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CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

In this chapter, the researcher described about the research methodology. The

description of the research includes Research Design, Setting and Subject, Research

Procedure, Data Analysis and Reflection.

3.1 The Research Design

The design of this study is a Classroom Action Research (CAR). The

researcher made an action research as a research design because the language

knowledge always changes and develops in the practicing and implementing. Nunan

(1992:17) stated that a form of research which is becoming increasingly significant

in language education is action research. In action research, a researcher identified

the problem, planed and designed a way to overcome it, and implemented the plan.

The researcher in action research applied the cycle process in conducting the

study based on the model of the classroom action research. Kemmis and McTaggart

in Asrori (2008:100) stated that there are four steps in action research:

1. Planning an action

2. Implementing the plan

3. Observing the action, and

4. Analyzing the data obtained during the actions and making a reflection on the

results of the observation.


3.2 The Setting and the Subject of the Research

The subject of the research is one class of the second year’s students of SMP

Negeri 2 Makmur. The total amount of the students in one class is 30 students. The

location of this school is very easy to reach and not so far from the town. The

detailed address is Ule Gle Street, Makmur Sub-District, Bireuen District.

The school was selected by the researcher as the setting of research because

the students did not able to master grammar properly. Board game was selected to

teach the English grammar to students. This game made the students easy to master

grammar. And at last, there is no one has been done the research about grammar and

action research at this school before.

The second year students of this school have been learning English since in

the first year. So, English is not strange anymore for them. They had been learned

vocabulary, sentence structure, tenses, and another important part of English. The

students did not have a subject named grammar, but all of the material told before

basically support the students’ English mastering.

3.3 The Research Procedure

The research procedure was started form conducting a preliminary study first

which was intended to know the real condition of the students and the problems in

English grammar mastering. After that, the researcher did planning the action,

implementing, observing and the last was analysis and reflection. The researcher

planned to implement this study. In processing the study, the researcher did the steps

proposed by Kemmis and McTaggart as illustrated in the next page in figure 3.1
ANALYSIS AND FINDING
Successful

The students have low ability in mastering grammar


The strategic used in the teaching and learning process are not various and attractive
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IMPLEMENTING THE PLAN PLANNING THE ACTION


aching and learning process on
Designing the lesson
a lesson plan plan.
for English grammar through board game.
Preparing instrument, field notes and criteria of success.

OBSERVING

ata about the effect of implementations of the action.

THE ACTION

lected data
ther the action is successful or unsuccessful

Unsuccessful

Conclusion Revised Plan

Report

3.1 Classroom Action Research Model (adapted from Kemmis & Taggart, 1998)
3.3.1 Planning an Action

In planning section, the researcher used the appropriate way in solving the

students and the teacher problems in English grammar. The appropriate way dealt

with things such as designing appropriate lesson plans, preparing instructional

materials, and also preparing the instruments for observation.

The most important thing in part of planning was preparing the criteria of

success. The criteria of success were designed to assess the student’s ability in

mastering grammar. They were designed to determine whether the action in the first

cycle was already successful. The criteria of success were used to identify things

which were still needed to be revised for the action in the next cycle.

The study was considered successful if it already met the criteria of success

as follow:

1. All the subjects were actively involved during the teaching and learning

process.

2. Most of the subjects could follow the stages in English grammar process well.

3. The students’ ability in mastering English grammar had developed in each

stage of instructional.

4. The students’ grammar mastering already achieved the good level, minimum

score is 65.

5. The students felt happy in playing the board game in learning English

grammar.
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6.

3.3.2 Implementing the Action

In the implementing of the plan, the researcher chose one of the teachers at

the school who acted as the practitioner to carry out the teaching and learning

process, while the researcher also observed the interaction between the teacher and

the students during the class.

Asrory (2008:40) suggested begin the introduction session by explaining the

process approach, describing and demonstrating each stage to make it clearer for

students follow and guiding students to explore some brief board game in English

grammar teaching and learning process.

3.3.3 Observing the Action

Observation is the process of recording and gathering data about any aspects

or events that was happening in the teaching and learning process during the

implementation of the action (Asrory, 2008:40). Since the activity was the process of

recording and collecting the data, the researcher observed the activities going on in

the class while the action was being implemented.

The researcher did the observation during the implementation of board game

as a media in teaching English grammar in the class. Some main points that the

researcher observed in this step were the student’s activities and improvements as

well as the teacher’s performance in applying board game in teaching and learning

process. In order to collect accurate data and get reliable result, the researcher

prepared the instruments for the data collection.

In collecting data, the researcher used observation checklist forms on the


implementation, observation checklist on the students’ participation during the

implementation and field notes. Observation checklist forms on the implementation

is used to obtain information how the practitioner implemented the prepared plan and

procedures, especially to find information whether or not the assessment instruments

prepared could be used as well as possible.

Meanwhile, observation checklist on the students’ participation during the

implementation was design in such way as to obtain sufficient information

concerning the students’ participation or engagement on each activity. The researcher

also used field note in observation phase. It was used as a mean of recording facts

related to the teaching which couldn’t be put in the observation forms.

3.3.4 Data Analysis and Reflection

In the data analysis the researcher compared the results of the note during the

teaching and learning process. The data obtained through observation then collected

and analyzed them. In reflection, the researcher evaluated the result of the action in

the first cycle in order to know whether it has met the criteria of success or not.

There are three major indicator of success formulated, namely the improvement of

the students writing ability in each stage of the process, the student’s final products,

and the student’s responses toward the implementation of the action.

In this case the students are expected to be happy in mastering English

vocabulary through narrative text. This action was considered successful if it has met

the major indicator of the success mentioned above. If one of the criteria is not met

yet, the research was continued to the next cycle by revising and improving the plan.

The revision and improvement was focused on the relevant criteria which are not yet
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met in the first cycle.