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MACE43001 & MACE61057

Three hours
Graph paper is available in the Examination Room
An R6 Failure Assessment Diagram is provided and, if used, should be attached
to your script
A Formula Sheet is supplied at the end of the question paper on pages XX to XX


XX January 2015
XX.00 - XX.00

Answer Question 1 in Part A, and any TWO QUESTIONS in Part B.
Question 1 is worth 50 marks and all the questions in Part B are worth 25
marks each.

Electronic calculators may be used, provided that they cannot store text.


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MACE43001 & MACE61057


Compulsory Question

Question 1

(a) Describe the meaning of the stress intensity factor, K, and the fracture
toughness, Kc. Include in your answer what determines their values.
[6 marks]
K is a mechanical parameter, measuring the magnitude of the stresses near the
tip of a crack in a homogeneous linear elastic material. The value of K depends
only on the geometry of the cracked component and on the load applied to it.
Kc is a material property, representing the resistance of a material to cracking.
The value of Kc depends on the amount of plasticity the material allows to be
developed ahead of a crack; more crack tip plasticity means higher fracture

(b) Describe briefly the effect of plane strain and plain stress conditions on
plasticity. Explain how this affects the measurement of fracture
toughness considering the conditions along a crack front.
[6 marks]
For a given maximum stress, plane strain conditions allow for less plasticity than
plane stress conditions. The conditions along a crack front can be approximated
via plane strain in the interior and plain stress at the two ends. For a given crack
opening load, the interior will develop less plasticity than the two ends. This
means that measurements with thick specimens (long plane strain interior and
relatively short plane stress ends) will provide lower fracture toughness values
than measurements with thin specimens (short plain strain interior and relatively
longer plane stress ends).

A compact tension specimen with geometry shown in Figure Q1(a) is used to
determine the fracture toughness of a material with stress Y = 610 MPa. During

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MACE43001 & MACE61057

Pf = 0.m1/2. a = 0. The tensile and toughness properties of the plate material. W = 0. W-a > 0. using the additional information in Table Q1. known at fabrication.testing.05 MN. The vessel was post-weld heat treated to reduce residual stresses in the heataffected zone to 10% of the yield stress. a specimen with standard dimensions: thickness B = 25 mm.025 m.4 m and t = 0.05 m. bended and welded longitudinally. are yield stress Y = 610 MPa. During in-service inspection. and stating any assumptions that you make (i) the hoop stress at the operating and the overload pressures [3 marks] 3 of ?? MACE43001 & MACE61057 .024 m. Since a. (ii) Evaluate whether the test provided a valid material plane strain fracture toughness [4 marks] The standard length parameter is 2. and plane strain fracture toughness KIC = 85 MPa. width W = 50 mm.024 m.9 / 610)2 = 0.m1/2. assuming that the failure occurred under small scale yielding conditions [4 marks] Under small scale yielding the fracture toughness equals the stress intensity factor (formula in Table 1) attained at failure load. Flaw geometry characterisation provided a representative semi-circular crack of length 2c = 100 mm and depth a = 30 mm. yields KC = 59. The operating pressure is 20 MPa. The vessel mean diameter and wall thickness are d = 2. as shown in Figure Q1(b). Pf.025 m. (c) Using the additional information in Table Q1 (i) Calculate the material fracture toughness. Substitution of B = 0.5 × (59. (d) Calculate. and crack length a = 25 mm.9 MPa. a flaw was detected in the inner surface of the wall in the heat-affected zone aligned normal to the hoop stress. the test provided a valid plane strain fracture toughness.5 × (KC / Y)2 = 2. failed at applied force Pf = 35 kN. respectively.12 m. A cylindrical pressure vessel was fabricated from a steel plate. ultimate tensile strength UTS = 680 MPa. but the vessel must be able to survive a single overload of 22 MPa in exceptional circumstances. B. the plastic zone was smaller than the allowed by the standards.

12 m.2 / 0.03)1/2 = 55.10 × 610 = 61 MPa. res = 0. with r = 1. is provided on page XXX and should be attached to your answer book.e.03)1/2 = 15.4 / 85 = 0.2 m. The residual stress is given to be 10% of yield as a result of post-weld treatment.12 = 220 MPa (ii) the stress intensity factor for the crack in the most severe load case [4 marks] From Table Q1. and c = 0. a residual stress acts on the crack in addition to the hoop stress from pressure.82 × 220 × (× 0.82 × 61 × (× 0.05 m.4 / 85 = 0. Calculate the safety factor by load and comment on the likely failure mode of the vessel. it is reasonable to assume a thin walled cylinder for which hoop = p × r / t.m1/2 (iii) the collapse pressure of the vessel [3 marks] From Table Q1.652.4 MPa. the collapse pressure is pc = 60. the stress intensity factor is KI = Y × hoop × (a)1/2 = 0.Since 10 × t (1. a = 0. The proximity to fracture due to residual stress is Krs = KIs / KIC = 15. [10 marks] Since the crack was found in the HAZ. 4 of ?? MACE43001 & MACE61057 .2 / 0. including the effect of weld residual stresses. Figure Q1(c). The stress intensity factor due to this residual stress is KIs = Y × res × (a)1/2 = 0. the geometry factor for the crack is Y = 0.12 = 200 MPa For overload pressure hoop = 22 × 1. t = 0. A Failure Assessment Diagram. At overload. For operating pressure hoop = 20 × 1.4 MPa.82.12 m.05 m.m1/2. The proximity to fracture due to primary stress (at overload pressure) is Krp = KI / KIC = 55.09 m. and c = 0. i. b = t – a = 0. with t = 0. p = 22 MPa.03 m.8 MPa (e) Use the R6 Failure Assessment Diagram (Option 1) to conduct a structural integrity assessment on the pressure vessel.2 m) is not larger than the radius r = d / 2 = 1.181.2 m.

Krp = KIp / KIC = 0.8 1.2 0.6 0.208 The point on FAD at zero load will be [Lr. 0.2 O [0. 0.4 1.83) 0. Krs] = [0.4 0.7 MPa. [6 marks] With a safety factor of 1. However.36.The proximity to plastic collapse (at overload pressure) is Lr = p / pc = 22 / 60. with slightly deeper cracks.0 0.0 0. The likely failure mode is brittle fracture.362.6 Lr = P / Pc From the diagram.7 (0. Justify your decision by a sensitivity analysis.753 KIs = Y × res × (a)1/2 = 0. KsI / KIC] (0.4 0. the safety factor on load is |OB| / |OA| = 0.8 = 0.06 All derived data is plotted on the FAD below.04)1/2 = 17. since point B is in the region of the failure loci with small scale yielding conditions.9 A Kr = K / Kmat 0.83 = 1.2 1.14 the vessel is safe with the observed crack.1 Lmax = 1. B 1.m1/2.8 [P / Pc. or leave the crack in the vessel. 5 of ?? MACE43001 & MACE61057 . if the crack is left in and grows to a = 4 mm. (f) Make recommendation whether to repair the pressure vessel now.82 × 220 × (0.0 0.95 / 0.5 0. 0. Krs = KIs / KIC = 0. we will have KIp = Y × hoop × (a)1/2 = 0.g.04)1/2 = 64. (KpI + KsI) / KIC] 0.3 0.0 1.6 0. The cut-off of FAD is Lmax = flow /y = (UTS + y) /×y) = 1.1 * 610 × (0.0 MPa.06 0.21].m1/2.18) 0.14. e.82 × 0.

the assessment point will be practically on the failure loci. The second unknown is the crack size and shape.96]. Repair is recommended in this situation to reduce the flaw size to a minimum. Geometry of cracked pipe 6 of ?? MACE43001 & MACE61057 . the inservice degradation of the material may have changed the fracture toughness further. Figure Q1(a). (g) Comment on the uncertainties in your analysis and suggest ways of overcoming them. Krs + Krp] = [0.36. Multiple crack detection should be performed to get statistics on crack size and shape. but their effect on the assessment is smaller. [4 marks] The biggest unknown is the fracture toughness value used for the heat-affected zone. It is possible that the changed microstructure in the heat-affected zone has changed the fracture toughness from the value for the virgin plate. Also. Geometry of compact tension specimen a t 2c d Figure Q1(b).The assessment point on FAD at overload will be [Lr. This will be unsafe situation. 0. Fracture toughness values should be obtained with specimens made of the actual welded material.

where t – wall thickness c – defect half-length a – defect depth Collapse pressure of an internally pressurised cylinder with a semielliptical axial defect. where P – applied force B – specimen thickness W – specimen width a – crack depth Standard requirements for valid plane strain fracture toughness Stress intensity calibration function for an internally pressurised cylinder with a semi-elliptical axial defect. where Pc – internal collapse pressure r – radius of cylinder t – wall thickness c – defect half-length b – ligament length = (wall thickness – defect depth) = (t .Table Q1. Additional information Stress intensity factor for a compact tension specimen.a) 7 of ?? MACE43001 & MACE61057 .

Figure Q1(c). Failure Assessment Diagram End of Part A 8 of ?? MACE43001 & MACE61057 .

along slip planes. propagation and final fracture. [4 marks] Students are expected to draw a schematic as shown that shows fatigue initiation region. and the gradual change in direction to crack propagation region as the plastic zone becomes much larger than the grain size. The load history at the critical location for failure can be simplified to a single stress cycle of 9 of ?? MACE43001 & MACE61057 . In fatigue propagation.Part B Answer any TWO questions Question 2 (a) A structural member with a circular cross-section made of a metal has failed due to cyclic loading in service. (c) A structural member of a military aircraft is made of steel. a crack propagation region with striations and a fast fracture region. Draw a schematic of a typical fatigue fracture surface and identify different regions that represent fatigue initiation. (b) Describe the physical mechanisms of metal fatigue during crack initiation and propagation. The material and fatigue properties given in Table Q2 and Figure Q2. Students should show that the increment of crack growth is about half the crack opening displacement. the retardation at grain boundaries or other microstructural features. students should describe that the most likely mechanism is the one proposed by Grosskreutz with slip in the two shear directions at the tip of the crack on each cycle. [6 marks] Students should describe that fatigue crack initiation as shear mode mechanism and crack propagation as opening mode mechanism. In fatigue initiation. students should describe the growth of the crack at 45o to the tensile loading direction.

On average. If the elastic stress concentration factor at the critical location is 2.002 0.011 Strain ii) Estimate the number of flights that this component can be safely used.01 0.008 0.0077.012 .005 0.009 0. the stable hysteresis loop is estimated and the strain range is calculated. Calculating the SWT parameter. Reading Nf from the fatigue life curve.003 0. MACE43001 & MACE61057 0.0033. . Applying the Massing’s hypothesis. the maximum stress and strain and the stress and strain amplitudes at the notch is calculated using the graph shown.0 where failure is expected: i) Show that the maximum stress and the strain range at the critical location are 1260 MPa and 0.1260) Stress (MPa) 1200 1000 800 (0.66% respectively. Using the Neuber products and .007 0.magnitude 0 to 680 MPa occurring every time the aircraft makes a heavy landing.680) 600 400 200 0 0 0.001 0. and determine the mean stress in the cycle. 1600 1400 (0. Strain range. this occurs every 4 flights.006 0.004 0. . . Nf 10 of ?? .

MPam 1300 1500 80 Cyclic stress strain behaviour ( σa σa εa = + 207000 2200 is in MPa) Strain life fatigue strength. (1400 x 4)/5 iii) Suggest two changes (apart from changing the material) that could be made to this component to increase the lifetime.002 0.007 0.08 Table Q2: Material properties of the steel member 1600 1400 Stress (MPa) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 0.0 Strain life fatigue exponent.006 0.009 0.012 Strain 11 of ?? MACE43001 & MACE61057 .9 1 0. MPa Tensile strength. MPa 1700 Strain life fatigue exponent. Introducing compressive stresses by shot peening or polishing to remove surface defects Yield strength.004 0. MPa Fracture toughness.  f .001 0.005 0.003 0. [10+3+2=15 marks] Reduce strain amplitude at notch root by reducing stress concentration.01 0. b Strain life fatigue ductility.  f -0.011 0. c -0.Using a safety factor of 5 on life.008 0.1 2.

Fig Q2(a): Cyclic stress strain curve for the steel used Fig Q2(b): Strain-life curve for the steel used 12 of ?? MACE43001 & MACE61057 .

Assume that the crack as an edge crack in a semi-infinite plate. inspectable structures such as aircraft wing skins. Repeat inspection and assessment and re-estimate the remaining life and the next inspection interval. the structure can still function until it is brought to a stop or shutdown. power generating plant. The welded steel plate is also expected to withstand a rare event that causes a tensile stress of 160 MPa. (b) An edge crack 8 mm long from the toe of a weld has been found in a welded steel plate that is subjected to an estimated tensile stress history as shown in Figure Q3. predict growth rate and acceptable defect size.Question 3 (a) Briefly explain the philosophy used in the safe-life. fail-safe and defecttolerance design against fatigue [10 marks] Safe life: Fatigue lifetime estimated by S-N or strain-life approaches at design or development stage and component retired or replaced at after that life has been used. Using the rainflow cycle counting: Number of Cycles MPa MPa MPa MPa 2 (0-60 MPa) 60 0 30 60 1 (30-100 MPa) 100 30 65 70 1 (0-120 MPa) 120 0 60 120 13 of ?? MACE43001 & MACE61057 . minimum and mean stresses. maybe 1/10. of potential life and all structures or components are replaced regardless of actual fatigue damage. oil rigs. From this. pressure vessels. Defect tolerance: Must be able to inspect structure to detect cracks and estimate their size and shape. Then. (i) Identify all the stress cycles per hour and their maximum. The mechanical properties are given in Table Q3. estimate the duration to grow current defect to limiting size and define an inspection interval of 1/3 to 1/5 of this. Fail safe: The structure has redundant load paths so that in the event of fatigue cracking and fracture. This is only option for parts that are not inspectable in service. Useful life is a small fraction. Examples: high capital value. This enables individual structures to be used for optimum lifetime.

2 0.7 0.1 0.8 0.(ii) What is the critical size of crack for the welded plate? As crack initiated in the toe weld. and using the Paris integration and Minor’s rule: = 85078 hours (iv) Recommend an inspection interval to ensure that cracks are found and repaired before failure for welded plates of the same design.5 0.6 0.4 0. the fracture toughness of the weld KIc should be used to calculate the critical crack size for the rare event (160 MPa). (iii) Estimate the life of the cracked plate? Using ai=8 mm and aj=120 mm. 5 intervals [4+4+5+2=15 marks] 140 130 120 110 Stress (MPa) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.9 Time (hours) Figure Q3: Stress history for the welded plate per hour 14 of ?? MACE43001 & MACE61057 1 .3 0. Every 2 years.

Yield strength. MPa 500 Plane strain fracture toughness of weld. m/cycle. MPam 110 Plane strain fracture toughness of plate. MPa 290 Tensile strength. for stress da dN  110 11 K 3 Table Q3: Material properties of the welded steel plate 15 of ?? MACE43001 & MACE61057 . MPam 130 Fatigue crack growth intensities in MPam rate.

Correction factors are used for specimen surface roughness. cycles having the same lifetime lie on a line between the points (tensile strength. particularly if S-N data is only available at a particular mean stress level. smooth or notched specimens are tested under cyclic stresses (either fully reversed or with a non-zero mean stress) to failure and stress vs fatigue life (S-N) curves (either semi-log or log-log plot) are obtained. Damage for each cycle is summed and failure occurs when the total damage=1. On axes of mean stress(X) and stress range (Y). (i) Count the number of stress cycles occur per hour. 16 of ?? MACE43001 & MACE61057 . 0) and (0. Fatigue test data on a representative test component is obtained at a mean stress of 40 MPa and given in Figure Q4(b) in the form of stress range-life plot. or damage. The material properties are given in Table Q4.Question 4 (a) Briefly describe the stress-life approach used for high cycle fatigue? [4 marks] Students should describe that in the stress-life approach. where Nf is the number of cycles of that amplitude that would cause failure. (b) Describe the application of the following in the stress-life fatigue analysis: i) Goodman diagram. [3+3=6 marks] Goodman diagram: An empirical way of estimating the equivalent stress range of fatigue cycles of different mean stress. size etc. cycles) that fall under the S-N curve. in terms of their lifetime. As local plastic strains are not explicitly considered. it is not useful for low cycle fatigue. and hence so effect of the sequence of the load cycles (c) The design load history per hour for a skin-stringer assembly is provided in Figure Q4(a). fatigue stress range). For service conditions (stress. ii) Miner’s rule. Assumes no interaction between cycles. Miner’s rule: It is a linear damage summation to determine the lifetime of a loading sequence of different stress amplitudes. A way of converting stress cycles of different mean levels to equivalent cycles of the same mean stress. One cycle is assumed to contribute 1/Nf damage. a safety factor on stress or life is achieved.

0 63.81x106 hours [1+4+8=13 marks] (d) If the service conditions of the skin-stringer assembly require a service life of 1.67x108 1 (20-100 MPa) 60 1 (0-120 MPa) 60 40 84. explain whether or not this design is satisfactory? [2 marks] 17 of ?? MACE43001 & MACE61057 .4 6x107 1.000 hours. use the Goodman equation and calculate the alternating stresses at mean stress of 40 MPa.2 1x106 1x10-6 1.Use rainflow counting.23 x 10-6 0.000. Number of Cycles MPa MPa MPa MPa 1 (0-80 MPa) 80 0 40 40 1 (10-60 MPa) 60 10 35 25 1 (20-100 MPa) 100 20 60 40 1 (0-120 MPa) 120 0 60 60 (iii) Estimate the design life of the skin-stringer assembly using the Goodman equation? As the S-N curve is obtained at a mean stress of 40 MPa.1 126. Use Minor’s rule for estimating the cumulative damage and the deign life.7 49.0 9x106 1. Number of Cycles MPa MPa Equivalent @ 40 MPa mean stress Equivalent @ 40 MPa mean stress Nfi Dfi 1 (0-80 MPa) 40 40 40 80 1x107 1x10-7 1 (10-60 MPa) 35 25 24.11x107 60 Cumulative damage Design life 42. 4 cycles (ii) Determine the stress amplitude and mean stress for each cycle.

8 0.7 0.4 0. in metres per cycle and K in MPam Fatigue threshold at R=0 140 MPa da/dN = 8x 10-12K3 Kth = 6 MPam 140 130 120 110 100 Stress (MPa) 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.6 0.2 0.81x106 hours < the required service life of 1x106 Table Q4: Properties of the skin-stringer assembly Plane strain fracture toughness KIc 40 MPam 320 MPa 450 MPa Yield stress y Tensile strength. UTS Material fatigue limit fl Fatigue crack propagation rate at R=0.Estimated life is 0.1 0.5 0.9 1 Time (hours) Figure Q4(a): Stress history per hour 18 of ?? MACE43001 & MACE61057 .3 0.

150 135 Stress range (MPa) 120 105 90 75 60 45 30 15 0 105 107 106 108 Nf. Cycles Figure Q4(b): S-N curve for the skin-stringer assembly at 40 MPa mean stress END OF EXAMINATION PAPER 19 of ?? MACE43001 & MACE61057 .

length a. length a. width W. length 2a. in plate of width 2W in tension Single edge crack. width W. in a plate. in a semi-infinite plate in tension Centre-crack.FORMULA SHEET Table of expressions for stress intensity factors for various cracked bodies Crack Stress intensity calibration. in tension Single edge crack. in an infinite plate in tension Edge crack. length 2a. in pure bending 20 of ?? MACE43001 & MACE61057 . Y configuration Centre-crack. in a beam. length a.

Fatigue information Crack propagation law Integration of crack propagation law for m  2 and constant Y Cyclic stress–strain curve Neuber’s Rule Smith-WatsonTopper strain life curve END OF FORMULA SHEET 21 of ?? MACE43001 & MACE61057 .