sheeting
(No similar/equivalent ISO standard)

D1203

Standard Test Method for Volatile Loss from Plastics Using Activated Carbon
Methods (Similar but not technically equivalent to ISO 176)

D2240

Test Method for Rubber propertyDurometer Hardness (Equivalent to ISO 868)

BS
5911100

Precast concrete pipes, fittings and ancillary productsPart 100: Specification for
Unreinforced and reinforced pipes and fittings with flexible joints

1.3 DEFINITIONS
For the purpose of this standard, the definitions below apply:
1.3.1 Lining arc

The circumference of the pipe over which a thermoplastic lining blanket is applied. The lining
arc includes at least the surface above the minimum sewage or effluent flow level at any time in
the life of the pipeline.
1.3.2 Lining blanket

The one piece lining for the pipe fabricated by cutting and welding of standard size and part
size thermoplastic sheets.
1.3.3 Lining continuity

The quality of a lining that determines its freedom from those defects which increase its
electrical conductivity.
1.3.4 Lining defect

A detectable weakness or discontinuity in the lining, which causes its ability to protect the
substrate from corrosion to be suspect during the normal service life.
1.3.5 Lining keys

Extensions or profiles on one face of the lining sheet for the purpose of securing the lining to
the concrete pipe.
1.3.6 Lining sheet

Lining of sizes as manufactured by extrusion and from which pipe lining blankets are cut or
fabricated and miscellaneous pipe lining accessory components are cut.

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S E C T I O N

M A T E R I A L S

A N D

C O M P O N E N T S

2.1 GENERAL
Thermoplastic sheet for lining of reinforced concrete pipe shall provide an impervious barrier to
liquids and gases and be inert to the sewage environment in which it is used.
Concrete constituents shall be chosen with consideration to the aggressiveness of the external
environment and where not fully lined, the aggressiveness of any sewage having industrial
discharge.
Where ASTM test methods are specified, the equivalent ISO test method may be used with the
written agreement of the Purchaser. Equivalent ISO test methods shall be as nominated in
Clause 1.3.
NOTE: Sulphate resisting (Type SR) cement provides resistance to neutral sulphates in soils and ground water.
Coarse and fine calcareous aggregates combined with increased cover to reinforcement reduce the rate of concrete
attack in acidic ground and sewage conditions. Refer to AS 3735 Supplement 1 for further guidance on materials
selection for reinforced concrete durability in aggressive environments.

2.2 REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPE MATERIALS


Materials for manufacture of reinforced concrete pipe shall be in accordance with AS 4058.
Material options defined in the purchasing guidelines in AS 4058 shall be in accordance with the
purchasers specification and this clause.
Reinforcing nibs shall be stainless steel grade 304 or 316 to ASTM A 276.
Aggregates to AS 2758.1 shall be either normal weight or heavy weight, fine or coarse and shall
have a maximum water absorption of 2.5%, and durability for concrete exposure classification
C.
Cement shall be sulphate resisting (Type SR) except where pipes are to be used in marine
environments or where otherwise specified by the purchaser.

2.3 LINING MATERIAL


2.3.1 PVC

The PVC compound used for lining components shall comprise of high molecular weight
polyvinyl chloride combined with plasticisers, stabilisers and pigments so as to be permanently
flexible. Polyvinyl chloride shall constitute not less than 99% by mass of the resin used. The
PVC compound shall not contain copolymer resins or fillers such as calcium carbonate.
2.3.2 PE

The polyethylene compound used for lining components shall comprise of linear low density
polyethylene (LLDPE) unless otherwise specified.

2.4 LINING COMPONENTS


Components for thermoplastic lining systems for reinforced concrete pipe shall comprise of
fabricated sheet blankets as well as accessories such as joint strip and welding strip of various
configurations.

2.5 LINING COLOUR


Plastic lining shall be white in colour unless otherwise specified by the purchaser.

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NOTE:Note: Visibility for pipeline inspection is improved where a light coloured lining is used. However, non-black
lining may suffer ultraviolet degradation with prolonged exposure to sunlight and suitable lining and pipe storage
requirements may be required.

2.6 LINING SHEET PHYSICAL PROPERTIES


PVC lining shall comply with the acceptable limits criteria given in Table 2.1 when tested in
accordance with the test methods shown.
Table 2.1
PHYSICAL PROPERTY REQUIREMENTS OF PVC
PHYSICAL PROPERTY

TEST METHOD

ACCEPTABLE LIMITS

Tensile strength (both longitudinal and


transverse to key)

ASTM D412 (See Note 1)

17.25 MPa minimum

Elongation at break (both longitudinal


and transverse to key)

ASTM D412 (See Note 1)

Hardness

Shore Durometer D at 20C


ASTM D2240

Plasticiser permanence (24 hours at


90C on 50 mm diameter disc)

ASTM D1203 Method B

1.0% maximum

Water absorption at 24 hours (sample


size 75 mm x 25 mm by thickness of
sheet)

ASTM D570

0.10% maximum

Water soluble matter at 24 hours

ASTM D570

0.05% maximum

Tear strength (both longitudinal and


transverse to key)

ASTM D1004

225% minimum

54 minimum 62 maximum

80 N/mm minimum

NOTE:
1

Specimens for tensile testing shall be prepared and tested using Die B.

2.7 LINING SHEET CHEMICAL RESISTANCE PROPERTIES


2.7.1 General

Thermoplastic sheet for lining concrete pipes shall be resistant to sulphuric acid generated by
the hydrogen sulphide corrosion cycle of sewage and shall neither contribute to supporting the
growth of sewage bacteria and fungi, nor be affected by the enzymes or other end products of
such bacteria or fungi.
2.7.2 Specimens for change in mass tests

Specimens for determining change in mass shall be 75 mm x 25 mm and shall all have locking
profiles in identical positions.
2.7.3 Short Term Chemical Resistance

Lining test specimens shall be tested to ASTM D543 for change in mass, following exposure to
the chemical concentrations given in Table 2.2.
The change in mass shall not exceed the values given in Table 2.2 after 7 days exposure at
20C.

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Table 2.2
SHORT-TERM TEST EXPOSURE SOLUTIONS, CONCENTRATIONS AND ALLOWABLE
MASS CHANGE
CHEMICAL SOLUTION

CHEMICAL CONCENTRATION

ALLOWABLE CHANGE IN MASS


AFTER 7 DAYS

(1% as available chlorine)

0.20

Ferric chloride

0.60

Sodium chloride

0.15

Sulphuric acid

20

0.12

Nitric acid

0.20

Sodium hydroxide

0.20

Ammonium hydroxide

0.40

Soap detergent solution

0.40

Sodium hypochlorite

2.7.4 Long Term Chemical Resistance

Following initial conditioning to constant mass at 43C and exposure to the chemical solutions
given in Table 2.3 for 112 days at 25C 3, lining test specimens shall be tested in accordance
with:
(a)

ASTM D543 for change in mass; and

(b)

ASTM D412 using die B for tensile strength at yield.

The change in mass shall not exceed 1.5% for PVC and 0.5% for PE and the change in the
change in tensile strength at yield shall not exceed 15% for PVC and 12% for PE.
Table 2.3
LONG TERM TEST EXPOSURE SOLUTIONS AND CONCENTRATIONS
CHEMICAL SOLUTION 1

CHEMICAL CONCENTRATION
%

Sulphuric acid

20

Sodium hydroxide

Ammonia hydroxide

Nitric acid

Ferric chloride

Soap

0.1

Detergent (linear, alkyl, benzyl, sulphonate or LAS)

0.1

NOTES:
1

All chemical solutions shall have a BOD of not less than 700 ppm.

Volumetric percentages of concentrated chemical property grade reagents

2.8 LINING COMPONENTS DEFECTS


Thermoplastic lining components, including lining sheet, joint strip and welding strip shall be
free of cracks, cleavages or other defects adversely affecting the protective characteristics and
continuity of the lining.

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The lining manufacturer shall inspect all lining components for defects and shall spark test for
discontinuities all in accordance with the manufacturers printed procedures. All lining sheet
defects shall be repaired in accordance with the lining manufacturers printed procedures.
Lining sheet shall be retested and repaired until no defects are present.

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S E C T I O N

D E S I G N

A N D

M A N U F A C T U R E

3.1 REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPE


Reinforced concrete pipe shall be designed and manufactured to AS 4058. Product design
options defined in the purchasing guidelines in AS 4058 shall be in accordance with the
purchasers specification and the following:
(a)

Internal cover to reinforcement shall be 20 mm minimum for horizontally and 25 mm for


vertically cast pipe.

(b)

Minimum cement content shall be 400 kg/m .

(c)

Materials shall comply with Clause 2.2.

(d)

Flexible joint design shall be in accordance with Clause 6.3 of AS 1741.

(e)

When tested in accordance with Clause 20.6 and Appendix H of BS 5911-100, each size
and type of flexible joint shall sustain without loss of watertightness at the joint the
specified internal pressure under the conditions of deflection, straight draw and shear
specified in Clauses 20.6.1, 20.6.2 and 20.6.3 of BS 5911-100, respectively.

Pipes shall be either steam cured or water cured. For steam curing, commence a maximum of
one hour after completion of plastic lining. Maintain a uniform rate of increase and decrease in
pipe temperature until at least 50% of the characteristic compressive strength has been
achieved. For water curing, cure continuously for at least seven days and until at least 50% of
the characteristic compressive strength has been achieved.
NOTE: Load testing may be undertaken on unlined pipe, of the same materials, design and manufacturing method as
plastic lined pipe. External sacrificial layers shall be omitted for load testing.

3.2 LINING SHEET AND COMPONENTS


Thermoplastic lining sheet shall be manufactured from compounds complying with Clauses 2.3,
2.5, 2.6 and 2.7 by extrusion under controlled temperature and pressure conditions.
Thermoplastic lining components shall be manufactured from compounds complying with
Clauses 2.4, 2.5, 2.6 and 2.7 by extrusion or injection moulding under controlled temperature
and pressure conditions.

3.2.1 LINING SHEET KEYS


One side of the plastic lining sheet shall be designed to have keys, such as ribs, for the purpose
of embedding the key into the underlying concrete and permanently retaining the sheet.
Keys shall be spaced at a distance, as appropriate for the lining flexibility, to ensure the lining
between the keys does not sag away from the concrete substrate. The top portion of the keys
shall be wider in section for the purpose of enhancing resistance to pull-out from the concrete.
The keys shall be integral with and of the same composition as the lining sheet.
3.2.2 LINING COMPONENTS DIMENSIONS
3.2.2.1 Lining Sheets

Lining sheet shall be 1.5 to 3 mm thick.


Rib profiles shall be equally spaced at 60 to 70 mm and shall be not less than 9 mm high for
lining used with vertically cast pipe and not less than 10 mm high for lining used with
horizontally cast pipe.

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The top of the key used for lining horizontally cast pipe shall have a shape that will minimise
resistance to insertion into the concrete substrate while providing sufficient pull out resistance.
NOTE:
1
2

Suitable designs include diamonds or arrows.


The top of the key used for lining vertically cast pipe may be of T design to further improve resistance to
pull-out.

3.2.2.2 Welding Strips

Flat welding strip used for repairs and sealing of miscellaneous field joints shall be of 25 mm
nominal width on the bottom face and 3 mm nominal thickness. Edges shall be bevelled.
3.2.2.3 Joint Strips

Where required, flat joint strips shall be 100 mm nominal width within tolerance of - 0 + 7 mm.
3.2.2.4 Lining Blankets

Lining blankets shall be cut and fabricated to size based on the pipe arc and the pipe length to
be lined and length of pipe joint flap for covering the pipe joints.
3.2.3 LINING SHEET WEIGHT
2

PVC lining sheet shall have a minimum mass of 2.5 kg/m . PE lining sheet shall have a
2
minimum mass of 2.9 kg/m .
3.2.4 PIPE LINING FABRICATION

Pipe lining blankets shall be fabricated from standard sheets and/or part sheets by lapping
sheets a minimum of 12 mm and applying adequate heat and pressure to the lap, using
automatic hot air or high frequency shop welding processes, to produce a continuous welded
joint. Sheets for fabricating the lining blanket shall be of dimensions that will minimise the total
welding length.
All welding shall be in accordance with the lining manufacturers written instructions for sheet
jointing work.
Welded joints shall be free from cracks, separations or incompletely fused weld edges which
are visible or which permit entry to an 0.1 mm feeler gauge by more than 3 mm of feeler gauge
length.
Transverse flaps provided at the end of pipe lining blankets for pipe joint overlap shall have
backing keys removed such that not more than 1 mm height of key remains.
For vertically cast pipe, keying shall be removed up to 40 mm from the end of the inside surface
of the pipe section. For horizontally cast pipe, sufficient keying shall be removed to ensure that
the keying adjacent to the ends of the pipe barrel will not be closer than 13 mm from the barrel
end.
Transverse flaps provided at the spigot end of pipes shall extend at least 100 mm beyond the
end of the spigot end face.
Lining blankets for horizontally cast pipes shall be produced so that continuous ribs for keying
are circumferentially disposed. Lining for vertically cast pipe shall be produced so that
continuous ribs for keying are longitudinally disposed.
3.2.5 LINING ARC

The circumferential arc of pipes to be lined shall be designed to achieve 359 coverage. The
tolerance on the actual lining arc achieved shall be +0.5 4.0.
NOTE: The accuracy in achieving a specified lining arc is affected by the tolerance on cutting the lining, the tolerance
allowed for the internal diameter and any change in lining length due to temperature change. The last two factors are

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WSA 1132002

more significant for horizontally cast pipe. Ensuring a specified lining arc is achieved, requires providing a lining to
cover that arc for at least the maximum internal diameter that is possible after applying the tolerances allow for in the
casting method (and also making allowances for any dimension changes due to temperature variations).

3.3 LINING OF PIPE


3.3.1 LINING OF HORIZONTALLY CAST PIPE

Lining of horizontally cast pipe with the lining blanket shall be undertaken immediately following
manufacture of the pipe while the concrete is still green and compliant to allow lining keys to be
embedded.
The lining shall be heated to an appropriate temperature so that it may be sufficiently pliant for
application while still retaining sufficient rigidity of keys for insertion into the concrete.
Where the lining has continuous ribs for keying, the ribs shall be aligned circumferentially in the
pipe so as to allow moisture or fluid accumulating between the lining and the pipe to escape
towards the unlined part of the pipe.
Where the lining has continuous ribs, the lining shall be positioned to ensure:
(a)

the lining ribs at each lining end are not closer than 13 mm from the barrel end; and

(b)

the distance between ribs on either side of a pipe joint will not be greater than 130 mm.

The lining shall be positioned to ensure that any joint flap extends at least 100 mm beyond the
end of the inside surface of the spigot.
Where pipes have elliptical steel reinforcing to achieve higher pipe strength on one axis, the
gap in the lining sheet shall be equidistant about the nominated pipe invert or the invert of the
lined pipe shall be within 10 of true pipe invert.
The lining shall be held in longitudinal tension by suitable means while lining keys are
embedded into the concrete substrate so as to ensure there is no wrinkling or bulging of the
lining. The keys shall be embedded to ensure the lining is hard against the underlying concrete
and that circumferential corrugations on the surface of the liner are within tolerances specified.
Care shall be taken when removing the lining embedment equipment to prevent damage to the
lining. Any holes made in the lining for manufacturing purposes shall be clearly marked for weld
sealing.
3.3.2 LINING OF VERTICALLY CAST PIPE

Lining for vertically cast pipe shall be placed on the face of the inner mould prior to placement
of concrete between the inner and outer moulds.
For 359 lining arcs or less, plastic strips or similar shall be used to hold the ends of the lining
arc firmly against the inner mould in order to prevent mortar entering between the lining and the
inner mould. The strips shall be secured by screws or similar through the inner mould.
Where the lining is installed as a tube but is not to be a 360 lining, keying shall be removed
from the section of lining in the invert that will be later cut away.
Where the lining has continuous ribs for keys, the sheet shall be aligned with the ribs
longitudinal to the pipe so as to allow moisture or fluid accumulating between the lining and pipe
to escape and to facilitate casting.
The lining shall be positioned to ensure:
(a)

the lining keys terminate not more than 40 mm from the end of the inside surface of the
pipe section; and

(b)

any joint flap extends at least 100 mm beyond the end of the inside surface of the spigot.

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Where pipes have elliptical steel reinforcing to achieve higher pipe strength on one axis, the
gap in the lining sheet shall be equidistant about the nominated pipe invert due to reinforcement
disposition.
The lining blanket shall be held in tension by plastic or metal bands at the top and bottom of the
mould or similar so as to ensure there is no wrinkling or bulging of the lining.
Care shall be taken when removing the inner mould to prevent damage to the lining. Screws,
nails or other securing ties through the lining shall be removed with care and without tearing the
lining prior to removal of the moulds. Sharp instruments shall not be used to pry the mould from
the lining. Any holes made in the lining for manufacturing purposes shall be clearly marked for
weld sealing.
All nail and tie holes in the lining blanket made for manufacturing the plastic lined concrete pipe
shall be patched in accordance Appendix E and the manufacturers written procedures.

3.4 WELDER QUALIFICATIONS


Manual welding of thermoplastic sheet lining for fabrication and repair shall be carried out by
welders who have been accredited by successfully completing the National Plastics and Rubber
Industry Training Council Ltd course entitled Plastic welding utilising hot air gun welding
techniques on plasticised and unplasticised PVC and PE.
Only approved welding methods shall be used.

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S E C T I O N

P E R F O R M A N C E

R E Q U I R E M E N T S

4.1 GENERAL
Where ASTM test methods are specified, the equivalent ISO test method may be used with the
written agreement of the Purchaser. Equivalent ISO test methods shall be as nominated in
Clause 1.3.

4.2 LINING KEY PULL-OUT RESISTANCE


When tested in accordance with Appendix C, the keys on the back of the lining sheet shall resist
tearing and pull-out from the concrete and the concrete shall resist spalling when subject to a
3
pull-out load of 1800 kg/m .

4.3 LINING CONTINUITY


When tested in accordance with Appendix D, continuity of the entire pipe lining and any
accessories shall be demonstrated after visual inspection, weld probing and spark testing.

4.4 LINING KEY EMBEDMENT


The lining shall be visually checked for keys not embedded or insufficiently embedded into the
concrete substrate. Minor key embedment defects as described in Appendix E shall be
acceptable and shall not require repair. Major key embedment defects may be repaired in
accordance with Appendix E where approved by the purchaser or the purchasers
representative.

4.5 LINING FINISH


The installed plastic lining shall not have corrugations or non circularities or both which reduce
the pipe:
(a)

Waterway area by more than 1.5%.

(b)

Diameter by more than 5 mm for pipe DN 1800 10 mm for pipe >DN 1800.

NOTE: Such tolerances are additional to the dimensional tolerances permitted for unlined concrete pipe to AS 4058.

The unlined section width shall be within the tolerances specified by the purchaser.
Pipe with mortar over the edge of the blanket shall be rejected or otherwise repaired where
agreed by the purchaser or the purchasers representative.
The lining ends shall be square with the pipe ends.

4.6 JOINT LAP TENSILE STRENGTH


When tested in accordance with ASTM D412, the joint weld of overlapping sheets in a pipe
lining blanket shall withstand a tensile loading of 17.25 MPa.

4.7 CONCRETE DEFECTS


Acceptability and repair of concrete defects in plastic lined concrete pipes shall be in
accordance with AS 4058.
Concrete defects causing projections or depressions of the lining of one quarter to one half the
cover shall be repaired.

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Pipes shall be rejected where concrete defects cause projections or depressions of the lining
greater than one half the cover unless otherwise agreed by the purchaser or the purchasers
representative to be repaired.

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S E C T I O N

S E C T I O N 5
M A R K I N G
P A C K A G I N G

A N D

5.1 LINING SHEET MARKING


Lining sheet shall be marked with the batch identification number.

5.2 PIPE MARKING


Pipe shall be marked in accordance with the requirements of AS 4058.

5.3 PACKAGING
Prior to receipt by the purchaser, suitable packaging or protection shall be given to the pipe
lining to prevent:
(a)

Damage to the lining.

(b)

Exposure of the lining to ultraviolet radiation where the lining is not black.

5.4 INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS


Printed instructions for transport, handling and storage of plastic lined concrete pipe to minimise
damage and deterioration of the plastic lining, and welding of plastic lining at pipe joints and
other locations shall be provided by the manufacturer with each delivery of pipes.

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APPENDIX A
PURCHASING GUIDELINES
(Informative)
A1 SCOPE
This Appendix includes the technical provisions necessary for the supply of plastic lined
reinforced concrete pipe, but does not contain all the necessary provisions of a contract. In a
number of clauses, the purchaser is either asked to state the requirements or is given a choice
of optional requirements, and these are contractual matters to be agreed between the purchaser
and the manufacturer.
This Appendix also contains detailed explanation, advice and recommendations on the
information to be supplied by the purchaser at the time of the enquiry or order. Its aims are to
prevent misunderstanding and to result in satisfactory supply of products and services.
A2 INFORMATION TO BE SUPPLIED BY THE PURCHASER
The following information should be supplied by the purchaser:
(a)

Arc of pipe to be lined, e.g. 359 0.5.

(b)

The requirements for lining joint flap, including length of flap.

(c)

The colour of the lining. The default colour is black if not otherwise specified.

(d)

The number of pipes to be lined and the respective nominal sizes, load classes, effective
pipe lengths and joint type.

(e)

The type of cement and aggregates to be used for pipe manufacture, cover to
reinforcement and any requirements for admixtures.

A3 INFORMATION TO BE SUPPLIED BY THE MANUFACTURER


At the time of tendering, the pipe manufacturer should state the following:
(a)

The thickness of the lining sheet in mm.

(b)

The spacing of keys on the back of the lining sheet in mm.

(c)

The dimensions of the keys in mm.

(d)

The size of sheets from which the pipe lining is fabricated in mm.

(e)

The method of pipe manufacture.

(f)

The method of casting the lining with the pipe.

(g)

The method for curing the pipe.

(h)

The methods of transporting, handling and storing the pipes

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APPENDIX B
MEANS FOR DEMONSTRATING COMPLIANCE WITH THIS STANDARD
(Normative)
B1 SCOPE
This Appendix sets out two means by which compliance with this Standard shall be
demonstrated by a manufacturer:
(a)

The use of a product certification scheme.

(b)

The use of a minimum sampling and testing frequency plan.

B2 RELEVANCE
The long-term performance of pipeline systems is critical to the operating efficiency of water
agencies in terms of operating licences and customer contracts. The long-term performance of
plumbing systems is similarly critical to the durability of building infrastructure, protection of
public health and safety and protection of the environment. Product certification schemes
provide independent assurance of the claim by the manufacturer that products comply with
standards and are thereby fit for their intended use in pipeline and plumbing systems
B3 PRODUCT CERTIFICATION
The certification scheme shall meet the criteria described in SAA HB18.28/SANZ HB18.28
(ISO/IEC Guide 28) in that, as well as full type testing from independently sampled production
and subsequent verification of conformance, it requires the manufacturer to maintain effective
planning to control production.
The certification scheme serves to indicate that the products consistently conform to the
requirements of this Standard.
Product certification shall be conducted by a certification body accredited by the Joint
Accreditation System for Australia and New Zealand (JAS-ANZ) or by another accreditation
body that is acceptable to JAS-ANZ.
The frequency of the sampling and testing plan as detailed in Paragraph B4.1 shall be used by
the certifying body for product compliance auditing. However, where the manufacturer can
demonstrate adequate process control to the certifying body, the frequency of sampling and
testing nominated in the manufacturer's quality plan and/or documented procedures shall take
precedence for the purpose of product certification.
B4 TESTING
B4.1 GENERAL
Table B4.1 sets out the minimum sampling and testing frequency plan for a manufacturer to
demonstrate compliance of product(s) to this Standard.
B4.2 RETESTING
In the event of a test failure, the products manufactured since the previous test(s) conforming to
the requirements outlined in Table B4.1 shall be quarantined as a batch. A further set of
samples shall be selected randomly from the quarantined batch using a sampling plan to
AS 1199 for an acceptable quality level (AQL) of 2.5 and an inspection level of S3, unless
otherwise specified. If the retest requirements are met, the batch may be released and
compliance with this Standard for the quarantined batch may be claimed.
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Should a failure on retesting occur, then the quarantined batch shall be rejected and claims
and/or marking indicating compliance to this Standard shall be suspended until the cause of the
failure has been identified and corrected.
B4.3 REJECTION AFTER RETEST
In the event of a quarantined batch being rejected after retesting in accordance with the
procedures set out in Paragraph B4.2, it may be subjected to 100% testing for the failed
requirement(s), and only those items found to comply may be claimed and/or marked as
complying with this Standard.
TABLE B4.1
MINIMUM SAMPLING FREQUENCY FOR TESTING AND INSPECTION
CHARACTERISTIC

CLAUSE

REQUIREMENT

TEST METHOD

FREQUENCY

Type Tests
Materials

PVC or PE composition
(Conformance or test
certificates)

Relevant material standard

Hardness

Shore Durometer

Tensile strength

ASTM D412

Elongation at break

ASTM D412

Plasticiser permanence

ASTM D1203 Method B

Water absorption

ASTM D570

Water soluble matter

ASTM D570

Tear strength

ASTM D1004

Chemical resistance

ASTM D543 and Cl 2.6.4 for


long term requirements

Lining components
defects

Inspection and spark test to


Appendix D

3.4.1

Lining sheet thickness

3.4.1

Lining sheet profile

Measuring devices (tape,


micrometer etc)

3.4.2

Welding strip

At any change in
material
formulation or
design

3.4.3

Joint strip
Joint lap tensile strength

ASTM D412

At any change in
material
formulation or
design

2.3

Base sheet for lining

2.5

2.6.4

2.7
Dimensions

Lining fabrication

Performance Tests

CHARACTERISTIC

4.5

Overlap dimension

Measuring tape

3.6

Lining blanket continuity

Inspection and spark test to


Appendix D

4.1

Lining pull-out resistance

Appendix C

4.2

Installed lining blanket


continuity

Inspection and spark test to


Appendix D

4.3

Key embedment depth

Measuring devices

4.4

Lining finish

Measuring devices

CLAUSE

REQUIREMENT

TEST METHOD

Every 5 years or
at any change in
material
formulation

Every 5 years or
at any change in
material
formulation or
design

Every 5 years or
change in material
formulation or
lining design

FREQUENCY

Batch Release Tests


Materials
2.2

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Base sheet for lining

2.7

Dimensions

Lining components
defects

Inspection and spark test to


Appendix D

Each sheet

Lining sheet thickness

Measuring devices (tape,


micrometer etc)

1 in 20 sheets

3.4.1
Lining sheet keys
3.4.2

Welding strip

3.4.3

Joint strip

Lining fabrication

3.6

Overlap dimension

1 in 20 strips

Measuring tape

Key removal at lining ends


Lining length

Each sheet

Lining width (pipe arc)


Lining blanket continuity

Inspection and spark test to


Appendix D

Joint lap tensile strength

ASTM D412

1 in 20 sheets

Lining pull-out resistance

Inspection and spark test to


Appendix D

Four successive
pipes from initial
production batch

4.2

Installed lining blanket


continuity

Appendix D

Each pipe

4.3

Key embedment depth

Measuring devices

4.4

Lining finish

Measuring devices

Lining pull-out resistance

Appendix C

1 from first 40
pipes of each pipe
size and load
class

Joint lap tensile strength

ASTM D412

1 in 100 lining
blankets

Chemical resistance

ASTM D543 and Cl 2.6.3 for


short term requirements

1 in 500 lining
sheets

4.5
Performance Tests
4.1

Process Verification Tests


Production Quality
Control Tests (also
Performance type
tests)

4.1

4.5

2.6.3

B5 DEFINITIONS
B5.1 ACCEPTABLE QUALITY LEVEL (AQL)
When a continuous series of lots or batches is considered, the quality level which for the
purpose of sampling inspection is the limit of a satisfactory process average (see ISO 2859-1
and ISO 3951)
NOTE: The designation of an AQL does not imply that a manufacturer has the right knowingly to supply any nonconforming unit of product.

B5.2 MATERIAL OR COMPOUND BATCH


A clearly identifiable quantity of a particular material or compound.
B5.3 PIPE BATCH
Schedule of pipes, all the same design, nominal length and thickness, manufactured from the
same batch of concrete on the same machine or identical moulds. The batch is defined by the
pipe manufacturer.
B5.4 PRODUCTION BATCH
A clearly identifiable collection of units, manufactured consecutively or continuously under the
same conditions, using material or compound to the same specification.

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B5.5 LOT
A clearly identifiable sub-division of a batch for inspection purposes.
B5.6 SAMPLE
One or more units of product drawn from a batch or lot, selected at random without regard to
quality.
NOTE: The number of units of product in the sample is the sample size.

B5.7 SAMPLING PLAN


A specific plan that indicates the number of units of components or assemblies to be inspected.
B5.8 PROCESS VERIFICATION TEST (PVT)
A test performed by the manufacturer on materials, components, joints or assemblies at specific
intervals to confirm that the process continues to be capable of producing components
conforming to the requirements given in the relevant standard.
NOTE: Such tests are not required to release batches of components and are carried out as a measure of process
control.

B5.9 BATCH RELEASE TEST (BRT)


A test performed by the manufacturer on a batch of components, which has to be satisfactorily
completed before the batch can be released.
B5.10 TYPE TESTING (TT)
Testing performed to prove that the material, component, joint or assembly is capable of
conforming to the requirements given in the relevant standard.
B5.11 NEW FORMULATION
A variation in the formulation of any component material used in any part of the product or a
variation in the formulation of a composite material due to the variation in the quantity of
component materials or the structure of the composite.

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WSA 1132002

APPENDIX C
LINING KEY PULL-OUT RESISTANCE
(Normative)
C1 SCOPE
This Appendix sets out a method for determining the resistance of the lining to being detached
from the underlying concrete substrate following curing of the concrete pipe.
C2 PRINCIPLE
A pull off load is applied to the thermoplastic pipe lining for a specified period to determine
whether the lining will be retained fastened to the concrete pipe wall by the keys on the back of
the lining.
C3 APPARATUS
The following apparatus is required:
(a)

An appropriate clamp to attach to the lining for the purpose of applying a load

(b)

Loading apparatus capable of applying a force of 17.5 N per lineal mm length of key

(c)

A suitable marker, such as chalk or a spirit pen and of contrasting colour to the lining, e.g.
white where lining is black, for marking the location of defects on the lining.

C4 PROCEDURE
(a)

Condition the pipe for at least 48 h prior to testing at an ambient temperature of 20 to


27C.

(b)

Test under ambient temperature of 20 to 27C at least 14 days after lining of pipe.

(c)

At the mid length of the pipe diametrically opposite the invert, mark a lining test area to be
cut being 40 to 50 mm either side of a ribbing key or a line of individual keys and 100 to
200 mm long.

(d)

Make two knife cuts parallel to and 40 to 50 mm either side of a rib type key or a line of
individual keys and 100 to 200 mm long. Where the key is a rib, use an abrasive wheel
cutter to make two transverse cuts at the ends of the knife cuts deep enough to severe
the ribs. Otherwise, where the keys are individual use a knife for the transverse cut.

(e)

Examine the surface of the concrete under the cut lining and record the type and number
of defects.

(f)

Attach a clamp to the cut lining test area.

(g)

Apply a force of 17.5 N per lineal mm of key length to the clamp, perpendicularly to the
liner and maintain for 1 minute.

(h)

Remove the load and clamp and examine the lining test area keying.

(i)

At 0.6 to 0.9 m from the mid-length towards the spigot and diametrically opposite the
invert repeat the preparation and testing described in c) to h) above.

(j)

At 0.6 to 0.9 m from the mid-length towards the socket and diametrically opposite the
invert repeat the preparation and testing described in c) to h) above.

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(k)

Where in any of the test locations, the lining pulls away from the underlying concrete and
indicates movement or breakage of the retaining key or spalling of the concrete, the test
will have been failed.

(l)

Progressively extend pull-out testing away from the failed key area so as to determine the
extent of on conforming key embedment.

(m)

Repair of the test pipe shall be permitted where the non-conforming key embedment area
2
is less than 0.05 m in any single pullout location.

(n)

Repair concrete defects or reject pipe in accordance with the defects acceptability and
repair requirements in AS 4058.

C5 TEST REPORT
The test report shall include the following:
(a)

Production batch from which the pipe was taken.

(b)

Date of test.

(c)

Locations at which the key failed.

(d)

The nature of the failure, e.g. movement of the key, breakage of the key, spalling of the
concrete.

(e)

Reference to this test method.

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WSA 1132002

APPENDIX D
LINING CONTINUITY
(Normative)
D1 SCOPE
This Appendix sets out a method for determining the presence of defects in the lining, such as
pin holes, tears and weld failures, which would prevent the lining from providing a barrier to
concrete corrosion.
D2 PRINCIPLE
A pipe lining is firstly visually inspected for defects and then subsequently tested, using a
calibrated spark testing instrument, for discontinuities that may cause the lining to be ineffective
in preventing corrosion of the underlying concrete.
D3 APPARATUS
The following apparatus is required:
(a)

Spark testing equipment calibrated to 20 000 V and according with the requirements of
Clause 7 of AS 3894.1.

(b)

An approved weld probing device such as a 0.15 mm feeler gauge or a blunt screwdriver.

(c)

A suitable marker, such as chalk or a spirit pen and of contrasting colour to the lining, e.g.
white where lining is black, for marking the location of defects on the lining.

D4 PROCEDURE
(a)

Inspect the lining carefully for visible defects, such as cuts, tears, or cracks and open or
incompletely fused welds.

(b)

Probe all welds with the probing device to determine all defective welds requiring
rewelding, i.e. weak welds and welds where the probe enters more than 3mm.

(c)

Identify all defects with the marker and determine whether there any major defects. Minor
defects are defined in Appendix E.

(d)

Where there are major defects reject the lining or lined pipe unless otherwise agreed by
the purchaser or the purchaser representative that the defects may be repaired.

(e)

Where all detected defects are minor, repair defects using qualified welders in
accordance with Appendix E and the manufacturers printed procedures.

(f)

If any charring of welds occurs during repair due to overheating, replace all charred
sections in accordance with Appendix E and the manufacturers printed procedures.

(g)

Ensure that the spark testing equipment has been calibrated within the last 12 months in
accordance with Appendix C of AS 3894.1.

(h)

Allow 20 minutes for the spark testing instrument to reach equilibrium conditions with the
environment. The 20 minutes is to include 10 minutes for warming up the instrument after
it is switched on.

(i)

Ensure the surface of the lining is dry with an absence of condensation.

(j)

Adjust the voltage of the spark testing equipment to 15000 +1000 0 volts.

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(k)

Secure an earth connection to an exposed section of pipe reinforcement.

(l)

Pass the brush electrode over the pipe lining at a rate of not greater than 0.3 m/s
maintaining contact between the electrode and the test area, using an appropriate motion.

(m)

Where the instrument indicates a discontinuity determine the exact location of the
discontinuity (do not hold electrode stationary against the surface) and clearly identify it
on the test surface with the marker.

(n)

Continue testing until the whole of the lining has been assessed.

(o)

Count and record the number of discontinuities found, expressing them as defects per
square metre of total lining area.

(p)

Where there is more than one discontinuity per square metre, undertake repair only with
the approval of the purchaser or purchasers representative.

(q)

Undertake repair of discontinuities using qualified welders in accordance with Appendix E


and the manufacturers printed procedures.

(r)

Repeat spark testing and repair {steps g) to m) and p)} until there are no discontinuities
detected.

D5 TEST REPORT
The test report shall include the following:
(a)

Production batch from which the pipe was taken.

(b)

Date of test.

(c)

Description of the spark testing equipment and calibration details.

(d)

Voltage selected to conduct the continuity test and calibration details.

(e)

For each pipe tested, the number of lining defects and the nature of each defect.

(f)

Reference to this test method.

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APPENDIX E
LINING DEFECTS AND REPAIR
(Normative)
E1 DEFECTS CLASSIFICATION
Defects in lining blankets are described as major and minor where minor defects are:
2

(a)

Discontinuities detected by spark testing not exceeding an average of one per m of


plastic lining area tested.

(b)

Damage such as cuts and tears over an area not greater than 0.04 m .

(c)

Short incomplete welds, i.e. incomplete or unfused welds individually not more than
25 mm in length or not more than 250 mm in any one metre length.

(d)

Charred sections of lining less than 0.05 m in lining area.

(e)

Lining projections and depressions between one quarter and one half the concrete cover.

(f)

Unembedded keys over an area not exceeding 0.04 m of a plastics lining area.

(g)

An unembedded key with keys either side embedded.

(h)

Welded joints that have failed pull tests.

E2 DEFECTS TO BE REPAIRED
Minor defects a), b), c), d), e) and h) shall be repaired in accordance with this Appendix and the
manufacturers printed procedures.
Minor defects f) and g) do not require repair.
Repair of major defects shall only be undertaken, where agreed by the purchaser or purchasers
representative. Repair of major defects shall be in accordance with this Appendix and the
manufacturers printed procedures.
E3 WELDING STRIPS FOR REPAIR
Where welding strips are used in repair, test tabs shall be left at the ends of the welding strip in
order to perform a pull test.
E4 REPAIR METHODS
E4.1 Pinholes, Cuts and Tears
Isolated pinholes, and straight cuts and tears whose cut or torn edges can be brought together
shall be repaired by welding flat welding strip centrally over the defect.
E4.2 Damaged Sections
Damaged sections, which cannot be repaired using a welding strip, shall be replaced.
Replacement shall be as follows:
(a)

Cut out the defective area preferably in a rectangular shape.

(b)

Cut a lining patch to the shape removed.

(c)

Tack weld the patch in place with no gap greater than 4 mm.

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Weld a flat welding strips centrally over all joins.

Otherwise replacement shall be as follows:


(e)

Cut out the defective area preferably in a rectangular shape.

(f)

Cut a lining patch at least 12 mm larger all round than the shape removed.

(g)

Seal with offset welding strips.

E4.3 Short Incomplete Welds


Short incomplete welds shall be repaired as follows:
(a)

Lift up the unsealed edge with a blunt knife.

(b)

Carefully direct heat into the weld.

(c)

Press the strip down firmly.

E4.4 Long Incomplete Welds


Long incomplete welds shall be cut out and patched as described in Paragraph E2 where
approved by the purchaser or the purchasers representative that the lining or lined pipe is not
to be rejected.
E4.5 Charred and Overheated Welds
Charred and overheated welds resulting from a repair operation shall be cut out and patched as
described in Paragraph E2.
E4.6 Unembedded Keys and Lining Depressions and Projections
Unembedded keys and lining depressions and projections shall be repaired as follows:
(a)

Cut the lining no more than necessary to effect concrete repair or key re-embedment.

(b)

Dig out all loose concrete and remove projections.

(c)

Replace removed concrete with an approved epoxy.

(d)

Reposition the cut lining and re-embed the lining keys while expelling any entrapped air.

(e)

Hold the lining in place with steel strips strutted diagonally for at least 24 h.

(f)

Weld flat welding strips centrally over all cuts.

E5 WELDING STRIP PULL TEST


All welding strips shall be tested for resistance to being pulled off as follows:
(a)

Punch a hole in test tabs provided at each end of the welding strip (welding strips to be
extended 50 mm beyond welding length each end to provide test tabs).

(b)

Apply a force of 50 N, by means of a spring balance to each tab at a time perpendicular to


the face of the lining. Hold the adjoining lining against the concrete during application of
the force.

(c)

If weld failure occurs on application of force, maintain the 50 N pulling force until weld
separation ceases.

(d)

Repair failed welds in accordance with clause E3.

(e)

Repeat pull test and repair until pull test does not open the weld.

(f)

Trim tabs neatly after satisfactory testing.

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APPENDIX F
HANDLING, STORAGE AND TRANSPORT
(Informative)
Handling, storage and transport of plastics lined reinforced concrete pipes shall be in
accordance with the product manufacturer's printed requirements.
Notwithstanding the manufacturers requirements, the following requirements shall be met:
(a)

Use only lifting and transportation equipment which does not contact plastics lining or
plastics accessories except when approval has been received from the purchasers
representative allowing use of equipment having padding or protective systems to prevent
damage.

(b)

Protect plastic lining accessories, such as welding strip during handling, storage and
transport until secured in the completed installation.

(c)

Secure lining flaps protruding from pipe ends to prevent severe changes in the direction
of the flap.

(d)

Prevent exposure to sunlight of plastics lining sheets and accessories

(e)

Provide secure, clean and dry storage areas for plastics lining work materials and tools.

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