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Fall Issue 2015

The VNLA Quarterly Newsletter
Volume 41, Issue 3

Our Summer Meeting - At a Glance

presidents letter

Inside this Issue

Board of Directors

New Green Works


Green Works Summer

Meeting Recap

Green Works Winter


On the Job Safety

New Member ProfileTrees ROI

New from the U


New England GROWS


Butternut - The Tree


Member ProfilediStefano


ELAs Season End



Gardening on the Wild



Syncing with
Nature-2016 Garden
Media Group Trends


Highlights from the

Hemlock Woolly
Adelgid Program
Managers Meeting


Industry Calendar


As I left my house one morning recently, I

felt the first hint of the changing season as
I was greeted by the morning chill. My
drive along Interstate 89 confirmed it as
dashes of color were beginning to appear
on the mountainsides. Some people
choose to see this time of year as the
prelude to the long, dark, and cold winter
instead of seeing it as a necessary
component in the cycle that brings forth
the renewal of a new spring and new
Change is a necessary ingredient if one is
to continue to grow, whether in their
professional or personal life, and yet it
seems to be a basic human instinct to
avoid it. It stems from our fear of the
unknown so we continue to stick with
what we know and wonder why the
results remain the same. Sometimes our
circumstances leave us no choice and we
are forced to take that leap and change
when every fiber of our being is trying to
hold us back.
Such was the case for me when I suddenly
was forced by circumstances to take an
entirely different course in my career. I
resisted initially but soon came to realize
that everything that I had been doing for
the past twenty+ years had prepared me
quite well for my new job at Barlett Tree
Experts. While I continue to encounter
challenges on a daily basis, I have drawn
on past experiences to get through the
many bumps along the way. I am happy
to report I am finding great satisfaction
and success amongst the daily
challenges. I continue to learn and grow
and have found myself embracing the
opportunities to change instead of
running from them.
During the fifty years and counting of this
associations existence, we have
undergone a number of significant
changes that have served to grow Green
Works into the vibrant organization that it
is today. These changes were not easy
and some were met with resistance from
those who were content to stay the

course and continue to see the same

When I first became a member of what
was then known as the Vermont
Plantsmens Association, I stood on the
sidelines and watched as a small group of
members recognized the need and value
of making some changes if the
association was to continue to move
forward and further fulfill its mission.
Inspired by their enthusiasm and courage I
decided to join the board in hopes of
making some small contribution to that
Now, more than 25 years later and with
more than a dozen years serving on the
board of directors, I continue to be
inspired by those who are willing to step
forward and offer their ideas for ways that
we can continue to change and grow. I
am inspired by those who continue to
invest their time and energy to help make
it happen. More positive changes are on
the horizon for 2016 and it is my hope that
each of you will embrace it and find some
small way to contribute to the continued
growth of our association and industry.
Im looking forward to seeing all of you at
our winter meeting and wish you all the
best for a strong and prosperous finish to
the season. As always, I welcome your
feedback and ideas.
VJ Comai, Green Works/VNLA/President

board of directors
VJ Comai
Bartlett Tree Experts
184 Tamarack Rd
Charlotte, VT 05445
Ed Burke
Rocky Dale Gardens
806 Rocky Dale Road
Bristol, VT 05443
Nate Carr
Church Hill Landscapes, Inc.
287 Church Hill Road
Charlotte, VT 05445
David Burton
Ginkgo Design, LLC
22 Pearl Street
Essex Junction, VT 05452
Carrie Chalmers
Quoyburray Farm
239 Lawrence Hill Road
Weston, VT 05161
Hannah Decker
Fairfax Perennial Farm, Inc.
7 Blackberry Hill Road
Fairfax, VT 05454

For information on
in The Dirt

Marlys Eddy
Vermont Technical College
PO Box 500
Randolph Center, VT 05061
Shannon Lee
Sisters of Nature
135 Phyllis Lane
Waterville, VT 05492
Ashley Robinson
Ashley Robinson Landscape Designer
PO Box 28
Charlotte, VT 05445
Kristina MacKulin
Green Works/VNLA
P.O. Box 92
N. Ferrisburgh, VT 05473
Toll Free: 888.518.6484; 802.425.5117
Fax 802.425.5122
Nate Carr
Church Hill Landscapes, Inc.


Ed Burke
Rocky Dale Gardens
Shannon Lee
Sisters of Nature
Ed Burke
Rocky Dale Gardens
VJ Comai
Bartlett Tree Experts
VJ Comai
Bartlett Tree Experts
VJ Comai
Bartlett Tree Experts
Nate Carr
Church Hill Landscapes, Inc.

Connect with Green Works

on Social Media!
Connect with us, post to our pages, or let us know
something special you would like to share and we'll share it.
It's another way for us to help your business thrive!
Join the conversation! You can find us here...
Facebook: @greenworksvt & @vermontflowershow

Kristina at the
Green Works Office

Twitter: @greenworksvt & @vtflowershow

Instagram: @greenworksvt & @vtflowershow

New Green Works Members

Elmore Mountain Gardens
Becky Dawson
397 Centerville Road
Hyde Park, VT 05655
Active Member
Category: Landscape Install/Maintenance

Trees ROI
Marie Ambusk
25 Elderberry Lane
Hinesburg, VT 05461
Active Member
Category: Tree Care Research

Lorien Gardens & Landscapes

Erika Graham
144 Butcher House Drive #20
Waitsfield, VT 05673
Active Member
Category: Landscape Designer; Landscape
Design/Build; Landscape Install/Maintenance

Welcome and
thanks for joining!

Participate in Green Works

2015 Industry Awards Program
Scope out your projects and get ready
to enter! The deadline is
December 30, 2015.
Download your entry forms

The NEW VCH Study Manual is now available!

The all new VCH study manual is available for anyone
wanting to take the VCH exam and become a
Vermont Certified Horticulturist. The new manual is
also a great resource to have on your bookshelf
(remember books?)! Topics covered include:

Sustainable Landscape Topics

Specific Landscape Topics
Pest Problems, Pesticides

The cost of the manual is $50 for members and $75 for
non-members. Please contact Kristina in the office if
you are interested in ordering a copy. You can also
order a copy on the Green Works website.

Identification of Plants and Pests

Business Practices and Safety
Plant & Soil Information

Green Works Summer Meeting Recap

We certainly were blessed this summer with an endless
supply of beautiful sunny days. We enjoyed one of those
days at the Summer Meeting and Trade Show on
August 6, 2015. We once again returned to the Coach
Barn at Shelburne Farms - such a spectacular location with approximately 120 in attendance.

The business meeting was followed up by our annual

auction led by auctioneer extraordinaire David Loysen.
Thanks to the generous donation of auction items from
members and exhibitors and some lively bidding from
participants, the auction raised $1,527 for our scholarship
and research fund. The amount raised broke our record
for the most dollars raised at a summer auction!

The day began

with our keynote
speaker, Rick
Darke. Rick
owns a
based consulting
firm focused on
and design. He
recently coauthored a book
with Doug
Tallamy, The
Living Landscape: Designing for Beauty and
Biodiversity in the Home Garden. Rick gave two
presentations: The Essential Layers of Living
Landscapes and Designing and Maintaining
the Living Landscape. Both presentations
explored the living layers in regional landscapes
as they occur naturally and as they are
eventually modified by human activity. Rick
discussed how to make practical use out of
these living layers, as they relate to the
biodiversity of a landcape. Ricks slide show
illustrated how to create beautiful, conserving,
and highly functional layers in designing

The afternoon sessions included a

presentation by VJ Comai of Bartlett Tree
Experts. Crew member Steven Bragg air
spaded a Maple tree on site to demonstrate
a root collar excavation. This process
exposed the root flare which illustrated the
tree was planted too deeply. Girdling roots
were also exposed, which is often associated
with trees that are planted too deeply. An
interactive discussion was held regarding tree
planting basics with a review of proper
planting depth, common root problems,
container vs. B&B trees, staking, mulching,
backfilling issues and follow-up care on tree
Wolstenholme, a
and former
landscaper from
Movewell Spine
& Sport, LLC,
gave an
with a focus on
the most
common movements landscape crews
perform and the best and basic ways to
move. Please refer to the handout Jason
provided, printed on page 7.

Following Ricks
members took some
time to visit exhibitors,
network, and catch
up with friends before
sitting down to a
delicious lunch
provide by
Sugarsnaps. After
lunch a special
business meeting was
held to review and discuss membership dues. In
February of 2014 the membership agreed to review
membership dues annually. Following discussion a motion
was made and seconded to increase membership dues
for 2016 by approximately 3%. The motion passed

The day ended with a presentation by Tim

Schmalz, the VT State Pathologist on a
update of pests and diseases that were
prevalent this summer, what to look out for in
the coming months, and issues that are on
the horizon.
We always look forward to the Summer
Meeting as it gives everyone a chance to
take a day and take a breath. It is a great excuse to
hear some wonderful speakers and enjoy a beautiful
Thanks to all who were able to attend and exhibit!



SAVE THE DATE! - February 12, 2016

Green Works/VNLA
Annual Winter Meeting & Trade Show
@ Sheraton Burlington Hotel &
Conference Center
Our keynote speaker will be Claudia West! Claudia is the
ecological sales manager at North Creek Nurseries, a wholesale
perennial grower in Landenberg, PA. Claudia holds a Masters
Degree of Landscape Architecture and Regional Planning from
the Technical University of Munich, Germany. In her current role,
Claudia works closely with ecological design and restoration
professional, offering consultation services from initial project
planning stages to adaptive management strategies after project
completion. Her work is centered on the development of stable,
layered planting designs and the desire to bring American native
plants back into our landscape by making them widely
acceptable. Claudia is the co-author with Thomas Rainer of a
new book, Planting in a Post-Wild World (Timber Press).
Claudias presentation - Creating Stunning Plant Communities
that Stand the Test of Time, is something you will not want to miss!

Northern Nurseries in White River Junction, Vermont seeks a

Landscape Professional for an exciting career in Landscape
Sales. Selling everything from plants, stone, fertilizer, grass
seed, hydromulch, lighting, water gardens and so much more to
Landscapers, Municipalities, Schools, General Contractors and
Golf Courses. With 8 locations throughout the Northeast,
opportunities are limitless. In addition, this position will also
call on Garden Centers representing Medford Nursery's products.
Medford Nursery, located in New Jersey, is a sister company of
Northern Nurseries and produces container nursery stock, roses
and perennials. The ideal candidate must be experienced in
landscape sales and installation of plant materials and pavers.
ICPI certification and a portfolio of completed landscape
installations is a plus.
The position involves some travel to job sites, garden centers,
trade shows and meetings with customers at various times during
the year. Working with contractors the ideal candidate will assist
with designs, locating and securing plants/supplies, quoting,
tagging plants, scheduling pick up and deliveries, purchasing
products and other duties as assigned. Working with garden
centers in VT and NH, the ideal candidate will increase sales
from our container nursery (Medford Nursery) This position
requires a clean driving record, excellent verbal and written
communication skills and competency with computer programs
such as excel.
Excellent compensation and benefits. Forward your resume w/
salary history to: Sharon Wilson at Northern Nurseries:

On the Job Safety

by Jason Wolstenholme, D.C.
In case you missed Jasons presentation at the Summer
Meeting we wanted to share his handout with all our
members. Jason is a chiropractor and functional
movement specialist from Burlington, VT. Jason works with
people of all ability levels to help them learn how to use
their bodies more efficiently and how to prevent injuries.
Prior to becoming a chiropractor, Jason worked with a
landscape crew for 4 years. He is all too familiar with the
demands of the job and how the stress on the body can
add up over the months and years.

Use a ball to get into the deeper areas or to

increase the point pressure.

Squat (Pry and Pray)

Get into a deep squat keeping your whole foot

on the ground and your knees over your toes.

Start with 10-20 seconds at a time and work up to

3 min. or longer.

Use your elbows to press the knees out.

On the job safety through better awareness, mobility and


Place your palms together and stretch the wrists

and forearms during the movement.

Landscape and horticultural services encompass a wide

range of services. Included in this category are
companies engaged in landscape design and
architecture; soil preparation and grading; irrigation
systems; tree, shrub and lawn planting; hardscape
construction including: retaining walls, pathways and
patios; lawn care and landscape maintenance; arborist
services including tree trimming and line clearance.

Place the back of your hands together and gently

stretch the wrists.

Samson Stretch 10 steps

Knee hug step to lunge reach overhead

Inchworm 5 repetitions

Walk hands out to push-up/plank position

Lower to ground and arch upward

Return to plank and walk the feet in, Repeat.

Task Specific Movement Prep.

Safe movement requires alertness, mobility, stability and
strength IN THAT ORDER!

1. Getting out of the trucks to unload or lift

The foundation for good health and fitness is best

demonstrated by this pyramid
Think moderation; Not too much of any one thing and
not deficient in any required nutrients.

Stand up and reach for the sky or place

your hands on your hips and lean back.

Hold for 10-20 seconds and release.

Repeat 2-3 times if your low back has
been a concern.

2. Pulling

Getting Started

Minimize lifting and twisting at the same

time. Square yourself to the object, get a
good grip on it, bring it in close and then

Brace your hips against the tailgate when

leaning in to grab and pull something.

Lunge stance or Golfers pick up.

Practice hinging through the hips. Flex and

extend the hips to generate power.

General Warm-Up

A fast walk or light jog for 2-3 min just to start

warming up the muscles and lubricating your
joints, ligaments, muscles and tendons.

Foam Roller and Lacrosse Ball work

Quick roll through the whole body to find the

tightest areas and spent 3-5 min working them

continued on page 9

New Member Profile

Trees ROI
In 2011, I retired from my career of 40-years in corporate
finance and controllership IT, having spent the last 28
years at GE Healthcare (fka IDX). One might wonder
how that path leads me to a place where my focus is
deeply rooted in the stewardship of urban trees. And
yet, here I am! By 2008 I had taken the Extension Master
Gardener and SOUL Tree Steward courses. Then, I
started the volunteer project
TREEage, with the mission to
promote best maintenance
practices for urban trees. Together
with many tree enthusiasts, we
have pruned hundreds of trees,
removed thousands of defective
(SGR) roots and leveled mountains
of mulch. Most of my volunteer
work has been done on city owned
trees in South Burlington with the
support and guidance of the City
Arborist, Craig Lambert. We also
manage the TREEage Community
Nursery with about 200 trees where
we have all learned so much and
had lots of fun. So far, weve
planted over 100 of our nursery
graduates as street trees
throughout the city. Together, we
are: Making a difference in our
community .. One tree at a time!

how to proceed. That notion has taken me on the most

interesting and exciting journey!
In 2012, TREES ROI was founded. My early stage Start
Up is currently a research science project with great
hope! Our mantra is simple GROW BETTER TREES - yet
the solution is complex. Fast-forward to now; we are
working to develop a tool to assess
the root structure of containerized
trees, using the non-invasive
scanning technology of microwave
tomography. In a nutshell, our
visualization tool will offer growers a
means of process improvement
from the earliest stages of
production to the point of sale;
buyers to specify written
certification of tree root quality and
with better root systems, we will
grow better trees.

Somehow, I feel that my life has

prepared me for this purpose. I
believe that this problem is an
unintended consequence of
progress, in that we humans have
learned very well how to massproduce trees. It has taken many
decades for us to learn about the
Marie hard at work!
effects of defective root systems;
In addition to leading project
now its time to help the industry fix
TREEage, I am a VT Forest Pest 1st
this problem at the ROOT OF IT. I
Detector and because of that training experience, find have the most amazing team with Dr. John R. Cary, Dr.
that Im drawn to dead trees! Thanks for that VT UCF
Jason Grabowski and Gordon Mann who together
Team I think?
cover all the sciences and the industry. We are very
thankful for support and advice from folks like James
Ill always remember the day in 2007, after many hours
Urban, Ed Gilman, Tom Smiley, Jim Flott, V.J. Comai and
of root collar excavation and removing nasty SGRs,
many others throughout the industry. Our story is much
when I closed my eyes and could only see the images
to long to tell more here, please contact me sometime
of those roots. I woke the next morning having had a
and lets talk trees. Im happy to be a new member of
dream that I had a crystal ball and could see below
Green Works/VNLA and would like to learn from you!
the ground to determine the root system condition and

Available on-line NOW!

IPM Practitioners 2015 Directory of
Least-Toxic Pest Control Products

continued from page 7

Single knee pull Good posture, and lock

down your core before you pull.

End of the day:

3. Pushing

Shoulders should be externally rotates.

This is the strongest and most stable

Forearm Smash with knee and lacrosse ball

Foam roll everything

The Brettzel 3.0

Elbows in close to the body

You can find Jason at MoveWell Spine & Sport, LLC at

431 Pine Street, Suite G01, Burlington, VT 05401 or visit

4. Lifting

Saddle toss Swinging the load with a

knee contact minimizes muscular force in
the low back

Reducing the load lift one end at a

time cuts the weight in half. Think of this
with logs or when moving bigger stones.

Farmers Carry Lock in the neutral

spine/strong core position before lifting
and dont let the shoulders roll forward.

5. Shoveling Decrease the moment arm by

resting the arm on the thigh directs the force into
the ground.


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David OSullivan



organic apple production (the reason many of the crabapsley Richards and I think we have some great
ples were cut down in order to reduce scab and other
ns put together, with a focus on about 20
diseases) with full details online
tunias (near the boathouse), several new coleus
(, and the third year of
new sweet potato vines. One of my favorites
trials on hardy grape varieties (
s most unusual is the new Pretty Much Picasso
olet purple with a lime green rim. Another
by Leonard Perry
another start
to mealycup
the academic year,
renovation and rewiring
g newWith
is the
students are back, and the usual fall courses are
needed, for the new
Sallyfun Blue Emotion, tall, blue florets with

news from the U

underway. Department majors have risen from 40 in

Argus computer climate
2004, to 66 last year, and now 77 this coming year.
control system replacing
They're split now with 47 in Ecological Agriculture and 30 the original QCOM
AAS garden features about 50% plants from
in Sustainable Landscape Horticulture. This compares to system. Plants were
iew Gardens
(Proven Winners and Selections
17 and 26, respectively, from 10 years ago. The college
relocated to the Spear
40% from
and the
1400 majors,
most being in
St. and HRC
eed (All-America
and others).
I hope
Animal Science
(288), Community
greenhouses, and
ee these
if in Burlington
the foot
(409), and (at
temporary shade
135 grad students
in CALS,
structure outside the
by the
ECHO (279).
not only
for PSS
8 MS
and 15toPhD.
The only next
program with
UVM greenhouse, which
but as
are planned
be different
are all under the
to planned construction and road reconfiguration
27. CALS is second only to Arts and Sciences (4,324) in
management of
with assistants
ED99, 79 Upper
om page 9)
UVM (add 1,360 grad students and others like post docs
Tom Doubleday. Former student Jacob Suissa is in
RI, 02881.
or non-degree for 12,815 total students at UVM), 44% are Hawaii doing ethonobotany research, alum Brian Crosby
tal inmale,
the development
29% are from Vermont.
got the state record for largest sunflower at 25in. across,
Scott Pfister,
VT State
URI. In 2008, he was recognized for his many
PSS gotformer
a new (white)
in part
ons toLooking
the green
at the
can get the
a snapshot of Works
contributions, with a large part from revenues from CDE
The into
129 students
Forest Protection
has taken
s honor
of being one
of and
the first
to be
grad student
Dana ChristelScott
award from
Soil Science
of be
in the
and will
A Hall of Fame. He was also inducted into the my 5position with
sections of 4Hall
Home America,
and PSS programs
chair Deb Neher
by the
nd Agricultural
of courses
Fame. are distributed amongcoordinating
the USDAs
for thewas
Fruit Growing (55), Indoor Plants (23), Garden Flowers
beetle, emerald ash borer, and firewood pest mitigation.
(32), and Flowers and Foliage (19). Other department
created, and named in her honor!
in Ken's
may beinclude
made Home
to Theand
Garden will miss him and wish him and his family well.
Horticulture (Mark Starrett, 144 students), Woody
Thanks in part to support from your association, we once
Landscape Plants (Starrett, 8), Landscape Design
again had the All-America Selections Flower display
(Stephanie Hurley, 20), and Landscape Design for
garden at the Burlington Waterfront Park. Actually it had
Pollinators (Jane Sorensen, 16).
more than just the AAS selections, most being
vegetative material from D.C. Cole and Pleasant View
Other courses include Intro to Ecological Agriculture
Greenhouses, both of New Hampshire. These included
(Victor Izzo, 103), Drawing and Painting Botanicals (Jane many new selections, particularly in the Proven Winners
Neroni, 15), Entomology (Izzo filling in for Yolanda Chen
and Selections brands. I rated them the end of summer
who is on sabbatic leave this year, 34), Weed Ecology
to see which still had good performance, with results
(Sid Bosworth, 27), Plant Pathology (Terrence Delaney,
and some photos online (
25), Forage and Pasture Management (Bosworth, 10),
aaswp.html), and here are some of the top performers.
Permaculture (Keith Morris, 36), Soil Science (Josef
Gorres, 67), Advanced Agroecology (Ernesto Mendez,
Both Alternanthera-- Little Ruby and Purple Knight-23), Quantitative Thinking in Life Sciences (Scott Merrill,
were excellent. The former is a nice compact form
11), and several other specific or special topics courses.
under a foot high, and 12-18in. wide. The latter makes a
Those listed as teaching are not all faculty, including
nice weaver among other flowers. Of the Calibrachoa,
ones from off-campus such as Morris, Sorensen and
Evening Star was good but Garden Rose was the
Neroni; former student Izzo; and those outside the
best. This group has definitely shown improvements in
department such as Delaney, and now Bosworth (with
recent years. Of the three dahlias, Mystic Illusion was
the changes this past year in Extension campus faculty,
the best, the yellow flowers a nice contrast with the dark
he and Hazelrigg are now Extension, not CALS faculty,
purple leaves. There are several Euphorbia (spurges) on
although the latter two are still housed in Jeffords Hall).
the market, ones we've tried in previous years and that
This coming Winter Session (over Christmas break), I'll
I've seen in other trials, and the one we had this year-offer two online courses-- Home Hops Growing, and a
Breathless White-- was excellent. We had two
new course in Perennial Plants for Pollinators.
Gomphrena for the first time this year, ones actually
released some years ago as cut flowers. QIS Red was
In other news related to the department, the UVM
more open with some flopping of stems, while QIS
greenhouse should be back in operation with your
Carmine was upright with excellent flowering still at the
reading of this. It was closed all summer, getting a total
end of summer.
continued on page 14


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4/9/15 2:27 PM

New England GROWS is Just Around the Corner!

Upcoming New England GROWS Conference Showcases
Innovation, Practical Techniques & Emerging Trends for
Green Industry Professionals. Green Works/VNLA is proud
to be a Network Sponsor!

New England GROWS, the Northeast's largest

educational conference and green industry exposition is
coming up soon. The dates are December 2-4, 2015 in
Boston. Below are some highlights!

At GROWS, the brightest minds in

horticulture, landscape and tree care
come together to share their insights
and advice with green industry
colleagues. Attendees will gain a
deeper understanding of cutting edge
science and techniques in design,
technology, consumer trends and
business best practices. From new plant
introductions and disease
management strategies to lean
management and eco-friendly
landscapes, New England GROWS
covers a wide range of topics.

Acclaimed authors, influential

environmentalists and successful
entrepreneurs are among the speakers
at the conference. Educational highlights include:
Michael Dirr, PhD, an authority on woody plants and
the award-winning author of several popular
books, will speak "In Praise of Noble Trees" and on
"A Cornucopia of New Flowering Trees & Shrubs:
Selection, Use & Culture." Dr. Dirr will autograph his
books at the show, as well.
In "The Living Landscape: Designing for Beauty &
Biodiversity," Rick Darke will explore how an
understanding of biodiversity can be put to
practical use in residential gardens and
community landscapes.
Kate Kennen, RLA, will tackle "Phyto Landscapes: Using
Plants to Clean Up Polluted Water, Soil & Air," and
share how phytoremediation plantings can be
used to enhance environmental conditions on
roadsides, in communities and brownfields.
Professor John Ball, PhD, of South Dakota University, will
address the all-important issue of safety for tree
care, landscaping and nursery professionals in
"Safety Starts at the Top." He'll explain The Haddon
Matrix approach to reducing risk.

In all, conference participants can choose from more

than 30 educational sessions over the course of three
days. Continuing Education Credit from a gamut of

professional organizations is available at many sessions.

IThe GROWS exposition is packed with 500 of today's

leading industry suppliers, ready to make deals, including
special GROWS-only offers from select vendors. Green
industry professionals can check out the latest solutions,
view demos, and get hands-on access to the tools,
plants and technology they need to grow their business.

In addition to in-depth conference

sessions, interactive educational
opportunities are available throughout
the show on the expo floor. Attendees
can pick up quick information hits at 15minute Sprint Sessions; watch a raised,
permeable patio take shape right
before their eyes; challenge themselves
at the plant ID contest; or try their hand
at a chainsaw teardown competition.
Registration options start at just $29 for
all three days of the show and early
registrants realize the most savings. For
the complete agenda or to register, visit The GROWS
mobile app is available on iTunes or
GooglePlay and is a great way to stay
up to date with conference details.

About New England GROWS

New England GROWS is an educational partnership

between the New England Nursery Association,
Massachusetts Arborists Association, Massachusetts
Association of Landscape Professionals and
Massachusetts Nursery & Landscape Association. Its cosponsor network includes 30 allied green industry
organizations. Participation helps New England GROWS
support the green industry through annual grants to the
region's Cooperative Extension Systems, the FFA
Organization, local horticultural schools, and more.
New England GROWS takes place on December
2-4,2015, at the Boston Convention and Exhibition Center.
For the latest information, download the GROWS mobile
app; follow New England GROWS on Facebook, Twitter,
and Pinterest; visit; or call
(508) 653-3009.


Butternut - The Tree

by Tim Parsons, Middlebury College
Butternut, Juglans cinera, is a native tree to much of the
eastern United States, ranging from New Brunswick and
Maine south to northern Georgia,
and all the way west to Missouri.
Not a particularly striking tree in the
landscape, as the light grayish bark
stands out amongst the browns
and darker shades in the woods
better than most suburban settings.
The bark does develop deep
fissures when older, with the darker
undertones providing some relief to
the light.
The tree is normally found in the
forest mixing with white ash, sugar
maple, red oak, and elm, the
classic mix in the Champlain Valley
and elsewhere. It prefers well
drained, deep soils, with a
limestone base. Light hungry, the
tree is often dominant or codominant in the forest, and is fast
growing, with a life span of a short
75 years or so.

The leaves are alternate and compound, meaning many

leaflets per stem. It tends to have longer stems and less
leaflets than a black walnut, with which it
is easily confused (at least by me.) The
leaves are a yellowish green, with a
yellowish brown fall color, and tend to get
tattered and dingy throughout the
growing season. The tree is one of the last
to break bud in the spring, and one of the
first to drop in the fall. Rogers claims Until
the spraying of shade trees becomes a
common practice, let us set them, not in
our front yards, but back a little, where the
perspective is just right to emphasize their
fine stature and luxuriant foliage, while
obscuring unpleasant details.

Butternut-Uses and Ecological Niche

Butternut - Mature Bark

A good, tall Butternut might reach

30-40 feet, with a spread about 20
grown all on its own. Julia Ellen
Rogers, in a great old book called
Among Green Trees (more on her
later) notes a tendency of the lower
buds on a twig or branch to
develop, giving the tree therefore a
broad spreading form. Fergus notes
the tree can be compared in shape
to a very large apple tree, with a
short trunk branching low.

Native Americans used the nuts as an

excellent food source, both cooked and
raw, even grinding them into rudimentary
meal type flour. The Iroquois extracted oil
from the seeds, and used it for hair. Some
of you may have heard confederate
soldiers being called Butternuts, the
name deriving from the dye used in their
uniforms. The tan color is easily extracted
from most parts of the plant, including the
leaves, fruit, and twigs.
The branches and trunk has only a small
strip of sapwood, usually very light in color.
The majority of the wood is heart wood, a
rich brown color with intricate grain. The
other common name, White Walnut,
derives from this lighter colored wood
than Black Walnut. Rogers states (a little
snarkily for 1902) Compared with it
(butternut), black walnut in a house
always looks somber and severe.

The tree is called a Butternut,

obviously, for the plenitude of nuts it
produces. The nut is said to be oily,
A young Butternut starting to decline.
sweet and buttery, and able to
Not only lighter in color, the lumber is also
quickly go rancid. Charles Fergus in
lighter in weight, and was therefore used extensively in
Trees of New England claims like a mild black walnut
with a hint of banana. They bear nuts young, at 20 years high end coaches and carriages, as well as private
of age or so, with best production at 30-60 years. 3-5 nuts railroad cars. It is quite stable, very rarely cracking or
checking, and prized by carvers and wood turners.
hang in clusters, and ripen to a dark tan sticky mess,
staining your hands well beyond the ability of soap to
Butternut fruits are also high in anti-oxidants, as well as
quickly wash it away, time doing a better job of it. The
anti-fungal properties seen in the bark, pointing to
plant produces male and female flowers on the same
potential pharmacological uses.
stem, with the female flowers on the new growth, males
emerging lower on the stems on older growth from last
Butternut is an important tree ecologically in the region.
Obviously, the large nuts are useful to squirrels and other

continued to page 16

continued from page 10

Hibisus Mahogany Splendor was excellent, as it has

been in previous years, with no flowers but good for its
reddish foliage. At 3ft. high and wide it makes a good
backdrop. Glamour Red ornamental Kale, an AAS
2011 winner, was very uniform and excellent as it has
been in previous years. Desana Lime ornamental
sweet potato was our one selection this year of this
group, with plants vigorous as always. All three
Pennisetum rated excellent. Fireworks had flowers just
emerging, Cherry Sparkler had nice pink color to
leaves, and Vertigo was huge at 5ft. high.

the end of the season, but Lanai Lavender Star rated


All petunias rated well, the best being Picasso in

Burgundy (also excellent at my home in a container),
Pink Star and Violet Star Charm. The latter two are
good spreaders, under 6in. high, and with smaller
flowers, very uniform in flower coloration and flowering
display. Thunbergia Lemon Coral was the best of the
the three at the Waterfront, while at my home in a
container Orange Wonder had better flowering. We
had two of the tall vervains (Verbena bonariensis),
Buenos Aires being more open with fewer flowers, and
Meteor Shower being upright and the best. Regular
spreading verbena often lose flowering and get mildew

If you're at New England Grows this December 2-4 (note

the new dates), I'll present on hardiness at the Sprint
Session on the trade floor Thursday at 11:30, and then be
at the Extension kiosk until 2pm, so stop by.

In my perennial trials in Milton, this was the last year (of

four) for the National Ornamental Grass Trials. I'll
hopefully get one more winter survival data. For the little
bluestems (Schizachyrium), of the six cultivars I rated,
Blue Heaven (bluish leaves) was again the best. Both
Blaze (greenish) and the compact and uniform
Standing Ovation (bluish) were also both quite good.
I'll provide Panicum (switchgrass) ratings in the next issue.

What Are You

Planting Today?

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Member Profile
diStefano Landscaping
Di Stefano Landscaping as it stands today was
established in 2004. Owner, Chris di Stefano was raised in
Cabot, Vermont on a large Christmas tree farm and
nursery surrounded by streams, forests, meadows, and
ledged hillsides that were home to countless wildlife
sanctuaries and secret gardens. As a kid, he spent hours
exploring this place and honing a deep appreciation
and understanding of the natural landscape and the
elements that make it so

In 2014 Marie Limoge joined the team as the first on-staff

Landscape Designer. She brought with her years of
experience in landscape design and installations on both
residential and commercial properties. Later that year
Andrew Newton, who had been a long-time employee
of the company, transitioned to Operations Manager.
With his knowledge of the company and landscaping he
now works with clients, the landscape designer and the
crew to ensure
installations and/or
throughout the year.
The addition of these
two members has
allowed Chris to
have more time to
focus on sales and
the companys
strategic growth

From the time he could

walk, he helped out at
his familys ornamental
tree nursery and
landscaping business,
planting, watering,
digging, and learning
even more. After
college and a brief stint
in New York City he
decided that
landscaping was in his
The diStefano Landscaping Crew & Family
blood. He wanted to
2015 brought with it
carry on the family
the addition of
tradition and established his own version of di Stefano
several new crew members, a Shop/ Yard Foreman and a
Landscaping in the Chittenden County area. More than
full time Gardener, letting us offer more maintenance
a decade later Chris now shares the lessons he learned
services to our clients. The company now includes a
from his wild classrooms and family apprenticeships of his
cohesive team of 17 individuals, which are made up of
childhood with clients and staff to create and enhance
office staff, designers, masons, and horticulturists that
beautiful natural spaces. He continues to build on this
work together to produce landscapes owners can be
ingrained knowledge by keeping abreast of industry
proud of. A majority of the crew members have been
trends in design, horticulture, and stone masonry, and
with the company for more than five years and have
works hard to promote professionalism in these trades.
earned a number of certifications and awards along the
The business which started as a one man operation has
slowly and cautiously grown over the years to become
They work at di Stefano Landscaping because they enjoy
an award winning landscape company, and adding key advancing meaningful careers within the green industry
members as needed throughout the years. In keeping
and have a deeply rooted enthusiasm for crafting
with the di Stefano Landscaping tradition of a familybeautiful spaces. They inspire each other and the clients
owned and operated business, Chriss wife Jennifer
on a daily basis, and have an extreme level of pride in
joined the company in 2011, with a wealth of knowledge their contribution to every project.
in office administration. She now handles all aspects of
di Stefano Landscaping installs both residential and
the financial management and human resources for the
commercial landscapes throughout Vermont, New
company, and keeps the day-to-day internal operations
Hampshire and the Adirondacks of New York. Some of
running smoothly. It is not uncommon to have their two
the commercial projects they have been involved in
young daughters stop into the office and their artwork
include installations at Champlain College, Top Notch
adorns the office walls.

continued to page 21


continued from page 12

wildlife. Bird species favor the tree

too, with Fergus noting yellow bellied
sapsucker, bluebirds, and starlings all
frequenting his trees. Doug Tallamy (in
a book you must read, Bringing
Nature Home) notes the foliage hosts
over 100 species of Lepidoptera, the
butterflies and moths family. Several
species have specialized in walnuts,
including the gregarious walnut
caterpillar, Anguss Datana, the gray
edged bomolocha, and the
Butternut wooly worm.
Butternut Canker
Butternut canker, Sirococcus
clavigignenti-juglandacearum, is a
fungus infecting nearly all butternuts
across the United States. Especially
virulent, the spores enter the
tree through many
pathways, including leaf
scars and lenticels on small
twigs, and on older stems
through wounds and cracks.
Often the first infection
appears high in the tree on
smaller growth, and moves
downward through the

conceivable that butternut could be

completely eliminated as a species.
First identified in Wisconsin in 1967,
research now points to it being seen
up to 70 years ago on the southern
end of its range. Once seen in 1967, it
promptly killed 58% of the butternut in
Wisconsin and 91% in Michigan in 15
short years. There is no known control.
Butternut Rescue

Butternut Canker on trunk.

The butternut orchard on South Street

is part of an interdepartmental
rescue effort of Butternut trees in
Vermont. The main drivers are the
USDA Forest Service, and the State of
Vermont Department of Forest, Parks
and Recreation. Similar
programs are underway
in Minnesota, Wisconsin,
Illinois, New York,
Indiana, and New
Hampshire. The basics
are easy to understand,
the actual effort

Healthy Butternut trees

are located in the wild.
Chestnut Blight, another
Because the tree is often
fungus, has effectively killed
found in groves (squirrels
all large chestnuts across the
being essentially lazy,
US. Chestnut is still around,
hiding and forgetting
Left: Dead cambial tissue from canker. Right: Butternut cankers
however, based on its ability
in a relatively close
infecting scaffold branches-note dieback.
to sucker from the base, as
range), any healthy
the blight only infects older
Butternut found in
trees. Dutch Elm disease is similar, only
proximity to other infected trees is
infecting trees at about 30 years old,
thought to have some degree of
well after the trees reproductive years
resistance to the canker. To determine
start. Butternut canker, though, is a
disease resistance, strict protocols as
complete killer, infecting even young
to the health of the tree are followed:
trees before reproductive age, and it
for example, in New Hampshire 3000
is conceivable that butternut could be
possible trees were evaluated at 300
completely eliminated as a species.
sites, and only 8 trees selected for the
possible resistance.
Chestnut Blight, another fungus, has
effectively killed all large chestnuts
Scions of healthy wood are collected
across the US. Chestnut is still around,
from the crown of the tree, and sent
however, based on its ability to sucker
out west to a USDA greenhouse for
from the base, as the blight only
grafting. The success rate of grafting
infects older trees. Dutch Elm disease is
hardwoods is only about 50%. The
similar, only infecting trees at about 30
surviving trees are grown in the
years old, well after the trees
greenhouse for a while, and then
reproductive years start. Butternut
planted out in seed orchards in
Tree killed from Butternut canker.
canker, though, is a complete killer,
various locales. The mixed population
infecting even young trees before
of potential resistant trees is allowed to
reproductive age, and it is
cross pollinate with each other, and


continued on page 21

ELAs Seasons End Summit:

Digging Into the Layered Landscape
Two Green Works members, Rebecca Lindenmeyr and
Julie Moir Messervy, will be presenting at the upcoming
ELAs Seasons End Summit on November 5, 2015 at the
Community Harvest Project Barn in North Grafton, MA.
Below is a description of the event and information on
where to register.
Landscapes are a delightful blending of form and
function. An ecological landscape is that and more.
Join the ELA for their 6th
annual Seasons End Summit
to explore the many layers of
the landscape with their
distinguished lineup of
presenters. Following are
descriptions of the
Reviving the Naturalistic
Presented by: Mark Richardson
Will Curtis, founder of Garden
in the Woods, entrusted New
England Wild Flower Society
with his lifes work in 1965.
Today, thanks to the generosity of the Hope Goddard
Iselin Foundation, the Society is working with W. Gary
Smith to revive the historic core of the Garden by
redesigning the planting plan for the Curtis Woodland
Garden. Although they often appear effortless, the
layers in naturalistic gardens are challenging to envision
and among the most challenging to maintain. Learn
about the exciting layers in this project and see the
progress to date from Mark Richardson, Horticulture
Director for the New England Wild Flower Society.
Exploring the Rich Layers in the Meadow
Presented by: Rebecca Lindenmeyr
There is no such thing as a native meadow in our area
(its a stage of succession) but Rebecca Lindenmeyr
plants meadows that contain native plants in residential
landscapes in an effort to capture a feeling of openness
and freedom, and to replace traditional lawns.
Meadows remind us of the great migration west through
the Plains, through vast oceans of grasses and flowers
that moved in rhythm with the wind. Meadows are
romanticized, but they are also practical a meadow
can replace the time-consuming and input-dependent
lawn with a low-maintenance, rich tapestry that is
beneficial to all life. Meadows can be beautiful,
aesthetic features of a landscape and can also provide
breeding habitat and critical sources of nectar and
pollen for bees, butterflies, and moths as well as habitat

for birds and mammals. Rebecca has been taking a

close look at the complex layers in her meadows and
shares her findings through fascinating descriptions and
stunning photographs.
Optimizing Ecological Value in the Layered Landscape
Presented by: Lauren Chase Rowell
Ecological principles inherent in natural systems serve as
both a framework and a
justification for mimicking
nature in our landscaping
practices. These integrated
principles and processes are
interdependent and by
supporting one, you support
the other. Through the
understanding and use of a
shared strategic check-list,
landscape integrity and
beauty are not only possible,
but essential. Lauren designs
landscapes that optimize
ecological value and creates
gardens that bring beauty
and quietude to the lives of
her clients while enriching the
land. In this presentation, Lauren will share techniques for
replicating this process.
Creating Beauty in Every Layer
Presented by: Julie Moir Messervy
In this inspiring presentation, award-winning landscape
designer and author Julie Moir Messervy demystifies the
art and practice of landscape design. Emphasizing
sustainable projects and using beautiful images,
together with helpful tips, case studies, before-and-after
photos, diagrams, and plans, Julie will discuss the
process of turning any property into the home outside
your clients have always dreamed of. Focusing on key
design concepts, Julie presents breathtaking plans for
the various landscape layers including captivating
gardens, entertainment areas, contemplative retreats,
as well as innovative ways to create a better flow
between the landscape and house. Julie highlights
many of the ideas introduced in her book, Home
Outside: Creating the Landscape You Love.
The cost for registration is $85 for ELA members and $110
for non-members. For complete details and to register
please visit:
seasons-end-summit-digging-into-the-layeredlandscape/#sthash.VmGRD5b7.dpuf. Email:; 617-436-5838


Gardening on the Wild Side

By: Judith Irven
Photography by: Dick Conrad
Creating a sense of place

Inauspicious beginnings

I fervently believe that gardens should not only interpret

the desires of the owner and reflect the style of the
house, and also create a feeling of harmony with the
surrounding landscape a sense of place.

Early on in my Vermont gardening life, I gave no thought

to doing anything that would obscure the view of our
little spring-fed pond at the far end of the back lawn.
We had gotten used to the fact that, towards the end of
summer its water level might drop by a foot or so
(because of a corresponding drop in the water-table that
feeds the
ground springs).
Each October, as
their leaves drop,
the trees absorb
less water, and in
the space of a
single week the
pond always
returned to its full

In a rural setting such a garden will gradually lead us from

the formality of the
house and the
designed spaces,
through a semi-wild
transitional zone,
towards the wildness

However, for
designers, creating
such a transitional
zone presents
But one summer
certain challenges.
the pond went
Many clients like
completely dry in
inherently tidy
early August,
gardens with
and for two
carefully spaced
months we
stared at a big
separated by mulch.
hole in the
In this wild setting, some of the clumping grass Deschampsia cespitosa
But, as we move
So I
outwards away from
the house, a denser
contemplate the
planting with massed perennials provides a more
in case it
appropriate segue to the meadow or woodland that lies
beyond. Also, in this untamed environment, encroaching
Then, the following spring, a mother moose with two
weeds become a fact of life.
calves began visiting our now-overflowing pond on a
regular basis. She would spend half an hour cooling off in
As a real-life example of creating a transitional zone in a
the water and then lead her offspring right up the middle
country garden, I would like to describe the making of my of the lawn, past the house and down the driveway,
own pond bed, which is about forty feet long and ten
along the road, and over the field to a beaver swamp at
feet deep and lies at the far end of our back garden. It is the bottom of the hill.
filled with robust perennials and grasses, many of prairie
origin, and is more evocative of a meadow than a
At that time we also ran a busy B&B, and while some of
garden bed.
our guests were enthralled to watch the huge animal,
others were horrified when she nonchalantly strolled past
While it looks like it has been there for ever, in reality it only their cars.
came into being about twelve years ago, when its
creation involved rerouting a moose, overcoming
That did it! I decided to install a forty-foot span of split-rail
pernicious weeds, building the soil and choosing
fencing across the southern edge of the pond. This had
appropriate plants that would thrive even with neglect.
the desired effect: for several years mama moose
returned with new offspring, but now she avoided our

continued on page 19

continued from page 19

garden and house, preferring to take the direct route out

the western side of the pond and across the road to her
beaver swamp.

And finally, for some back of the border heft, I used two
kinds of Maiden Grass (Miscanthus sinensis)the tall M.
Malepartus with plummy colored flowers in September
and October, and the slightly shorter M. Purpurascens
with leaves that turn a lovely yellow-bronze in the fall.
My planting strategy was to populate the entire bed right
away, using a closer then normal spacing. And, to my
delight, within a couple of years, as the plants began to
shade the soil, they were more than holding their own
against the ubiquitous Horsetail and the running pond
grasses. Horsetail in particular thrives in heavy acidic soil
and decent light conditions. Deprive it of these things
and, given time, it will essentially disappear!

Now, with the fence in place, the next logical step was to
add perennials in front of the it to hide the problem of the
hole in the ground during future dry summers.
Creating a new bed
I knew from the outset that I would be fighting the
pernicious Horsetail weed as well as the sturdy running
grasses that live around the edge of the pond. Horsetail is
an ancient weed that thrives in poorly drained soil with
low oxygen levels. It can be deterred (but not eliminated)
by improving the drainage and fertility of the soil, and
aerating it to increase the oxygen content.

Today the only real maintenance required is to cut

everything back each November, so that we can enjoy
the sight of the pond throughout the winter. My latest tool,
a battery powered hedge trimmer, is perfect for these fall
clean-up chores.

So to create a moist, but not water-logged growing

space, I began by raising the level of the soil to well
above the high-water level of the pond. And, to hold
everything in place I had a rough two-foot high retaining
wall built behind the fence along the edge of the pond,
as well as an attractive lower wall around the front side of
the bed.

Tweaking the design

After enjoying the pond bed for a whole decade I have
decided a few changes are in order. That of course is the
nature of gardening!

After this I went to work with my garden fork, chasing

down as many weed roots as I could find. Finally, to
lighten the soil, I dug in copious amounts of compost.
Survival of the fittest
I selected tried-and-true perennials and grasses with
robust personalities that would be able to look after
themselves. Most have flourished under my regimen of
benign neglect, although a few have succumbed to the
competition from their stronger companions. As in any
wild community, only the fittest survive and thrive.
Here, in order of flowering, is a partial list of these tough
survivors: Siberian Iris (Iris sibirica); Japanese Iris (Iris
ensata) ; Rodgers Flower (Rodgersia aesculifolia );
Daylilies (Hemerocallis) in various shades of yellow and
red; Shasta Daisies, (Leucanthemum Becky); Kansas
Gayfeather (Liatris spicata); Meadowsweet, both the
towering Queen of the Prairie (Filipendula rubra) as well
as the lovely Dwarf Meadowsweet (Filipendula Kahome)
for the front of the bed; Black Eyed Susans (Rudbeckia
Goldstrum); the very tall Autumn Sun (Rudbeckia
Herbstonne) for the back of the bed; plus several
Swamp Rose Mallow, (Hibiscus moscheutos).
Then, to integrate and soften the whole picture, I
incorporated some clumping grasses with airy flower
heads, including Tussock Grass (Deschampsia cespitosa)
and Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum Shenandoah and
P. Dallas Blues).

Firstly, while from July until October the bed is a tapestry

of color, in May and June it is predominantly green. Also in
late August and September I feel a need to
counterbalance the brashness of the Black-eyed Susans.
So this fall I plan on dividing a few plants growing
elsewhere in the garden and relocating some to my pond
bed. These include the tall Siberian Catmint (Nepeta
sibirica) with lavender-colored flowers that last from June
through August, a few deep pink Garden Phlox (Phlox
paniculata), as well as some fall flowering Aromatic Asters
(Symphyotrichum oblongifolium October Skies).
And finally, to complete the picture, I plan on squeezing
in a couple of the sturdy long-flowering Geranium
Rozanne towards the front of the bed.
While these changes may seem small, I think they will give
my wild garden a whole new look.
Judith Irven and Dick Conrad live in Goshen where together
they nurture a large garden. Judith is a Vermont Certified
Horticulturist and teaches Sustainable Home Landscaping for
the Vermont Master Gardener program. You can subscribe
to her blog about her VT gardening life at Dick is a landscape and
garden photographer. You can see more of his
photographs at


Syncing With Nature

2016 Garden Media Group Trends Report
Connected Greenery

potential to mobilize a new

generation of nature lovers.
It will get people off the couch,
outside and digging in the dirt again.

We walk, talk and sleep with our phones.

Now, people are getting plugged-in
outside, too, syncing garden habits with
technology and garden hobbyist with
each other. People want to be successful
with plants without a lot of work or
information. To do this, they are turning to
technology to help grow plants both
indoors and in the garden.

Horticulture is intrinsically tied to
health and wellness. People are
putting their health first, from what
we put in our mouths and on our
bodies or the environment, even
when were on vacation.

Newly enhanced digital tools make

gardening more approachable for
younger generations with limited
gardening knowledge.

Welltality, a trend in the hospitality

industry, is cashing in on the benefits
of plants. Hotels are becoming
destination locations with living walls,
indoor forests and serving locally grown food. From
helping people heal faster, concentrate better and
elevating peoples moods, greenery is incorporated
throughout the guest experience. With the help of O2
For You Plants with a Purpose, consumer awareness of
the benefits will only grow.

Modern systems, like the sleekly designed

Nest, work on the one home, one app model. They are
focused on ease of use and connectivity in which
people can wirelessly and remotely control what
happens in their home and garden.
Dont count boomers out of the connectivity. Despite
popular opinion, 46- to 64-year-olds spend more money
on technology than any other demographic. And one in
five of them now use social media every day, up from
one in 10 last year. They see social as a way to get
something done -- whether that's something at work or
staying in touch with gardening peers.

A healthy staple in every kitchen, berries are essential in

the garden, too. Blueberries, packed with nutrition and
antioxidants, are easy to grow in containers to support
the garden to table movement. New from the
BrazelBerries Collection is Perpetua, a delicious
blueberry that produces fruit in mid-summer and then
again in the fall.

The in-store shopping experience has gone from

purchasing to browsing. To continue driving sales,
independent retailers must provide the customer with
two experiences: one they interact with digitally from
their home and one that inspires them in-store. Mobile
coupons and proximity marketing are growing as a
driving force in purchasing decisions.

The Makers Lifestyle

The DIY movement gets a facelift as people shift from
doing to making. Homeowners and renters alike
want to experience outdoor living in a way that
maintains a sense of home and familiarity but
personalized to their tastes.

NaTECHure is the intersection of two of the hottest trends
in education: technology and nature. It combines
virtual and augmented reality to engage kids with
gardening, health and fitness in fun, new ways.
With Generation Z, born 1995- 2009, being the most
sedentary generation in American history, its vital to get
children, and their parents outdoors. Create adventures
that layer mysteries, stories, and puzzle-solving over
unpredictable environments or backyards. Whether its
camping on The White House lawn, attending outdoor
kindergarten or using a motor-sensory shovel,
experiences that heighten the senses and get people
outside playing are necessary. Whether running, playing,
storytelling, or even geocaching, NaTECHure has the

Called Yuccies, they are cultural offspring of yuppies and

hipsters. They like to be makers taste makers, craft
makers not just making things, but experiences. They
engage with nature hands-on through projects like
growing hops for backyard brewing and testing out
natural dyes with fruits and vegetables. They want to get
down and dirty and engage with outdoor environments
in a more hands-on way. How much it costs, be it high or
low, is immaterial. What is important is if what bought
validates their intellect, taste and lifestyle.
Backyard Boldness
Taking a bolder approach to outdoor living, people are
turning to new customization, lighting and movement to


continued to page 22

continued from page 15

Resort and Spa, Stowes Spruce Peak and Ben &

While the majority of the landscapes they work on are
designed in-house, they also work with other
landscape architects and designers to build beautiful
landscapes. So keep them in mind for you future
diStefano Landscaping won two awards for the Green
Works Industry Awards Program in 2014. Pictured right
in the top photo is the Spear Street Residence Project
winning an Honor Award in the Large Scale Residential
Build cateorgy and pictured below is the Top Notch
Resort Project winning the Exceeds Excellence Award
in the Commercial Build category.


continued from page 16


then this seed is collected, now thought to be

disease resistant. The fancy name for this is
Intraspecific Breeding.
Within Vermont, potential trees to breed have
been found in Williston, Derby, Charlotte,
Shelburne, St. Albans, Shaftsbury, Castleton,
Jericho, Berlin, and other places. The first seed
orchard is growing on Forest Service land in
Brandon, and Middlebury College was
approached to host a second site, following the
ancient stricture of not putting all of ones eggs in
a single basket. We selected a one acre site on
an awkward corner of a corn field, across from
Eastview at Middlebury, and with the help of a
grant from the State of Vermont constructed an
8 high fence to keep the deer from the young
trees. We planted 38 trees on one of the hottest
days of the year, and have mulched and
watered. Now, we wait. These trees will cross
breed with each other, and the seeds collected.
Hopefully the progeny will be disease resistant,
and Butternut can start to be reintroduced.





continued from page 18

add a sense of whimsicality to their backyards.

Transforming porch swings and swimming pools,
homeowners are moving away from subtle, minimalist
aesthetics toward designs that heighten sensory appeal.
Toss boring planters and make a statement with a
combination LED and speaker container.
Nightscape: Sight and Sound Experience
Stages are being set with light graffiti, multifunctional
planters and colorful plants that make a statement. At
first glance, an LED Tree Swing might look like a typical
rope swing found in a quaint backyard, but upon closer
inspection its clear that its not. It has been wrapped
with Electroluminiscent Tape with RGB LEDs on the
bottom that creates a striking glow at night. Longwood
Gardens Nightscape exhibit is drawing record breaking
crowds to the garden after dark.
The Outdoors Returns as a Destination.
People are making childhood memories and family
experiences that offer the nostalgia of catching fireflies
and reminiscing at summer BBQs. Bold colors of red,
orange and purple flower bulbs from Longfield Gardens
planted close together in varying patterns can make a
major personality statement and get kids in the garden.
Layered Landscapes
The landscaping trend is shifting from green deserts to
Living Landscapes. Doug Tallamy, professor of
entomology and wildlife ecology at the University of
Delaware, says people want to bring their yard back to
its natural habitat as each plant serves a purpose in
supporting local, natural ecosystems, pollinators and
other wildlife. Dr. Tallamy says a living landscape starts
with trees and is layered underneath with shrubs and
World renowned garden designer Andrew Fisher Tomlin
says design trends are shifting. People want a hardy
combination of trees, conifers, shrubs and perennials,
rather than endless meadows of perennials. Tomlin says
this move is driven by a desire to create more impactful,
lasting and sustainable plantings which will last not just
throughout the year -- but for many years to come.
As peoples passion for preserving the earth increases,
they will see and purchase plants for their function as well
as their beauty. A grass roots gardening movement is just
beginning and with it, a relaxed look and feel.
Pets run through the lawn, roll in it, dig in it and often eat
it so its no wonder that pet owners are thinking more
and more about how to make their gardens pet friendly

and pet safe. Petscaping to protect dogs and cats from

poisonous plants and harmful chemicals is as important
as protecting precious plants from pets.
According to the 2015- 2016 APPA National Pet Owners
Survey, 65% of U.S. households own a pet. Pet owners
spend about $60 billion dollars on their pets each year,
second only to Christmas spending. And theyre
gardeners. A survey by the Philadelphia Flower Show and
Subaru found a direct correlation between pet owners
and gardeners.
Creating a chemical free environment from the ground
up is key for a safe lawn and garden. With 1 in 3 dogs
getting cancer each year, pet parents believe, like
eating nutritious food, the safest practice is to use
organic lawn products and limit the use of potentially
harmful garden chemicals. Espomas Safe Paws
program helps pet parents make the switch from
chemical to organic lawns, safe for people, pets and the
Precious Resources
The resources that we depend on to garden, particularly
water, are limited and need protection. Precious
resources is a trend where necessity meets innovation.
New technologies and plants offer the opportunity to
protect and conserve resources with small lifestyle
changes that will make an evolutionary impact on the
gardening experience.
Brownscaping is becoming more acceptable. In
California, cities and towns have been ordered to cut
water consumption by 25%. How to garden with less
water continues to be a top priority. The new Keyhole
Garden from Vita Gardens uses up to 80% less water than
a traditional garden bed. Based on an ancient African
gardening technique of growing in dry conditions, it
combines a raised bed with a built-in composter that
turns biodegradable scraps into rich soil.
People are making small changes in the landscape that
have a big impact on Earths precious resources.
Drought tolerant plants such as Costa Farms new Drop
and Grow sedum tiles and the new Desert Escape
collection of cacti and succulents are smart choices to
save time and water. Being mindful of Earths precious
resources enables brands to foster a new connection
with consumers and create a
better environment.
HISTORY of Garden Media Group
In September 1988, Suzi McCoy put
her 6-year old daughter Katie on the
bus to start the first grade and
opened the doors of IMPACT


continued tp page 23

continued from page 22

Marketing & PR. For the next 10 years, they operated as a

general purpose public relations firm in the Philadelphia
region, representing banks and hospitals, real estate
developers and car dealerships, trucking firms and potato
chip manufacturers, even a horse breeder and infertility
doctor. And we worked with the American Mushroom

It was this relationship and the results they achieved

transforming the public image of the mushroom industry
that attracted them to their first horticultural client in 1995,
The Conard-Pyle Company. It was love at first sight. They
quickly discovered they had met their match, and soon
learned that the lawn and garden industry was a gracious
business filled with ladies and gentlemen. The media who
talked about growing things were kind and generous with
their time, eager to help them help their clients succeed.

Within a few years and tremendous success with Star Roses,

they made a strategic decision to focus on the lawn and
garden industry niche. We added a few more home and
garden clients and changed our working name to Garden
Media Group.

Since then they have represented such diverse rock stars as

Costa Farms, W. Atlee Burpee, Ball Horticulture, Hines
Growers, Urban Outfitters terrain, Garden Writers
Association, Philadelphia Flower Show and Longwood
Gardens. They have launched hundreds of new plants and
products and help build brands, including The Knock Out
Family of Roses, Endless Summer and WAVE Petunias.

Today they are one of the top 10 public relations firms in the
Philadelphia region and the top marketing communications
and public relations firm in the lawn & garden industry. They
know this industry inside and out, and people know them,
from the top media to garden center owners to horticultural
One of their goals as a marketing and PR firm is to make
gardening as fashionable in the US as it is in other countries
such as England, Canada and Japan. Their first Garden
Trends Report was released in 2001, and they have been
spot on predicting trends like outdoor living, edible
landscaping and vertical gardening years before they hit
mainstream. It has become one of the most widely read
reports in the industry and a must read for those who want
to stay ahead of the curve.


Highlights from the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid

Program Managers Meeting

by Jim Esden, Forester, VT Department of Forests, Parks and Recreation

In late July, 2015 staff from Vermont went to a meeting
in Clarion Pennsylvania for the latest on hemlock woolly
adelgid (HWA) management. Other participants
represented 18 states from Maine to Georgia, as well as
the USFS, National Park Service, The Nature
Conservancy, Virginia Tech, University of Rhode Island
and University of Tennessee. The meeting was meant to
be a nuts and bolts meeting to allow program
managers the opportunity to share ideas and
information about
implementing various
parts of the National HWA
Strategic Plan and
In 2003, the USFS and
cooperation with the
National Association of
State Foresters and the
National Plant Board,
formed the HWA Initiative
by pulling together
workers and researchers
from federal and state
agencies, universities and
industry to coordinate
and accelerate efforts to reduce the spread and
impact of HWA.

been found to die before they developed their wool in

the fall. Heat and desiccation are thought to be the
Early detection is important, but inspecting upper
portions of hemlocks has always been difficult. One
participant shared that they sample upper branches by
throwing squash balls wrapped in Velcro into hemlock
crowns using a device made for throwing balls for dogs
to fetch. HWA ovisacs
stick to the ball. They
have not worked out
how to quantify the level
of infestation with this
technique, but are able
to do presence/absence
surveys. Initially they had
problems with balls
bouncing and rolling
downhill, but solved that
by puncturing the ball
and placing some wood
pellets inside to deaden
Education was
acknowledged as an
important component in managing hemlock woolly
adelgid. Most states mentioned some sort of outreach.
Vermont is one of just a few states that use volunteers
extensively. Vermont volunteers also do a large
proportion of the survey work which is critical to inform
management decisions.

Vermont, relatively speaking, is still the new kid on the

block. Although stand decline has been observed, we
are not yet finding hemlock mortality. Many of the
representatives reported that mortality is common in
their jurisdictions. Elongate hemlock scale, only
recently found in Vermont, is becoming common
elsewhere and in some places regarded as the more
severe threat. For more information
spfo/pubs/pest_al/ehscale/ehscale.htm . Sirococcus
tip blight is another threat to hemlock trees that has
been observed in Vermont and is reported as a serious
threat in some areas -
tip_blight/tip_blight_lo_res.pdf . When these pests are
found together they accelerate tree decline and
Most participants reported a high HWA mortality rate
from this winters cold temperature, however there was
general agreement that the pest seems be adapting to
cold temperatures. It was also noted that the minimum
low temperature may not be as critical as the duration
and timing of the cold. There is also summer mortality
aestivating adelgids, sometimes as many as 60%, have

A great deal of time was spent discussing chemical

treatment. There was consensus that treatment
protects hemlocks, as long as they are generally
healthy. Many state and federal land management
agencies have their own crews to conduct chemical
treatments. Many are significant, long-term efforts, for
example the Great Smokey Mountains National Park
has treated >200,000 trees. Some also have
cooperative programs. The treatment cycle is generally
5-7 years, but efficacy can be for up to 10 years if
enough trees are treated within the area to suppress
the HWA population locally.
There was an acknowledgement that some of the
popular insecticides are controversial, but not much
mention of the type of resistance we have faced in


continued to page 25

continued from page 24

There was a wide variety of opinions and practice in the

area of chemical control. Costs were highly variable,
ranging from 10 to $8.75 per diameter inch.
Biocontrol is seen as the critical component of a long
range approach to HWA. A number of predatory
insects are approved, and a few have been widely
released. Climate determines which is appropriate for a
particular location. There has been significant natural
expansion of the most widely released predator,
Laricobius nigrinus. For example, the beetle was
released at 10 sites in New Jersey, and it has been
recovered, so far, at 59 sites. Laricobius has been
released in three sites in Vermont.

A particular focus of resistance work has been New

Jerseys bulletproof stand. Elevated turpenoid levels in
these trees may contribute to their apparent resistance.
Clones are ready for outplanting. An on-line form for
submitting healthy hemlocks is available through the
Alliance for Saving Threatened Forests.

Some areas where introduced predatory beetles are

well established are able to supply beetles for other
locations. There is a movement to establish field
insectaries for this purpose. Some participants claimed
that biocontrols are working and that treated areas
look better than areas with no beetles, but so far, there
seems to be little empirical data to show that trees are
being saved. Recent results may have been impacted
by the cold winters of the last two years. It is believed to
be too early to tell yet; data are still being gathered.

We attended a field trip to a study area that was

thinned to see if manipulating stands to put more crown
on the hemlocks would allow the hemlocks to fare
better when HWA arrives. The data are still being
gathered. VT FPR, in conjunction with forest health
experts in New Hampshire and Maine have produced a
document that should be released soon about
managing hemlock in northern New England that is
threatened by HWA and EHS.

There was a discussion about the need for guidelines for

restoration. There are differing opinions about planting
other conifers in effected areas to replace hemlock.
Some suggest that hemlock could be planted and
protected using a concurrent treatment of slow-release
insecticide, such as Coretect.


Industry Calendar
October 25-27, 2015
New England ISA 48th Annual
Red Jacket Mountain View Resort
North Conway, NH

November 5, 2015
Ecological Landscape Alliance
Seasons End Summit
Digging into the Layered Landscape
Community Harvest Project Barn
North Grafton, MA

November 2, 2015
NH Pollinator Summit
Grappone Conference Center
Concord, NH

November 20, 2015

ELAs Ecological Synergies:
Understanding Resilient Landscapes
Longwood Gardens
Kennett Square, PA

November 3-5, 2015

2015 Invasive Species In-Service
Cornell University
Ithaca, NY

December 2-4, 2015

New England Grows
Boston Convention Exhibition Center

January 3-7, 2016

Northeastern Plant, Pest & Soils
Sheraton Society Hills Hotel
Philadelphia, PA
February 12, 2016
Green Works/VNLA Annual Winter
Meeting & Trade Show
Sheraton Burlington Hotel &
Conference Center
S. Burlington, VT 05403
March 9-10, 2016
Ecological Landscape Alliance
Annual Conference &
UMASS Amherst Campus


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50th Anniversary Supporters

Presenting Sponsors for 2015

Karl & Diane Neuse, Middlebury, VT

Bag Sponsors
Cooking Display Sponsors

Media Sponsors

Contributing Sponsors
Deborah Healey, Shelburne, VT

Daily Seminar Sponsor



In-Kind Sponsors:
Agway, Essex
Agway, Middlebury
Aquarius Landscape Sprinklers, Inc.
Ash ley Robinson, Landscape
Bristol Electronics
Center for Technology, Essex
Charley MacMartin, Queen City
Soil & Stone
Church Hill Landscapes, Inc
Claussens Florist & Greenhouse
Cobble Creek Nursery
Craig Scribner Trucking
CW Stageworks
Denice Carpentry
Dixondale Farms
Eben Markowski & Heidi
Emily Leopold
Evergreen Gardens
Fairfax Perennial Farm
Full Circle Gardens
Gardeners Supply Company
Ginkgo Design, LLC
Green Feet Gardening
Greenhaven Gardens & Nursery
Green Mountain Compost
Green Mountain Florist Supply

Homer Wells
Horsford Gardens & Nursery
Iron Arts
Jeffersonville Quarry
Kate Brook Nursery
Katie Raycroft-Meyer
Long Leaf Landscaping, LLC
Longacres Nursery
Marie P. Limoge, Designer for
diStefano Landscaping
Marijkes Perennials Plus
Masefield Dry Stone Masonry
Matt Atkins Property Services, LLC
Melita J. Bass, VCH
Millican Nursery
Milton CAT
Mur phy Landscape Design &
NES Rentals
No Waste Tape
Nor th Branch Farm and Gardens
Northern Nurseries
Northland Job Corp
Nourse Farms
Petes Pines and Needles Tree




Prescott Galleries
Price Chopper
Prides Corner Farm
Rivers Bend Design,
Garden LLC
Rocky Dale Gardens
R.R. Charlebois, Inc.
Shaw Hill Nursery
Shelburne Farms
SJC Garden Services
Sisters of Nature
South Forty Nursery
Starflower Studio
Swift Greenhouses, Inc.
Trowel Trades Supply, Inc.
University of Vermont Extension
UV M Extension Master Gardeners
UVM Horticulture Club
Van Berkum Nursery
Vermont Department of
Forest, Parks & Recreation
Vermont Garden Railway Society
Vermont HArt
Vermont Mulch Company
Vermont Natural Ag Products
Vermont Technical College
Wright Family Farm, LLC


PO Box 92
North Ferrisburgh, VT 05473

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