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Learjet 55

Cockpit Reference Handbook

SimuFlite
SEPTEMBER 2003

Notice: This Learjet 55 Cockpit Reference Handbook is to be used for


aircraft familiarization and training purposes only. It is not to be used as,
nor considered a substitute for, the manufacturers Pilot or Maintenance
Manuals.

SimuFlite

Copyright 2003, SimuFlite Training International, Inc.


All rights reserved.

Excerpted materials used in this publication


have been reproduced with permission of
Learjet, Inc.

Printed in the United States of America.

09/03

Introduction

CAE SimuFlite
Welcome to SimuFlite!
Our goal is a basic one: to enhance your safety, proficiency
and professionalism within the aviation community. All of us
at SimuFlite know that the success of our company depends
upon our commitment to your needs. We strive for excellence by focusing on our service to you.
We urge you to participate actively in all training activities.
Through your involvement, interaction, and practice, the full
value of your training will be transferred to the operational
environment. As you apply the techniques presented through
SimuFlite training, they will become second nature to you.
Thank you for choosing SimuFlite. We recognize that you
have a choice of training sources. We trust you will find us
committed to providing responsive, service-oriented training
of the highest quality.
Our best wishes are with you for a most successful and
rewarding training experience.

The Staff of SimuFlite

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

1-1

CAE SimuFlite

1-2

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Introduction

Introduction
SimuFlite created this reference handbook for cockpit use. It is
an abbreviated version of the SimuFlite Technical Manual and
includes international flight planning information. Please refer
to the front of each chapter for a table of contents.
The Procedures chapter contains four elements: Preflight
Inspection, Expanded Normal Procedures, a sample Standard
Operating Procedure (SOP), and Maneuvers.
The Limitations chapter contains general, operational, and aircraft systems limitations.
The alphabetically arranged Systems chapter includes text for
particular systems and relevant color schematics.
The Flight Planning chapter includes maximum allowable
takeoff and landing weight flow charts and a sample weight and
balance form. International flight planning information includes
a checklist, a glossary of frequently used international flight
operation terms, and sample flight plan forms (ICAO and FAA)
with completion instructions.
The Servicing chapter contains servicing specifications and
checklists for fueling, defueling, and other servicing procedures.
The Emergency Information chapter provides basic first aid
instructions.
Information in the Conversion Tables chapter may facilitate
your flight planning and servicing computations.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

1-3

CAE SimuFlite

1-4

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Operating Procedures
This chapter contains four sections: Preflight Inspection,
Expanded Normal Procedures, a sample Standard Operating
Procedure (SOP), and Maneuvers. Although these procedures
are addressed individually, their smooth integration is critical to
ensuring safe, efficient operations.
Preflight Inspection contains an abbreviated checklist for the
exterior inspection as well as preflight cockpit and cabin
checks.
Expanded Normal Procedures presents checklists for normal
phases of flight. Each item, when appropriate, is expanded to
include cautions, warnings, and light indications. Supplemental
Deicing information is also included at the end of this chapter.
Standard Operating Procedures details Pilot Flying/Pilot Not
Flying callouts and verbal or physical responses.
Maneuvers contains pictorial representations of specific
maneuvers.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

2-1

CAE SimuFlite

2-2

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Preflight Inspection
Table of Contents
General

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-3

Power Off Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-4


Left Forward Fuselage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-4
Nose Gear Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-5
Right Forward Fuselage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-6
Right Fuselage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-7
Right Main Gear

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-8

Right Wing Forward

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-9

Right Wing Aft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-10


Right Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-11
Right Aft Fuselage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-12
Tail

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-13

Tailcone Compartment

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-14

Left Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-15


Left Wing Aft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-16
Left Wing Forward

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-17

Left Main Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-18


Left Fuselage

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-18

Power On Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-19


Cabin Inspection

Learjet 55
March 2002

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-20

Developed for training purposes

2A-1

CAE SimuFlite

2A-2

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Preflight Inspection

General
Before starting the exterior inspection, obtain the following:

flashlight

standard screwdriver

fuel sampler

step stool

container for fuel sample disposal.

The following is a generalized exterior inspection.


All Surfaces . . . . . . . . . FREE FROM SNOW/ICE/FROST
Protective Covers/Plugs . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVE/STOW
Remove safety covers from the engines, static ports, stall
warning vents, pitot probes, starter/generator inlets, and
APU inlets.
All Intakes/Exhausts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEAR
Fasteners/Panels

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ALL SECURE

General Condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UNDAMAGED


Perform a general condition check of the entire aircraft.
Note any fuel, oil or hydraulic leaks. Determine cause and
have corrected before flight.
NOTE: If night flight is anticipated, check actual operation
of navigation and strobe lights.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

2A-3

CAE SimuFlite
Preflight Inspection Walkaround Path
B

Power Off Inspection


Exterior Walkaround
Unfold the Preflight Inspection Walkaround Path diagram for
ease of reference. Letters A through P identify each segment of
the walkaround inspection.

Before performing the Power Off checks, remove and stow the
controls lock.

NOTE: Procedures marked with this symbol () denote


through-flight checklist items.
D

A Left Forward Fuselage

P
F

Upper Door Hinges/Seal . . . . . . . . GOOD CONDITION


Left Windshield
Left Defog Outlet

G
L

. . . . . . . . . . . CLEAN/UNDAMAGED
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEAR

Alcohol Discharge Outlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEAR


Left Pitot/Static Tube Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVE
Left Pitot/Static Probe . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEAR/CLEAN
CAUTION: Do not rub fingers over static ports.

Left Stall Warning Vane . . . . FREE MOVEMENT/DOWN


J

Left Pitot/Static Drain Valves

. . . . . . . . DRAIN/CLOSE

Do not rotate the valve stems because this may damage the
O-rings. Drain only if moisture in the system is suspected.

2A-4

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Preflight Inspection
Left Nose Baggage Door . . . . . . . .GOOD CONDITION
Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLOSE/SECURE
Latches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FLUSH
Camlock Fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURE
Oxygen Blowout Disc (if installed) . . . . . IN PLACE
A missing disc indicates oxygen bottle overpressure
discharge.

B Nose Gear Area


Nose Gear/Wheel Well . . . . . . . . . . . . NO LEAKAGE
Hydraulic Lines

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURE

Nose Wheel/Tire . . . . . . . . . . UNDAMAGED/SECURE


Tire Chine . . . . . . . . . 3/4 INCH FROM GROUND
Nose Gear Strut Extension . . . . . 1.30 TO 8.16 INCHES
Uplatch Roller

. . . . . . . . . . . . . FACING FORWARD

Nose Gear Doors . . . . . . . . . SECURE/UNDAMAGED


Radome/Erosion Shoe . . . GOOD CONDITION/SECURE
Radome Bonding Strips

. . . . . . . . . . . SECURE

Drain Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEAN/CLEAR

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

2A-5

CAE SimuFlite
C Right Forward Fuselage
Total Temperature Probe
(SAT/TAS Probe) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEAN/CLEAR
Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVE
Pressurization Static Port . . . . . . . . . . CLEAN/CLEAR
Right Stall Warning Vane

. . . FREE MOVEMENT/DOWN

Right Pitot/Static Probe . . . . . . . CLEAR/UNDAMAGED


Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVE
Nose Compartment Door Seal

. . . . . . . UNDAMAGED

Nose Compartment Door . . . . . . . . CLOSED/SECURE


Right Defog Outlet . . . . . . . . . . CLEAR/UNDAMAGED
Copilot's Wing Inspection Light . . . UNDAMAGED/CLEAN

2A-6

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Preflight Inspection

D Right Fuselage
Rotating Beacon . . . . . . . . . .UNDAMAGED/SECURE
Lower Fuselage/Antennas

. . . . UNDAMAGED/SECURE

Fuel Drains (7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DRAIN/CHECK


Cabin Windows . . . . . . . . . UNDAMAGED/NO BULGE
Emergency Exit . . . . . . . . FLUSH/GOOD CONDITION
Upper Fuselage/Antennas
Dorsal Fin

. . . . UNDAMAGED/SECURE

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURE/CLEAR

Fuselage Filler Door

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURE

Right Engine Inlet . . . . . . . GOOD CONDITION/CLEAR


Front Fan Blades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UNDAMAGED
Pt2/Tt2 Probe . . . . . . . . . . . . . UNDAMAGED/CLEAN
Generator Cooling Scoop

Learjet 55
March 2002

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEAR

Developed for training purposes

2A-7

CAE SimuFlite
E Right Main Gear
Right Main Gear/Wheel Well . . . . . . . . . NO LEAKAGE
Hydraulic Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURE
Landing Light . . . . . . . SECURE/VERTICAL FILAMENT
Gear Doors

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURE

Inboard Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLOSE


Wheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UNDAMAGED
Tires . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK WEAR/CORD/TREAD
Both tires should have equal pressure.
Brakes . . . . . . . . . . . . SET/0.33-INCH CLEARANCE
Landing Gear Strut Minimum Extension

. . . . . . 1 INCH

See Servicing Chapter for more information.

2A-8

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Preflight Inspection

F Right Wing Forward


Wing Leading Edge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UNDAMAGED
Stall Strips
(Triangles, if installed)

. . . . . ALL PRESENT/SECURE

Stall Fences
Learjet 55/55B (2) . . . . . . . UNDAMAGED/SECURE
Learjet 55C (3) . . . . . . . . . UNDAMAGED/SECURE

CAUTION: Stall fences are crucial to maintaining


safe flight characteristics.

Inboard Fuel Vent Ram Airscoop . . . . . . CLEAN/CLEAR


Wing Access Panels

. . . . . . . SECURE/NO LEAKAGE

Outboard Fuel Vent Ram Airscoop . . . . . CLEAN/CLEAR


Vent Sump

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . DRAIN/NO LEAKAGE

Wing Fuel Filler Cap

Learjet 55
March 2002

. . SECURE/FLUSH/POINTING AFT

Developed for training purposes

2A-9

CAE SimuFlite
G Right Wing Aft
Navigation/Strobe Lights . . . . . . . . . . . UNDAMAGED
Winglet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UNDAMAGED/SECURE
Static Discharge Wicks . . . . . ALL PRESENT/SECURE/
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .UNDAMAGED
Aileron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FREE MOVEMENT
Balance Tab Pushrods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURE
Aileron Brush Seal . . . CHECK SILICONE LUBRICANT
Drain Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEAR
Boundary Layer
Energizers (45) . . . . . . . . . . ALL PRESENT/SECURE
CAUTION: A missing BLE affects the safe flight characteristics of the aircraft and restricts maximum airspeed
(MMO) to Mach 0.78.

Spoiler

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONDITION CHECKED

Flap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURE/UNDAMAGED

2A-10

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Preflight Inspection

H Right Engine
Engine Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK
Filler Cap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURE
Access Door

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLOSE/SECURE

CAUTION: Ensure the yellow marks align when securing the filler cap; an oil loss can occur if the cap loosens
during engine operation.

Oil Filter Bypass Indicator

. . . . . . . . NOT EXTENDED

CAUTION: If the oil filter bypass indicator is extended,


the filter is bypassing and requires maintenance before
dispatch.

Nacelle Latches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURE


Engine Gang Drain

. . . . . . . . . CLEAR/NO LEAKAGE

Engine Turbine Blades/Exhaust Area . . . . UNDAMAGED


Thrust Reverser Assembly (if installed) . . . . . . CHECK
Blocker Doors . . . . FLUSH WITH EXHAUST NOZZLE
There should be no more than a 0.25-inch gap between
the aft nacelle and the engine nacelle.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

2A-11

CAE SimuFlite
I Right Aft Fuselage
Single-Point Fueling Access Doors . . . . . . . . SECURE
Hydraulic Service Compartment . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK
Service Door . . . . . . . OPEN WITH SCREWDRIVER
Accumulator Gage Reading (minimum)

. . . . 750 PSI

Service Port Caps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURE


Service Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLOSE
NOTE: On S/N 090 to 123, there is a spring-loaded
inspection door on the access door for accumulator
pressure checking. On S/N 124 to 147 (Learjet 55B/C)
and prior aircraft with FCN 85-17, an inspection
window allows checking of the gage without opening
the service door.

Aft Fuel Drains (10) . . . . . . . . . DRAIN/SAMPLE FUEL


Fuselage Vent and Single-Point
Fueling Pressure Vent Screen . . . . . . . CLEAN/CLEAR
Battery Vents

2A-12

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEAR

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Preflight Inspection

J Tail
Recognition Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UNDAMAGED
Right VOR/LOC and ELT Antennas . . . . . UNDAMAGED
Drag Chute Cap (if installed) . . . . . . . . . . . SECURE
A full inspection is required every six months.
Empennage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSPECT
Examine the vertical and horizontal stabilizers, elevators,
rudder, trim tab for appearance and security, and all drain
holes clear.
Static Dischargers

. . . . . . . . ALL PRESENT/SECURE

Learjet 55/55B have eight static dischargers, while Learjet


55C has nine.
Horizontal Stabilizer BLEs
(Learjet 55C) . . . . . . . . . . . ALL PRESENT/SECURE
Navigation and Strobe Lights . . . UNDAMAGED/SECURE
VLF/H-Field Antenna
(if installed) . . . . . . . . . . . . UNDAMAGED/SECURE
Tailcone Cap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SEALED/SECURE
Oxygen Discharge Disc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PRESENT
A missing disc indicates the oxygen bottle has overpressurized and vented overboard. Have maintenance service
the bottle and replace the indicator disc.
Left VOR/LOC and
ELT Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . UNDAMAGED/SECURE

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

2A-13

CAE SimuFlite
K Tailcone Compartment
Tailcone Compartment . . . . . . . . . . . . NO LEAKAGE
Drag Chute Canister . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURE
Riser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HOOK/STOW
Control Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . GOOD CONDITION
Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSPECT
Current Limiters

. . . . . . . . . . . INTACT/NOT BLOWN

Hydraulic Reservoir . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK QUANTITY


The hydraulic system must be at zero PSI (i.e., no pressure) for a proper quantity check.
Freon Compressor Belt . . . . . SECURE/UNDAMAGED/
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PROPER TENSION
Tailcone Access Door . . . . . . . . . . . CLOSE/SECURE

2A-14

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Preflight Inspection

L Left Engine
Aft Baggage Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURE
Fire Extinguisher Indicator Discs (2) . . . . . . . PRESENT

Yellow disc missing indicates normal fire extinguisher


discharge into engine.

Red disc missing indicates bottle overpressurization due


to excessive temperature and overboard discharge.

Oil Filter Bypass Indicator

. . . . . . . . NOT EXTENDED

CAUTION: If the oil filter bypass indicator is extended,


the filter is bypassing and requires maintenance before
dispatch.

Thrust Reverser Assembly (if installed) . . . . . . CHECK


Blocker Doors . . . . FLUSH WITH EXHAUST NOZZLE
There should be no more than a .25-inch gap between
the aft nacelle and the engine nacelle.
Engine Turbine Blades/Exhaust Area . . . . UNDAMAGED
Engine Gang Drain

. . . . . . . . . CLEAR/NO LEAKAGE

Nacelle Latches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURE


Engine Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK
Filler Cap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURE
Access Door

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLOSE/SECURE

CAUTION: Ensure the yellow marks align when


securing the filler cap; an oil loss can occur if the cap
loosens during engine operation.
Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

2A-15

CAE SimuFlite
M Left Wing Aft
Flap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURE/UNDAMAGED
Spoiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK CONDITION
Boundary Layer
Energizers (45) . . . . . . . . . . ALL PRESENT/SECURE
CAUTION: A missing BLE affects the safe flight characteristics of the aircraft and restricts maximum airspeed
(MMO) to Mach 0.78.

Aileron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FREE MOVEMENT


Balance Tab Pushrods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURE
Aileron Brush Seal . . . CHECK SILICONE LUBRICANT
Drain Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEAR
Static Discharge Wicks . . . . . ALL PRESENT/SECURE/
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .UNDAMAGED
Winglet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UNDAMAGED/SECURE
Navigation/Strobe Lights . . . . . . . . . . . UNDAMAGED

2A-16

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Preflight Inspection

N Left Wing Forward


Wing Fuel Filler Cap

. . SECURE/FLUSH/POINTING AFT

Outboard Fuel Vent Ram Airscoop . . . . . CLEAN/CLEAR


Vent Sump

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . DRAIN/NO LEAKAGE

Wing Access Panels

. . . . . . . SECURE/NO LEAKAGE

Inboard Fuel Vent Ram Airscoop . . . . . . CLEAN/CLEAR


Stall Fences
Learjet 55/55B (2) . . . . . . . UNDAMAGED/SECURE
CAUTION: Stall fences are crucial to maintaining safe
flight characteristics.

Learjet 55C (3) . . . . . . . . . UNDAMAGED/SECURE


Stall Strips
(Triangles, if installed)

. . . . . ALL PRESENT/SECURE

Wing Leading Edge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UNDAMAGED

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

2A-17

CAE SimuFlite
O Left Main Gear
Left Main Gear/Wheel Well

. . . . . . . . . NO LEAKAGE

Hydraulic Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURE


Landing Light . . . . . . . SECURE/VERTICAL FILAMENT
Gear Doors

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURE

Inboard Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLOSE


Wheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UNDAMAGED
Tires . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK WEAR/CORD/TREAD
Both tires should have equal pressure.
Brakes . . . . . . . . . . . . SET/0.33-INCH CLEARANCE
Landing Gear Strut Minimum Extension

. . . . . . 1 INCH

See Servicing Chapter for more information.

P Left Fuselage
Left Engine Inlet . . . . . . . . GOOD CONDITION/CLEAR
Front Fan Blades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UNDAMAGED
Pt2/Tt2 Probe . . . . . . . . . . . . . UNDAMAGED/CLEAN
Generator Cooling Scoop

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEAR

After completing the exterior inspection, return to the cockpit to accomplish the Power On checks.

2A-18

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Preflight Inspection

Power On Checks
Battery Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOTH ON
Pitot Heat Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOTH ON
Stall Warning Switches (Learjet 55/55B)
Exterior Light Switches

. . . . BOTH ON

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON

With the above switches on, exit the cockpit and quickly
walk around the aircraft to verify light, pitot heat, and stall
warning heat operation. Re-enter the cockpit.
Above Switches

Learjet 55
March 2002

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF

Developed for training purposes

2A-19

CAE SimuFlite
Cabin Inspection
Baggage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURE
Emergency Exit

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLOSE/LATCH

Ensure handle points aft, the lock pin is removed, and there
is clear access to the door.
Lavatory Container . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EMPTY
Aisle

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEAR

Passenger Briefing

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COMPLETE

According to Part 91.519 requirements, the pilot-in-command


or a crewmember briefs the passengers on smoking, use of
safety belts, location and operation of the passenger entry
door and emergency exits, location and use of survival equipment, and normal and emergency use of oxygen equipment.
For flights over water, the briefing should include ditching
procedures and use of flotation equipment. An exception to
the oral briefing rule is if the pilot-in-command determines the
passengers are familiar with the briefing content. A printed
card with the above information should be available to each
passenger to supplement the oral briefing.

2A-20

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Expanded Normals
Table of Contents
Checklist Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-5
Cockpit Flow Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-6
Normal Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-7
Before Starting Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-11
Starting Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-31
Before Taxi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-38
Taxi and Before Takeoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-43
Runway Lineup

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-46

After Takeoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-48


Climb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-50
Cruise

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-50

Descent

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-50

Transition Level/FL 180 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-51


Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-52
Before Landing

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-53

Go Around . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-54
Landing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2B-55
After Landing/Clearing Runway
Shutdown

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-56

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-57

Quick Turnaround

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2B-59

Parking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-64
Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-1

CAE SimuFlite
Mooring

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-64

Towing/Taxiing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-65
Towing Radius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-66
Nose Gear Towing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-67
Main Gear Towing

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-68

Taxiing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-69
Storage and Restoring

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-71

Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-71
Parking (0 to 7 Days)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-71

Flying Storage (7 to 30 Days) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-72


Prolonged Storage (31 Days to 6 Months) . . . . . . 2B-72
Indefinite Storage (More than 6 Months) . . . . . . . 2B-75
Restoring After Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-76
Restoring from Flyable Storage (7 to 30 Days)

. . . 2B-76

Restoring from Prolonged Storage


(31 Days to 6 Months) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-77
Restoring from Indefinite Storage
(More than 6 Months) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-78
Hot Weather and Desert Operations
Exterior Inspection

. . . . . . . . . 2B-79

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-79

Engine Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-79


Taxi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-79

2B-2

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Expanded Normals
Takeoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-80
Shutdown and Postflight

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-80

Cold Weather Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-81


Preflight Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-81
Engine Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-81
Taxiing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-82
Takeoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-82
After Takeoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-83
Before Landing

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-83

Landing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-84
After Clearing Runway
Shutdown and Postflight

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-84
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-84

Deicing Supplemental Information . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-86


Post Deicing Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-91

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

2B-3

CAE SimuFlite

2B-4

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Expanded Normals

Checklist Usage
Normal Procedures
Tasks are executed in one of two ways:

as a sequence that uses the layout of the cockpit controls


and indicators as cues (i.e., flow pattern)

as a sequence of tasks organized by event rather than panel


location (e.g., After Takeoff, Gear RETRACT, Yaw Damper
ENGAGE).

Placing items in a flow pattern or series provides organization


and serves as a memory aid.
A challenge-response review of the checklist follows execution
of the tasks; the PNF calls the item, and the appropriate pilot
responds by verifying its condition (e.g., Engine Anti-Ice
[challenge] ON [response]).
Two elements are inherent in execution of normal procedures:

use of either the cockpit layout or event cues to prompt correct switch and/or control positions

use of normal checklist as done lists.

Items marked with an asterisk (*) shall be accomplished on the


first flight of the day.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-5

CAE SimuFlite
Cockpit Flow Pattern

2B-6

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Expanded Normals

Normal Procedures
Upon entering the cockpit, verify the following switch positions
before starting any checks.
Start/Gen Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Gear Handle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DOWN
Batteries

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED/ON

NOTE: On aircraft with lead acid batteries, do not


attempt a battery start with less than 24V DC each
battery at 70F (21C) or below, or less than 25V DC
each battery at 110F (43C) or above. Interpolate for
temperatures between 70 and 110F (21 and 43C).
On aircraft with nickel-cadmium batteries, do not
attempt a battery start with less than 23V DC each
battery.
BAT 1 Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BAT 1
Check for proper voltage.
BAT 1 Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
BAT 2 Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BAT 2
Check for proper voltage.
BAT 1 Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BAT 1
For Through Flight:
Both BAT Switches
Emergency Batteries

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
. . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED/ON

Aircraft with Single Emergency Battery System:


EMERG BAT Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STBY
Check attitude gyro for starting and erection and background light is illuminated.
Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

2B-7

CAE SimuFlite
Main Battery Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Check attitude gyro for operation and background light is
illuminated. The amber EMER PWR annunciator illuminates, and the fan speed (N1) indicator OFF flags stow out
of view.
EMERG BAT Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Check attitude gyro for operation. The EMER PWR annunciator illuminates, the fan speed (N1) OFF flags stow, and
the green gear LOCKED DN lights illuminate.
All Battery Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
The EMER PWR annunciator extinguishes.
For Through Flight:
EMERG BAT Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Check attitude gyro for starting and erection.
Aircraft with Dual Emergency Battery System:
EMERG PWR BAT 1 Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STBY
Check attitude gyro for starting and erection.
EMERG PWR BAT 2 Switch

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON

Main Battery Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF


Check attitude gyro for operation and background light is
illuminated. Both amber EMER PWR annunciators illuminate, the fan speed (N1) indicator OFF flags stow, and equipment powered by the second emergency battery operates.
EMERG BAT 1 Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Check attitude gyro for operation and background light is
illuminated. Both EMER PWR annunciators illuminate, the
fan speed (N1) OFF flags stow out of view, and the green
gear LOCKED DN lights illuminate.
All Battery Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Both EMER PWR annunciators extinguish.
2B-8

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Expanded Normals
For Through Flight:
Both EMERG BAT Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Check attitude gyro for starting and erection and background light is illuminated.
NOTE: All batteries must be turned off prior to connecting a
GPU. This is to prevent shock hazard to ground
personnel.

If GPU is desired, connect as follows:


GPU

. . . . . . . . . . . . CONNECTED/CHECK VOLTAGE

CAUTION: Ensure unit is regulated to 28V DC and limited


to 1,100 amps max. and a minimum output of 500 amps if
temperature is below 32F or 0C.
Inverters

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED/PRIMARY ON

NOTE: If GPU is available, check inverter here. If not, then


check after engine start.
Primary Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
The AC voltage should be 110 to 130V AC in the green arc.
AC Bus Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . SELECT OTHER BUS
Move the AC bus switch to the secondary position; if it was
in secondary, select primary. The AC voltage does not
change if the circuit functions correctly.
Secondary Inverter

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON

Primary Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF


The voltage should be 110 to 130V AC in the green arc.
Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

2B-9

CAE SimuFlite
Auxiliary Inverter (if installed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Secondary Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
The AC voltage of the auxiliary inverter should be 110 to
130V AC.
Aux Bus Switch

. . . . . . . . . . . SELECT OTHER BUS

Primary Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Secondary Inverter

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON

Lear 55B/C:
Primary Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PRI
The AC voltage should be 110 to 130V AC. Check that the
voltage is the same on the Left and Right buses.
Secondary Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SEC
Primary Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
The voltage should be 110 to 130V AC on both buses.
Auxiliary Inverter (if installed)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . SEC

Secondary Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF


Check that the AUX INV light is out and the AC voltage of
both buses is 100 to 130V AC.
Auxiliary Inverter (if installed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PRI
The AC voltage should be 110 to 130V on both buses.
Primary Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Secondary Inverter

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON

Auxiliary Inverter (if installed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON


Accomplish flow pattern checks, and then use the Before
Starting Engines checklist as a DONE list.

2B-10

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Expanded Normals

Before Starting Engines


*Control Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .STOWED
*Safety Belts/Shoulder Harness/Seats . . .SECURE/ADJUST
NOTE: Ensure seat is positioned to allow full travel on all
controls.
*Flight Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK FULL TRAVEL
on all controls
*Circuit Breakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IN
LANDING GEAR Switch

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DN

Emergency Power System Check:


On A/C with Single Emergency Battery System:
EMERG BAT Switch

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STBY

Attitude gyro . . . . . .CHECKED for Starting & Erection


Amber EMER PWR light . . . . . . . . . .ILLUMINATED
N1 indicators OFF flags

. . . . . . . . . .OUT OF VIEW

EMERG BAT Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON


Attitude gyro . . . . . . . . . . .CHECKED for Operation
Amber EMER PWR light . . . . . . . . . .ILLUMINATED
N1 indicators OFF flags . . . . . . . . . .OUT OF VIEW
Green LOCKED DN lights . . . . . . . . .ILLUMINATED
*For through-flight,
EMERG BAT Switch

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON

Attitude gyro . . . . . .CHECK for Starting and Erection.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-11

CAE SimuFlite
On A/C with Dual Emergency Battery System:
EMERG PWR BAT 1 Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . .STBY
Attitude gyro

. . . . . .CHECK for Starting and Erection

N1 indicators OFF flags

. . . . . . . . . .OUT OF VIEW

EMERG PWR BAT 2 Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON


Both amber EMER PWR lights

. . . . . .ILLUMINATED

Equipment powered by second emergency battery for


operation.
EMERG PWR BAT 1 Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON
Attitude gyro . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK for Operation
Both amber EMER PWR lights . . . . . . .ILLUMINATED
N1 indicators OFF flags . . . . . . . . . . .OUT OF VIEW
Green gear LOCKED DN lights

. . . . . .ILLUMINATED

*For through-flight, both EMERG PWR switches . . . . .ON


Attitude gyro

. . . . . .CHECK for Starting and Erection

*Panel Switches and Avionics . . . . . . . . . .OFF or SET


FUEL CMPTR Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON
ANTI-SKID Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON
STATIC SOURCE Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BOTH
On A/C 55-029, 55-037, 55-047 & Subseq. :
GND IDLE Switch

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON

BLEED AIR switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON


EMER PRESS Switches

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .NORMAL

NOTE: For Takeoff above 8500 ft. Press Altitude, refer


to PRESSURIZATION SYSTEM OPERATION in the
AFM.

2B-12

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals
JET PUMP Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON
PITCH TRIM Switch

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PRI

Battery Check:
BAT 1 Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SET to BAT 1
Proper voltage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY
Amber EMER PWR lights . . . . . . . . . .EXTINGUISH
BAT 2 Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SET to BAT 2
BAT 1 Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF
Check for proper voltage, then:
BAT 1 Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SET to BAT 1
*For through-flight, both BAT switches

. . . . . . . . . . .ON

NOTE: On A/C with lead acid batteries: DO NOT attempt


battery start with 24 VDC each battery at <70 F (21C),
or < 25 VDC each battery at > 110F (43C). Interpolate
for temperatures between these values.
On A/C with NiCad batteries, DO NOT attempt battery
start with < 23 VDC each battery.
N2, ITT and N1 indicators . . . . . . . . .VERIFY RED OFF
flags Out of view
* GPU (If desired) . . . . . . . . . . .CONNECT as follows:
NOTE: Ensure unit is regulated to 28 VDC and limited to
1100 amps max.
Both Battery Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF
GPU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONNECT
Both Battery Switches

Learjet 55
September 2003

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON

Developed for training purposes

2B-13

CAE SimuFlite
Inverter system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
PRI INVERTER switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON
SEC & AUX INVERTER (if installed) switches

. . . . .OFF

PRI INV light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OUT


L &R AC VOLT

. . . . . . . . . .VERIFY in GREEN Range

SEC INVERTER Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SEC


SEC INV light

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY OUT

PRI INVERTER switch

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF

L& R AC VOLTS reading . . . . . . . . .IN GREEN Range.


Auxiliary Inverter (if installed) . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
AUX INV Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SEC
AUX INV light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY OUT
SEC INVERTER Switch
L & R AC VOLTS reading

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF
. . . . . . .IN GREEN Range

AUX INV Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PRI


L & R AC VOLTS reading

. . . . . . .IN GREEN Range

*PRI, SEC & AUX INVERTER (if installed) switches

. .ON

AC BUS Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PRI and SEC


AC VOLTS reading

. . .IN GREEN Arc in both positions

NOTE: On aircraft with auxiliary inverter, it is recommended that all three inverters be ON during normal operation
for maximum inverter life.

2B-14

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals
Emergency Exit Lights (if installed):
EMER LIGHT Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TEST
Check for illumination
*EMER LIGHT Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ARMED
*Systems Pressure Checks:
HYD PRESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
If pressure is below 1000 psi:
HYD PUMP Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON
GEAR AIR and BRAKE AIR pressure

. . . . . . . .CHECK
(1800 to 3000 psi.)

*Parking Brake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SET


*HYD PUMP Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF
Oxygen System:
PASS MASK DROP Valve

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AUTO

PASS OXY Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AUTO


*OXY PRESS Gage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
Crew Masks :
Oxygen flow

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY

Harness inflation

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY

Masks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PROPERLY STOWED

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-15

CAE SimuFlite
Pressurization Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SET
NOTE: For Takeoff above 8500 feet pressure altitude or
manual mode pressurization, refer to PRESSURIZATION
SYSTEM OPERATION in the AFM.
L & R BLEED AIR Switches
CAB AIR Switch

. . . . . . . . . . .CHECK ON

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF

PRESSURIZATION AUTO-MAN Switch . . . . . . . .AUTO


*CABIN CONTROLLER . . . . . .SELECT cruising altitude
or desired cabin altitude
Cabin RATE Selector . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AS DESIRED
CABIN & CREW TEMP Controls . . . . . . . .AS DESIRED
Automatic Mode Operation:
AUTO-MAN Switches

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AUTO

COLD- HOT knobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ROTATE


to desired temperature
After takeoff, the cabin temperature control system will
automatically maintain the cabin at the desired setting.
Manual Mode Operation:
AUTO-MAN Switches

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MAN

COLD-HOT knobs . . . . . . .ROTATE to desired setting


Fuel System:
*Fuel Quantities

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK

*Fuel Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ZEROED


Standby Pumps

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK

L STANDBY PUMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON


Red L FUEL PRESS light

. . . . . . . .EXTINGUISHES

L STANDBY PUMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF


R STANDBY PUMP
2B-16

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals
Red R FUEL PRESS light
R STANDBY PUMP
*FUS CAP light

. . . . . . . .EXTINGUISHES

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OUT

*FUS TANK GRAVITY XFER Switch . . . . . . . .CLOSED


*FUS TANK XFR FILL Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF
*FUS TANK AUX XFR Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF
*CROSSFLOW Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CLOSED
*AFT FUS TANK XFR FILL Switch (If installed) . . . . .OFF
*AFT FUS TANK AUX XFR Switch (if installed) . . . . .OFF
Pilots or Copilots Lights:
TEST Switch Glareshield . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESS
All glareshield lights . . . . . . . . .VERIFY ILLUMINATED
ALL Instrument panel lights . . . . .VERIFY ILLUMINATED
(Except for EMR PWR)
All pedestal lights . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY ILLUMINATED
(Except for yaw damper)
Check for audible indication of scavenge pumps operation
During daylight, check photoelectric cells by covering both
cells and noting the glareshield lights dim. Alternately uncover and cover cells to verify lights dim and brighten fully. During
darkness, check photoelectric cells by shining flashlight on
each cell and noting that lights are full bright. Then note lights
dim when light source is removed. Most instrument panel
and pedestal lights dim when the NAV light switch is ON.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-17

CAE SimuFlite
Warning System Checks:
Windshield Ice Detect Lights
(for night flight)

. . . .VERIFY ILLUMINATED

Check by placing object between the lights and windshield,


being careful not to scratch windshield.
Landing Gear Indicator lights:
Three green LOCKED DN light . .VERIFY ILLUMINATED
TEST- MUTE Switch . . . . . . . . . . .TEST and HOLD
Landing Gear Warning horn . . . . . . . . . . .SOUNDS
Three red UNSAFE lights
TEST- MUTE Switch

. . . .VERIFY ILLUMINATED

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .RELEASE*

Fire Detect System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK


SYS TEST Switch . . . . . . . . .ROTATE to FIRE DET
TEST Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS
ENG FIRE PULL Light

. . . . . .VERIFY ILLUMINATES
and FLASHES
This indicates continuity of the fire detection system.
TEST button

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RELEASE

NOTE: It is recommended that one engine be started


after the Fire detection system check is performed if
external power is not being used. Refer to STARTING
ENGINES section of this checklist.
Cabin Altitude Warning
SYS TEST switch

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK

. . . . . . . . . .ROTATE to CAB ALT

TEST button . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS and HOLD


Cabin altitude warning horn

2B-18

. . . . . . . . . . .SOUNDS

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals
HORN SILENCE Switch
Cabin altitude warning
TEST button

. . . . . . . . . . . . .ENGAGE
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .CEASES

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RELEASE

HORN SILENCE switch

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF

Stick Puller/Mach Warning

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK

PITCH TRIM . . . . . . . . . . .SET W/I T.O segment on


PITCH TRIM indicator
L STALL WARN Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON
SYS TEST Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . .Rotate to MACH
TEST button . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS and HOLD
Control column will move aft with approximately 18
pounds force and the aural overspeed warning will
sound. After approximately 1 second, the puller and
overspeed warning will cease. After approximately 1
additional second the puller and overspeed warning will
reactivate.
TEST button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RELEASE
Mach Trim and Mach Trim Monitor . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
SYS TEST switch

. . . . . . . . .Rotate to MACH TRIM

TEST button . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS and HOLD


The stabilizer should trim slowly in the nose up direction
for 1 to 3 seconds and stop. Trim-in-motion audio clicker
may or may not sound. The red MACH TRIM warning
light will illuminate and the aural overspeed warning will
sound.
TEST button

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RELEASE

The MACH TRIM warning light will extinguish and the


aural warning will cease.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-19

CAE SimuFlite
Stall Warning System

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK

NOTE: During heavy wind conditions, it may be necessary to head aircraft into the wind to prevent wind from
blowing stall warning vanes up.

STALL WARN switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON


On A/C 55-003 through 55-024, 55-026 and 55-027 not
incorporating SSK 55-504:
FLAP switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .UP
On A/C 55-025, 55-028 through 55-100, 55-102 through 55104, 55-106 and prior A/C incorporating SSK 55-504:
FLAP Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DN
On A/C 55-101, 55-105, 55-107 and subsequent, and prior
A/C incorporating AMK 55-84-4:
FLAPS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AS DESIRED

SYS TEST Switch . . . . . . . . . . . .ROTATE to L STALL


TEST button . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS and HOLD
The nudger monitor horn will sound for approximately one
second, then the pilots stall margin indicator needle will
begin to sweep from the green segment to the red segment.
As the needle passes the green-yellow margin, the shaker
will actuate, the nudger will actuate and the red L STALL
warning light will flash. Shaker actuation is made evident by
high frequency vibration of the control column. Nudger actuation is made evident by low frequency forward movement
(if not opposed) of the control column.

2B-20

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals

WARNING The action of the nudger verifies operation of


the pitch torquer prior to pusher actuation. If, during the
ground test, the shaker is not accompanied by the nudger
(the nudger monitor horn will sound) - do not dispatch. If
during flight the shaker is not accompanied by the nudger
(the nudger monitor horn will sound) do not decelerate
further.
As the needle advances to the red segment, the pusher will
actuate briefly, then stop. The L STALL warning light will
illuminate steady just prior to or at pusher actuation. After
pusher stops, the needle will sweep back and remain in
the yellow or green segment.
TEST button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RELEASE
SYS TEST switch . . . . . . . . . . . .ROTATE to R STALL
TEST Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS and HOLD
The nudger monitor horn will sound for approximately one
second, then the co-pilot's stall margin indicator will begin
to sweep from the green segment to the red segment.
As the needle passes the green-yellow margin, the shaker
will actuate, the nudger will actuate and the red L STALL
warning light will flash. Shaker actuation is made evident
by high frequency vibration of the control column. Nudger
actuation is made evident by low frequency forward movement (if not opposed) of the control column.
WARNING The action of the nudger verifies operation of
the pitch torquer prior to pusher actuation. If, during the
ground test, the shaker is not accompanied by the nudger
(the nudger monitor horn will sound) - do not dispatch. If
during flight the shaker is not accompanied by the nudger
(the nudger monitor horn will sound) do not decelerate
further.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-21

CAE SimuFlite
As the needle advances to the red segment, the pusher will
actuate briefly, then stop. The R STALL warning light will
illuminate steady just prior to or at pusher actuation. After
pusher stops, the needle will sweep
TEST button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RELEASE
NOTE: With STALL WARN Switches ON, steady illumination of the L or R STALL warning light indicates a malfunction, except during pusher actuation or system test.

With either Control Master Switch (MSW) depressed:


SYS TEST Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . .Rotate to R STALL
TEST button . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS and HOLD
The nudger monitor horn will sound for approximately one
second, then the pilot's stall margin indicator will begin to
sweep from the green segment to the red segment.
As the needle on the copilots stall margin indicator passes
the green-yellow margin, the shaker will actuate, the
nudger will not actuate and the red R STALL warning light
will flash.
Verify that as the stall margin indicator needle moves
through the arc, the nudger and pusher do not actuate.
Operate flaps through a complete extension or retraction
sequence and check that both stall margin indicator indicator needles make one significant shift in position.
STALL WARN Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF

2B-22

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals
Mach monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK as follows:
Pitch Trim within T.O. segment
on Pitch Trim indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY
SYS TEST switch . . . . . . . . . . .Rotate to MACH MON
Either Control Wheel Trim Switch . . . . . .ARMING button
DEPRESSED
NOSE UP or NOSE DN . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OPERATE
TEST button . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS and HOLD
While Trimming
Trim motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY CEASES
Amber PITCH TRIM and
Red MACH TRIM lights . . . . . . .VERIFY ILLUMINATED
TEST button and Control Wheel Trim Switch . . .RELEASE
Trim Speed Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK as follows:
Pitch Trim in N UP side of
index pointer on Pitch Trim indicator . . . . . . . . .VERIFY
(High trim rate/low airspeed range)
SYS TEST Switch . . . . . . . . . . .ROTATE to TRIM SPD
SYS TEST switch . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS and HOLD
Either Control Wheel Trim Switch . . . . . .ARMING button
DEPRESSED
NOSE UP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OPERATE
Amber PITCH TRIM light

. . . . . .VERIFY ILLUMINATES

TEST button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RELEASE

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-23

CAE SimuFlite
*Third Attitude Gyro

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .UNCAGE

Trim Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ACCOMPLISH as follows.


NOTE: The following procedure accomplishes the minimum trim systems preflight check. For the complete trim
systems preflight operational check refer to TRIM SYSTEMS OPERATIONAL CHECK in the AFM.
Throughout the following procedure, verify the trim-inmotion audio clicker sounds approximately one (1) second
after initiating pitch trim. On aircraft 55-042 and subsequent, the trim-in-motion audio clicker will not sound when
flaps are lowered beyond 3.

On A/C 55-042 and subsequent, FLAP switch . . . . . .UP


Secondary Pitch Trim

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK

PITCH TRIM Selector switch (pedestal)

. . . . . . .SEC

NOSE DN - OFF- NOSE UP switch . . . .VERIFY TRIM


(pedestal) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RESPONDS
Either Control Wheel Master switch
while Trimming . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS & VERIFY
TRIM MOTION CEASES
when Control Wheel Master Switch is held
Pitch Trim Selector switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PRI*
Pilots and Copilots Control Wheel Trim switches . . .CHECK
individually
Without depressing Arming button:
NOSE UP and NOSE DN button

. . . .MOVE &VERIFY
No Trim Motion occurs

LWD & RWD switch . . . . . . . . . . .MOVE & VERIFY


No Trim Motion occurs

2B-24

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals
Depress the Arming button:
NOSE UP and NOSE DN button

. . .MOVE & VERIFY


Trim movement
LWD and RWD Switch . . . . . . . . . .MOVE & VERIFY
Trim movement
Either Control Wheel Master Switch . . . . .DEPRESS &
VERIFY while Trimming
Trim motion ceases when Control
Wheel Master Switch is held
Trim Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK:
Control Wheel Trim Switch

. . . . . . .TRIM as required
to ensure PITCH TRIM
indicator pointer passes index.
Trim rate changes as the pointer
passes the index point.

NOTE: Trim rate PITCH TRIM indicator pointer on N DN


(high airspeed) side of index point is approximately 1/4
the trim rate pointer on the N UP (low airspeed) side of
the index pointer.

Rudder Trim Switch . . . . . . . . . .MOVE both halves


(pedestal) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .simultaneously
to NOSE LEFT
Trim movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OBSERVE
Rudder Trim Switch . . . . . . . . . .MOVE both halves
(pedestal) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .simultaneously
to NOSE RIGHT
Trim movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OBSERVE
*Trim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SET all Axes for T.O.
Amber PITCH TRIM light . . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY OUT

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-25

CAE SimuFlite
CENTER OF GRAVITY % MAC
0
4
8 12 16 20 24 28

-4
29
T/O TRIM
SETTING 8.0 7.5 7.1 6.6 6.1 5.6 5.1 4.6 4.2 4.0
DEGREES
Table 2B-A; Takeoff Trim Setting
Autopilot Monitor

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK:

NOTE: ADI and HSI flags do not need to be retracted to


complete the autopilot monitor check.
The following procedure accomplishes the autopilot monitor preflight check. For a complete autopilot operational
check, refer to the Flight Manual Supplement for J.E.T.
FC-550 Autopilot/ Flight Director.
*AUTOPILOT Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON
PWR annunciator . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY ILLUMINATES
on Autopilot Controller
TST Button (Autopilot Controlled) . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS
All annunciators . . . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY ILLUMINATE
on Autopilot Controller
*ENG and TST buttons . . . . .DEPRESS Simultaneously
(Autopilot Controller) . . . . . . . . . . . . .Then RELEASE
MON, PITCH and ROLL . . . . . . .VERIFY ILLUMINATE,
annunciators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .then EXTINGUISH
DISENGAGE tone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SOUNDS
ROLL annunciator . . . . . . . . . . . . . .EXTINGUISHES
in approx. 6 seconds
PITCH annunciator . . . . . . . . . . . . .EXTINGUISHES
in approx. 9 seconds
PWR annunciator . . . . . . . . .REMAINS ILLUMINATED

2B-26

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals

NOTE: If the test fails, the failed axis (PITCH and/or


ROLL) annunciator(s) will flash until a Control Wheel
Master Switch (MSW) is depressed. The MON annunciator will remain illuminated until the AUTOPILOT switch is
cycled or the self test is passed on a subsequent test.
AUTOPILOT MUST NOT be used in any axis which fails
the autopilot monitor check. If use of autopilot with a failed
axis is intended, the failed axis circuit breaker (AFCS
PITCH or AFCS ROLL - pilots ESS B bus) must be
pulled.
Moving the control column during self test may cause the
PITCH axis to fail the test.
Yaw dampers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK:
NOTE: The following procedure accomplishes the complete yaw damper operational check.
On A/C 55-003 through 55-046 with 501-1298-02 or -03
yaw damper computers, the flaps must be fully UP to
assure proper yaw damper self test. On other A/C, the
flaps may be in any position during the yaw damper self
test.
Battery Switches

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON

Inverter Switch (PRI or SEC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON


Autopilot Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON
*PRI PWR and SEC PWR buttons . . . . . . . .DEPRESS
(Y/D panel on pedestal)
*PRI and SEC ON annunciators . . . . . . . . ILLUMINATE
TST button (Y/D panel) . . . . . . . .DEPRESS and HOLD
PRI and SEC ENG annunciators

. . . . . . . ILLUMINATE

Both yaw damper force indicators . . . .VERIFY DEFLECT


RIGHT, THEN SLOWLY LEFT

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-27

CAE SimuFlite
TST Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RELEASE
PRI ENG & SEC ENG annunciators . . . . EXTINGUISHES
NOTE: Wait a minimum of 5 seconds for the test circuit
to reset before re-engaging the TST button.

SEC ENG Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS


SEC ENG annunciator . . . . . . . . . . . ILLUMINATES
Rudder Pedals

. . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS One Pedal


then the Other.
Note the opposition force is stiff as the pedals are
depressed.

Flap Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Yaw damper opposition shall decrease as flaps are
lowered.
Autopilot ENG Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS
Yaw damper opposition increases to original stiff
condition.
SEC OFF Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF
SEC ENG annunciator . . . . . . . . . .EXTINGUISHES
Opposition force decreases.
PRI ENG Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS
PRI ENG annunciator . . . . . . . . . . . .ILLUMINATES
Opposition force increases to original stiff condition
Autopilot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DISENGAGE
Opposition force decreases.
Flaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .UP
Opposition force returns to original stiff condition

2B-28

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals
Control Wheel Master Switch (MSW)
PRI ENG annunciator
Yaw Damper

. . . . .DEPRESS

. . . . . . . . . . EXTINGUISHES

. . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY DISENGAGES

Opposition force is removed.


Yaw Damper Mode Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
SEC ENG button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS
SEC ENG annunciator

. . . . . . . . . . .ILLUMINATES

PRI ENG Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS


SEC ENG annunciator . . . . . . . . . .EXTINGUISHES
PRI ENG annunciator . . . . . . . . . . . .ILLUMINATES
SEC ENG button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS
PRI ENG annunciator . . . . . . . . . . .EXTINGUISHES
SEC ENG annunciator . . . . . . . . . . .ILLUMINATES
Yaw Damper Disengage Functions . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
Control Wheel Master Switch (MSW)

. . . . .DEPRESS

SEC ENG annunciator . . . . . . . . . .EXTINGUISHES


Yaw Damper

. . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY DISENGAGES

Disengage tone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SOUNDS


PRI ENG Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS
PRI ENG annunciator . . . . . . . . . . . .ILLUMINATES
Control Wheel Master Switch . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS
PRI ENG annunciator

. . . . . . . . . .EXTINGUISHES

Yaw Damper . . . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY DISENGAGES


Disengage tone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SOUNDS
PRI ENG button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS
PRI ENG annunciator . . . . . . . . . . . .ILLUMINATES
Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-29

CAE SimuFlite
PRI PWR button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS
PRI ENG & PRI PWR annunciators

. . . .EXTINGUISH

Yaw Damper . . . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY DISENGAGES


Disengage tone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SOUNDS
SEC ENG button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS
SEC ENG annunciator . . . . . . . . . . . .ILLUMINATES
SEC PWR button

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS

SEC ENG & SEC PWR annunciators . . . . .EXTINGUISH


Yaw Damper . . . . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY DISENGAGES
Disengage tone

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SOUNDS

Inverters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF (If securing A/C)


Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF (If securing A/C
DRAG CHUTE Handle (If installed)

. . . . . . . . .STOWED

Takeoff Data . . . . . . . . . . . .COMPUTED & BUGS SET


(N1, V1, VR, V2, Takeoff Distance)

2B-30

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals

Starting Engines
Engine starts may be made using either a GPU or the airplane
batteries. It is recommended that a GPU be used when ambient temperature is 32 F (0C) or below. Ensure GPU supply is
regulated to 28VDC, has adequate capacity (500 amps minimum) for engine starting and is limited to 1100 amps. Refer to
COLD WEATHER OPERATION in the AFM for additional information when operating in extremely cold weather.
WARNING: Airflow into the TFE 731 engine is sufficient
to draw personnel and equipment into the engine inlet.
Personnel in proximity of the engine inlet should maintain
a safe distance at all times during engine operation.

CAUTION: On A/C equipped with NiCad batteries, so not


dispatch if red BAT 140 or BAT 160 warning light comes
on prior to takeoff, including engine start. Check batteries
per Learjet Maintenance Manual.
*Cabin Doors . . . . . . . . . . . . .CLOSED and LATCHED
Both Cabin Entry Door Handles . . . . . . . . .FORWARD
Upper Cabin Door Lock Pawl

. . . . . . . . .RETRACTED

Aft Cabin Door Handle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AFT


ENTRY DOOR, AFT CAB DOOR
and EXT DOORS lights . . . . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY OUT
*Pilots Side Window . . . . . . . . . .CLOSED and LOCKED
*COOL - FAN - OFF Switch

. . . . . . . . . . . .OFF or FAN

*AUX HT Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF


*Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK for Minimum voltage

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-31

CAE SimuFlite
*Parking Brake (Hydraulic pressure required.)
*HYD PUMP switch

. . . . . .SET

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF

*BCN Light switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON


Thrust Levers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CUTOFF
Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .START:
START- GEN Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .START
Red starter engaged light

. . . . . . . . . . ILLUMINATES

If Temperature is < 0 (-17.8C):


SPR Switch

. . . . . . . . . . . . .L or R, as appropriate

Release switch at 300 C to 400 C ITT. [Procedure not


required at temperatures > 0F (-17.8C)].
NOTE: Do not energize SPR switch at any time other
than engine start.
Thrust Lever

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IDLE at 10% N2

Amber AIR IGN light

. . . . . . . . . . . . ILLUMINATES

Monitor the following:


N1 . . . . . . . . . .INCREASING as N2 INCREASES
ITT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .907C Maximum
OIL PRESS

. . . . . .INDICATION within 10 seconds

Fuel Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY


At approximately 45% N2 starter will automatically disengage.
Check the following:
AIR IGN light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .EXTINGUISHED
STARTER ENGAGED light . . . . . . .EXTINGUISHED
If STARTER ENGAGED light remains illuminated, refer
to Abnormal Procedures

2B-32

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals
If engine does not start, adhere to the following cooling periods between starting attempts:
After Start Attempt
Wait
1
One minute
2
One Minute
3
Fifteen Minutes
4
One Minute
5
One Minute
6
One Hour
The above cycle may then be repeated.
*START-GEN Switch:
For GPU assisted start

. . . . . . . . . . . .OFF at IDLE

For Battery start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .GEN at IDLE


Check DC VOLTS and AMPS for generator output.
Engine Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK for Normal
Indication
At N2 Idle of 55% to 62% . . . .N1 between 26% to 32%
GND IDLE light
OIL PRESS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ILLUMINATED

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK

FUEL PRESS light . . . . . . .VERIFY EXTINGUISHED,


(Indicating jet pumps are operating)
NOTE: For normal operations JET PUMP switches

should always be in the ON position.However, if for


some reason, either or both switches are noted to be
OFF, reset to ON during steady engine operation at
80% N1 or above.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-33

CAE SimuFlite
Spoiler Systems

Check:

FLAP Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DN


Spoiler Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RET
Control Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CENTER
Spoileron System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
NOTE: In the event the spoilerons fail the following

check:
SPOILERON CB (Copilots AC Bus) - PULL.
SPOILERON MON light will illuminate. The spoilers
and spoilerons will be inoperative in flight. Manual
spoilers will still be operative on the ground. Do not
arm autospoilers. Maximum operating altitude with
spoilers inoperative is 41,000 ft.
On A/C without autospoiler system:
SPOILERON RESET Switch . . . . . . . . . . . .HOLD ON
Control Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ROTATE
AUG AIL light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ILLUMINATES
SPOILERON RESET Switch . . . . . . . . . . . .RELEASE
Control Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CENTER
SPOILERON RESET Switch . . . . . . . . . . . .HOLD ON
AUG AIL light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXTINGUISHES
Control Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . .ROTATE IN OPPOSITE
DIRECTION as ABOVE
AUG AIL light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ILLUMINATES
SPOILERON RESET Switch . . . . . . . . . . .RELEASE
Control wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CENTER
SPOILERON RESET Switch . . . . . . .ON and RELEASE
AUG AIL light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXTINGUISHES
2B-34

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals

NOTE: Control wheel movement to cause AUG AIL light


to illuminate shall be approximately the same in both
directions.
CONTROL WHEEL . . . . . . .ROTATE LEFT, then RIGHT
AUG AIL Light . . . . .VERIFY REMAINS EXTINGUISHED
On A/C with autospoiler system:
SPOILER RESET/TEST Switch . . . . . . . . . .HOLD ON
Control Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ROTATE
SPOILER MON light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ILLUMINATES
SPOILER RESET/TEST Switch . . . . . . . . . .RELEASE
Control Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CENTER
SPOILER RESET/TEST Switch . . . . . . . . . .HOLD ON
SPOILER MON light . . . . . . . . . . . . .EXTINGUISHES
Control Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . .ROTATE IN OPPOSITE
DIRECTION as ABOVE
SPOILER MON light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ILLUMINATES
SPOILER RESET/TEST Switch . . . . . . . . . .RELEASE
NOTE: Control wheel movement to cause SPOILER

MON light to illuminate shall be approximately the


same in both directions.
Control wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CENTER
SPOILER RESET/TEST Switch . . . . .ON and RELEASE
SPOILER MON light . . . . . . . .VERIFY EXTINGUISHES
Control Wheel . . . . . . . . . .ROTATE LEFT, then RIGHT
SPOILER MON Light . . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY REMAINS
EXTINGUISHED

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-35

CAE SimuFlite
Spoiler Check:
SPOILER Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .EXT
Spoilers . . . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY EXTENDED FULLY
and Symmetrically in approx.
1-2 seconds.
SPOILER Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FLASHES
FLAP Switch

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .UP

SPOILER Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY STEADY

as flaps retract
SPOILER Switch

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RET

Spoilers . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY RETRACT FULLY and


Symmetrically
SPOILER Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXTINGUISHES
NOTE: On A/C equipped with autospoilers, momentary
hesitation in the ARM position will result in a spoiler reaction time of less than 1 second.
*Autospoilers (if installed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK,
If takeoff is to be made
with system armed.
Thrust Levers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IDLE
SPOILER Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ARM
Spoilers . . . . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY EXTENDED FULLY
And Symmetrically in
approx. 1-2 seconds
SPOILER ARMED & SPOILER lights . . . .ILLUMINATED
SPOILER RESET/TEST Switch . . . . . . . . . .HOLD ON
SPOILER MON Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ILLUMINATES
Spoilers . . . . . . . . . . . . .OBSERVE BOTH RETRACT
within 1 second
SPOILER Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .EXTINGUISHES
2B-36

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals
SPOILER ARMED light . .VERIFY REMAINS ILLUMINATED
SPOILER RESET/TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RELEASE
SPOILER MON Light . . . . . . . . . . . . EXTINGUISHES
Spoilers

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OBSERVE EXTENSION

SPOILER Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ILLUMINATES


SPOILER ARMED light

. . . . . . REMAINS ILLUMINATED

Left Thrust Lever . . . . . . . . . . .ADVANCE above IDLE


Spoilers

. . .OBSERVE BOTH RETRACT within 1 second

SPOILER Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .EXTINGUISHES


SPOILER ARMED Light . . . . . .REMAINS ILLUMINATED
Left Thrust Lever
Spoilers

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IDLE

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OBSERVE EXTENSION

SPOILER Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ILLUMINATES


Right Thrust Lever . . . . . . . . . .ADVANCE above IDLE
Spoilers

. . .OBSERVE BOTH RETRACT within 1 second

SPOILER Light

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXTINGUISHES

SPOILER ARMED Light . . . . . .REMAINS ILLUMINATED


Right Thrust Lever . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IDLE
Spoilers

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OBSERVE EXTENSION

SPOILER Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ILLUMINATES


SPOILER Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RET
Spoilers

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY RETRACTED

SPOILER Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .EXTINGUISHES


SPOILER ARMED Light
*Flaps

. . . . . . . . . . EXTINGUISHES

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 or 8

*HYD PRESS . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK (1500 to1575 psi)

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-37

CAE SimuFlite
*Start Other Engine using same procedures as listed above.
Engine Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK for
normal indications
on both engines
*GPU (if applicable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DISCONNECT
Note DC VOLTS decrease to battery voltage when GPU is
disconnected.
*For GPU assisted start:
*START-GEN Switches . .GEN. Check generator output.
*GND IDLE Light (Amber) . . . . . . . . .ILLUMINATED
(With at least one thrust lever in IDLE)
*CUR LIM Light (Red) . . . . . . . . NOT ILLUMINATED
NOTE: Illumination of the CUR LIM light indicates that one
or both 275-amp current limiters have failed. Replace the
275 amp current limiter(s) prior to takeoff.
* Voltmeters and Ammeters

. . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK

Before Taxi
*Avionics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SET (As Desired)
*Circuit Breakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SET
*Coffee/Oven Switches (if installed)

. . . .AS REQUIRED

Anti-ice Systems:
*Purge windshield heat system of possible moisture accumulation (first flight of day and if exposed to moisture)
WSHLD HT Switch . . . . . . . .ON until water has cleared
WSHLD HT Switch

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .AS REQUIRED

STAB WING HEAT Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON

2B-38

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals
STAB HEAT light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ILLUMINATED
No additional rise in DC amperes

. . . . . . . . . .CHECK

Check for increase in ITT indicating bleed air is being


extracted for wing heat.

CAUTION: If STAB HEAT light does not illuminate and


DC amperes increase, immediately set STAB WING
HEAT switch to OFF.

STAB WING HEAT switch . . . . . . . . . .AS REQUIRED


WING TEMP indicator
PITOT HEAT switches

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MONITOR
to prevent overheat condition
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON

PITOT HEAT lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXTINGUISHED


PITOT HEAT switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF
NAC HEAT switches . . . . . . . . . . . .ON, one at a time
ENG ICE lights (Amber) . . . . . .VERIFY EXTINGUISHED
by 60% N1
NAC HEAT Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . .AS REQUIRED
*Aircraft Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON, As Required
*ANTI SKID GEN lights . . . . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY OUT
CAUTION: If a light is illuminated with the ANTI-SKID
switch ON, takeoff weight will be limited to 18,500. Refer
to ANTI-SKID LIGHT ILLUMINATED procedure in the
AFM for increased takeoff distance.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-39

CAE SimuFlite
Emergency Pressurization Check:
L BLEED AIR switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .EMER
EMER PRESS light (Amber) . . . . . . . . . ILLUMINATES
Emergency airflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ACTIVATES
L BLEED AIR switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF
EMER PRESS light

. . . . . . . . . . . . .EXTINGUISHES

Emergency airflow . . . . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY CEASES


L BLEED AIR switch

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON

Repeat procedure for R BLEED AIR switch


CAB AIR

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON, If desired

CAUTION: With the aircraft sitting statically on the


ground, do not perform extended engine operation above
IDLE with the CAB AIR switch ON. There is no ram airflow
through the heat exchanger and possible damage to air
conditioning components may occur.

FUEL Control Governor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK:


Left Thrust Lever . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IDLE
CAUTION: If the engines accelerate uncontrolled during
the following step, immediately set FUEL CMPTR switch
ON until engine stabilizes at IDLE. Shut down engine,
determine cause and correct prior to flight.

L FUEL CMPTR switch

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF

L FUEL CMPTR light (Amber)

2B-40

. . . . . . . .ILLUMINATES

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals

CAUTION: If Turbine speed does not respond during the


following steps, shut down engine, determine cause and
correct prior to flight.
Once RPM stabilizes, gradually advance thrust lever until
and increase in N2 is observed.
Thrust lever . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RETARD
N2 Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OBSERVE DECREASE
If N2 responds to thrust lever changes:
L FUEL CMPTR Switch

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON

L FUEL CMPTR light . . . . . .VERIFY EXTINGUISHES


Right Thrust Lever . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IDLE
R FUEL CMPTR Switch

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF

R FUEL CMPTR light (Amber) . .VERIFY ILLUMINATES


CAUTION: If Turbine speed does not respond during

the following steps, shut down engine, determine


cause and correct prior to flight.
Once RPM stabilizes, gradually advance thrust lever until
and increase in N2 is observed.
Thrust lever . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RETARD
N2 Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OBSERVE DECREASE
If N2 responds to thrust lever changes:
R FUEL CMPTR Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON
R FUEL CMPTR light . . . . . . . . . . .EXTINGUISHES

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-41

CAE SimuFlite
*Cabin Check:
Passengers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BRIEFED
Swivel Seats

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .FWD,
or as placarded.
Backs upright and locked.
Headrests in place for aft facing seats.
Tables and doors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .STOWED
Aisles

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CLEAR

Aft Cabin Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .UNOBSTRUCTED


*NO SMOKING FASTEN SEAT BELT Switch
Nose Wheel Steering

. . . . . .ON

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ENGAGE

NOTE: Nose wheel steering may be locked in by


depressing either STEER LOCK switch. The green
STEER ON light will illuminate. The steer lock may be disengaged at any time by depressing and releasing the
pilot's or copilot's Control Wheel Master Switch (MSW).

Parking Brake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RELEASE


PARK BRAKE light (if applicable) . . . . . EXTINGUISHED

2B-42

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals

Taxi and Before Takeoff


*Brakes and Nose Wheel Steering . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
NOTE: When taxiing through slush or snow, use the
brakes to create some friction heat in the brake discs to
prevent brakes from freezing.

*Yaw Damper

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AS DESIRED
(with flaps 8 or lower)

NOTE: The yaw damper may be used to provide


improved rudder pedal centering when engaged with flaps
8 or lower.
If yaw damper is desired during taxi, use STEER LOCK as
Control Wheel Master Switch (MSW) will disengage yaw
damper.
*Fuel Control Panel . . . . . . .CHECK Quantity and balance
Thrust Reversers (if installed) . . . . . .CHECK OPERATION
Refer to Flight Manual Supplement for Aeronca Thrust
Reversers
Flight Controls

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK

*Flight Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK


Third gyro alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY
*Takeoff Data . . . . . . . . . . . .REVIEWED and BUGS Set
(N1, V1, VR, V2, Distance)
*Engine Instruments

. . . .VERIFY NORMAL CONDITIONS

*NAV Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SET

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-43

CAE SimuFlite
*Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .As Required
For ground operation of radar, set GND RDR switch to XMT
position.
*Spoilers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RETRACTED
*SPOILER Light
*Flaps

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXTINGUISHED

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SET 20 or 8

*Trim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Set for takeoff

-4

CENTER OF GRAVITY % MAC


0
4
8 12 16 20 24 28

29
T/O TRIM
SETTING 8.0 7.5 7.1 6.6 6.1 5.6 5.1 4.6 4.2 4.0
DEGREES
Table 2B-A; Takeoff Trim Setting
PITCH TRIM Switch
PITCH TRIM light

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PRI

. . . . . . . . .VERIFY EXTINGUISHED

*CAB AIR switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON


*CABIN TEMP Controls:
COOL-FAN-OFF Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . .As DESIRED
If COOL-FAN-OFF Switch set to COOL:
Cabin AUTO- MAN Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MAN
Cabin COLD-HOT Knob . . . . . . . . . . . .FULL COLD

2B-44

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals
*APR, if installed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
If takeoff is to be made with system armed:
Both Thrust Levers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IDLE
APR Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ARM
APR ARM light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ILLUMINATES
Thrust Levers . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ADVANCE on ONE
ENGINE 5% to 10% N2.
APR ON Light

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ILLUMINATES

APR ARM light . . . . . . . . . REMAINS ILLUMINATED


Thrust Levers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IDLE
Allow N2 speeds to stabilize.
APR Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RESET/OFF
N2 Speed

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY DECREASES
Approx. 1% on both engines

APR ON & APR ARM lights .VERIFY BOTH EXTINGUISH


*Crew Takeoff Briefing

Learjet 55
September 2003

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .COMPLETE

Developed for training purposes

2B-45

CAE SimuFlite
Runway Lineup
*Transponder

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON

*Parking Brake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RELEASED


*PARK BRAKE light (if applicable) . . . . . . EXTINGUISHED
*PITOT HEAT Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON
PITOT HEAT Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OUT
Anti-ice Systems:
WARNING The wings, vertical and horizontal stabilizers,
flight control surfaces and engine inlets must be free of
frost, snow and ice.
Even small accumulations of ice on the wing leading
edge can cause aerodynamic stall prior to activation of
the stick pusher. These ice accumulations can also
cause stall margin indicator information to be unreliable.

NOTE: Anti-ice systems should be turned on prior to


takeoff into visible moisture and Static Air Temperature
< 5 C (41 F).
If anti-ice systems are required during takeoff, they should
be turned on prior to setting takeoff thrust.

WSHLD HT Switch

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .AS REQUIRED

NAC HEAT Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . .AS REQUIRED


STAB WING HEAT Switch . . . . . . . . . .AS REQUIRED
*STROBE and RECOG Light Switches . . . . . . . . . . .ON
*LDG LT TAXI Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AS DESIRED
*AIR IGN Switches
2B-46

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals
*Autospoilers (If installed):
SPOILER Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ARM, if desired
SPOILER ARMED Light . . . . . . .VERIFY ILLUMINATED
SPOILER Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY OUT
APR Switch (If installed) . . . . . . . . . . . . .ARM if desired
APR ARM Light . . . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY ILLUMINATED
APR ON Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY OUT
NOTE: Because of unequal spool-up rates, the APR system may inadvertently activate if APR is armed at low
power settings. Should this occur, verify N2 speeds are
within 5% and set APR switch to OFF/RESET before
attempting to rearm the system.
Both APR and autospoilers must be operative and armed
in order to use the takeoff distance performance improvement shown on the applicable TAKEOFF DISTANCE chart
in Section V of the AFM.
*STALL WARN Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON
NOTE: In a strong crosswind, it may be necessary to wait
until indication of airspeed is achieved before setting
STALL WARN Switches On.
Annunciator Lights

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OUT,
Except STEER ON, GND IDLE,
SPOILER ARMED (if applicable)
and APR ARM (if applicable)

NOTE: STAB HEAT and WSHLD HT lights will be illuminated if the corresponding systems have been turned on.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-47

CAE SimuFlite
*Nose Wheel Steering . . . . . . . . .DISENGAGE at FIRST
INDICATION of AIRSPEED
NOTE: If STEER LOCK was used to engage nose wheel
steering, depressing and then releasing Control Wheel
Master Switch (MSW) will disengage steering.
If MSW was used to engage nose wheel steering, releasing MSW will disengage steering.

After Takeoff
NOTE: Normally, the JET PUMP switches are in the ON
position. However, at any time during the flight, if either or
both switches are noted to be in the OFF position, reset to
ON during steady engine operation at > 80%N1.
If taxi and/or takeoff were on ice, snow or slush, allow the
wheels to spin down for approximately one minute prior to
gear retraction to throw off as much slush as possible.
LANDING GEAR Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .UP
Landing gear should be fully retracted prior to retracting flaps.
Yaw Damper PRI or SEC ENG button

. . . . . . .DEPRESS

FLAP Switch . . . . . . . . . . . .UP Prior to 200 KIAS (VFE)


AIR IGN Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF
(unless ambient conditions
require ignition to remain ON.)
NOTE: During periods of heavy precipitation, set AIR IGN
switches ON to prevent possible engine flameout due to
large quantities of water entering the engine.

2B-48

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals
SPOILER Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RET
(if autospoilers were
armed for takeoff)
APR Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF/RESET
(if APR was
armed for takeoff)
LDG LT-TAXI Switches
HYD PRESS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF

. . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK (1500 to 1575 psi)

Anti-Ice Systems

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AS REQUIRED

WARNING: Even small accumulations of ice on the wing


leading edge can cause aerodynamic stall prior to activation of the stick pusher. These ice accumulations can also
cause stall margin indicator information to be unreliable.

NOTE: Wing-heat bleed air exits overboard though the


center wing/Wheel well area. If takeoff were made from a
snow or slush covered runway, activation of STAB WING
HEAT for approximately 10 minutes will help to clear moisture on the wheels and brakes. Monitor WING TEMP gage
for overheat condition.
Anti-ice systems should be turned on prior to flight into visible moisture and Ram Air temperature <10C.

Stall Margin Indicators

Learjet 55
September 2003

. . . . . . . . . . . . .CROSSCHECK
pilots and copilots
instruments for agreement

Developed for training purposes

2B-49

CAE SimuFlite
Climb
10,000 Feet Checks:
NO SMOKING FASTEN
SEAT BELT Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AS REQUIRED
Pressurization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
Transition Altitude (18,000 ft) Checks:
Altimeters . . . . . . . . . .SET to 29.92 Hg (1013 hPa) at
transition altitude
RECOG LT Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF
EMER PRESS Switches

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .NORMAL

Crew O2 Masks & Smoke Goggles . . .VERIFY STOWED


in QUICK DON POSITION

Cruise
Once established at cruise altitude, crew duties consist mainly of monitoring aircraft systems indications and annunciators
to assure proper operation. Monitor pressurization and
engine instruments. Monitor fuel distribution and transfer fuel
as required. Use small thrust adjustments as necessary to
maintain desired cruise mach.

Descent
WSHLD HT and AUX DEFOG Switches

. . .AS REQUIRED

Pressurization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SET as Follows:


NOTE: For Landing at field elevations at 8500 feet pressure altitude or manual mode pressurization, refer to
PRESSURIZATION SYSTEM OPERATION in the AFM.
CABIN CONTROLLER Selector . . . . . .SET to Destination
Field Elevation
Cabin RATE Selector . . . . . . . . . . . .ADJUST as desired
during descent.
Anti-ice Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AS REQUIRED
2B-50

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals

WARNING: Even small accumulations of ice on the wing


leading edge can cause aerodynamic stall prior to activation of the stick pusher. These ice accumulations can also
cause stall margin indicator information to be unreliable.

NOTE: Anti-ice systems should be turned on prior to flight


into visible moisture and Ram Air Temperature < 10C.
If descending into an area with high dew point, set
WSHLD HT switch to WSHLD HT to provide windshield
exterior defogging.

Transition Level (or FL 180) Checks


Barometric Altimeters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SET to field
barometric pressure
at transition altitude.
Pilots and copilots instruments . . . . . . . .CROSSCHECK
RECOG LT Switch

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON

NO SMOKING FASTEN SEAT BELT Switch . . . . . . . .ON


Cabin Check:
Passengers

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BRIEFED

Swivel Seats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .FWD,


or as placarded.
Backs upright and locked.
Headrests in place for aft facing seats.
Work Tables and Toilet Doors

. . . . .CHECK STOWED

Aisle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CLEAR
Aft Cabin Door

Learjet 55
September 2003

. . . . . . . . . . . . .UNOBSTRUCTED

Developed for training purposes

2B-51

CAE SimuFlite
Approach
Circuit Breakers

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SET

Systems Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK


HYD PRESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1500 to 1575 psi
GEAR AIR and BRAKE AIR . . . . . . .1800 to 3000 psi
Speeds:

. . . . . . . . . . . . .COMPUTED and BUGS SET

Landing Approach Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VREF


Approach Climb . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Approx. VREF+15
CAUTION: It is recommended that if turbulence is anticipated due to gusty winds, wake turbulence, or wind shear,
the approach speed be increased. For gusty wind conditions, an increase in approach speed of one half the gust
factor is recommended.
N1 for Go-Around . . . . . . . .Refer to Section V of AFM
Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BALANCED
Approach Setup and Briefing

. . . . . . . . . . .COMPLETE

Thrust Reversers (if installed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK


Refer to Flight Manual Supplement for Aeronca Thrust
Reversers.
CABIN TEMP Controls:
COOL-FAN-OFF Switch . . . . . . . . . . .AS DESIRED
If COOL-FAN-OFF Switch set to COOL:
Cabin AUTO-MAN Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MAN
Cabin COLD-HOT knob

2B-52

. . . . . . . . . .FULL COLD

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals

Before Landing
SPOILER Switch . . . . . . . . . .RET or ARM (if applicable)
NOTE: On A/C 55-003 through 55-117 not incorporating
AAK 55-85-1, do not arm autospoilers for landing.
Flaps

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8or 20

LANDING GEAR Switch . . . . . . . . .DN at 200 KIAS (VLO)


or less
Check for green LOCKED DN indication.
NOTE: If taxi and/or takeoff were on ice, snow or slush:
ANTI-SKID Switch
OFF
Brakes
PUMP 6 to 10 times
ANTI-SKID Switch
ON
Brake application will tend to crack any ice between brake
discs and between discs and wheels.
The ENG SYNC light will illuminate whenever the nose gear
is down and the ENG SYNC switch is in the SYNC position.
LDG LT TAXI Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . .AS REQUIRED
NOTE: The left landing light will not illuminate unless the left
main gear is down and locked. The right landing light will not
illuminate unless the right main gear is down and locked.
ANTI-SKID Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK ON
ANTI-SKID GEN Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY OUT
ENG SYNC Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF
Flaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DN, Check Indication
HYD PRESS Gage . . . . . . . .CHECK (1500 to 1575 psi)
AIR IGN Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON
Autopilot
Learjet 55
September 2003

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DISENGAGE
Developed for training purposes

2B-53

CAE SimuFlite
NOTE: Use Control Wheel trim Switch to disengage
autopilot. Control Wheel Master Switch (MSW) will also
disengage yaw damper.

Go-Around
NOTE: Depressing GO-AROUND button in left thrust
lever handle will disengage autopilot and select flight
director go-around mode.
Autopilot

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DISENGAGE

Thrust Levers . . . . . . . . . . .SET TO TAKEOFF THRUST,


or as required
SPOILER Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK RET
Flaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
LANDING GEAR Switch

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .UP
(after positive rate of
climb established)

Climb . . . . . . . . . . . . . TO APPROACH CLIMB SPEED


(Approx. VREF +15)
When clear of obstacles:
Accelerate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TO VREF+ 30
Flaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RETRACT

2B-54

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals

Landing
Spoiler Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .EXT after Touchdown
NOTE: Select EXT even when autospoilers (if installed)
are armed. Autospoiler deployment may be delayed during
soft landings.
Brakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AS REQUIRED
CAUTION: If upon Touchdown, one or more ANTI-SKID
GEN lights illuminate, anti-skid protection for the associated wheel is inoperative and has reverted to manual brake
control. Apply brakes cautiously.
Do not turn on cooling system during landing with antiskid system operating. Initial voltage drop may cause
false signals in the anti-skid system and dump brake
pressure for 2 to 3 seconds.

Thrust Reversers or
Drag Chute (if installed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AS DESIRED

WARNING: When landing on snow covered runways,


apply reverse thrust with caution as visibility may be
impaired.

Nose Wheel Steering . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AS REQUIRED


Below 45 Knots
NOTE: During moderate to heavy braking action on
patchy snow or ice, avoid use of nose wheel steering
above 10 knots.
Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-55

CAE SimuFlite
Yaw Damper . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DISENGAGE, if desired
Depressing either Control Wheel Master Switch (MSW) will
disengage the PRI or SEC yaw damper (disengage tone
will sound).
Depressing the PRI or SEC PWR button on the Y/D panel
(pedestal) will disengage the PRI or SEC yaw damper
respectively (disengage tone will sound)
NOTE: The yaw damper may be used to provide
improved rudder-pedal centering with flaps 8 or lower.
If yaw damper is desired during taxi, use STEER LOCK as
Control Wheel Master Switch (MSW) will disengage yaw
damper.

After Landing/Clearing Runway


STALL WARNING Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF
AIR IGN Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF
CAB AIR Switch

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF

NOTE: To minimize pressurization bumps, time delay circuits prevent the cabin air valve from closing for approximately 5 seconds.
Anti-ice Systems:
WSHLD HT & AUX DEFOG Switches . . . .AS REQUIRED
WSHLD ALC Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF
STAB WING HEAT Switch . . . . . . . . . .AS REQUIRED
WING TEMP Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . .MONITOR for
Overheat Condition
CAUTION: If STAB HEAT light is not illuminated and DC
ammeter indicates stabilizer heat operation, immediately
set STAB WING HEAT switch to OFF.
2B-56

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals

PITOT HEAT Switches

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF

NAC HT Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AS REQUIRED


LDG LT- TAXI and RECOG Lights . . . . . . . .AS DESIRED
SPOILER Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RET
FLAP Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . .AS DESIRED (8 or lower,
If yaw damper operation desired)
HYD PRESS Gage . . . . . . . . .CHECK (1500 to 1575 psi)
Unnecessary Avionics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF
Transponder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .STANDBY
Radar

. . . . . . . . . . . .CONFIRM in STANDBY MODE

Trim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AS DESIRED


Fuselage Fuel Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AS DESIRED
NOTE: Idle engine for 2 minutes prior to thrust lever cutoff.
Thrust Lever (on engine started first) . . .CUTOFF (Optional)

Shutdown
Parking Brake and/or chocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SET
CAUTION: If heavy braking was used during landing, setting the Parking Brake will decrease brake cooling efficiency and increase the possibility of wheel fuse plug
release. Therefore, use of chocks is recommended.

Anti-ice Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF


EMER LIGHT Switch (If installed) . . . . . . . . . . .DISARM

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-57

CAE SimuFlite
Panel Switches and Avionics

. . . . . . . .SET, As Required

Third Attitude Gyro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CAGE


Emergency Power Switches

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF

Coffee and Oven Switches (if installed)

. . . . . . . . . .OFF

Thrust Lever(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CUT OFF


START-GEN Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF
INVERTER Switches
Fuel Transfer

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF

CROSSFLOW Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CLOSE


On A/C not incorporating SB 55-32-2, bleed Hydraulic
pressure to zero (0).
CAUTION: Failure to bleed hydraulic pressure form the
system before setting the Battery Switch(es) to OFF could
result in nose gear retraction if the landing gear selector
valve malfunctions.

NOTE: If the parking brake is set, use of flaps to bleed


hydraulic system pressure will not affect brake pressure.
BCN LT Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF
Battery Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF
Controls Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .INSTALL

2B-58

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals

Quick Turnaround
(One or no engine shutdown)
WARNING: On A/C 55-003 through 55-076 when not
incorporating AAK 55-82-6, failure to observe TURNAROUND Limits in Sections I and V of the AFM may result
in wheel fuse plug release during subsequent takeoff.

Cabin Doors . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CLOSED and LATCHED


DOOR Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OUT
COOL-FAN-OFF Switch

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF or FAN

AUX HT Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF


Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .START (2 Running)
START GEN Switches

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .GEN

Voltmeters and Ammeters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK


START & CUR LIM Lights . . . . . . . . . . . .OUT, if engine
has been restarted.
Circuit Breakers

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SET

FMS (If applicable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SET


Coffee and Oven Switches . . . . . . . . . . .ON, As Desired
(if applicable)
Anti-Ice Systems

Learjet 55
September 2003

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AS REQUIRED

Developed for training purposes

2B-59

CAE SimuFlite
Cabin Check:
Passengers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BRIEFED
Swivel Seats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .FORWARD or
as Placarded. Seat backs
in upright and locked position.
Headrests in place for occupied
aft facing seats.
Work Tables and Toilet Doors . . . . . . .CHECK STOWED
Aisle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CLEAR
Aft Cabin Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .UNOBSTRUCTED
NO SMOKING FASTEN SEAT BELT Switch . . . . . . . .ON

Taxi
Fuel Control Panel and Quantity . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
Takeoff Data . . . . . . . . . .COMPUTED AND BUGS SET
(N1, V1, VR, V2, Distance)
Refer to Section V of AFM
NAV Equipment

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SET

Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AS REQUIRED


For Ground Operation of radar:
GND RDR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SET TO XMT
Flight Controls

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK

Flight Instruments

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK

Spoilers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RETRACTED

2B-60

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals
SPOILER Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OUT
Flaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SET 20 or 8, Check Indication
Trims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SET FOR TAKEOFF
PITCH TRIM Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PRI
PITCH TRIM Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OUT
Pressurization

. . . . . . . . . . . .SELECT Cruising Altitude


or desired Cabin Altitude

CAB AIR Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON


COOL-FAN-OFF Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . .AS DESIRED
If COOL-FAN-OFF Switch is set to COOL:
CABIN AUTO-MAN Switch

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .MAN

CABIN COLD-HOT Knob . . . . . . . . . . .FULL COLD


Crew Takeoff Briefing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .COMPLETE

Runway Lineup
Transponder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON
Parking Brake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RELEASED
PARK BRAKE Light (if applicable) . . . . . . . .VERIFY OUT
PITOT HEAT Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON
PITOT HT Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OUT

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-61

CAE SimuFlite
Anti-ice Systems:
WARNING: The wings, vertical and horizontal control surfaces and engines inlets must be free of frost, snow and ice.
Even small accumulations of ice on the wing leading
edge can cause aerodynamic stall prior to activation for
the stick pusher. These ice accumulations can also
cause stall margin indicator information to be unreliable.

NOTE: Anti-ice systems should be turned on prior to takeoff into visible and Static Air Temperature <5 C (41F).
If anti-ice systems are required during takeoff, they should
be turned on prior to setting takeoff thrust.
WSHLD HT Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . .AS REQUIRED
NAC HEAT Switches . . . . . . . . . . . .AS REQUIRED
STAB WING HEAT Switch . . . . . . . . .AS REQUIRED
STROBE and RECOG Light Switches

. . . . . . . . . . .ON

LDG LT-TAXI Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON, As Desired


AIR IGN Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON
Autospoilers (if installed) . . . . . . . . . . . ARM, If Desired
SPOILER ARMED Light . . . . . . .VERIFY ILLUMINATED
SPOILER LIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY OUT
APR Switch (If installed) . . . . . . . . . . .ARM (If Desired)
APR ARM Light . . . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY ILLUMINATED
APR ON Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VERIFY OUT

2B-62

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals

NOTE: Because of unequal spool-up rates, the APR system may inadvertently activate if APR is armed at low
power settings. Should this occur, check N2 speeds are
within 5% and set APR switch to OFF/RESET before
attempting to rearm the system.
Both APR and autospoilers must be operative and armed
in order to use the takeoff distance performance improvement shown on he applicable Takeoff Distance chart in
Section V of the AFM.
STALL WARN Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON
NOTE: In a strong crosswind, it may be necessary to
wait until indication of airspeed is achieved before setting
STALL WARN Switches ON.
Annunciator Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OUT. Except
STEER ON, GND IDLE
And if applicable:
SPOILER ARMED and APR ARMED
NOTE: STAB HEAT and WSHLD HT lights will illuminate
if the corresponding systems have been turned on.
Nosewheel Steering . . . . . . . . . . . .DISENGAGE at first
indication of airspeed
NOTE: If Steer Lock was used to engage nose wheel
steering, depressing and then releasing Control Wheel
Master Switch (MSW) will disengage steering.
If Control Wheel Master Switch (MSW) was used to
engage nose wheel steering, releasing MSW will disengage steering.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-63

CAE SimuFlite
Parking
Under normal weather conditions, the aircraft may be parked and
headed in a direction to facilitate servicing without regard to prevailing winds. For extended parking, head aircraft into the wind.
Aircraft . . . . . . . . . PARK ON HARD, LEVEL SURFACE
Nose Wheel

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CENTERED

Parking Brake

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SET

Main Gear Wheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHOCKED


Flaps and Spoilers

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RETRACTED

Static Ground Cables

. . . . . . . . . . . . . CONNECTED

Protective Covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED


Gust Lock

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED

Tail Stand

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED

Cabin Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLOSED/LOCKED

Mooring
If extended parking plans or impending weather necessitates
mooring the aircraft, attach 7/16-inch polypropylene ropes (or
equivalent) to the nose gear and main gear struts. This procedure requires that tie-down eyelets be set into the apron; there
is no procedure for mooring at unprepared facilities.
Parking Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PERFORMED
Ropes

. . ATTACHED TO NOSE GEAR AND MAIN GEAR/

NOSE GEAR

2B-64

MAIN GEAR

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals

Towing/Taxiing
On hard surfaces, the aircraft can be towed or pushed backwards with a tow bar attached to the nose wheel. The turning
angle of the nose wheel with tow bar is 90 either side of center.
When the aircraft is not on a hard surface (such as sand, soft
ground, or mud), cables or ropes must be attached to each main
gear for towing. If such occurs, steer with the rudder pedals.
For taxi operations, accomplish directional control with the
nosewheel steering system. The maximum turning radius for
the nosewheel steering system is 55 either side of center.
CAUTION: If aircraft is off runway and mired in soft
ground, do not attempt nose wheel towing. Use cables or
ropes attached to the main gear to prevent damage to the
aircraft. See Main Gear Towing section, this chapter.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-65

CAE SimuFlite
Towing Radius

28' 0"
NOSE
WHEEL

38' 0"
WING
TIP

30' 0"

2B-66

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals

Nose Gear Towing


Tow Bar . . . . . . . . . . . ATTACHED TO NOSE WHEEL
Insert tow bar into nose wheel axle and secure.
Wheel Chocks/Mooring Ropes

. . . . . . . . . REMOVED

Control Gust Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED


Grounding Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED
Tow Bar . . . . . . . . . ATTACHED TO TOWING VEHICLE
Parking Brakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RELEASED
Wing/Tail Walkers

. . . . . . . . STATIONED (OPTIONAL)

Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TOW
Use smooth starts and stops.

When Towing Operation Completed:


Nose Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CENTERED/UPLOCK
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ROLLER BAR FORWARD
Parking Brake

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SET

Control Gust Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED


Wheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHOCKED
Grounding Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATTACHED
Tow Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-67

CAE SimuFlite
Main Gear Towing
Pilot Seat . . . . . . . . . AT LEAST ONE SEAT OCCUPIED
Main Gear . . . . . . . . . ROPES OR CABLES ATTACHED
Position large ropes or belt straps on main gear strut as low
as possible.
Wheel Chocks/Mooring Ropes . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED
Control Gust Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED
Grounding Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED
Ropes, Chains, or Cables . . . . . . . . . . ATTACHED TO
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TOWING VEHICLE
Towing ropes, chains, or cables should be of sufficient length
to allow towing vehicle to be at least 50 to 100 ft from aircraft.
Parking Brakes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RELEASED

Wing/Tail Walkers . . . . . . . . . STATIONED (OPTIONAL)


Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TOW
Use smooth starts and stops.

When Towing Operation Completed:


Nosewheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CENTERED/UPLOCK
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ROLLER BAR FORWARD
Parking Brake

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SET

Control Gust Lock

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED

Wheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHOCKED
Grounding Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATTACHED
Ropes, Chains, or Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED

2B-68

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals

Taxiing
During taxi, the aircraft speed is controlled by engine thrust,
rudder pedal steering, and brakes. Taxiing can be accomplished with one or both engines operating.
CAUTION: Ensure personnel and equipment are clear of
engine inlet and exhaust when engine is operating.

Pilot Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOTH OCCUPIED


Wheel Chocks/Mooring Ropes . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED
Control Gust Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED
Grounding Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED
Engine Inlet/Exhaust Covers . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED
Area . . . . CLEARED OF PERSONNEL AND EQUIPMENT
Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . START
Start one engine according to engine starting procedures.
Parking Brake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RELEASED
After Taxiing:
Parking Brakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SET
Engine

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SHUT DOWN

Parking Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PERFORMED

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-69

CAE SimuFlite

2B-70

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals

Storage and Restoring


Storage
Aircraft storage practices vary depending upon length of the
storage period. There are, however, several general policies to
observe. If the aircraft is to be stored outside, adhere to parking and mooring requirements. All protective covers should be
installed. Do not set the parking brake. In all other cases, the
following are generally performed:

Parking (0 to 7 Days)
If the engines are in a sheltered environment (i.e., not exposed
to excessive humidity or temperature changes), no action need
be taken beyond installing protective covers.

NACELLE
EXHAUST
COVER

DORSAL
INLET
COVER

NACELLE
INLET
COVER

TAIL
STAND

PITOT
TUBE
COVER

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-71

CAE SimuFlite
Flying Storage (7 to 30 Days)
Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PARKED
Fuel System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AIRCRAFT FUELED
Control Gust Lock

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED

Flaps and Spoilers

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RETRACTED

Engine Protective Covers . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED


Grounding Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATTACHED
Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LEADS DISCONNECTED
Protective Covers . . . . . INSTALLED ON PITOT TUBES/
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DORSAL FIN INLET
Tail Stand

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED

Access Doors and Panels . . . . . . . CLOSED/SECURED


Cabin Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLOSED/LOCKED
Attach red tag to cabin door handle with the following notation: Aircraft prepared for flyable storage (7 to 30 Days)
(DATE OF STORAGE).

Prolonged Storage (31 Days to 6 Months)


Aircraft

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WASHED/WAXED

Interior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEANED
Seat Covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED
Parking Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PERFORMED
Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PRESERVED
Engine Protective Covers . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED
Fuel System Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . PERFORMED
Fuel Vents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COVERED

2B-72

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals
Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED/STORED
Standby Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED/STORED
Emer Power Supply Battery

. . . . . REMOVED/STORED

Nav/Avionic Emer Battery Supply . . . . . . . . . STORED


Oxygen System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPLETED
Alcohol Anti-Ice System

. . . . . . . . . . TANK EMPTIED

Refrigeration System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPERATED


Connect an external power source and operate refrigeration
system every 30 days.
Hydraulic System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Fill hydraulic system to operational level and check for leaks.
Repair all leaks prior to storage.
Windshield/Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEANED
LH Windshield Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED
RH Windshield Cover

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED

Cabin Window Covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED


Avionics Equipment . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED/STORED
Pitot Tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURED
Tape a small piece of barrier material around pitot tube and
install pitot tube cover.
Static Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURED
Cut small pieces of barrier material and place them over the
static ports. Secure and seal them from the atmosphere by
taping around the perimeter of barrier material.
Tires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REPLACED
Replace serviceable tires with unservicable tires.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-73

CAE SimuFlite
Brakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED/PRESERVED
Anti-Skid Wheel Transducer . . . . . . . . . . . SERVICED
Landing Gear Strut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LUBRICATED
Main/Nose Gear Shock Struts . . . . . . CHECKED EVERY
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 DAYS
Main/Nose Gear Tire Pressure . . . . . CHECKED EVERY
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 DAYS
Wheel Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURED
Install barrier material over wheel wells; secure and seal from
atmosphere with black tape.
Toilet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SANITIZED
Emergency Air Bottle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPLETED
Engine Fire Extinguisher Container . . . . . . SERVICED
Gain access to fire extinguisher container and install a wire
jumper between the ground stud and cartridge insulated terminal. Attach a red tag to the jumper wire with the notation:
Remove jumper wire before starting engine.
Flight Control System . . . . . . . . . . . . . LUBRICATED
Control Gust Lock

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED

Flaps/Spoilers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RETRACTED
Tail Stand

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED

Dorsal Fin Inlet Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED


Access Door/Panels

. . . . . CHECK CLOSED/SECURED

Cabin Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLOSED/LOCKED


Attach red tag to cabin door handle with the following notation: Aircraft prepared for prolonged storage (31 days to 6
months) (DATE OF STORAGE).

2B-74

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals

Indefinite Storage (More than 6 Months)


Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PRESERVED
Preserve engines in accordance with Engine Preservation
Instructions (More than Six Months) in the TFE731 Engine
Light Maintenance Manual.
Engine Protective Covers . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED
Fuel System Sumps

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DRAINED

Anti-Ice Additive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED


Remove a pint of fuel from the wing filler and check that the
anti-ice additive concentration in fuel meets minimum AFM
requirements (see FAA approved AFM).
Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TOPPED OFF AS REQUIRED
Cabin Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLOSED/LOCKED
Attach red tag to cabin door handle with the following notation: Aircraft prepared for prolonged storage (more than 6
months) (DATE OF STORAGE).
Struts/Actuators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SERVICED
Windshield/Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . REPLACE TAPE

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-75

CAE SimuFlite

Restoring After Storage


After an aircraft has been stored for a period of time, it must be
restored to an airworthy state. Based on the length of storage,
the following generally are performed.

Restoring from Flying Storage


(7 to 30 Days)
Aircraft Exterior . . . . . . . . . . . CLEAN, IF REQUIRED
Protective Covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED
Tail Stand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED
Control Gust Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED
Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SERVICED/CONNECTED
Servicing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Check the following items and service if required:

hydraulic accumulator/reservoir

nose/main landing gear/struts

tires

refrigeration system

emergency air bottles

alcohol anti-ice system

oxygen system

engine oil system.

Preflight Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PERFORMED

2B-76

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals

Restoring from Prolonged Storage


(31 Days to 6 Months)
In addition to procedures required for restoring from Flyable
Storage, perform the following.
Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PREPARED FOR SERVICE
Prepare engines in accordance with Engine Depreservation
Instructions in the TFE731 Engine Light Maintenance Manual.
Fuel System

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SERVICED

Electrical System

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SERVICED

Oxygen System . . . . SERVICED/CHECKED FOR LEAKS


Alcohol Anti-Ice System

. . . . . . . . . . . . . SERVICED

Environmental System . . . . . . OPERATIONAL CHECKS


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PERFORMED
Hydraulic System . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED FOR LEAKS
Windshield/Windows . . . . COVERS REMOVED/STORED
Avionic Equipment

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SERVICED

Pitot/Static System . . . . . . . . . . . COVERS/BARRIER


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MATERIAL REMOVED
Landing Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SERVICED
Toilet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SERVICED
Emergency Air Bottle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SERVICED
Engine Fire Extinguisher Container

. . . . . . SERVICED

Flight Control System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SERVICED


Exterior Fuselage

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED

Interior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEANED, IF REQUIRED


Preflight Inspection

Learjet 55
September 2003

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . PERFORMED

Developed for training purposes

2B-77

CAE SimuFlite
Restoring from Indefinite Storage
(More than 6 Months)
In addition to the procedures required for restoring from
Prolonged Storage, perform the following.
Engine Fire Extinguisher System . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Hydrostatically test and service engine fire extinguisher containers and install engine fire extinguisher containers and cartridges (see Maintenance Manual for details).
400-Hour Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PERFORMED

2B-78

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals

Hot Weather and Desert Operations


Observe airplane performance limitations computed from
Section V of the AFM. Temperature affects engine thrust, braking, takeoff distance, and climb performance.
In areas of high humidity, non-metallic materials are subject to
moisture absorption and increase the weight of the aircraft.
In very dry areas, protect the airplane from dust and sand.

Exterior Inspection
Preflight Inspection
Protective Covers

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . PERFORMED
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED

Clean dust and dirt from landing gear shock struts. Check
gear doors, position switches, and squat switches for condition and operation. Check tires and struts for proper inflation.

Check and remove dust and sand from engine inlet duct, tail
pipe, and the visible components of the thrust reversers.

During the inspection, be particularly conscious of dust and


sand accumulation on components lubricated with oily or
greasy lubricants.
Be careful of other personnel and equipment behind the airplane during engine starts.

Engine Start
During engine starts at high outside temperatures, engine EPR
is higher than normal but should remain within limits.

Taxi
If the airport surfaces are sandy or dust covered, avoid exhaust
wake and propwash of other airplanes.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-79

CAE SimuFlite
Takeoff
Ensure takeoff performance is adequate for the conditions and
runway length.

Shutdown and Postflight


Install all aircraft protective covers.
Do not allow sand or dust to enter fuel tanks while refueling.
Do not leave reflective objects in the cockpit or on the glareshield;
reflected heat can distort the windshield optical properties.

2B-80

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals

Cold Weather Operations


The following section supplements normal procedures and provides instructions to help ensure satisfactory operation of the
aircraft and its systems in cold climactic conditions.

Preflight Inspection
Normal Exterior Inspection . . . . . . . . . . CONDUCTED
Aircraft Surface . . . . . . . . CHECKED FREE OF SNOW/
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ICE/FROST
Landing Gear . . . . . . . . . CHECKED FREE OF SNOW/
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ICE/FROST
Engines

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED

Engine Start
Use of a GPU for an engine start is recommended at ambient
temperature of 32F (0C) or below. Ensure GPU is regulated
to 28V DC; it should have an adequate capacity (at least 500A).
The GPU is limited to 1,100A maximum.
The SPR is recommended for engine starts at ambient temperature of 0F (-17.8C) or below.
CAUTION: During engine starts in cold conditioned, abort
the start attempt if the following occur: (1) fan speed (N1)
does not rise with turbine speed (N2) or stops during the
start attempt; (2) ITT rises rapidly and appears likely to
exceed the start limit. In addition, remember that exceeding
idle power with oil temperature below 30C is not recommended. If ambient temperature prevents attainment of
30C, idle power may be exceeded as required to warm the
oil to normal operating limits prior to takeoff.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-81

CAE SimuFlite
If the engines are exposed to extremely cold temperatures
below -40F (-40C) for an extended period, preheat the
engines prior to attempting a start. With ambient temperatures
between -40F and -65F, direct warm air into each engine for
a minimum of 30 minutes prior to engine start.
In cold weather, engine acceleration is much slower than normal
and ITT has a tendency to increase more rapidly because of the
increased spool-up time. Higher than normal oil pressures that
exceed the maximum allowable transients also may register.
When the aircraft has been cold-soaked at ambient temperatures below -13F (-25C), operate the engines a minimum of
three minutes to bring the hydraulic system to normal operating
temperature.

Taxiing
Anti-Ice Systems

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AS REQUIRED

Taxi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AT REDUCED SPEED


Allow greater distance for decreased braking efficiency.
If taxiing through slush or snow, use brakes to create some
friction-induced heating of the brake discs; this prevents the
brakes from freezing.
Use both engines for taxi on slippery surfaces. Directional control may be difficult during a one-engine taxi on a slick surface.
Snow/Slush-Covered Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . FLAPS UP
Avoid taxiing in the exhaust wake or propeller wash of other
aircraft on other than hard-packed or dry surfaces.

Takeoff
If Anti-Ice Systems Required for Takeoff:
Anti-Ice Systems . . . . . . . . . . ON PRIOR TO SETTING
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TAKEOFF THRUST

2B-82

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals

After Takeoff
Snow/Slush-Covered Runway:
Landing Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . DELAY RETRACTION
A delayed retraction allows residual slush to be thrown or
blown off the gear.
STAB WING HEAT Switch . . . . . . ON FOR 10 MINUTES
Wing heat bleed air exits overboard through the center
wing/wheel well area. Activation of the wing heat helps melt
moisture on the wheels and brakes. Monitor WING TEMP
indicator for overheat condition.

Before Landing
If taxi or takeoff was made from a snow/slush-covered runway,
the following should help crack any ice between brake discs
and between discs and wheels.
After Landing Gear Extended:
Anti-Skid Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Brakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PUMP 6 TO 10 TIMES
Use moderate to heavy braking pressure.
WARNING: Even small accumulations of ice on the wing
leading edge can cause an increase in stall speed and,
possibly, a degradation in stall characteristics.

Prior to Touchdown:
Anti-Skid Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Ensure the ANTI-SKID annunciators are extinguished.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-83

CAE SimuFlite
Landing
If runway is clear and dry, use normal landing procedures. If
runway is wet or icy, refer to AFM Section V for landing distance
factors.

After Clearing Runway


Avoid use of nosewheel steering above 10 kts on patchy snow
or ice during moderate to heavy braking action.
For taxiing on a snow/slush-covered runway, do not retract the
flaps above 20 to protect the flaps and wings from damage if
ice or snow accumulates on the flaps.

Shutdown/Postflight
When the aircraft is parked outside in extremely cold or fluctuating freeze/thaw temperatures, perform the following in addition
to the normal shutdown and postflight procedures.
Before Releasing Parking Brake:
Main Gear Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHOCKED
Do not leave aircraft parked for extended periods in subfreezing weather with the parking brake set.
Landing Gear Shock Struts/
Wheel Wells . . . . . . . . . . ICE/SNOW/DIRT REMOVED
Check gear doors, position switches, squat switches, wheels,
and tires.
Flap/Flap Tracks . . . . . . . . ICE/SNOW/DIRT REMOVED
Accomplish this before retracting flaps.
Crew Oxygen Masks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED
If the aircraft is to be parked for extended period at ambient
temperatures of 20F (-6.7C) or below, stow the crew oxygen masks in a heated room. In lieu of that, warm the cabin
to at least 20F (-6.7C) before use.

2B-84

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals
Water/Beverage Containers . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED
If the aircraft is to remain in sub-freezing temperatures for an
extended period, remove water and beverage containers.
Remove toilet tank and reservoir fluid or add ethylene glycol
base anti-freeze containing anti-foam agent to the flush fluid.
Protective Covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED
Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED
If the aircraft will be exposed to extremely cold temperatures
for an extended period, remove the batteries and store in a
warm area.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-85

CAE SimuFlite
Deicing Supplemental Information
This section provides supplementary information on aircraft
deicing, anti-icing/deicing fluids, deicing procedures, and aircraft operating procedures. Consult the AFM, Maintenance
Manual Chapter 12 Servicing, and FAA Advisory Circulars for
deicing procedures, holdover times, fluid specifications, recommendations, and hazards.
CAUTION: Type II/IV FPD generally should not be applied
forward of the wing leading edges. If used for deicing, do
not apply forward of cockpit windows. Ensure that radome
and cockpit windows are clean.

Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs) prohibit takeoff with snow,


ice, or frost adhering to the wings and control surfaces of the
aircraft. It is the responsibility of the pilot-in-command to ensure
the aircraft is free of snow, ice, or frost before takeoff.
Failure to adequately deice the aircraft can result in seriously
degraded aircraft performance, loss of lift, and erratic engine
and flight instrument indications.
NOTE: The first area to be deiced/anti-iced should be
easily visible from the cabin/cockpit and should be used to
provide a conservative estimate for unseen areas of the
aircraft before initiating takeoff roll.

Following extended high-altitude flight, frost can form at ambient temperatures above freezing on the wings underside in the
fuel tank areas. Refueling the aircraft with warmer fuel usually
melts the frost.

2B-86

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals
Deicing
When necessary, use the following methods to deice the aircraft:

placing the aircraft in a warm hangar until the ice melts

mechanically brushing the snow or ice off with brooms,


brushes, or other means

applying a heated water/glycol solution (one-step procedure)

applying heated water followed by an undiluted glycol-based


fluid (two-step procedure).

Two types of anti-icing/deicing fluids are in commercial use:


SAE/ISO Types I and II. Type I fluids are used generally in
North America. Type II fluids, also referred to as AEA Type II,
are used generally in Europe.
Type I fluids are unthickened glycol-based fluids usually diluted
with water and applied hot; they provide limited holdover time.
Type II fluids are thickened glycol-based fluids that are usually
applied cold on a deiced aircraft; they provide longer holdover
times than Type I fluids.
NOTE: Holdover time is the estimated time that an antiicing/deicing fluid protects a treated surface from ice or
frost formation.
Many factors influence snow, ice, and frost accumulation and
the effectiveness of deicing fluids. These factors include:

ambient temperature and aircraft surface temperature

relative humidity, precipitation type, and rate

wind velocity and direction

operation on snow, slush, or wet surfaces

operation near other aircraft, equipment, and buildings

presence of deicing fluid and its type, dilution strength, and


application method.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-87

CAE SimuFlite
Deicing Procedures
One-step deicing involves spraying the aircraft with a heated,
diluted deicing/anti-icing fluid to remove ice, snow, or frost. The
fluid coating then provides limited protection from further accumulation.
Two-step deicing involves spraying the aircraft with hot water or
a hot water/deicing fluid mixture to remove any ice, snow, or
frost accumulation followed immediately by treatment with antiicing fluid (usually Type II FPD fluid).
Deice the aircraft from top to bottom. Avoid flushing snow, ice,
or frost onto treated areas. Start the deicing process by treating
the horizontal stabilizer followed by the vertical stabilizer.
Continue by treating the fuselage top and sides. Finally, apply
deicing fluid to the wings.
CAUTION: Type II FPD generally should not be applied
forward of the wing leading edges. If used for deicing, do
not apply forward of cockpit windows. Ensure that radome
and cockpit windows are clean.

2B-88

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals
Deicing fluid should not be applied to:

pitot/static tubes, static ports, temperature probes, AOA


vanes, or TAT probe

gaps between control surfaces and airfoil

cockpit windows

passenger windows

air and engine inlets and exhausts

vents and drains

wing and control surface trailing edges

brakes.

During deicing observe the following:

Avoid excessive use of deicing fluid to prevent flushing of slush


into areas forward of control surfaces.
When applying fluid, avoid pressures 300 PSI or greater.

Exercise extreme caution when moving deicing equipment


around aircraft. Maintain adequate separation between equipment and aircraft.

A fine mist of deicing fluid applied two or three times provides


better anti-icing protection than a single heavy application.

Apply deicing fluid to lower surfaces if anticipating taxi and takeoff through snow.

Follow all deicing fluid manufacturers recommendations and


procedures.

Do not use diluted deicing fluid for anti-icing. Melting snow will
further dilute the solution and refreezing can occur.

After deicing the aircraft nose, wipe all remaining traces of fluid
from area in front of windshield.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-89

CAE SimuFlite
Deicing fluid sprayed into an operating engine can introduce
smoke or vapors into the cabin and cockpit and pose a serious
fire hazard.

CAUTION: If engines are running when spraying of deicing fluids is in progress, turn bleed air and air conditioning
packs off.
Do not use deicing fluid to deice engines. Mechanically remove
snow and ice from the engine inlet. Check the first stage fan
blades for freedom of movement. If engine does not rotate
freely, deice engine with hot air.
CAUTION: Do not use deicing fluid for engines. After deicing engine, start engine(s) immediately to prevent any reicing condition. Select engine anti-ice on after engine start.

2B-90

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals

Post Deicing Procedures


Deicing Inspection
After deicing, the following areas should be free of ice, snow, or
frost accumulation:

wing leading edges, upper and lower surfaces

vertical and horizontal stabilizer leading edges, side panels,


and upper and lower surfaces

ailerons, elevator, and rudder

flaps, flap tracks, and flap drive mechanisms

ground and flight spoilers

engine inlets and exhausts

cockpit windows

communication and navigation antennas

fuselage

AOA probes, pitot tubes, static ports, and SAT/TAS probe

fuel tank vents

cooling air inlets and exhausts

landing gear including brakes, wheels, tires, struts, and doors.


CAUTION: After deicing wings and empennage, check
flap wells for slush and/or ice accumulations. Ensure that all
drain holes are clear.

CAUTION: Check all primary flight control surfaces by


hand movement through full travel stop before any movement is attempted with control wheel, yoke, or rudder
pedals. Trim and control tabs should be operated through
full travel range.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-91

CAE SimuFlite
Taxi
During taxi on ice or snow covered surfaces, observe the
following:

Maintain a greater than normal distance between aircraft.

Do not use reverse thrust. If reverse thrust used, reinspect


the aircraft for snow, ice, and frost accumulations.

Taxi with the flaps up. Do not perform Taxi/Before Takeoff


checklist until flaps are extended.

Periodically conduct engine run-ups to as high a thrust setting as practical.

Turn ENGINE and WING ANTI-ICE switches ON immediately


after engine start.

Conduct final pre-takeoff inspection five minutes before takeoff.

Pre-Takeoff Inspection
Within five minutes of takeoff, conduct an exterior aircraft
inspection from within the aircraft to:

note any loss of anti-icing fluid effectiveness

examine visible aircraft surfaces for ice and snow accumulation

use windshield wipers to observe ice or snow accumulations.

If uncertain of current aircraft condition, conduct an exterior


hands on inspection or deice the aircraft again before flight.

Takeoff
During takeoff observe the following:

Do not use reduced thrust.

Accomplish an engine run-up to highest practical thrust and


observe stable engine operation before brake release.

After setting takeoff throttle, verify that LP RPM and other


engine indications are normal.

2B-92

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Expanded Normals
Approach and Landing
During the descent approach observe the following:

Anticipate use of engine and wing anti-icing.

After the ground spoilers and thrust reversers are actuated,


immediately lower nose wheel to runway.

With the anti-skid system operational, apply normal braking


smoothly and symmetrically to maintain direction control.

Do not use asymmetric thrust on icy or slippery runways.

Be prepared for possible downwind drift on icy or slippery


runways with crosswind when using reverse thrust.

Do not attempt to turn off runway at too high speeds.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2B-93

CAE SimuFlite

2B-94

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Standard Operating Procedures


Table of Contents
General Information

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2C-3

Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2C-3
Flow Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2C-3
Checklists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2C-4
Omission of Checklists

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2C-4

Challenge/No Response

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2C-4

Abnormal/Emergency Procedures
Time Critical Situations

. . . . . . . . . . . . 2C-5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2C-6

Rejected Takeoffs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2C-6


Critical Malfunctions in Flight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2C-7
Non-Critical Malfunctions in Flight . . . . . . . . . . . 2C-7
Radio Tuning and Communication
Altitude Assignment

. . . . . . . . . . . . 2C-7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2C-8

Pre-Departure Briefings

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2C-8

Advising of Aircraft Configuration Change . . . . . . . . 2C-9


Transitioning from Instrument to Visual Conditions

. . . 2C-9

Phase of Flight SOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2C-11


Holding Short
Takeoff Roll

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2C-11
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2C-12

Climb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2C-13
Cruise

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2C-15

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

2C-1

CAE SimuFlite
Descent

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2C-16

Precision Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2C-18


Precision Missed Approach

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2C-23

Precision Approach Deviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2C-24


Non-Precision Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2C-25
Non-Precision Missed Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2C-30
Non-Precision Approach Deviations . . . . . . . . . . . 2C-32
Visual Traffic Patterns
Landing

2C-2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2C-33

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2C-35

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Standard Operating Procedures

General Information
SimuFlite strongly supports the premise that the disciplined use
of well-developed Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) is
central to safe, professional aircraft operations, especially in
multi-crew, complex, or high performance aircraft.
If your flight department has an SOP, we encourage you to use
it during your training. If your flight department does not already
have one, we welcome your use of the SimuFlite SOP.
Corporate pilots carefully developed this SOP. A product of their
experience, it is the way SimuFlite conducts its flight operations.
The procedures described herein are specific to the Learjet 55
and apply to specified phases of flight. The flight crew member
designated for each step accomplishes it as indicated.

Definitions
LH/RH Pilot Station. Designation of seat position for accomplishing a given task because of proximity to the respective control/indicator. Regardless of PF or PNF role, the pilot in that seat
performs tasks and responds to checklist challenges accordingly.
PF Pilot Flying. The pilot responsible for controlling the flight
of the aircraft.
PIC Pilot-in-Command. The pilot responsible for the operation
and safety of an aircraft during flight time.
PNF Pilot Not Flying. The pilot who is not controlling the flight
of the aircraft.

Flow Patterns
Flow patterns are an integral part of the SOP. Accomplish the
cockpit setup for each phase of flight with a flow pattern, then
refer to the checklist to verify the setup. Use normal checklists
as done lists instead of do lists.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

2C-3

CAE SimuFlite
Flow patterns are disciplined procedures; they require pilots
who understand the aircraft systems/controls and who methodically accomplish the flow pattern.
A standardized flow pattern for the cockpit setup before starting
engines appears in the Preflight Inspection chapter.

Checklists
Use a challenge-response method to execute any checklist. After
the PF initiates the checklist, the PNF challenges by reading the
checklist item aloud. The PF is responsible for verifying that the
items designated as PF or his seat position (i.e., LH or RH) are
accomplished and for responding orally to the challenge. Items
designated on the checklist as PNF or by his seat position are
the PNFs responsibility. The PNF confirms the accomplishment
of the item, then responds orally to his own challenge. In all
cases, the response by either pilot is confirmed by the other and
any disagreement is resolved prior to continuing the checklist.
After the completion of any checklist, the PNF states _____
checklist is complete. This allows the PF to maintain situational
awareness during checklist phases and prompts the PF to continue to the next checklist, if required.
Effective checklists are pertinent and concise. Use them the
way they are written: verbatim, smartly, and professionally.

Omission of Checklists
While the PF is responsible for initiating checklists, the PNF
should ask the PF whether a checklist should be started if, in
his opinion, a checklist is overlooked. As an expression of good
flight deck management, such prompting is appropriate for any
flight situation: training, operations, or checkrides.

Challenge/No Response
If the PNF observes and challenges a flight deviation or critical
situation, the PF should respond immediately. If the PF does

2C-4

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Standard Operating Procedures


not respond by oral communication or action, the PNF must
issue a second challenge that is loud and clear. If the PF does
not respond after the second challenge, the PNF must ensure
the safety of the aircraft. The PNF must announce that he is
assuming control and then take the necessary actions to return
the aircraft to a safe operating envelope.

Abnormal/Emergency Procedures
When any crewmember recognizes an abnormal or emergency
condition, the PIC designates who controls the aircraft, who
performs the tasks, and any items to be monitored. Following
these designations, the PIC calls for the appropriate checklist.
The crewmember designated on the checklist accomplishes
the checklist items with the appropriate challenge/response.
NOTE: Control means responsible for flight control of
the aircraft, whether manual or automatic.

The pilot designated to fly the aircraft (i.e., PF) does not perform tasks that compromise this primary responsibility, regardless of whether he uses the autopilot or flies manually.
Both pilots must be able to respond to an emergency situation
that requires immediate corrective action without reference to a
checklist. The elements of an emergency procedure that must be
performed without reference to the appropriate checklist are
called memory or recall items. Accomplish all other abnormal and
emergency procedures while referring to the printed checklist.
Accomplishing abnormal and emergency checklists differs from
accomplishing normal procedure checklists in that the pilot
reading the checklist states both the challenge and the
response when challenging each item.
When a checklist procedure calls for the movement or manipulation of controls or switches critical to safety of flight (e.g., throttles,
Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

2C-5

CAE SimuFlite
engine fire switches, fire bottle discharge switches), the pilot performing the action obtains verification from the other pilot that he
is moving the correct control or switch prior to initiating the action.
Any checklist action pertaining to a specific control, switch, or
equipment that is duplicated in the cockpit is read to include its
relative position and the action required (e.g., Left Throttle
OFF; Left Boost Pump NORMAL).

Time Critical Situations


When the aircraft, passengers, and/or crew are in jeopardy,
remember three things.

FLY THE AIRCRAFT Maintain aircraft control.

RECOGNIZE CHALLENGE Analyze the situation.

RESPOND Take appropriate action.

Rejected Takeoffs
The rejected (aborted) takeoff procedure is a preplanned maneuver; both crewmembers must be aware of and briefed on the
types of malfunctions that mandate an abort. Assuming the crew
trains to a firmly established SOP, either crewmember may call
for an abort.
The PF normally commands and executes the takeoff abort for
directional control problems or catastrophic malfunctions.
Additionally, any indication of the following malfunctions prior to
V1 is cause for an abort:

engine failure

engine fire

thrust reverser deployment.

In addition to the above, the PF usually executes an abort prior


to 90 KIAS for any abnormality observed.
When the PNF calls an abort, the PF announces Abort. or
Continue and executes the appropriate procedure.
2C-6

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Standard Operating Procedures


Critical Malfunctions in Flight
In flight, the observing crewmember positively announces a
malfunction. As time permits, the other crewmember makes
every effort to confirm/identify the malfunction before initiating
any emergency action.
If the PNF is the first to observe any indication of a critical failure, he announces it and simultaneously identifies the malfunction to the PF by pointing to the indicator/annunciator.
After verifying the malfunction, the PF announces his decision
and commands accomplishment of any checklist memory
items. The PF monitors the PNF during the accomplishment of
those tasks assigned to him.

Non-Critical Malfunctions in Flight


Procedures for recognizing and verifying a non-critical malfunction or impending malfunction are the same as those used for
time critical situations: use positive oral and graphic communication to identify and direct the proper response. Time, however, is
not as critical and allows a more deliberate response to the
malfunction. Always use the appropriate checklist to accomplish
the corrective action.

Radio Tuning and Communication


The PNF accomplishes navigation and communication radio
tuning, identification, and ground communication. For navigation radios, the PNF tunes and identifies all navigation aids.
Before tuning the PFs radios, he announces the NAVAID to be
set. In tuning the primary NAVAID, the PNF coordinates with
the PF to ensure proper selection sequencing with the autopilot
mode. After tuning and identifying the PFs NAVAID, the PNF
announces (Facility) tuned and identified.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

2C-7

CAE SimuFlite
Monitor NDB audio output anytime the NDB is in use as the
NAVAID. Use the marker beacon audio as backup to visual
annunciation for marker passage confirmation.
In tuning the VHF radios for ATC communication, the PNF
places the newly assigned frequency in the head not in use
(i.e., preselected) at the time of receipt. After contact on the
new frequency, the PNF retains the previously assigned frequency for a reasonable time period.

Altitude Assignment
The PNF sets the assigned altitude in the altitude alerter and
points to the alerter while orally repeating the altitude. The PNF
continues to point to the altitude alerter until the PF confirms
the altitude assignment and alerter setting.

Pre-Departure Briefings
The PIC should conduct a pre-departure briefing prior to each
flight to address potential problems, weather delays, safety
considerations, and operational issues. Pre-departure briefings
should include all crewmembers to enhance team-building and
set the tone for the flight. The briefing may be formal or informal, but should include some standard items. The acronym
AWARE works well to ensure no points are missed. This is also
an opportunity to brief any takeoff or departure deviations from
the SOP due to weather or runway conditions.
NOTE: The acronym AWARE stands for the following.
Aircraft status

Weather

Airport information

Route of flight

Extra

2C-8

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Standard Operating Procedures

Advising of Aircraft
Configuration Change
If the PF is about to make an aircraft control or configuration
change, he alerts the PNF to the forthcoming change (e.g.,
gear, speedbrake, and flap selections). If time permits, he also
announces any abrupt flight path changes so there is always
mutual understanding of the intended flight path.
Time permitting, a PA announcement to the passengers precedes maneuvers involving unusual deck or roll angles.

Transitioning from Instrument


to Visual Conditions
If visual meteorological conditions (VMC) are encountered during
an instrument approach, the PNF normally continues to make
callouts for the instrument approach being conducted. However,
the PF may request a changeover to visual traffic pattern callouts.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

2C-9

CAE SimuFlite

2C-10

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Standard Operating Procedures

Phase of Flight SOP


Holding Short
PF

PNF

CALL Before Takeoff


checklist.

ACTION Complete Before


Takeoff checklist.
CALL Before Takeoff
checklist complete.

Takeoff Briefing
ACTION Brief the following:
initial heading/
course
initial altitude
airspeed limit
(if applicable)
clearance limit
emergency return
plan
SOP deviations.
Consider the following:
impaired runway
conditions
weather
obstacle clearance
SIDS.
Cleared for Takeoff
CALL Takeoff checklist.
ACTION Complete Takeoff
checklist.
CALL Takeoff checklist
complete.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

2C-11

CAE SimuFlite
Takeoff Roll
PF

PNF

Setting Takeoff Power


CALL Set takeoff power.

CALL Power set.

Initial Airspeed Indication


CALL Airspeed alive.
ACTION Steering OFF.
At 90 KIAS
CALL 90 kts crosscheck.
At V1
CALL V1.
ACTION Move hand from
throttles to yoke.
At VR
CALL Rotate.
ACTION Rotate to
approximately 10
pitch attitude for
takeoff.

2C-12

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Standard Operating Procedures

Climb
PF

PNF

At Positive Rate of Climb


CALL Positive rate.
Only after PNFs call,
CALL Gear UP.
CALL Gear selected UP.
When gear indicates
UP,
Gear indicates UP.
After Gear Retraction
ACTION Immediately
accomplish attitude
correlation check.
PFs and PNFs ADI
displays agree.
Pitch and bank
angles are
acceptable.
CALL Attitudes check.
Or, if a fault exists,
give a concise
statement of the
discrepancy.
At V2 + 30 KIAS and 400 Ft Above Airport Surface (Minimum)
CALL V2 + 30 KIAS.
CALL Flaps UP.
CALL Flaps selected UP.
When indicator shows
UP,
Flaps indicate UP.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

2C-13

CAE SimuFlite
Climb (continued)
PF

PNF

At VENR (Minimum)
CALL Climb power.
CALL Climb power set.
At 1,500 Ft (Minimum) Above Airport Surface and Workload
Permitting
CALL After Takeoff
checklist.

ACTION Complete After


Takeoff checklist.
CALL After Takeoff
checklist complete.

At Transition Altitude
CALL 29.92 set.
Climb checklist.

CALL 29.92 set.


ACTION Complete Climb
checklist.
CALL Climb checklist
complete.

At 1,000 Ft Below Assigned Altitude


CALL

(altitude) for
(altitude).
(e.g., 9,000 for
10,000.)

CALL

(altitude) for
(altitude).
(e.g., 9,000 for
10,000.)

2C-14

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Standard Operating Procedures

Cruise
PF

PNF

CALL Cruise checklist.


ACTION Complete Cruise
checklist.
CALL Cruise checklist
complete.
Altitude Deviation in Excess of 100 Ft
CALL Altitude.
CALL Correcting.
Course Deviation in Excess of One Half Dot
CALL Course.
CALL Correcting.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

2C-15

CAE SimuFlite
Descent
PF

PNF

CALL Descent checklist.


ACTION Complete Descent
checklist.
CALL Descent checklist
complete.
At 1,000 Ft Above Assigned Altitude
CALL

(altitude) for
(altitude).
(e.g., 10,000 for
9,000.)

CALL

(altitude) for
(altitude).
(e.g., 10,000 for
9,000.)

At Transition Level
CALL Altimeter set
Transition Level
checklist.

CALL Altimeter set

ACTION Complete Transition


Level checklist.
CALL Transition Level
checklist complete.
At 10,000 Ft
CALL 10,000 ft.
CALL Check.
Speed 250 kts.

Maintain sterile cockpit below 10,000 ft above airport surface.

2C-16

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Standard Operating Procedures

Descent (continued)
PF

PNF

At Appropriate Workload Time


REVIEW

REVIEW
Review the following:
approach to be executed
field elevation
appropriate minimum sector altitude(s)
inbound leg to FAF, procedure turn direction and altitude
final approach course heading and intercept altitude
timing required
DA/MDA
MAP (non-precision)
VDP
special procedures (DME step-down, arc, etc.)
type of approach lights in use (and radio keying
procedures, if required)
missed approach procedures
runway information conditions

ACTION Brief the following:


configuration
approach speed
minimum safe altitude
approach course
FAF altitude
DA/MDA altitude
field elevation
VDP
missed approach
- heading
- altitude
- intentions
abnormal implications.
Accomplish as many checklist items as possible. The Approach
checklist must be completed prior to the initial approach fix.
Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

2C-17

CAE SimuFlite
Precision Approach
PF

PNF

Prior to Initial Approach Fix


CALL Approach checklist.
ACTION Complete Approach
checklist.
CALL Approach checklist
complete.
After Level-Off on Intermediate Approach Segment
CALL Flaps 8 (or 20).
CALL Flaps selected 8 (or
20).
When flaps indicate
8 (or 20),
Flaps indicate 8 (or
20).
At Initial Convergence of Course Deviation Bar
CALL Localizer/course
alive.

CALL Localizer/course
alive.

At Initial Downward Movement of Glideslope Raw Data Indicator


CALL Glideslope alive.

CALL Glideslope alive.

When Annunciators Indicate Localizer Capture


CALL Localizer captured.

2C-18

CALL Localizer captured.

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Standard Operating Procedures

Precision Approach (continued)


PF

PNF

At One Dot From Glideslope Intercept


CALL One dot to go.
CALL Gear DOWN.
Before Landing
checklist.
CALL Gear selected
DOWN.
When gear indicates
DOWN,
Gear indicates
DOWN.
ACTION Complete Before
Landing checklist
except for full flaps.
When Annunciator Indicates Glideslope Capture
CALL Glideslope captured.
CALL Flaps DOWN.

CALL Glideslope captured.


CALL Flaps selected
DOWN.
When flaps indicate
DOWN,
Flaps indicate
DOWN.

If the VOR on the PNFs side is used for crosschecks on the


intermediate segment, the PNFs localizer and glideslope status
calls are accomplished at the time the PNF changes to the ILS
frequency. This should be no later than at completion of the FAF
crosscheck, if required. The PNF should tune and identify his
NAV radios to the specific approach and monitor.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

2C-19

CAE SimuFlite
Precision Approach (continued)
PF

PNF

At FAF
CALL Outer marker. or
Final fix.
ACTION

Start timing.
Visually crosscheck
that both altimeters
agree with crossing
altitude.
Set missed
approach altitude in
altitude alerter.
Check PF and PNF
instruments.
Call FAF inbound.
CALL Outer marker. or
Final fix.
Altitude checks.

At 1,000 Ft Above DA(H)


CALL 1,000 ft to
minimums.
CALL Check.

2C-20

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Standard Operating Procedures

Precision Approach (continued)


PF

PNF

At 500 Ft Above DA(H)


CALL 500 ft to minimums.
CALL Check.
NOTE: An approach window has the following parameters:
within one dot deflection, both LOC and GS
IVSI less than 1,000 fpm
IAS within V
AP 10 kts (no less than VREF)
no flight instrument flags with the landing runway or visual
references not in sight
landing configuration (except for full flaps on single engine
approaches).
When within 500 ft above touchdown, the aircraft must be within
the approach window. If the aircraft is not within this window, a
missed approach must be executed.

At 200 Ft Above DA(H)


CALL 200 ft to minimums.
CALL Check.
At 100 Ft Above DA(H)
CALL 100 ft to minimums.
CALL Check.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

2C-21

CAE SimuFlite
Precision Approach (continued)
PF

PNF

At Point Where PNF Sights Runway or Visual References


CALL Runway (or visual
reference)
oclock.
CALL Going visual. Land.
or Missed approach.
ACTION As PF goes visual,
PNF transitions to
instruments.
At DA(H)
CALL Minimums. Runway
(or visual reference)
oclock.
ACTION Announce intentions.
CALL Going visual. Land.
or Missed approach.
ACTION As PF goes visual,
PNF transitions to
instruments.

2C-22

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Standard Operating Procedures

Precision Missed Approach


PF

PNF

At DA(H)
CALL Minimums. Missed
approach.
CALL Missed approach.
ACTION Apply power firmly
and positively.
Activate go-around
mode and initially
rotate the nose to
the flight director
go-around attitude.
CALL Flaps 8.

ACTION Assist PF in setting


power for go-around.

CALL Flaps selected 8.


When flaps indicate
8,
Flaps indicate 8.

At Positive Rate of Climb


CALL Positive rate.
CALL Gear UP.
CALL Gear selected UP.
When gear indicates
UP,
Gear indicates UP.
ACTION Announce heading
and altitude for
missed approach.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

2C-23

CAE SimuFlite
Precision Approach Deviations
PF

PNF

One Half Dot Glideslope


CALL One half dot (high,
low) and (increasing,
holding, decreasing).
CALL Correcting.
One Half Dot Localizer
CALL One half dot (right,
left) and (increasing,
holding, decreasing).
CALL Correcting.
VAP
CALL Speed plus or minus
____ and (increasing,
holding, decreasing).
CALL Correcting.
At or Below VREF
CALL VREF. or
VREF minus ____
(knots below VREF).
CALL Correcting.
Rate of Descent Exceeds 1,000 FPM
CALL Sink
(amount)
hundred and
(increasing, holding,
decreasing).
CALL Correcting.

2C-24

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Standard Operating Procedures

Non-Precision Approach
PF

PNF

Prior to Initial Approach Fix


CALL Approach checklist.
ACTION Complete Approach
checklist.
CALL Approach checklist
complete.
After Level-Off on Intermediate Approach Segment
CALL Flaps 8 (or 20).
CALL Flaps selected 8 (or
20).
When flaps indicate
8 (or 20),
Flaps indicate 8 (or
20).
At Initial Convergence of Course Deviation Bar
CALL Localizer/course
alive.

CALL Localizer/course
alive.

When Annunciators Indicate Course Capture


CALL Localizer/course
captured.

Learjet 55
March 2002

CALL Localizer/course
captured.

Developed for training purposes

2C-25

CAE SimuFlite
Non-Precision Approach (continued)
PF

PNF

Prior to FAF
CALL
(number)
miles/minutes from
FAF.
CALL Gear DOWN.
Before Landing
checklist.

2C-26

CALL Gear selected


DOWN.
When gear indicates
DOWN,
Gear indicates
DOWN.
ACTION Complete Before
Landing checklist
except for full flaps.

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Standard Operating Procedures

Non-Precision Approach (continued)


PF

PNF

At FAF
CALL Outer marker. or
Final fix.

CALL Outer marker. or


Final fix.
ACTION Start timing.
Visually crosscheck
that both altimeters
agree.
Set MDA (or
nearest 100 ft
above) in altitude
alerter.
Check PF and PNF
instruments.
Call FAF inbound.

CALL Flaps DOWN.


CALL Flaps selected
DOWN.
When flaps indicate
DOWN,
Flaps indicate
DOWN.
CALL Altimeters check.
At 1,000 Ft Above MDA
CALL 1,000 ft to
minimums.
CALL Check.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

2C-27

CAE SimuFlite
Non-Precision Approach (continued)
PF

PNF

At 500 Ft Above MDA


CALL 500 ft to minimums.
CALL Check.
NOTE: An approach window has the following parameters:
within one dot CDI deflection or 5 bearing
IVSI less than 1,000 fpm
IAS within V
AP 10 kts (no less than VREF)
no flight instrument flags with the landing runway or visual
references not in sight
landing configuration, except for full flaps on single engine
approaches).
When within 500 ft above touchdown, the aircraft must be within
the approach window. If the aircraft is not within this window, a
missed approach must be executed.

At 200 Ft Above MDA


CALL 200 ft to minimums.
CALL Check.
At 100 Ft Above MDA
CALL 100 ft to minimums.
CALL Check.
At MDA
CALL Minimums.
(time) to go. or
Minimums.
(distance) to go.
CALL Check.
2C-28

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Standard Operating Procedures

Non-Precision Approach (continued)


PF

PNF

At Point Where PNF Sights Runway or Visual References


CALL Runway (or visual
reference)
oclock.
CALL Going visual. Land.
or Missed approach.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

2C-29

CAE SimuFlite
Non-Precision Missed Approach
PF

PNF

At MAP
CALL Missed approach
point. Missed
approach.
CALL Missed approach.
ACTION Apply power firmly
and positively.
Activate go-around
mode and initially
rotate the nose to the
flight director goaround attitude.
CALL Flaps 8.

ACTION Assist PF in setting


power for go-around.

CALL Flaps selected 8.


When flaps indicate
8,
Flaps indicate 8.

At Positive Rate of Climb


CALL Positive rate.
CALL Gear UP.
CALL Gear selected UP.
When gear indicates
UP,
Gear indicates UP.
ACTION Announce heading
and altitude for
missed approach.

2C-30

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Standard Operating Procedures

Non-Precision Missed Approach (continued)


PF

PNF

At VREF + 30 and 400 Ft Above Airport Surface (Minimum)


CALL Flaps UP.
CALL Flaps selected UP.
When flaps indicate
UP,
Flaps indicate UP.
At 1,500 Ft (Minimum) Above Airport Surface and
Workload Permitting
CALL After Takeoff
checklist.

Learjet 55
March 2002

ACTION Complete After


Takeoff checklist.
CALL After Takeoff
checklist complete.

Developed for training purposes

2C-31

CAE SimuFlite
Non-Precision Approach Deviations
PF

PNF

One Dot Localizer/VOR


CALL One dot (right, left)
and (increasing,
holding, decreasing).
CALL Correcting.
5 At or Beyond Midpoint for NDB Approach
CALL
(degrees off
course) (right, left)
and (increasing,
holding, decreasing).
CALL Correcting.
VAP
CALL Speed plus or minus
____ and (increasing,
holding, decreasing).
CALL Correcting.
At or Below VREF
CALL VREF. or
VREF minus _____
(knots below VREF).
CALL Correcting.
Rate of Descent Exceeds 1,000 FPM
CALL Sink
(amount)
hundred and
(increasing, holding,
decreasing).
CALL Correcting.

2C-32

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Standard Operating Procedures

Visual Traffic Patterns


PF

PNF

Before Pattern Entry/Downwind (1,500 Ft Above Airport Surface)


CALL Approach checklist.
ACTION Complete Approach
checklist.
CALL Approach checklist
complete.
Downwind
CALL Flaps 8 (or 20).

CALL Gear DOWN.


Before Landing
checklist.

CALL Flaps selected 8 (or


20).
When flaps indicate
8 (or 20),
Flaps indicate 8 (or
20).

CALL Gear selected


DOWN.
When gear indicates
DOWN,
Gear indicates
DOWN.
ACTION Complete Before
Landing checklist
except for full flaps.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

2C-33

CAE SimuFlite
Visual Traffic Patterns (continued)
PF

PNF

At 1,000 Ft Above Airport Surface


CALL 1,000 AGL.
CALL Check.
At 500 Ft Above Airport Surface
CALL 500 AGL.
CALL Check.
At 200 Ft Above Airport Surface
CALL 200 AGL.
CALL Check.

2C-34

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Standard Operating Procedures

Landing
PF

PNF

At Point on Approach When PF Sights Runway or Visual


Reference (Landing Assured)
CALL Going visual. Land.
Flaps DOWN.

ACTION Disconnect A/P prior


to landing, if on.

CALL Autopilot off.

CALL Flaps selected


DOWN.
When flaps indicate
DOWN,
Flaps indicate
DOWN.
ACTION Continue with:
speed check
vertical speed
check
callouts
gear down
verification
flap verification.
CALL Final gear and flaps
recheck.
Before Landing
checklist complete.

At 100 Ft Above Touchdown


CALL 100 ft.
At 50 Ft Above Touchdown
CALL 50 ft.
At Touchdown
ACTION Extend spoilers.
CALL Spoilers extended.
CALL Spoilers extended.
Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

2C-35

CAE SimuFlite
Landing (continued)
PF

PNF

At Thrust Reverser Deployment


CALL Two unlocked.
CALL Two deployed.
At Thrust Reverser Idle Speed (60 KIAS)
CALL 60 kts.

2C-36

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Maneuvers
Table of Contents
Takeoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2D-3
Rejected Takeoff

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2D-5

Engine Failure After V1/Takeoff Continued . . . . . . . . 2D-7


Approach to Stalls
Steep Turns

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2D-9

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2D-11

Unusual Attitude Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2D-13


Precision Approach/Missed Approach and Landing

. . 2D-15

Single Engine Precision Approach/Missed Approach


and Landing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2D-17
Non-Precision Approach/Missed Approach
and Landing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2D-19
Single Engine Non-Precision
Approach/Missed Approach and Landing . . . . . . . . 2D-21
Circling Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2D-23
Visual Approach/Balked Landing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2D-25
No Flap Visual Approach/Balked Landing . . . . . . . . 2D-27
Go-Around/Missed Approach/Balked Landing
(One or Two Engine) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2D-29
Emergency Descent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2D-31

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2D-1

CAE SimuFlite

2D-2

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Maneuvers

Takeoff

NON-ROLLING TAKEOFF
HOLD BRAKES
SET T/O POWER
RELEASE BRAKES
WMS HOLD

AIRSPEED INDICATION *
AIRSPEED ALIVE CALL
WMS SWITCH RELEASE

80 KNOT CROSSCHECK

V2 + 30 MINIMUM AND 400 FT AGL MINIMUM


RETRACT FLAPS
SET CLIMB POWER
TRANSITION TO ENROUTE CLIMB

AT V1
V1 CALL

ROLLING T/O
SET T/O POWER
BY 60 KIAS

INCREASE PITCH ATTITUDE


AS REQUIRED (15 MAXIMUM)
SELECT AIRSPEED
FOR CLIMB SCHEDULE

6 AT VR
VR CALL "ROTATE"
ROTATE TO 9 PITCH ATTITUDE
*NOTE: The more comfortable "Rolling Takeoff"
may be accomplished when actual runway
length is at least 10% longer than computed
takeoff distance and obstacle clearance
is not a factor.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

7 POSITIVE RATE OF CLIMB


GEAR UP
YAW DAMPER ON

2D-3

CAE SimuFlite

2D-4

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Maneuvers

Rejected Takeoff

TAKEOFF INITIATED

3 PRIOR TO V1
DECISION TO REJECT
CALL "ABORT, ABORT, ABORT"
THRUST LEVERS IDLE
WHEEL BRAKES APPLY
SPOILERS EXTEND
CONTROL COLUMN PULL AFT
DRAG CHUTE OR THRUST REVERSERS AS REQUIRED
ATC NOTIFY

80 KTS CROSSCHECK

4 BE PREPARED TO
ACCOMPLISH EMERGENCY EVACUATION, IF REQUIRED
CLEAR THE RUNWAY, IF POSSIBLE

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

2D-5

CAE SimuFlite

2D-6

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Maneuvers

Engine Failure After V1/Takeoff Continued

STANDING START TAKEOFF


BRAKES HOLD
T/O POWER SET
BRAKES RELEASE
NOSEWHEEL STEERING AS NECESSARY UP TO 45 KIAS MAX
CALL "AIRSPEED ALIVE"

1500 FT AGL
ACCELERATE TO V2 + 30
FLAPS RETRACT
ACCELERATE TO VENR
FAILED ENGINE IDENTIFY
ENGINE FAILURE CHECKLIST COMPLETE
CALL ATC

80 KT CROSSCHECK
4

V1 DECISION SPEED
ENGINE FAILURE RECOGNIZED
5

ACCELERATE TO VR
ROTATE TO 9 PITCH ATTITUDE
CLIMB AT V2

2 ROLLING TAKEOFF
T/O POWER SET BY 60 KIAS
7

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

MAINTAIN V2 UNTIL CLEAR OF OBSTACLES


OR 1500 FT AGL MINIMUM

POSITIVE RATE OF CLIMB


GEAR UP
YAW DAMPER ON

2D-7

CAE SimuFlite

2D-8

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Maneuvers

Approach to Stalls
2

NOTE: Approaches to stall are performed at pattern altitudes only in the


simulator.

CAUTION: Maximum power should


be used in those stalls occurring near
the ground and in emergency situations. Stalls practiced at altitude never
require exceeding engine limitations.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

APPROACH CONFIGURATION BASE LEG


BANK 20
CONFIGURATION
FLAPS 20
GEAR UP
POWER LEVERS IDLE
PATTERN ALTITUDE MAINTAIN AND
SLOW TO FIRST INDICATION OF STALL
SIMULTANEOUSLY
(1) MAXIMUM POWER APPLY
(2) WINGS ROLL LEVEL
(3) FLAPS CONFIRM 20
(4) PITCH ATTITUDE MAINTAIN
(5) ALTITUDE NO LOSS OF ALTITUDE
THROUGHOUT MANEUVER

1 CLEAN CONFIGURATION, APPROACH CHECKLIST COMPLETE


POWER LEVERS IDLE
PATTERN ALTITUDE MAINTAIN AND SLOW
TO FIRST INDICATION OF STALL
SIMULTANEOUSLY
(1) MAXIMUM POWER APPLY
(2) PITCH ATTITUDE MAINTAIN
(3) ALTITUDE NO LOSS OF ALTITUDE
THROUGHOUT MANEUVER

LANDING CONFIGURATION FINAL APPROACH


(FLAPS 40) (GEAR DOWN)
POWER LEVERS 60% N1
ALTITUDE MAINTAIN BY INCREASING PITCH ATTITUDE, NOT TO EXCEED 15
AIRSPEED SLOW TO FIRST INDICATION OF STALL
MAXIMUM POWER APPLY
PITCH ATTITUDE AS NECESSARY TO MAINTAIN ALTITUDE
AIRSPEED ACCELERATE TO VREF
CONFIGURATION
AT VREF, FLAPS 8
ALTITUDE NO LOSS OF ALTITUDE THROUGHOUT MANEUVER
CONFIGURATION
AT POSITIVE RATE OF CLIMB, GEAR UP
AIRSPEED VREF + 30 MIN
CONFIGURATION
FLAPS UP
MISSED APPROACH PROCEDURE FOLLOW

2D-9

CAE SimuFlite

2D-10

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Maneuvers

Steep Turns

2 SMOOTHLY ROLL IN TO 45 BANK


BACK PRESSURE INCREASE TO MAINTAIN ALTITUDE
POWER INCREASE TO MAINTAIN 250 KIAS

CLEAN CONFIGURATION
AIRSPEED 250 KIAS
WINGS LEVEL AT ASSIGNED ALTITUDE
AND HEADING

LEAD ROLL OUT TO ASSIGNED HEADING BY


APPROXIMATELY 10
WINGS SMOOTHLY ROLL LEVEL
BACK PRESSURE REDUCE TO MAINTAIN ALTITUDE
POWER REDUCE TO MAINTAIN 250 KIAS

NOTE: The maneuver may be used for a


180 or 360 turn, and may be followed
by a reversal in the opposite direction. The
PNF may assist as directed by the PF.
TOLERANCES ARE:
SPEED 10 KIAS
ALTITUDE 100 FT
BANK 5
ROLLOUT ON HEADING 10

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

ALTITUDE MAINTAIN
250 KIAS MAINTAIN
45 BANK MAINTAIN

2D-11

CAE SimuFlite

2D-12

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Maneuvers

Unusual Attitude Recovery

NOSE HIGH SPEED DECAYING


APPLY MAX THRUST
ROLL TO NEAREST HORIZON
(65-90 DEPENDING ON
SEVERITY OF NOSE HIGH
ATTITUDE AND SPEED DECAY)
ALLOW NOSE TO FALL
THROUGH THE HORIZON - 5
NOSE DOWN
PITCH ATTITUDE
LEVEL WINGS
ADJUST THRUST AND ATTITUDE

DO NOT EXCEED 90 BANK


AVOID ROLLING PULL-OUTS

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

NOSE LOW SPEED INCREASING


REDUCE THRUST
LEVEL WINGS
APPLY BACKPRESSURE AND
TRIM TO REDUCE AIRSPEED
AS NECESSARY
IF AIRSPEED EXCEEDS MMO/VMO
EXTEND LANDING GEAR
DO NOT EXTEND SPOILERS
RETURN TO STRAIGHT AND
LEVEL FLIGHT
ADJUST THRUST AND ATTITUDE
DO NOT RETRACT GEAR

2D-13

CAE SimuFlite

2D-14

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Maneuvers

Precision Approach/Missed Approach


and Landing
1A RADAR VECTORS
FLAPS UP
APPROACH CHECKLIST COMPLETE
INTERNAL A/S BUG SET TO VREF
REMAINING BUGS SET TO VTGT/VAC/VREF + 40
AIRSPEED REDUCE TO VREF + 40 MINIMUM

WITHIN 3 MINUTES OF ETA


FLAPS UP
APPROACH CHECKLIST COMPLETE
INTERNAL A/S BUG SET TO VREF
REMAINING BUGS SET TO VTGT/VAC/VREF + 40
AIRSPEED REDUCE TO VREF + 40 MINIMUM

IAF OUTBOUND
TIMING START
FLAPS 8
AIRSPEED VREF + 30 MIN

2A RADAR VECTORS
FLAPS 8
AIRSPEED VREF + 30

5M MISSED APPROACH
T/O POWER APPLY
ATTITUDE INITIALLY ROTATE TO 9 PITCH
FLAPS 8

6M POSITIVE RATE OF CLIMB


GEAR UP
AIRSPEED VAC

PROCEDURE TURN
FLAPS 20
AIRSPEED VREF + 20
4

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

5 THRESHOLD/50 FT AGL
AIRSPEED VREF + 10 MINIMUM
INBOUND TO FAF
FLAPS 40 (IF DESIRED)
FLAPS 20
GEAR DOWN
AIRSPEED VREF + 20
BEFORE LANDING CHECKLIST COMPLETE
AT FAF
FLAPS 20
TIMING START
AIRSPEED VTGT

TOUCHDOWN
AIRSPEED VREF + 10
SPOILERS EXTEND
DRAG CHUTE OR THRUST REVERSERS AS REQUIRED
BRAKES APPLY

8M ADVISE ATC
7M AT 1500 FT/CLEAR OF OBSTACLES
AIRSPEED VREF + 30
FLAPS UP

2D-15

CAE SimuFlite

2D-16

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Maneuvers

Single Engine
Precision Approach/Missed Approach
and Landing
1A RADAR VECTORS
FLAPS UP
APPROACH CHECKLIST COMPLETE
INTERNAL A/S BUG SET TO VREF
REMAINING BUGS SET TO VTGT/VAC/VREF + 40
AIRSPEED REDUCE TO VREF + 40 MINIMUM

WITHIN 3 MINUTES OF ETA


FLAPS UP
APPROACH CHECKLIST COMPLETE
INTERNAL A/S BUG SET TO VREF
REMAINING BUGS SET TO VTGT/VAC/VREF + 40
AIRSPEED REDUCE TO VREF + 40 MINIMUM

IAF OUTBOUND
TIMING START
FLAPS 8
AIRSPEED VREF + 30 MIN

2A RADAR VECTORS
FLAPS 8
AIRSPEED VREF + 30

5M MISSED APPROACH
T/O POWER APPLY
ATTITUDE INITIALLY ROTATE TO 9 PITCH
FLAPS 8

6M POSITIVE RATE OF CLIMB


GEAR UP
AIRSPEED VAC

PROCEDURE TURN
FLAPS 20
AIRSPEED VREF + 20
4

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

5 THRESHOLD/50 FT AGL
AIRSPEED VREF + WIND FACTOR
1 DOT BELOW G/S
GEAR EXTEND
FLAPS 40 AT G/S INTERCEPT
BEFORE LANDING CHECKLIST COMPLETE
DESCENT BEGIN
AIRSPEED VTGT
6
AT FINAL APPROACH FIX
TIMING START

TOUCHDOWN
AIRSPEED VREF + WIND FACTOR
SPOILERS EXTEND
DRAG CHUTE OR THRUST REVERSERS AS REQUIRED
BRAKES APPLY

8M ADVISE ATC
7M AT 1500 FT/CLEAR OF OBSTACLES
AIRSPEED VREF + 30
FLAPS UP

2D-17

CAE SimuFlite

2D-18

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Maneuvers

Non-Precision Approach/Missed Approach


and Landing
1A RADAR VECTORS
FLAPS UP
APPROACH CHECKLIST COMPLETE
INTERNAL A/S BUG SET TO VREF
REMAINING BUGS SET TO VTGT/VAC/VREF + 40

WITHIN 3 MINUTES OF ETA


FLAPS UP
APPROACH CHECKLIST COMPLETE
INTERNAL A/S BUG SET TO VREF
REMAINING BUGS SET TO VTGT/VAC/VREF + 40

IAF OUTBOUND
TIMING START
FLAPS 8
AIRSPEED VREF + 30 MIN

2A RADAR VECTORS
FLAPS 8
AIRSPEED VREF + 30

5M MISSED APPROACH
T/O POWER APPLY
ATTITUDE INITIALLY ROTATE TO 9 PITCH
FLAPS 8

6M POSITIVE RATE OF CLIMB


GEAR UP
AIRSPEED VAC

PROCEDURE TURN
FLAPS 20
AIRSPEED VREF + 20
4

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

5 THRESHOLD/50 FT AGL
AIRSPEED VREF + WIND FACTOR
INBOUND TO FAF
FLAPS 20
GEAR DOWN
AIRSPEED VREF + 20
BEFORE LANDING CHECKLIST COMPLETE
AT FAF
6
FLAPS 40
TIMING START
AIRSPEED VTGT

TOUCHDOWN
AIRSPEED VREF + WIND FACTOR
SPOILERS EXTEND
DRAG CHUTE OR THRUST REVERSERS AS REQUIRED
BRAKES APPLY

8M ADVISE ATC
7M AT 1500 FT/CLEAR OF OBSTACLES
AIRSPEED VREF + 30
FLAPS UP

2D-19

CAE SimuFlite

2D-20

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Maneuvers

Single Engine
Non-Precision Approach/Missed Approach
and Landing
1A RADAR VECTORS
FLAPS UP
APPROACH CHECKLIST COMPLETE
INTERNAL A/S BUG SET TO VREF
REMAINING BUGS SET TO VTGT/VAC/VREF + 40
AIRSPEED VREF + 40 MINIMUM

WITHIN 3 MINUTES OF ETA


FLAPS UP
APPROACH CHECKLIST COMPLETE
INTERNAL A/S BUG SET TO VREF
REMAINING BUGS SET TO VTGT/VAC/VREF + 40
AIRSPEED REDUCE TO VREF + 40 MINIMUM

IAF OUTBOUND
TIMING START
FLAPS 8
AIRSPEED VREF + 30 MIN

2A RADAR VECTORS
FLAPS 8
AIRSPEED VREF + 30

5M MISSED APPROACH
T/O POWER APPLY
ATTITUDE INITIALLY ROTATE TO 9 PITCH
FLAPS 8

6M POSITIVE RATE OF CLIMB


GEAR UP
AIRSPEED VAC

PROCEDURE TURN
FLAPS 20
AIRSPEED VREF + 20
4

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

5 THRESHOLD/50 FT AGL
AIRSPEED VREF + 10 MINIMUM
INBOUND TO FAF
FLAPS 40 (IF DESIRED)
FLAPS 20
GEAR DOWN
AIRSPEED VREF + 20
BEFORE LANDING CHECKLIST COMPLETE
AT FAF
FLAPS 20
TIMING START
AIRSPEED VTGT

TOUCHDOWN
AIRSPEED VREF + 10
SPOILERS EXTEND
DRAG CHUTE OR THRUST REVERSERS AS REQUIRED
BRAKES APPLY

8M ADVISE ATC
7M AT 1500 FT/CLEAR OF OBSTACLES
AIRSPEED VREF + 30
FLAPS UP

2D-21

CAE SimuFlite

2D-22

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Maneuvers

Circling Approach
1

FLY 90 TO RUNWAY
START TIME OVER RUNWAY
AFTER 15 SECONDS
TURN TO DOWNWIND

FLY OVER RUNWAY


WHEN ESTABLISHED ON CENTERLINE
30 BANK TURN TO DOWNWIND

FOR GO AROUND
FLY DOWN RUNWAY
AT RUNWAY END
30 BANKED TURN TO DOWNWIND

45
15 SEC
4

30 BANK

30

TURN 45 FROM RUNWAY


CENTERLINE
TIMING START
AFTER 30 SECONDS
TURN TO DOWNWIND

SE
2

NOTES
BASED ON 30 BANK TURNS
USE CATEGORY D MINIMUMS
300 FT OBSTACLE CLEARANCE PROVIDED AT
CATEGORY D CIRCLING MINIMUMS (MDA)
TO 2.3 NM FROM ANY RUNWAY.
RECOMMENDATIONS
FLAPS 40
GEAR DOWN
AIRSPEED VREF + 10 + WIND FACTOR MINIMUM
(MAINTAIN CONSTANT SPEED FOR TIMING)
F/D ALTITUDE HOLD SELECT
F/D HEADING SELECT
SLIGHT ADJUSTMENTS TO TIME MAY BE USED TO
ADJUST FOR HEADWINDS OR TAILWINDS.
IF SIGHT OF RUNWAY IS LOST
CLIMBING TURN TOWARD RUNWAY, THEN
EXECUTE THE MISSED APPROACH PROCEDURE
FOR THE APPROACH FLOWN

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

ABEAM POINT
15 SEC

BASIC CIRCLING PATTERN

CAUTION: FAR 91.175 requires


immediate execution of the
missed approach procedure
when an identifiable part of
the airport is not distinctly
visible to the pilot during the
circling maneuver, unless the
inability to see results from a
normal bank of the aircraft
during the approach.

TURN OVER RUNWAY


AT RUNWAY END
30 BANKED TURN TO
DOWNWIND

ENTER BASIC PATTERN AS APPROPRIATE


FOR AIRCRAFT POSITION

START TIMING ABEAM APPROACH END OF RUNWAY

START TURN TO FINAL, 30 BANK

WITH RUNWAY IN SIGHT AND IN POSITION TO MAKE


A NORMAL APPROACH TO LANDING
BEFORE LANDING CHECKLIST COMPLETE
DESCENT FROM MDA BEGIN
AIRSPEED VTGT
IF NOT IN A POSITION TO MAKE A NORMAL LANDING
GO-AROUND PERFORM
AT THRESHOLD
AIRSPEED VREF + WIND FACTOR

2D-23

CAE SimuFlite

2D-24

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Maneuvers

Visual Approach/Balked Landing


4

BASE TURN
ALTITUDE DESCEND 500 TO 600 FPM

ABEAM RUNWAY END


GEAR DOWN
FLAPS 20
AIRSPEED VREF + 20

BEFORE PATTERN ENTRY/DOWNWIND (1,500 FT AGL)


APPROACH CHECKLIST COMPLETE
FLAPS 8
AIRSPEED VREF + 30

BASE LEG

1,500 FT AGL

BEFORE DESCENT
DESCENT CHECKLIST COMPLETE
INTERNAL A/S BUG SET TO VREF
REMAINING BUGS SET TO VTGT/VAC/VREF + 40

THRESHOLD/50 FT AGL
AIRSPEED VREF + WIND FACTOR

8 TOUCHDOWN
SPOILERS DEPLOY
BRAKES AS REQUIRED
REVERSE THRUST AS REQUIRED
6

LANDING ASSURED
FLAPS 40
AIRSPEED VTGT

7M MISSED APPROACH
T/O POWER APPLY
ATTITUDE ROTATE TO 9 PITCH
FLAPS 8

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

10M ADVISE ATC

8M POSITIVE RATE OF CLIMB


GEAR UP
AIRSPEED VAC

9M AT 400 FT MINIMUM (SINGLE ENGINE 1500 FT)


AIRSPEED VREF + 30
FLAPS UP

2D-25

CAE SimuFlite

2D-26

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Maneuvers

No Flap
Visual Approach/Balked Landing
2

ABEAM RUNWAY END


GEAR DOWN
LANDING CHECKLIST COMPLETE

WITHIN 3 MINUTES OF ETA


FLAPS UP
APPROACH CHECKLIST COMPLETE
INTERNAL A/S BUG SET TO VREF
REMAINING BUGS SET TO VTGT/VAC/VREF + 40
AIRSPEED REDUCE TO VREF + 40 MINIMUM

BASE LEG

1,500 FT AGL

DESCENT

THRESHOLD/50 FT AGL
AIRSPEED VREF + 20 + WIND FACTOR
YAW DAMPER OFF BEFORE LANDING

6 TOUCHDOWN
SPOILERS DEPLOY
BRAKES AS REQUIRED
DRAG CHUTE OR THRUST REVERSERS AS REQUIRED
7M ADVISE ATC

5M MISSED APPROACH
T/O POWER APPLY
ATTITUDE ROTATE TO 9 PITCH

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

6M POSITIVE RATE OF CLIMB


GEAR UP
AIRSPEED MAINTAIN
YAW DAMPER ON

2D-27

CAE SimuFlite

2D-28

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Maneuvers

Go-Around/Missed Approach/Balked Landing


(One or Two Engine)

2 POSITIVE RATE OF CLIMB


GEAR UP
AIRSPEED VAC

4 ADVISE ATC
1 MISSED APPROACH
AUTOPILOT DISENGAGE
T/O POWER APPLY
ATTITUDE ROTATE TO 9 PITCH
FLAPS 8

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

3 AT 1500 FT/CLEAR OF OBSTACLES


AIRSPEED VREF + 30
FLAPS UP

2D-29

CAE SimuFlite

2D-30

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Maneuvers

Emergency Descent
2

TRANSPONDER 7700
PILOT AND COPILOT OXY-MIC
SWITCHES ON

NOTIFY ATC
CHECK CONDITION OF
PASSENGERS

OXYGEN MASKS DON/100%


THRUST LEVERS IDLE
AUTOPILOT DISENGAGE
SPOILERS EXTEND
DESCEND AT M MO /VMO
AS APPROPRIATE

NOTE:
THE DEPICTED TURN IS NOT
PART OF THE EMERGENCY DESCENT
4 TIME AND CIRCUMSTANCES PERMITTING
CONFIRM CHECKLIST ACCOMPLISHED
EXECUTE DESCENT/BEFORE LANDING CHECKLIST
CHECK MEA/MOCA
BLEED AIR SWITCHES NORMAL

Learjet 55
September 2003

LEVEL OFF AS REQUIRED


CONSIDERING TERRAIN

Developed for training purposes

2D-31

CAE SimuFlite

2D-32

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Limitations
Table of Contents
General Limitations

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3

Authorized Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3


Certification Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Maneuvers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Minimum Flight Crew

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3

Noise Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4


Smoking in Lavatory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Operational Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Altitude Limits

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7

Ambient Temperature Limits (Learjet 55)


Speed Limits

. . . . . . . . 3-11

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13

Weight Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21


Center-of-Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-23
Load Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-23
Takeoff and Landing Operational Limits
Enroute Operational Limits
Systems Limitations

. . . . . . . . . 3-24

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-27

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-29

Avionics and Communications

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-29

Drag Chute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-33


Electrical and Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-34
Flight Controls

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-35

Learjet 55

Developed for training purposes

March 2002

3-1

CAE SimuFlite
Fuel System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-41
Hydraulic System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-45
Ice and Rain Protection System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-46
Landing Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-48
Oxygen System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-50
Pneumatic System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-51
Powerplant

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-52

Thrust Reversers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-60

3-2

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Limitations

General Limitations
Authorized Operations

VFR

IFR

Day

Night

Icing Conditions

This aircraft is not approved for ditching under FAR 25.801.

Certification Status

FAR 25

Maneuvers

No aerobatic maneuvers, including spins, are approved.

Intentional stalls (pusher actuations) are prohibited above


18,000 ft with flaps and/or landing gear extended.

Minimum Flight Crew

Pilot and copilot

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

3-3

CAE SimuFlite
Noise Levels
The noise levels are in compliance with the requirements of
FAR 36, which are equal to or more severe than the requirements outlines in ICAO Annex 16. The noise levels established
in compliance with FAR 36 (Stage 3) are shown in Table 3-A.
These noise values are stated for reference conditions of standard atmospheric pressure as sea level, 77F (25C) ambient
temperature, 70% relative humidity, and zero wind.
Takeoff and sideline noise levels were obtained at the maximum takeoff weights listed in Table 3-A, V2 + 10 kts climb
speed, 20 flaps, anti-ice systems off, and all engine takeoff
with takeoff thrust setting. No thrust cutback was required for
compliance.
Landing approach noise levels were established on a 3 glideslope, gear down, maximum landing weights in Table 3-A,
approach speed of VREF + 10 kts, and 40 flaps. No special
noise abatement procedures were used.
No determination has been made by the FAA that the noise
levels in the AFM are or should be acceptable or unacceptable
for operation at, into, or out of any airport.

Smoking in Lavatory

Passengers must be informed that smoking is prohibited in


the lavatory.

3-4

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Limitations
Model
Learjet 55

Learjet 55B

Learjet 55C
S/N 135 to
138

Learjet 55C
S/N 139,
139A, and
Subsequent

Condition
Sideline
19,500 lb
20,500 lb
21,000 lb
21,500 lb
Takeoff
19,500 lb
20,500 lb
21,000 lb
21,500 lb
Approach
17,000 lb
18,000 lb

Actual Max Allowable


(EPNdB)
(EPNdB)

(8,845
(9,299
(9,525
(9,752

kg)
kg)
kg)
kg)

90.0
90.8
90.7
90.7

94
94
94
94

(8,845
(9,299
(9,525
(9,752

kg)
kg)
kg)
kg)

84.2
85.2
85.5
86.3

89
89
89
89

(7,711 kg)
(8,165 kg)

90.6
91.0

98
98

90.7

94

86.3

89

91.0

98

(9,526 kg)
(9,752 kg)

91.0
90.9

94
94

(9,526 kg)
(9,752 kg)

86.2
86.7

89
89

(8,165 kg)

92.4

98

(9,526 kg)
(9,752 kg)

91.5
91.4

94
94

(9,526 kg)
(9,752 kg)

86.7
87.0

89
89

(8,165 kg)

92.4

98

Sideline
21,500 lb (9,752 kg)
Takeoff
21,500 lb (9,752 kg)
Approach
18,000 lb (8,165 kg)
Sideline
21,000 lb
21,500 lb
Takeoff
21,000 lb
21,500 lb
Approach
18,000 lb
Sideline
21,000 lb
21,500 lb
Takeoff
21,000 lb
21,500 lb
Approach
18,000 lb

Table 3-A; Effective Perceived Noise Levels


Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

3-5

CAE SimuFlite

3-6

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Limitations

Operational Limitations
Altitude Limits
Maximum Pressure Altitude
Takeoff and Landing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10,000 FT

Maximum Pressure Altitude


Enroute

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51,000 FT

With Spoilers Inoperative . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41,000 FT


With Any JP4 or Jet B Fuel . . . . . . . . . 33,000 FT FOR
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 MINUTES
After cruise at 33,000 ft for 20 minutes, a climb to any
altitude up to 51,000 ft is permitted.

Collins APS-85 Autopilot/Flight Guidance System


Minimum Altitude for Autopilot Use:
Approach Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 FT AGL
Enroute Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000 FT AGL

On Learjet 55B, use half-bank for operations above FL410


with autopilot engaged.

Airstart Envelope

Do not attempt an airstart without an indication of fan rotation.

On S/N 55-135 to 139 and 139A, do not use starter-assist


airstarts at night or in instrument meteorological conditions.

If ITT is approaching the limit and rising rapidly, immediately


place thrust lever in CUTOFF and abort start.

At least one inverter must be operating to energize oil pressure indicator. If oil pressure is not indicated within 10 seconds, abort start.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

3-7

CAE SimuFlite

On Learjet 55/55B with the malfunction isolated to the fuel


computer, use Fuel Computer Off starting procedure. Remain
in the fuel computer off mode for remainder of the flight.

On Learjet 55C, starter-assist airstarts may be used at any


turbine speed (N2) below 45%. Starter-assisted airstarts must
be used when stabilized turbine speed (N2) is below 15%.

On Learjet 55C, do not attempt a windmilling airstart with


fuel computer off unless airspeed is sufficient to maintain a
stabilized turbine speed (N2) of 15% and a fan speed (N1) of
10% minimum. Do not attempt a windmilling airstart with the
fuel computer on unless airspeed is sufficient to maintain a
stabilized turbine speed (N2) of 15% or an indication of fan
rotation. Use starter-assist airstarts when stabilized turbine
speed (N2) is below 15% (Figure 3-1, following page).

WARNING: Do not attempt an airstart following an


engine failure with indications of an internal engine damage or fire. On S/N 55-135 to 139 and 139A, during a
start-assist airstart, the air data computers (ADC 1 and
ADC 2) may momentarily drop off line; this causes the air
data instruments to flag. This does not occur during a
windmilling airstart. For this reason, at night or in instrument meteorological conditions, the windmilling airstart
procedure must be used.

3-8

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Limitations

Relight Envelope
Learjet 55/B/C

3-1

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

3-9

CAE SimuFlite

3-10

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Limitations

Ambient Temperature Limits (Learjet 55)

Observe the limits shown in Figure 3-2, following page.

Use of fuselage fuel transfer while exposed to indicated ram


air temperatures below the freeze points shown in Table 3-B
is recommended to ensure an adequate fuel supply.

Operation on wing fuel exposed to indicated RAM air temperatures below the freeze points shown in Table 3-B for 30
minutes or more may result in a reduction of usable fuel due
to fuel freezing.

Use of fuselage fuel transfer while exposed to indicated RAM


air temperatures below the freeze points shown in Table 3-B
is recommended to ensure an adequate fuel supply.

Model

Fuel Type

Minimum RAT
Indicator Reading (C)

S/N 55-003 to 089


without AAK 55-84-1

Jet-A
JP-5
Jet-A1
Jet-B
JP-4

-33
-39
-43
-43
-51

S/N 55-090 and


subsequent; prior
aircraft with AAK
55-84-1

Jet-A
JP-5
Jet-A1
Jet-B
JP-4

-40
-46
-50
-50
-58

Table 3-B; Minimum RAT for Fuel Types

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

3-11

CAE SimuFlite
Ambient Temperature Limits
Learjet 55

3-2

3-12

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Limitations

Speed Limits
All airspeed/mach limits are expressed in terms of indicated
values unless otherwise stated. Instrument error is assumed to
be zero.

Observe the airspeed/mach limits shown in Figure 3-3.

3-3

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

3-13

CAE SimuFlite
VA, Maneuvering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 TO 235 KIAS
Refer to the appropriate Airspeed/Mach Limits chart in AFM
Section I to determine VA based on aircraft weight vs. altitude.
VFE, Maximum Flap Extended (Learjet 55/55B):
Flaps 8 and 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 KIAS
Flaps 40

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 KIAS

VFE, Maximum Flap Extended (Learjet 55C):


Flaps 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 KIAS
Flaps 20

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 KIAS

Flaps 40

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 KIAS

VLE, Maximum Landing Gear Extended . . . . . . . 260 KIAS


VLO, Maximum Landing Gear Operating

. . . . . . 200 KIAS

VMCA, Minimum Control Air (Learjet 55/55B):


Flaps 8, APR Not Installed or Not Operating

. . 104 KIAS

Flaps 8, APR Operating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 KIAS


Flaps 20, APR Not Installed or Not Operating

. . 99 KIAS

Flaps 20, APR Operating . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 KIAS


VMCA, Minimum Control Air (Learjet 55C):
Flaps 8, APR Not Operating

. . . . . . . . . . . 111 KIAS

Flaps 8, APR Operating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 KIAS


Flaps 20, APR Not Operating . . . . . . . . . . . 105 KIAS
Flaps 20, APR Operating . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 KIAS
VMCG, Minimum Control
Ground (Learjet 55/55B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 KIAS

3-14

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Limitations
VMCG, Minimum Control Ground (Learjet 55C):
APR Not Operating

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 KIAS

APR Operating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 KIAS


VMO/MMO, Maximum Operating
VMO, To 8,000 Ft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 KIAS
VMO, 8,000 Ft and Above
MMO, To 37,000 Ft

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 KIAS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.81 MI

MMO, 37,000 to 45,000 Ft

. . . . . . . . . 0.81 TO 0.79 MI

MMO, 45,000 Ft and Above . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.79 MI


NOTE: These MMO limits are based upon compressibility
effects. Refer to Recovery From Inadvertent Overspeed
procedure in AFM Section III, Emergency Procedures.

With Any Missing BLEs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.78 MI


With Mach Trim and Autopilot
Disengaged or Inoperative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.74 MI
With Stick Puller Inoperative . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.74 MI
Learjet 55B with ADC1(L) Inoperative . . . . . . . . . 0.74 MI

Learjet 55/55B: Do not deliberately exceed VMO/MMO in any


flight condition except where specifically authorized for flight
test or in approved emergency procedures.

Learjet 55C: Do not deliberately exceed VMO/MMO in any


regime of flight (climb, cruise, or descent) unless a higher
speed is authorized for flight test or pilot training.

Refer to the appropriate Airspeed/Mach Limits Chart in AFM


Section I.

Learjet 55
March 2002

For training only

3-15

CAE SimuFlite
WARNING: Do not extend the spoilers or operate with
spoilers deployed at speeds above VMO/MMO because
of significant nose-down pitching moment associated
with spoiler deployment.

VR, Rotation
Refer to the appropriate Rotation Speed (VR) chart (Learjet
55/55B) or Uncorrected Takeoff Speeds table (Learjet 55C)
in AFM Section V.

V1, Critical Engine Failure


On Learjet 55/55B, the critical engine failure speed (V1)
must not exceed the rotation speed (VR). If V1 must be
reduced to VR, the takeoff is accelerate-go limited; the
accelerate-go correction on the figure entitled Takeoff
Distance in AFM Section V must be applied.
On Learjet 55C, the critical engine failure speed (V1) must
not exceed the rotation speed (VR) determined from the
appropriate charts in AFM Section V. If V1 exceeds VR,
reduce V1 to VR.
NOTE: Refer to the appropriate Critical Engine Failure
Speed (V1) chart (Learjet 55/55B) or Uncorrected Takeoff
Speeds table (Learjet 55C) in AFM Section V.

V2, Takeoff Safety


Aircraft with thrust reversers, observe the limits shown
in Figures 3-4, 3-5, and 3-6, following pages.
Aircraft without thrust reversers, refer to appropriate
safety speed charts, AFM Section V.

3-16

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Limitations

Takeoff Power Setting


Anti-Ice OFF; Aeronca Thrust Reverser Nozzle

3-4

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

3-17

CAE SimuFlite
Takeoff Power Setting
Nacelle HT Only; Aeronca Thrust Reverser Nozzle

3-5

3-18

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Limitations

Takeoff Power Setting


Full Anti-Ice; Aeronca Thrust Reverser Nozzle

3-6

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

3-19

CAE SimuFlite
Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . OBSERVE CAUTION BELOW

CAUTION: Increase approach speed if turbulence is


anticipated due to gusty winds, wake turbulence, or wind
shear. For gusty wind conditions, the manufacturer
recommends an increase in approach speed of one-half
the gust factor.
Nosewheel Steering Ground Speed:
Maximum

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 KTS

Maximum Ground Speed with any Two of the Right Three


ANTI-SKID GEN Lights Illuminated (Left Inboard,
Right Inboard, and Right Outboard) . . . . . . . . . . 10 KTS

3-20

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Limitations

Weight Limits
Maximum Ramp Weight
Learjet 55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19,750 LBS (8,958 KG)
Learjet 55 with ECR 2173

. . . . 20,750 LBS (9,412 KG)

Learjet 55 with ECR 2554 or


AAK 55-82-3; Learjet 55C
(Standard) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21,250 LBS (9,639 KG)
Learjet 55 with ECR 2431 or
AAK 55-84-6; Learjet 55B;
Learjet 55C (Optional) . . . . . . . 21,750 LBS (9,866 KG)
Ramp weight shall not exceed maximum allowable takeoff
weight by more than 250 lbs (113 kg). Refer to the
SimuFlite Technical Manual or Learjet Maintenance
Manual for AAK/ECR descriptions.
Maximum Certified Takeoff Weight:
Learjet 55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19,500 LBS (8,845 KG)
Learjet 55 with ECR 2173

. . . . 20,500 LBS (9,299 KG)

Learjet 55 with ECR 2554 or


AAK 55-82-3; Learjet 55C
(Standard) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21,000 LBS (9,525 KG)
Learjet 55 with ECR 2431 or
AAK 55-84-6; Learjet 55B;
Learjet 55C (Optional) . . . . . . . 21,500 LBS (9,752 KG)

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

3-21

CAE SimuFlite

The takeoff weight is limited by the most restrictive of the


following requirements:
maximum certified takeoff weight
maximum takeoff weight with anti-skid off or anti-skid protection for any wheel inoperative, or 18,500 lbs (8,391 kg)
maximum takeoff weight (climb or brake energy limited) for
altitude and temperature as determined from the applicable figure entitled Takeoff Weight Limits in AFM Section V
maximum takeoff weight for the runway and ambient conditions as determined from the applicable figure entitled
Takeoff Distance in AFM Section V
maximum takeoff weight for obstacle clearance as determined from the applicable Takeoff Flight Path and Climb
Gradient figures in AFM Section V, if required.

Maximum Certified Landing Weight:


Learjet 55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17,000 LBS (7,711 KG)
Learjet 55 with ECR 2432 or
AAK 55-84-3;
Learjet 55B/55C . . . . . . . . . . 18,000 LBS (8,165 KG)

The landing weight is limited by the most restrictive of the


following requirements:
maximum certified landing weight
maximum landing weight for the runway and ambient conditions as determined from the Actual Landing Distance
and Factored Landing Distance (if applicable) charts in
AFM Section V
maximum landing weight (approach climb or brake energy
limited) for altitude and temperature as determined from
the applicable figure entitled Landing Weight Limits in AFM
Section V.

3-22

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Limitations

NOTE: Perform Hard or Overweight Landing Inspection


per Maintenance Manual Chapter 5 if maximum certified
landing weight is exceeded. Perform High Energy Stop
Inspection per Maintenance Manual Chapter 5 if the
maximum brake energy weight for landing is exceeded
during a landing or rejected takeoff using maximum
braking effort.
Maximum Zero Fuel Weight

. . . . . 15,000 LBS (6,804 KG)

All weights in excess of maximum zero fuel weight must consist of fuel.

Center of Gravity

The center of gravity of the aircraft for all flight and ground
conditions must be maintained within the applicable Centerof-Gravity Envelope in AFM Section I.

CAUTION: Loading the aircraft center-of-gravity aft of


the ground handling limit (33.5% MAC) may cause the
aircraft to tip over.

Load Limits
Flaps Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +3.0 TO -1.0 G
Flaps Down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +2.0 TO 0.0 G

These acceleration valves limit the bank angle in a level


coordinated turn to 70 (flaps up) and 60 (flaps down). In
addition, pullups and pushovers must be limited to these
values.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

3-23

CAE SimuFlite
Takeoff and Landing Operational Limits
Cabin Pressurization

Do not land with the cabin pressurized.

Crosswind Component Maximum Demonstrated


Crosswind:
Learjet 55/55B

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 KTS

Learjet 55C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 KTS

Tailwind Component
Tailwind (maximum) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 KTS

Engine Synchronizer

The engine synchronizer must be off for takeoff, landing, and


single-engine operation.

Freon Cooling System

The Freon cooling system may be on for takeoff and landing


if the Cabin Temp Control knob is in manual and full cold.

Fuel Computers

Both fuel computers must be on and operational for takeoffs


except for ferry flight as permitted by applicable regulations.

Fuel Load

The wings must be balanced within 200 lbs prior to takeoff and
at landing.

Maximum Pressure Altitude


Altitude

3-24

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10,000 FT

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Limitations
Runway Water/Slush Accumulation
Accumulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3/4 INCH (19 MM)

Chine on nosewheel tire must be a minimum 3/4 inch (19 mm)


from ground to operate safely with the specified runway
water/slush accumulation.
NOTE: On S/N 001 to 020 without AMK 55-81-2,
maximum accumulation is 1/2 inch (13 mm).

Seat Belts/Shoulder Harnesses

Seat belts and shoulder harnesses must be worn during


takeoff and landing.

Stall Warning System

On Learjet 55 and 55B, the stall warning system must be on


and operational for all takeoffs and landings.

On Learjet 55C, the stall warning system must be operational at takeoff.

Systems Checks

The following systems must be checked and operational for


takeoff:
trim systems
both yaw dampers (Learjet 55/55B)
both EADIs and EHSIs (Learjet 55B)
both DPUs and the MPU (Learjet 55B)
One DPU or the MPU may be inoperative if both EADIs
and EHSIs are functioning.
standby attitude indicator (Learjet 55B/55C)
both ADC systems (Learjet 55B/55C)

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

3-25

CAE SimuFlite
stall warning system
third attitude gyro (Learjet 55)
APR system (if system is to be armed)
autospoilers (if system is to be armed).

Takeoff Weight Reduction (AAK-85-3)


Maximum Ramp Weight

. . . . . . . 21,250 LBS (9,639 KG)

Maximum Certified
Takeoff Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21,000 LBS (9,525 KG)

The center of gravity of the aircraft for all flight and ground
conditions must be maintained within the center of gravity
envelope for aircraft certified for 21,000 lbs takeoff weight
defined in the basic FAA-approved AFM.

Trim

Set trim for all axes prior to takeoff.

Yaw Dampers

Turn off the yaw dampers for all takeoffs.

On Learjet 55/55B, turn on the primary or secondary yaw


damper for landing.

3-26

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Limitations

Enroute Operational Limits


Fuel Load

The wings must be balanced within 500 lbs in flight, and within 200 lbs for takeoff and landing.

Maximum Pressure Altitude


Altitude

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51,000 FT

With Spoilers Inoperative . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41,000 FT


With Any JP4 or Jet B Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . 33,000 FT
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .FOR 20 MINUTES
After cruise at 33,000 ft for 20 minutes, climb to any altitude
up to 51,000 ft is permitted.

Stall Warning System

On Learjet 55/55B, the stall warning system must be on.

Yaw Dampers

On Learjet 55/55B, the primary yaw damper or secondary


yaw damper must be on.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

3-27

CAE SimuFlite

3-28

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Limitations

Systems Limitations
Avionics and Communications
AHS Alignment (Learjet 55B/C)

Do not move the aircraft during AHS alignment, AHS alignment is indicated by the lack of attitude display, a red HDG
flag, and compass card rotation.

Air Data System (Learjet 55B/C)

Both air data systems (ADC 1 and 2) must be operative for


takeoff.

All flags on airspeed/Machmeters, altimeters, vertical speed


indicators, and altitude alerter must be retracted for takeoff.

Accomplish the Before Starting Engines air data system check


according to AFM Section II to ensure proper operation.

Autopilot (Learjet 55)

Do not use autopilot in any axis that fails the autopilot monitor check. For autopilot use with a failed axis, pull the failed
axis DC CB (AFCS PITCH or AFCS ROLL).

Category II Operations (Learjet 55)

Equipment certification, crew qualifications, and a Category


II Manual are required for approval to conduct Category II
operations.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

3-29

CAE SimuFlite
Collins APS-85 Autopilot/Flight Guidance System
(Learjet 55B/C)

The Collins APS-85 Pilots Guide (No. 523-07746445001117, dated 7/7/86 or later revision) must be immediately
available to the flight crew.

The autopilot/flight director system is approved for Category


I ILS approaches.

When using autopilot, the pilot or copilot must be in his/her


respective seat with seat belt fastened.

Operation of the autopilot with the red TRIM fail annunciator


illuminated is prohibited.

On S/N 55-143 and subsequent, use of the autopilot/flight


director for backcourse operations is prohibited.

Do not use autopilot pitch and roll axes for takeoff or landing.

The minimum altitude for autopilot use is shown below.

Approach Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 FT AGL


Enroute Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000 FT AGL

On Learjet 55B, use of autopilot/flight director altitude hold


(ALT) with vertical speeds greater than 1,000 fpm is prohibited.

On Learjet 55B, use half-bank for operations above FL410


with autopilot engaged.

On Learjet 55B, do not extend or retract spoilers with autopilot engaged.

On Learjet 55B, autopilot/flight director localizer or backcourse localizer intercept angle must be limited to 45 or less.

3-30

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Limitations
Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)
(Learjet 55B/C)

The Collins EFIS-85L (12) Electronic Flight Instrument


System Pilots Guide (No. 523-0774646-001117, date
8/15/86 or later revision) must be immediately available to
the flight crew.

Whenever a display processor unit (DPU), multifunction


processor unit (MPU), or display control panel (DCP) is
removed and replaced, verify the following switch operation
prior to flight:
EADI down
EHSI over
AHS 1/AHS 2
MPU/DPU
COMPST/DSPL.

Select the onside attitude heading system (i.e., AHS 1 for


pilots side and AHS 2 for copilots side) for takeoff; the comparator (COMPTR) annunciators must be extinguished.

Both EADIs, both EHSIs, and the standby attitude indicator


must be operational for takeoff.

Both DPUs, or a DPU and MPU, must be operational for


takeoff. If a DPU is inoperative, select the MPU for use on the
failed side.

Backcourse operation in the composite (CMPST) mode is


prohibited.

Do not predicate aircraft performance, navigation, and operation on the multifunction display (MFD) as a source for
required performance, navigation, and operational data.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

3-31

CAE SimuFlite

Limit ground operation of electronic flight displays (EFD) and


multifunction display (MFD) to 30 minutes if MFD FAN or
either EFD FAN annunciator illuminates.

No more than one nose equipment fan (DPU and MPU) and
one flight display fan (EFD and MFD) may be inoperative for
takeoff. On Learjet 55C, the inoperative fan(s) must be
repaired within 25 flight hours.

Ground Operation of Cockpit Displays(Learjet 55B/C)

Limit ground operation of the cockpit displays to 30 minutes


with an inoperative EFD or MFD fan.

J.E.T. FC-550 Autopilot/Flight Director


Maximum Operating Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VMO/MMO

The autopilot/flight director system is approved for Category


I ILS approaches.

When using autopilot, the pilot or copilot must be in his/her


respective seat with seat belt fastened.

Do not use autopilot pitch and roll axes for takeoff or landing.

If severe turbulence is encountered, use attitude hold mode


with soft (SFT) mode engaged.

Do not use autopilot in any axis that fails the autopilot monitor check. If autopilot use with a failed axis is intended, pull
the failed DC CB (AFCS PITCH or AFCS ROLL).

Do not extend or retract spoilers with autopilot engaged.

Do not use soft (SFT) mode for autopilot-coupled VOR


approaches.

3-32

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Limitations

On aircraft without SB 55-22-2, flight director VOR enroute


operations are prohibited. Autopilot-coupled VOR enroute
operations and raw data displays are not affected and may
be used.

On aircraft without SB 55-22-2, lower the flaps to 8 or


more for autopilot VOR approach.

On aircraft with SB 55-22-2, lower the flaps 8 or more for


VOR approach (autopilot or flight director).

Drag Chute

Do not deploy drag chute in flight.

Do not deploy drag chute at speeds in excess of 150 KIAS.

Do not deploy drag chute with thrust reversers (if installed)


deployed.

The limiting crosswind velocity is 15.0 kts (reported winds at


a 20 ft height) and is the velocity of the crosswind component
for which adequate control of the aircraft on the ground with
the drag chute deployed was actually demonstrated during
certification tests.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

3-33

CAE SimuFlite
Electrical and Lighting
Battery Overheat
CAUTION: On aircraft with ni-cad batteries, do not dispatch if the red BAT 140 or BAT 160 annunciators illuminate
at any time prior to takeoff, including engine start. Check the
batteries as specified per the Learjet Maintenance Manual.

Battery Voltage at Engine Start

On aircraft with lead acid batteries, do not attempt a battery start with less than 24V DC on each battery at 70F
(21C) or below, or less than 25V DC on each battery at
110F (43C) or above. Interpolate for temperatures between
70F (21C) and 110F (43C).

On aircraft with ni-cad batteries, do not attempt a battery


start with less than 23V DC on each battery.

CUR LIM Annunciator


CAUTION: Illumination of the CUR LIM annunciator indicates that one or both current limiters have failed. Replace
the failed current limiter(s) prior to flight.

Generator Limits

Limit generator output to 325A maximum for all flight and


ground operations.

GPU Limits

Ensure the unit is regulated to 28V DC and limited to 1,100A


maximum.

3-34

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Limitations

Flight Controls
NOTE: Refer to Learjet Maintenance Manual or SimuFlite
Technical Manual for AAK/AMK definitions.

Autospoilers

On S/N 55-003 to 117 without AAK 55-85-1, do not arm


autospoilers for landing.

The Before Taxi autospoiler check in AFM Section II must be


successfully completed prior to takeoff if autospoilers are to
be armed.

Do not arm autospoilers for takeoff if SPOILERON CB is open.

Spoilerons

Spoilerons may be inoperative.

If spoileron prefight check fails, pull the SPOILERON CB;


refer to Table 3-C, following page, for effects on spoilerons/
spoilers.

With spoilers inoperative, the maximum operating altitude is


limited to 41,000 ft.

On S/N 55-003 to 086 without SB 55-27-7A, AMK 55-84-7A,


or AAK 55-83-4, the following limits apply.
With spoilers inoperative, increase by 15% the actual landing distance obtained from AFM Section V for Learjet 55
(i.e., multiply by 1.15).

If the spoileron system is inoperative, the limiting crosswind


component for landing a Learjet 55C aircraft is 27 kts
(reported tower winds taken at a 10 m height)

If the spoilerons fail the Before Taxi check, pull the


SPOILERON CB; do not arm autospoilers.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

3-35

CAE SimuFlite
Model

With SPOILERON CB Open

S/Ns 55-003 to 086


without SB 55-27-7,
AMK 55-84-7A, or
AAK 55-83-4

AUG AIL annunciator illuminates.


Spoilers and spoilerons are inoperative in
flight.
Landing spoiler deploy times increase.
Spoilers function normally during ground
operations.

S/Ns 55-003 to 086


with SB 55-27-7,
AMK 55-84-7A, or
AAK 55-83-4

SPOILER MON annunciator illuminates.


Spoilers and spoilerons are inoperative in
flight.
Spoilers function normally during ground
operations.

Learjet 55B

SPOILER MON annunciator illuminates.


Spoilers and spoilerons are inoperative in
flight.
Spoilers function normally during ground
operations.

Learjet 55C

SPOILER MON annunciator illuminates.


Spoilers and spoilerons are inoperative in
flight.
Spoilers function normally during ground
operations.

Table 3-C; SPOILERON CB Open Effects

Spoilers

On S/N 55-003 to 086 without SB 55-27-7A, AMK 55-84-7A,


or AAK 55-83-4, the following limits apply.
If the spoilers are inoperative during flight, limit the maximum operating altitude to 41,000 ft.
Do not extend spoilers with flaps extended while airborne.

3-36

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Limitations
Do not extend spoilers or operate with spoilers deployed
at speeds above VMO/MMO.
During landing, a time delay in the spoiler circuit causes
increased spoiler extension times. For a normal landing
(spoilerons operative with flaps below 25), full spoiler
extension requires approximately five seconds. If the
spoilers are inoperative (AUG AIL annunciator illuminated)
or the SPOILERON CB is open, spoiler extension requires
approximately 11 seconds. To account for the increased
spoiler deployment times, apply the following corrections
to the distance obtained from the Actual Landing Distance
chart in AFM Section V.
Normal Landing

. . . . . . MULTIPLY DISTANCE BY 1.04

Spoilerons Inoperative
Landing . . . . . . . . . . . MULTIPLY DISTANCE BY 1.15

On S/N 55-003 to 086 with SB 55-27-7A, or AAK 55-83-4;


S/N 55-087 and subsequent, the following limits apply.
If the spoilers are inoperative during flight, limit the operating altitude to 41,000 ft maximum.
Do not extend spoilers with flaps extended while airborne.
On Learjet 55B, do not extend or retract spoilers with
autopilot engaged.
On Learjet 55/55B, do not extend spoilers or operate with
spoilers deployed at speeds above VMO/MMO.
On S/N 55-065, 087, and subsequent; prior aircraft with
AAK 55-83-4, if autospoilers are to be armed, the Before
Taxi autospoiler check in AFM Section II must be successfully completed prior to takeoff.
On S/N 55-065, 087, and subsequent; prior aircraft with
AAK 55-83-4, do not arm autospoilers for takeoff if SPOILERON CB is open.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

3-37

CAE SimuFlite
Stall Warning

On Learjet 55/55B, the stall warning system must be on and


operational for all takeoffs and landings.

On Learjet 55/55B, both stall warning systems must be on


and operating and remain on throughout flight. The systems
may be turned off for applicable emergency and abnormal
procedures in AFM Sections III and IV and for stall warning
system maintenance per the Maintenance Manual.

To assure proper stall warning system operation, complete


on each flight the Before Starting Engines and After Takeoff
stall warning system operation and comparison checks in
AFM Section II.
WARNING: The nudger action verifies pitch torquer
operation prior to pusher actuation. If, during ground
test, the shaker is not accompanied by the nudger
(nudger monitor horn sounds), do not dispatch.

WARNING: If, during flight, the shaker is not accompanied by the nudger (nudger monitor horn sounds), do
not decelerate further.

The stall margin indicators may be used as a reference, but


they do not replace the airspeed indicators as primary
instruments.
NOTE: Warning lights for both stall warning systems
are inoperative when the generator and battery switches
are off.

3-38

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Limitations

NOTE: On Learjet 55/55B, during takeoff in a strong


crosswind, it may be necessary to wait until indication of
airspeed is achieved before setting the stall warning
switches to ON. On Learjet 55/55B, with stall warning
switches on, steady illumination of the L or R STALL
warning light indicates a malfunction, except during
pusher actuation or system test. On Learjet 55C,
except for system test, the stall warning shakers and
lights are disabled on the ground. However, the stall
margin indicators function normally.

WARNING: On Learjet 55, even small accumulations of


ice on the wing leading edge can cause aerodynamic stall
prior to activation of the stick pusher. These accumulations can also cause unreliable stall margin indicator information.

WARNING: On Learjet 55B, even small accumulations


of ice on the wing leading edge can cause aerodynamic
stall prior to activation of the stick shaker, nudger, and/or
pusher. These accumulations can also cause unreliable
stall margin indicator information.

WARNING: On Learjet 55C, even small accumulations


of ice on the wing leading edge can cause an increase
in stall speed and may degrade stall characteristics.

Trim

Set trim for all axes prior to takeoff.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

3-39

CAE SimuFlite

To assure proper trim systems operation, successfully


complete before each flight the Before Starting Engines trim
systems checks in AFM Section II.

Successfully complete Trim Systems Operational check in


AFM Section II a minimum of once every 10 hours of flight
operation.
WARNING: Failure to conduct a pitch trim preflight check
prior to each flight increases the probability of an undetected system failure. An additional single failure in the trim
system can result in trim runaway.

Yaw Damper

Both yaw dampers must be off for all takeoffs.

On Learjet 55/55B, turn on the primary yaw damper or the


secondary yaw damper for landing except as permitted in
abnormal procedures in AFM Section IV.

On Learjet 55/55B, successfully complete the Before Starting


Engines yaw damper operational check in AFM Section II
before each flight to assure proper yaw damper operation.

On Learjet 55/55B, one yaw damper must be on and operative for all flight conditions except takeoff and for trimming
rudder. For trimming rudder, disengage yaw damper, accomplish rudder trim, then re-engage yaw damper.

On Learjet 55C, the yaw damper performs a self-test


through the autopilot and is not required for dispatch.
WARNING: If landings are attempted in turbulent air conditions with the yaw damper off, the aircraft may exhibit
undesirable lateral-directional (Dutch roll) characteristics.

3-40

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Limitations

Fuel System
Altitude Restriction

When using any Jet B or JP-4 fuel in the fuel mixture, the initial operating altitude is limited to 33,000 ft. After cruise at
33,000 ft for 20 minutes, climb to any altitude up to 51,000 ft
is permitted.

Anti-Icing Additive

On aircraft with fuel heaters, anti-icing additive is not a


requirement. However, for microbial protection, it is recommended that anti-icing additive be used in the concentration
specified at least once a week for aircraft in regular use and
whenever a fueled aircraft is out of service for a week or more.

On aircraft without fuel heaters, anti-icing additive conforming to MIL-I-276686 (or MIL-I-85470 on Learjet 55/55C)
is required. The additive concentration by volume must be a
minimum of 0.06% and a maximum of 0.15%. Refer to AFM
Addendum I, Fuel Servicing.
CAUTION: On aircraft with fuel heaters, lack of antiicing additive may cause fuel filter icing and subsequent
engine flameout.

Approved Fuels

The mixing of fuel types is allowed (Table 3-D, following page).

Take special precautions to preclude electrostatic discharge


when switch-fueling. Refer to AFM Addendum 1, Fuel Servicing.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

3-41

CAE SimuFlite
Jet-A
(EMS 53111, Kerosene)

Jet-A1
(EMS 53112, Kerosene)

AMOCO Jet Fuel Type A


AMOCO Turbine Fuel
ASTM Jet A Aircraft Turbine Fuel
B.P. Oil Inc., Jet A
Chevron Jet Fuel A
Chevron Jet Fuel A-50
Exxon Turbo A
Gulf Jet A
Jet A Kerosene
Mobil Jet A
NATO F-30 (Jet A)
Phillips Philjet A-50
Richfield Jet A
Standard Oil of Ohio Jet A
Shell Jet A
Texaco Avjet A
Union Turbine Fuel A

ASTM Jet A-1


Boron Oil Company Jet A-1
British Fuel D ENG RD 2492
AVTUR 50
Canadian Fuel 3-GP-23
Chevron Jet Fuel A-1
Exxon Turbo A-1
Jet A-1 Kerosene
Mobil Jet A-1
NATO F-34 (Jet A-1)
NATO F-35 (Jet A-1)
Richfield Jet A-1
Shell Jet A-1
Texaco Avjet A-1
Union Jet A-1

Jet-B or JP4 (EMS 53113,


Wide Cut Type Fuel)

JP-5 (EMS 53116, High Flash


Point Type Fuel)

ASTM Jet B Aircraft Turbine Fuel


British Fuel D ENG RD 2486
AVTAG
Canadian Fuel 3-GP-22
Chevron Jet Fuel B
Conoco (JP-4)
Exxon Turbo B
MIL-T-5624G (JP-4)
Mobil JP-4
NATO F-40 (JP-4)
NATO F-45 (JP-4)
Richfield Jet B
Richfield JP-4
Texaco Avjet B
Texaco JP-4
Union JP-4

British Fuel D ENG RD 2498


AVCAT 48
Chevron Turbine Fuel JP-5
MIL-T-5624G (JP-5)
Mobil JP-5
NATO F-42 (JP-5)
NATO F-44 (JP-5)
Texaco JP-5

Table 3-D; Approved Fuels


3-42

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Limitations
Aviation Gasoline

The use of aviation gasoline is not approved.

Biocide Additive

Biobor JF is approved for use as a biocide additive when


premixed in the fuel supply facility.

Additive concentration must not exceed 270 ppm.

Refer to AFM Addendum I, Fuel Servicing.

Electronic Fuel Computer Servicing Gravity

Adjust the engine electronic fuel computer to the recommended specific gravity position for the type of fuel in use.
Refer to AFM Addendum I, Fuel Servicing, for recommended
specific gravity settings and adjustment procedures.
NOTE: Due to fuel computer accessibility, fuel computer
specific gravity adjustment is not considered a normal
pilot function.

CAUTION: Engine surge may occur if the recommended specific gravity adjustment is not adhered to for
the type of fuel in use. If surge is encountered, refer to
the Engine Maintenance Manual.

Fuel Load/Balance

Do not take off or land with wing fuel imbalance greater than
200 lbs.

During flight, wing fuel balance must be maintained within


500 lbs.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

3-43

CAE SimuFlite
Fuel Temperature JP-4, Jet B, or Equivalent Fuels

On aircraft with fuel heaters, do not take off at ambient


temperatures above 55F (13C).

On aircraft with fuel heaters, do not takeoff with fuel temperature below -65F (-54C).

Fuel Temperature JP-5, Jet A, Jet A-1, or


Equivalent Fuels

Do not take off with fuel temperature below -20F (-29C).


NOTE: Prolonged operation at ambient temperatures
below the fuel freeze point may cause reduction in
usable fuel because the fuel freezes if proper management procedures are not used. Refer to the AFM
Section II, Fuel Management.

Lateral Imbalance
CAUTION: Do not crossflow with main jet pump(s) inoperative; engine starvation may occur as fuel is pumped
through the open crossflow valve into the opposite wing.

Single-Point Refuel System (if installed)

Use of single-point refuel system is limited to aircraft with fuel


heaters.

Unusable Fuel

The fuel remaining in the fuel tanks when the fuel quantity
indicator reads zero is not usable in flight.

3-44

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Limitations

Hydraulic System
Approved Fluid

Only hydraulic fluid conforming to MIL-H-5606 is approved.

Hydraulic Pump Duty Cycle

Do not exceed auxiliary hydraulic pump duty cycle of three


minutes on, then 20 minutes off.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

3-45

CAE SimuFlite
Ice and Rain Protection System
Anti-Ice Operation (Learjet 55)

Turn on anti-ice systems prior to takeoff into visible moisture


and OAT of 40F (4.4C) or below.

If anti-ice systems are required during takeoff, turn them on


prior to setting takeoff power.

Turn on anti-ice systems prior to flight into visible moisture


and ram air temperature of 50F (10C) or below.

Anti-Ice Operation (Learjet 55B/C)

Turn on anti-ice systems prior to takeoff or flight into visible


moisture and outside air temperature of 41F (5C) or below.

If anti-ice systems are required during takeoff, turn them on


prior to setting takeoff power.
NOTE: If using the anti-ice systems on takeoff, recompute the takeoff distance and N1 takeoff power
settings as appropriate.

Horizontal Stabilizer Anti-Ice


CAUTION: For ground operation, to prevent overheating
of the horizontal stabilizer heating elements, ensure that
the amber STAB HEAT light is illuminated and there is no
additional DC ammeter increase. If the STAB HEAT
annunciator is not illuminated and DC amperes increase,
immediately set STAB WING HEAT switch off.

3-46

Developed for training purposes

March 2002

Limitations
Nacelle Heat

Do not operate nacelle heat for more than 30 seconds when


an engine is not in operation.

Stall Warning
See Systems Limitations, Flight Controls section.

Windshield Alcohol Anti-Ice

Methyl alcohol (Methanol) per Federal Specification O-M-232,


Grade A, is required.

The alcohol reservoir must be refilled after each use.

Windshield Defog System

Power to operate the interior windshield defog system must


be supplied by either an engine generator or a GPU.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

3-47

CAE SimuFlite
Landing Gear
Anti-Skid

Before taxi and with the anti-skid switch on, check that the
anti-skid generator lights are extinguished. If a light is illuminated, assume the anti-skid system is inoperative. Leave the
switch on, and limit the takeoff weight to 18,500 lbs. Refer to
AFM Section V for increased takeoff distance.
NOTE: If, during approach, one or more anti-skid lights
remain illuminated after lowering the landing gear, set
the ANTI-SKID switch to OFF then ON to clear the system. If the light(s) remain illuminated, assume the antiskid system is inoperative; leave the switch on and refer
to AFM Section V for the increased landing distance.

NOTE: If, upon touchdown, one or more anti-skid lights


illuminate, anti-skid protection for the associated wheel
is inoperative and has reverted to manual brake control.

Do not turn on the Freon cooling system during landing with


anti-skid system operating. Initial voltage drop may cause
false signals in the anti-skid system and dump brake pressure for two to three seconds.
CAUTION: With anti-skid inoperative, heavy brake pressures may skid the tires and cause tire blow-out. Flight
tests determined that modulating toe-brake pressures
produces improved feel and reduces the probability of
tire skid.

3-48

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Limitations
Main Tire Limiting Ground Speed
Maximum Ground Speed

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 KTS

Nosewheel Steering
Maximum Ground Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 KTS
Maximum Ground Speed With Two of Three
ANTI-SKID GEN Lights Illuminated (Left Inboard,
Right Inboard, and Right Outboard) . . . . . . . . . . 10 KTS
CAUTION: During moderate to heavy braking action on
patchy snow or ice, avoid the use of nosewheel steering
above 10 kts.

Turnaround Limits (Learjet 55)


If the turnaround weight limit for brake energy (see applicable
Landing Weight chart, AFM, Section V) is exceeded during
landing or rejected takeoff, observe the following limitations.

Park the aircraft for a minimum waiting period of 30 minutes


before making the next takeoff attempt.

Following the 30-minute waiting period, visually inspect the


main gear tires, wheels, and brakes for condition.
WARNING: On S/N 55-003 to 076 without AAK 55-826, failure to observe the turnaround limits in AFM Section
I and V may result in wheel fuse plug release during
subsequent takeoff.

Runway Water/Slush Accumulation


Accumulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3/4 INCH (19 MM)
Chine on nosewheel tire must be a minimum 3/4 inch (19 mm)
from ground to operate safely with the specified runway water/
slush accumulation.
Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

3-49

CAE SimuFlite
Oxygen System
The following certification requirements are in addition to the
requirements of applicable operating rules. Observe the most
restrictive of the two requirements (certification or operating).

Above FL250, crew masks must be in the quick-donning


position, which allows donning within five seconds.

Remove hats and ear muff type headsets prior to donning


crew oxygen masks.
NOTE: Headsets and eyeglasses worn by crewmembers may interfere with quick-donning capabilities.
Beards worn by crewmembers may make proper sealing
of the mask more difficult.

Crew and passenger oxygen masks are not approved for use
above 40,000 ft cabin altitude.

WARNING: Passenger masks are intended for use


during an emergency descent to an altitude not requiring supplemental oxygen. Passenger masks will not
provide sufficient oxygen for prolonged operation above
34,000 ft cabin altitude. Prolonged operation above
34,000 ft cabin altitude with passengers on board is not
recommended.

NOTE: On Learjet 55, automatic presentation of masks


does not occur if the generator and battery switches are
off. In this event, turn PASS MASK DROP valve to MAN
to deploy masks if passenger oxygen is required.

3-50

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Limitations

WARNING: Smoking is prohibited while the oxygen system


is in use.

Pneumatic System
Anti-Skid

Do not turn on the Freon cooling system during landing with


the anti-skid system operating. Initial voltage drop may cause
false signals in the anti-skid system and dump brake pressure for two to three seconds.

Cabin Pressurization

Do not land with the cabin pressurized.


NOTE: After the CAB AIR switch is moved to off, timedelay circuits prevent the flow control valve from closing
for approximately five seconds to minimize pressurization bumps.

CAUTION: With the aircraft sitting statically on the


ground, do not perform extended engine operation above
idle with the CAB AIR switch in ON. There is no ram airflow through the heat exchanger, and possible damage to
air-conditioning components may occur.

Freon Cooling System

The Freon cooling system must be off for takeoff and landing
or the Cabin Temp Control knob must be MANUAL and
FULL COLD.

Power to the Freon cooling system must be supplied by an


engine generator or a GPU.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

3-51

CAE SimuFlite
Powerplant
Approved Oils

Oils conforming to Garrett Turbine Engine Company specification EMS 53110, Type II are approved. Specifically, these
are:
Aeroshell/Royco Turbine Oil 500 and 560
Castrol 5000
Exxon (Enco/Esso) Turbo Oil 2380
Mobil Jet Oil II and 254.

APR Engine Cycles S/N 55-065, 087 and


subsequent; prior aircraft with AAK 55-83-4

Four engine cycles must be recorded in the engine log when


APR is used and one or both of the following engine parameters are exceeded:
turbine speed (N2) greater than 100%
interstage turbine temperature (ITT) greater than 907C.

Automatic Performance Reserve

On S/N 55-065, 087 and subsequent; prior aircraft with


AAK 55-83-4, manual actuation of the APR switch to the ON
position during a two-engine takeoff is prohibited.

On S/N 55-065, 087 and subsequent; prior aircraft with


AAK 55-83-4, the Taxi APR check in AFM Section II must be
successfully completed prior to takeoff if APR is to be armed
for takeoff.

3-52

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Limitations

NOTE: Because of unequal spool-up rates, the APR


system may inadvertently activate if APR is armed at
low power settings. If this occurs, check that turbine
speeds (N2) are within 5% and set APR switch to
OFF/RESET before attempting to rearm the system.

On Learjet 55/55B, both APR and autospoilers must be


operative and armed to use the takeoff distance performance
improvement shown on the applicable Takeoff Distance chart
in AFM Section V.

On Learjet 55C, if both APR and autospoilers are not armed,


a takeoff distance correction must be applied. Refer to the
takeoff distance charts in AFM Section V.

Engine Operating Temperature Limits

Refer to Figure 3-7, following page, for aircraft not equipped


with an APR system and Figure 3-8, page 3-55, for engines
with an APR system.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

3-53

CAE SimuFlite
Turbine Temperature Limits
Aircraft without APR System (TFE 731-3A Engine)

Start If ITT limit is exceeded, abort start and refer to Engine Light Maintenance
Manual for corrective action.
Takeoff If takeoff ITT limit is exceeded, reduce power to within limits and record both
temperature and duration in excess of limit in engine log. An ITT overshoot resulting
from takeoff power not exceeding the takeoff transient limit is allowable and does not
require an engine log entry.
If takeoff transient ITT limit is exceeded, reduce power to within takeoff limits and make
an electronic fuel computer N1 adjustment before next flight.
If 939C is exceeded for more than 10 seconds or 977C is attained or exceeded, refer
to Engine Light Maintenance Manual for corrective action.
Maximum Continuous The maximum continuous limit is 885C; however, for
greatest engine life, it is recommended that, under normal conditions, engine power be
reduced to an ITT of 865C or less after 30 minutes of maximum continuous operation.

3-7

3-54

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Limitations

Turbine Temperature Limits


Aircraft with APR System (TFE 731-3AR Engine)

Start If ITT limit is exceeded, abort start and refer to Engine Light Maintenance
Manual for corrective action.
Takeoff Takeoff ITT exceeding the normal takeoff ITT limit is permitted. Refer to APR
Engine Cycles.
If the APR-ON takeoff ITT limit is exceeded, reduce power to within limits and record
both temperature and duration in excess of limit in engine log. Except as noted in APR
Engine Cycles, an ITT overshoot resulting from takeoff power not exceeding the takeoff transient limit is allowable and does not require an engine log entry.
If takeoff transient ITT limit is exceeded, reduce power to within takeoff limits and make
an electronic fuel computer N1 adjustment before next flight.
If 939C is exceeded for more than 10 seconds or 977C is attained or exceeded, refer
to Engine Light Maintenance Manual for corrective action.
Maximum Continuous The maximum continuous limit is 885C; however, for
greatest engine life, it is recommended that, under normal conditions, engine power be
reduced to an ITT of 865C or less after 30 minutes of maximum continuous operation.

3-8

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

3-55

CAE SimuFlite
Engine Speed Limits
Condition

TFE731-3A
(Without APR)

TFE731-3AR
(With APR)

Overspeed1

105% N1 or N2

105% N1 or N2

5 Seconds

103 to 105% N1
or N2

103 to 105% N1
or N2

1 Minute

101.5 to 103% N1
100 to 103% N2

101.5 to 103% N1
101 to 103% N2

Transient2

Takeoff3

Refer to Takeoff Power Setting


charts in AFM Section V.

Max Continuous3

Refer to Maximum Continuous


Thrust tables in AFM Section V.

Table 3-E; Engine Speed Limits


1 If overspeed limit is exceeded, contact nearest Garrett Turbine Engine Company
field service propulsion engine representative prior to engine removal for overspeed
inspection.
2

If limit is exceeded, reduce power to within limits and make necessary fuel control
adjustment prior to next flight.

Power settings above performance chart values may exceed engine rated thrust.

Engine Synchronizer

The engine synchronizer must be off for takeoff, landing, and


single-engine operation.
NOTE: The engine synchronizer also provides electrical
filtering to prevent HF radio transmission interference with
the engine fuel computers.

3-56

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Limitations

WARNING: Airflow into the TFE731 engine is sufficient


to draw personnel and equipment into the engine inlet.
Personnel in proximity of the engine inlet should maintain
a safe distance at all times during engine operation.

Fuel Computers

Both fuel computers must be on and operational for takeoffs


except for ferry flight as permitted by applicable regulations.
NOTE: Normally both FUEL CMPTR switches are in ON;
however, if either switch is in OFF, fan speed (N1) must be
50% to 60% when switching from fuel computer-off to fuel
computer-on operation. This procedure prevents RPM
droop caused by rapid dropout of the manual mode
governor and the lag setup of the computer governor.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

3-57

CAE SimuFlite
Hydraulic System Pressure at Engine Shutdown
Learjet 55/55B

Bleed hydraulic pressure from system before selecting


battery switches OFF.

CAUTION: At engine shutdown, failure to bleed hydraulic pressure from system before selecting battery
switches OFF could result in nose gear retraction if the
landing gear selector valve malfunctions.

NOTE: If the parking brake is set, use of flaps to bleed


hydraulic system pressure does not affect parking brake
pressure.

Oil Pressure Limits


Minimum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 PSI
Idle Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 TO 46 PSI
Normal Operating Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 tO 46 PSI
Maximum Transient . . . . . . . . . 55 PSI FOR 3 MINUTES

Oil Temperature Limits


Sea Level to 30,000 Ft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127C
Above 30,000 Ft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140C
Transient

3-58

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149C FOR 2 MINUTES

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Limitations
Preheating

When the aircraft has been cold-soaked at ambient temperatures below -13F (-25C), operate the engines a minimum
of three minutes to bring the hydraulic system up to normal
operating temperature.
NOTE: Exceeding idle power with oil temperature below
30C (86F) is not recommended. However, if ambient
temperature prevents attainment of 30C (86F), idle
power may be exceeded as required to further warm the
oil to normal operating limits prior to takeoff. On shutdown
for Learjet 55B/C, idle engine for two minutes prior to
thrust lever cutoff.

SPR

Do not energize SPR switch at any time other than engine


start. Use of SPR is not required above 0F (-17.8C).

Start Cycles

If the engine does not start, observe the following cooling


periods (Table 3-F) between subsequent start attempts. After
one hour, the cycle may be repeated.
Start Attempt

Cooling Period

One Minute

One Minute

15 Minutes

One Minute

One Minute

One Hour

Table 3-F; Start Cycles


Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

3-59

CAE SimuFlite
Thrust Reversers

Operational procedures in the AFM Supplement are mandatory.

Thrust reverser system use is limited to ground operations


on paved surfaces; attempts to deploy shall not be made in
flight.

Thrust reversers must not be used to back up the aircraft.

Thrust reverser CBs must not be intentionally pulled while in


flight, except as specified in emergency and/or abnormal procedures.

Thrust reversers must not be used for touch-and-go landings.

Do not deploy drag chute while using reverse thrust.

Maximum reverse thrust is usable at 60 KIAS or above. Idle


reverse thrust is usable at any speed.

The limiting crosswind component for use of thrust reversers


is 25 kts (reported tower winds measured at a 20 ft height).

WARNING: When landing on snow-covered runways,


apply reverse thrust with caution because visibility may
be impaired.

3-60

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Systems
Table of Contents
Avionics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4A-1
Electrical Systems

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4B-1

Environmental Systems

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4C-1

Fire Protection System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4D-1


Flight Controls

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4E-1

Fuel System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4F-1


Hydraulic System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4G-1
Ice and Rain Protection

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4H-1

Landing Gear and Brakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4I-1


Oxygen System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4J-1
Powerplant

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4K-1

Thrust Reverser System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4L-1

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4-1

CAE SimuFlite

4-2

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Avionics

Pitot/Static System
Learjet 55B/C (S/N 55-127 to 55-147)
SECONDARY
AIR DATA
COMPUTER

STANDBY
ALTIMETER
PRIMARY AIR
DATA
COMPUTER

STANDBY
MACH/
AIRSPEED
INDICATOR
PITOT

PITOT

STATIC 1

STATIC 1

STATIC 2

SHUTOFF VALVES

SHUTOFF VALVES

PILOT'S
PITOT/STATIC
TUBE

STATIC 2

COPILOT'S
PITOT/STATIC
TUBE

PITOT/STATIC
DRAIN VALVES

PITOT/STATIC
DRAIN VALVES

PILOT'S PITOT
COPILOT'S PITOT
PILOT'S STATIC
COPILOT'S STATIC

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4A-1

CAE SimuFlite
Pitot/Static System
Learjet 55 (S/N 55-003 to 55-126)

LANDING
GEAR
AURAL
WARNING

OPTIONAL
EQUIPMENT

AIR DATA
SENSOR
MACH
SWITCH
ALTITUDE
CONTROL

PITOT

STATIC 1

STATIC 2

VERTICAL SPEED
INDICATOR

VERTICAL SPEED
INDICATOR

ALTIMETER

ALTIMETER

MACH/AIRSPEED
INDICATOR
(ALTITUDE/
OVERSPEED
SWITCHES)

MACH/AIRSPEED
INDICATOR
(ALTITUDE/
OVERSPEED
SWITCHES)

SHUTOFF VALVES

SHUTOFF VALVES

PILOT'S
PITOT/STATIC
TUBE

PITOT

STATIC 1

STATIC 2
COPILOT'S
PITOT/STATIC
TUBE

PITOT/STATIC
DRAIN VALVES

PITOT/STATIC
DRAIN VALVES

PILOT'S PITOT
COPILOT'S PITOT
PILOT'S STATIC
COPILOT'S STATIC

4A-2

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Avionics

Avionics
This chapter provides a brief overview of the following:

flight environment data systems

communication equipment

navigation equipment

flight control systems.

Besides these specific areas, this chapter includes instrumentation not addressed in other chapters.
Depending on customer preference, modifications, and system
upgrades, avionics systems vary widely. This chapter provides
a brief overview of the most common equipment.
For a complete description and operating procedures for avionics systems in the Learjet 55, refer to the applicable Aircraft
Flight Manual supplements and avionics equipment pilots
guides.

Flight Environment Data Systems


The flight environment data system consists of:

pitot/static system

altimeters

vertical speed indicators

airspeed indicators

airspeed warning

air data system

standard air temperature/total air temperature/true airspeed


system

altitude preselect alerter system.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4A-3

CAE SimuFlite
Pitot/Static System
The pitot/static system provides ram air pressure and static pressure data from a combined pitot/static tube on either side of the
aircraft nose. Each tube has a single pitot opening and two static openings with electrically-powered heating elements that prevent ice formation.
Two solenoid-operated shutoff valves for each side of the static
system isolate the left or right pitot/static tube static ports from its
opposite. The three position (L/BOTH/R) STATIC SOURCE switch
on the pilots or center panel uses 28V DC from the STATIC SEL
CB to control the valves electrically. In the BOTH position all four
valves open; R position closes static shutoff valves on the left side
and L position closes valves on the right side.
On S/N 003 through 126, the left pitot/static tube provides ram
air pressure to the pilots mach/airspeed indicator (altitude/overspeed switch). The left pitot/static tube also provides static air
pressure to the pilots Mach/airspeed indicator, altimeter, and
vertical speed indicator (VSI).
The right pitot/static tube provides ram air pressure to the copilots Mach/airspeed indicator (altitude/overspeed switch), the
Mach switch, landing gear aural warning system, and the air data
sensor. The right pitot/static tube also provides static pressure to
the copilots Mach/airspeed indicator, altimeter, vertical speed
indicator (VSI), and the altitude control system, landing gear
aural warning system, and the air data sensor.
On S/N 127 through 147, the left pitot/static tube provides ram air
pressure to the primary air data computer (ADC). The right
pitot/static tube provides ram air pressure to the standby Mach/airspeed indicator and secondary ADC. The forward static port on
the left pitot/static tube and aft static port on the right pitot/static
tube provides static pressure to the primary ADC. The forward static port on the right pitot/static tube and the aft port on the left
pitot/static tube provides static pressure to the standby Mach/airspeed indicator, the standby altimeter and secondary ADC.
4A-4

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Avionics

Altimeters
Various types of altimeters are on the Learjet 55. Typical units
include:

radio/barometric (RADBAR)

barometric

ADC-driven.

RADBAR altimeters combine a radio altimeter (RAD) and a barometric (BAR) altimeter in a single unit. A moving pointer and a
drum counter display barometric altitude from -1,000 to +50,000
ft. The pointer makes a complete revolution of the dial every 1,000
ft. The drums display altitude in ten-thousands, thousands, and
hundreds of feet. A separate three-digit, incandescent display
shows radio altitude from 0 to 990 ft; above 990 ft the display
blanks. The display receives radio altitude information through a
radio altimeter converter from the radio altimeter system.
ADC-driven altimeters use electrical signals from an air data
computer to display aircraft altitude with a pointer and a drum
display. The pointer makes one revolution every one thousand
feet. The drum display shows altitude in ten-thousands, thousands, and hundreds of feet.
All altimeters contain provisions for adjusting the unit to local
barometric pressure in either millibars or inches of mercury (In
Hg). On encoding altimeters, adjusting to local barometric pressure has no effect on the encoded altitude information; it is always
relative to standard pressure (29.92 In Hg/1013 millibars).

Vertical Speed Indicators


Depending on the aircraft serial number, modification status, and
customer preference, the vertical speed indicators (VSIs) are
either static pressure-driven or electrically-driven.
On the Learjet 55, the typical VSI is an inertial-lead instantaneous vertical speed indicator (IVSI). An IVSI provides an
Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

4A-5

CAE SimuFlite
instantaneous display of aircraft altitude rate-of-change. An
accelerometer senses a change in normal acceleration to displace the indicators pointer before a change in static pressure
occurs. Typical IVSIs display aircraft vertical velocity from 0 to
6,000 feet per minute (FPM), either up and down.
On the Learjet 55B and 55C, ADC-driven VSIs use digital signals to provide an accurate display of an aircrafts vertical velocity. The indicator displays vertical speed from 0 to 6,000 feet per
minute, up or down with a pointer moving over a stationary dial.
A manually positioned index (bug) provides a visual reminder of
a desired vertical speed.

Airspeed Indicators
Typical Mach/airspeed indicators for the pilot and copilot provide
an accurate display of aircraft airspeed and Mach number. On
the Learjet 55, the airspeed indicators and Mach/overspeed
warning system are part of the same system.
On the Learjet 55, the pilots and copilots Mach/airspeed indicators receive pressure and static data from their respective
pitot/static system sources. Both indicators are identical; each
displays airspeed from 60 to 400 KIAS and Mach number from
0.4 to 0.9. A barber pole indicates the maximum allowable airspeed (VMO) and Mach number (MMO). Switches within each
indicator control the overspeed warning and stick puller system.
On the Learjet 55B and 55C, separate air data computers electrically drive the Mach/airspeed indicators. Each indicator display
airspeed from 60 to 420 KIAS with a pointer and Mach number
with a two-digit drum display. A moving barber pole indicates the
maximum airspeed (VMO). A combined indicator test button and
index (bug) setting knob is on the lower left corner of the indicator. Pressing the button initiates a system test; the IAS warning
flag appears and the airspeed and VMO pointers move to a reference airspeed.

4A-6

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Avionics

Airspeed Warning
The airspeed warning system uses switches in either the Mach/
airspeed indicators or separate ADC-driven switches to activate
a rising-tone aural overspeed warning. Warning system activation of airspeed or Mach number varies with the aircraft model,
altitude, and operation of the autopilot and Mach trim system.
On the Learjet 55, the system activates with the autopilot
engaged or disengaged and the Mach trim system operative if
airspeed exceeds:

300 5 KIAS (VMO) below 8,000 ft

350 6 KIAS (VMO) between 8,000 and 24,000 ft

0.81 Mach (MMO) between 24,000 and 37,000 ft

0.81 Mach (MMO) varying to 0.79 Mach (MMO) with altitude


changes from 37,000 and 45,000 ft

0.79 Mach (MMO) above 45,000 ft.

With the autopilot disengaged and the Mach trim system not operative, the aural warning sounds when Mach number exceeds
0.74 (MMO).
The stick puller begins applying force below 24,000 ft once the
airspeed reaches 2 to 6 kts above the overspeed warning activation speed. The stick puller also activates above 24,000 ft if airspeed increases 0.005 to 0.015 Mach above the warning system
activation speed.
On the Learjet 55B and 55C, the system activates with the
autopilot engaged and the Mach trim system operative if airspeed exceeds:

302 3 KIAS (VMO) below 8,000 ft

352 3 KIAS (VMO) between 8,000 and 23,600 ft

0.81 to 0.82 Mach (MMO) between 23,600 and 37,000 ft

0.80 to 0.81 Mach (MMO) between 37,000 and 43,500 ft

0.79 to 0.80 Mach (MMO) between 43,500 and 51,000 ft.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

4A-7

CAE SimuFlite
With the autopilot disengaged and the Mach trim system not
operative, the aural warning sounds when Mach number
exceeds 0.74 (MMO).
If airspeed exceeds the maximum allowable, the stick puller activates. On the Learjet 55B, a pusher/puller servo applies force to
attain a nose-up attitude. On the Learjet 55C, the autopilot pitch
servo applies force to attain a nose-up attitude. With the autopilot
disengaged, there is no stick puller function.
The stick puller on the Learjet 55C does not function during an
overspeed condition. If an overspeed condition exists with the
autopilot on, the system disengages altitude hold and commands
a slight pitch-up attitude with the stick puller. If the flight director
is in the active mode, the system disengages altitude hold and
commands a pitch-up attitude on the command bar indicator;
there is no stick puller command.

Air Data System


On S/N 127 through 147, two air data computers (ADCs) provide electrical-driving signals for the pilots and copilots Mach/
airspeed indicators, vertical speed indicators, and altimeters.
The primary (pilots) ADC supplies the following:
pilots Mach/airspeed indicator
pilots altimeter
pilots vertical speed indicator
altitude preselect
left stall warning
gear warning
No. 1 attitude heading system (AHS)
pilots electronic flight instrument system (EFIS)
left flight guidance system
mach trim
No. 1 flight management system (FMS)
No. 1 transponder
4A-8

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Avionics
The secondary (copilots) ADC supplies the:

copilots Mach/airspeed indicator

copilots altimeter

copilots vertical speed indicator

altitude preselect

right stall warning

gear warning

No. 2 attitude heading system (AHS)

overspeed warning

No. 2 transponder

No. 2 flight management system (FMS).

Red ADC FAIL annunciators for each computer illuminate if there


is a complete or partial failure within the ADC. During a partial
failure, the ADC continues to operate; some systems using ADC
information remain usable.
Through the rotary SYSTEM TEST switch, the ADCs can be tested on the ground. With the switch in ADC and the pitch trim indicator in the takeoff segment, pressing and holding the test button initiates a test of both ADCs. Both ADC FAIL annunciators
illuminate then extinguish and the overspeed warning sounds
briefly, then silences. The overspeed warning sounds again and
remains on with the test button depressed.

SAT/TAS/TAT
The Learjet 55 has either a static air temperature/true airspeed
(SAT/TAS) system or a static air temperature/true airspeed/total
air temperature (SAT/TAS/TAT) system that provides temperature and airspeed with a digital display. It also supplies temperature information to the air data computers (if installed).
The digital display continuously displays static air temperature
and true airspeed; pressing the TAT button displays total air
temperature.
Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

4A-9

CAE SimuFlite
Altitude Preselect Alerter
Altitude alerting systems provide visual and aural indications
when the aircraft approaches or deviates from a selected altitude; these systems receive altitude information from an altimeter or an ADC. The unit provides visual warnings through the light
on the unit and aural warnings through the cockpit speakers and
headsets.
Once the aircraft altitude is within 1,000 ft of the desired altitude,
the altitude alerter light illuminates and the alert horn sounds for
one second, depending on the aircraft rate of climb or descent.
The light extinguishes once the aircraft is within 300 ft of selected altitude. The light illuminates and the horn sounds if altitude
deviates more than 300 ft; correcting the altitude or selecting a
new altitude extinguishes the light.

Avionics Master Switches


Some Learjet 55s, and all 55Bs and 55Cs, have left and right
AVIONICS MASTER and NORM-BKUP switches and relays. In
ON the AVIONICS MASTER switches on the pilots and copilots outboard switch panels energize relays in the circuit
breaker panels to supply power to the selected avionics equipment. If an AVIONICS MASTER switch or control relay fails, a
NORM-BKUP switch on each circuit breaker panel performs the
same function as the switch and relay. Placing the switch in
BKUP supplies power to the selected equipment; the NORM
position has no effect.
Other instrumentation includes clocks, the magnetic compass,
standby gyro horizon, altimeter, and airspeed indicator.

4A-10

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Avionics

Communications
Communications equipment on the Learjet 55 includes:

VHF communications

HF communications

Flitefone

interphone

passenger briefing system

audio control panels

cockpit voice recorder (CVR)

static discharging.

VHF Communications
Typical VHF transceivers provide air-to-air, air-to-ground, and
ground-to-ground communications. The unit operates in the
117.000 to 136.975 MHz frequency range with a frequency spacing of 25 kHz that provides 720 channels. Optional transceivers
have an extended frequency range of 116.000 to 151.975; this
provides 1,440 distinct channels.
Depending on the equipment installed, there is either a dual or
triple VHF communication system installation. Dual VHF communication systems utilize two separate receivers. Each receiver has its own control head and antenna Triple VHF communication systems have three independent systems: COMM 1A,
COMM 1B, and COMM 2. The COMM 1A and 1B systems have
separate receivers and control heads but share an antenna. The
COMM 2 system is for emergency use if either the COMM 1A or
COMM 1B system fails.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

4A-11

CAE SimuFlite
HF Communications
Most aircraft use high frequency (HF) communications equipment to allow very long range communications. Typical systems
operate in the 2.0000 to 29.9999 MHz range with frequency
spacing of 100 Hz; this provides 280,000 distinct channels. Most
HF transceivers provide amplitude modulation (AM) and single
side band (SSB) transmission modes.

Flitefone
A FlitefoneTM radio-telephone allows the crew or passengers to
communicate with ground stations through the public telephone
system, with mobile telephones, or other aircraft with radio telephones over the high frequency (HF) and ultra-high frequency
(UHF) radio frequencies. The system also allows communication
between the cockpit and passenger cabin.

Interphone
The ground maintenance interphone system permits two-way
communication between the flight crew and ground personnel.
An audio amplifier connects the nose, tailcone, and cockpit jacks
together to enable communications with the cockpit and ground
personnel. With headsets connected to the jacks, communication is possible between the personnel at the nose, tailcone, or
cockpit stations.

Passenger Briefing System


The passenger briefing system plays a prerecorded tape through
the passenger address system. The system consists of a control
panel in the cockpit and a tape player/recorder. A START and
INTERRUPT switch on the control panel controls the recorder. A
PASS BRIEFER light on the control panel illuminates when the
system is running.
This system supplements the passenger briefing required before
each flight.
4A-12

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Avionics

Audio Control Panels


A typical audio control panel contains controls for audio source
and microphone output selection. Each unit has inputs for a
handset, oxygen mask microphone, and headset microphone,
and outputs for cockpit loudspeakers, and headset. If the audio
control panel becomes inoperative, the pilots may utilize the
EMER position on the Audio select switch. The pilots must be
using headsets to make use of this option. If so, the pilot will hear
all radios and must selectively turn down the volume on those not
requiring monitoring. Volume controls vary the loudness of the
audio sources fed to the headset and cockpit and cabin speakers.
Multiple switches select audio sources from the communication
and navigation receivers and microphone output to the communication transmitters, public address system, and interphone
system.

Cockpit Voice Recorder


An optional cockpit voice recorder (CVR) records cockpit and
radio conversations. Through a system of switches, the CVR
only records the last 30 minutes of conversations in flight.
Normally with the aircraft on the ground, the recorder operates
but continues to erase recorded conversations.
The recorder unit is in an international orange-colored, fire and
shock resistant container in the tailcone compartment. An underwater locator beacon on the unit assists in locating the unit if the
aircraft crashes in water.
Parking brake and squat switches enable the recorder bulk-erase
mode when the parking brake is on and aircraft is on the ground;
the recorder continuously erases the tape. The CVR begins
recording with parking brake release and weight off the wheels.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

4A-13

CAE SimuFlite
On S/N 003 through 144, oil pressure switches on the left and
right engines stop the recorder if the aircraft crashes and the
recorder continues to receive power. On S/N 144 through 147,
an inertia switch performs the same function. If the aircraft experiences an 8 G impact, the switch opens to remove power to the
CVR. A reset button near the inertia switch resets it.
The emergency locator transmitter (ELT) transmits a downward
sweeping tone on 121.5 MHz and 243.0 MHz as an aid in
locating a downed aircraft.
An impact switch in the transmitter activates the system with the
application of a force approximately 5 Gs along the longitudinal
axis of the aircraft.
The system switch either arms, activates, or turns off the ELT.
Some systems employ a switch that can reset the forceactivated switch in the transmitter.

Static Discharging
Static dischargers on the winglets, wing trailing edges, elevator,
tailcone, or delta fins (on the Learjet 55C only) minimize the
effects of lighting strikes on the aircraft structure and static
charges on avionics equipment. The static discharges bleed off
accumulated static charges to the atmosphere and direct lightning strikes away from the aircraft.
During the preflight inspection, check the security, presence, and
condition of the dischargers.

Navigation
Typical navigation equipment on the Learjet 55 includes very
high frequency (VHF) receivers, an instrument landing system
(ILS), automatic direction finding (ADF), vertical and directional
gyros, and long range navigation equipment. This discussion
also includes flight management and area navigation systems.

4A-14

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Avionics
VHF Navigation
VHF navigation receivers provide very high frequency omnirange (VOR), localizer (LOC), glideslope (GS), and marker beacon navigation information to the flight crew through various indicating equipment.
Typically, each system receives 200 VHF frequencies from
108.00 to 117.95 with 50 MHz spacing, 40 paired glideslope frequencies from 329.15 to 335.00 MHz spaced at 150 kHz, and 40
LOC frequencies from 108.10 to 111.95 MHz. Automatic DME
channeling is through the navigation receiver. Multiple outputs
from the receivers drive the flight director, radio magnetic indicators (RMIs), autopilot, course deviation indicators, and area navigation equipment (RNAV). The receiver supplies audio output to
the audio control units.
Receiver control, frequency selection, and frequency display are
through control heads on the center instrument panel.
As part of the VHF navigation receiver, a marker beacon receiver provides visual and aural indications of beacon passage. The
system receives on 75 MHz and provides electrical outputs to
two sets of three indicating lights on the instrument panel. The
receiver also provides audio output to the audio control units for
beacon passage notification.

Instrument Landing System


Instrument landing system (ILS) combine outputs from the VHF
navigation, UHF glideslope and marker beacon receivers to display ILS information on the attitude director indicator and the horizontal situation indicator.
The system consists of a glideslope receiver operating in the
329.15 to 335.00 MHz frequency range, the VHF receiver in LOC
mode operating in the 118.10 to 111.95 MHz frequency range, a
glideslope antenna in the nose, and a LOC antenna on each side
of the vertical stabilizer.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

4A-15

CAE SimuFlite
Automatic Direction Finder
Automatic direction finder (ADF) systems consist of a receiver,
control head, and a combined loop and sensing antenna. Most
aircraft have a pair of systems. The receiver operates in the
190.0 to 1749.5 kHz frequency range with 0.5 kHz spacing that
provides 3,120 frequencies.

Radio Magnetic Indicators


Two radio magnetic indicators display aircraft heading information on a calibrated servo-driven compass card. A pointer and
compass card provides bearing indication to either VOR or ADF
stations.
The indicators receive magnetic heading information from the
horizontal situation indicator or directional gyro, and navigation
station bearing information from the VHF and ADF receivers.

Area Navigation Systems


Area navigation systems (RNAV) allow point-to-point navigation
within the coverage of VHF navigation facilities (VOR/VORTAC/
DME). Most systems allow the storage of flight plans containing
multiple waypoints for frequently flown routes.
These systems utilize data provided by the VHF, DME, and
localizer receivers to compute and display waypoint information.

Flight Management Systems


Flight management systems (FMS) utilize position information
from various navigation equipment to provide an integrated navigation display and control system.
Typical systems receive and process information from the DME,
VOR, and VLF/Omega receivers, directional compass system,
and autopilot computer to provide automatic navigation radio tuning, and course, bearing, and roll commands to the autopilot system. Some systems utilize a database of navigation waypoints
and facilities to automate aircraft navigation.
4A-16

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Avionics
VLF Navigation
Very low frequency (VLF) navigation systems provide great circle,
point-to-point navigation on a world-wide basis. These systems
utilize very low frequency transmissions from Omega and U.S.
Navy facilities.
The receiver-computer unit processes all inputs and provides
position coordinates, distance and deviation information, drift
and track angle deviation, wind direction and speed, and ground
speed to the control display unit. The receiver-computer also
provides inputs to the horizontal situation indicators (HSIs),
autopilot and flight director system. Loss of navigation facility signals causes the system to revert to dead reckoning based on aircraft heading, true airspeed, and last computed winds.

Flight Data Recorder


A flight data recorder (FDR) records aircraft flight data on foil or
magnetic tape. The FDR consists of a remotely mounted
recorder unit and an accelerometer. The FDR, in the tailcone, is
in an international orange painted steel container built to withstand impact and fire.
An underwater locating beacon on the recorder assists in locating the recorder if the aircraft ditches. The battery powered beacon begins transmitting once the beacon submerses in either
salt or fresh water. The design of the beacon allows it to continue transmitting for approximately 30 days at depths up to
20,000 ft.

Pulse Equipment
Pulse equipment includes avionics that employ pulses of radio
signals to provide aircraft altitude, distance, and location, and
identification of weather hazards ahead of the aircraft.
This includes distance measuring equipment (DME), radio
altimeters, transponders, and weather radar.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

4A-17

CAE SimuFlite
Distance Measuring Equipment
Distance measuring equipment (DME) computes and provides
slant range distance between the aircraft and a VORTAC facility.
The system transmits in the 1025 to 1150 MHz range, and
receives in the 962 to 1213 MHz range. Pairing of DME channels
with VHF navigation frequencies allows the automatic selection
of DME channels by the VHF receiver.
The DME system provides distance, speed, and time information
to the horizontal situation indicators (HSIs), and DME displays.

Radio Altimeter
Radio altimeter systems provide precise altitude above ground
level (AGL) readings for approach and landing. The system consists of a transceiver, indicator, and transmit and receive antennas on the aft fuselage. The system transmits a 4250 to 4350
MHz (4.3 GHz, 5 MHz) signal toward the ground, receives the
bounced signal, and computes distance from the delay between
transmission and reception. The system provides altitude information from -20 to +2,000 ft on an indicator on the pilots instrument panel or on the ADI/EADI. The radio altimeter system also
provides altitude information to the flight advisory system.

Flight Path Advisory System


The flight path advisory system works with the radio altimeter,
nose gear relay panel, and the flight direction to provide a verbal
warning of unsafe flight conditions.
If the aircraft descends to 2,000 ft, the system provides a RADIO
ALTITUDE warning. As the aircraft continues to descend past
1,000 ft radio altitude, the system announces ONE THOUSAND
and provides a verbal announcement of radio altitude every one
hundred feet. Setting a decision height on the radio altimeter provides a MINIMUM announcement once the aircraft reaches the
preselected radio altitude.

4A-18

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Avionics
If the aircraft deviates more than one dot from the localizer, the
system announces LOCALIZER three times; for a deviation of
more than one dot from the glideslope the system announces
GLIDESLOPE three times. The LOCALIZER and GLIDESLOPE
warnings continue until the crew corrects the deviation from the
localizer or glideslope path.
If the aircraft descends below 500 ft with the landing gear
retracted, the system announces CHECK GEAR three times.
These warnings repeat every 100 ft until gear extension.

Transponder
Typical transponder systems with Mode C or Mode S capability
provide identification and altitude reporting to surveillance radar
installations. The system transmits on 1090 MHz and receives
on 1030 MHz. The pilots encoding altimeter provides aircraft altitude information to the transponder system for transmission to
ATC radar facilities.

Weather Radar
The vertical gyro system provides aircraft attitude information to
the radar system to stabilize the antenna. The system operates
by transmitting a high frequency radio signal (X-band), receiving
the bounced signal, and displaying the received signals on the
display. Controls on and below the indicator select system mode,
scan range, antenna tilt, and receiver gain (sensitivity).
Typical systems provide:

selectable scanning range

ground mapping

weather cell contouring

adjustable antenna tilt and scan

target alerting.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

4A-19

CAE SimuFlite
Radar power output and scanning area varies between equipment manufacturer, model, and radar capabilities. Hazard areas
presented in this discussion come from various aircraft and component maintenance manuals and FAA Advisory Circular AC
2068B. Personnel hazard areas are the maximum recommended hazard area for radar operation on the ground.
When operating radar on the ground, precautions should be
taken to avoid injury to personnel, fuel ignition, or radar equipment damage. Avoid operating the radar during refueling or within 300 ft of refueling aircraft. Caution personnel to remain outside
an area within 270and 15 ft forward of the radome. Direct the
nose of the aircraft so a 240sector forward of the aircraft is free
for a distance of 100 ft of large obstructions and buildings.

Attitude and Direction Systems


Attitude and direction systems include:

directional gyros

vertical gyros

attitude heading reference systems.

These systems determine aircraft attitude and direction and provide this information to various navigation and flight control equipment including the autopilot, flight director, and weather radar.
On the Learjet 55B and 55C, two attitude heading systems
(AHS) replace the linear accelerometers, directional, vertical and
rate gyros.

Directional Gyros
Two directional gyros provide 360of magnetic heading information to the pilots and copilots horizontal situation indicators
(HSIs), radio magnetic indicators (RMIs), autopilot, and flight
director.

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September 2003

Avionics
A SLAVE FREE switch for each directional gyro allows the selection of either slaved or free gyro operation. In SLAVED, the directional gyro follows signal provided by the flux valve. In FREE, the
directional gyro operates independently from the flux valve; manual correction of the gyro is through the SLAVE L-R switch.

Vertical Gyros
Two vertical gyros provide aircraft pitch and roll information to the
autopilot, flight instruments, flight director, and radar antenna stabilization system.
Each unit consists of an electronically driven gyro rotating on its
vertical axis. Gimbals within the unit limit the amount of freedom
in the pitch and roll axes. The gyro is free to pitch 82up and
down, and roll 360(roll unlimited).

Attitude Heading System


Rather than use motor-driven gyros and accelerometers to sense
aircraft movement, direction, and acceleration, attitude heading
systems (AHS) provide the same information as the linear
accelerometers, and directional, vertical, and rate gyros. Each
AHS consists of an attitude heading computer (AHC) with an
internal compensator (ICU), a magnetic flux sensor (flux valve) in
the wingtip, heading control switches, and a system annunciator.
Attitude heading systems provide:

heading, pitch, roll, attitude valid, and heading valid data


to the electronic flight instrument system (EFIS)

heading to the flight management system (FMS)

pitch, roll, pitch rate, roll rate, yaw rate, lateral acceleration,
and vertical acceleration to the autopilot/flight guidance
computer

pitch and roll stabilization to the weather radar

heading to the opposite sides radio magnetic indicator (RMI).

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

4A-21

CAE SimuFlite
HEADING control switches (FREE SLAVE and SLAVE L-R) for
each AHS are on the pilots and copilots subpanels. The FREE
SLAVE switch allows the AHS to operate either independently
(FREE) or dependently (SLAVE) from its flux sensor. In FREE,
the crew can manually correct the AHS heading value through
the SLAVE L-R switch. In SLAVE, the AHS receives compensating signals from its flux sensor.
If one AHS fails, the opposite system can provide attitude and
heading data to the affected EFIS. An AHS 1/AHS 2 transfer
switch on the respective EFIS control panel provides reversionary switching.

Flight Control Systems


Automatic flight control systems combine an autopilot, flight
director, air data system, controls, indicators, and displays to provide automatic control of high performance aircraft.
The Learjet 55 has a J.E.T. FC-550 automatic flight control system with dual yaw dampers; the Learjet 55B has a Collins APS85 flight control system with its own yaw damper and an independent J.E.T. yaw damper; the Learjet 55C has a Collins APS85 flight control system with a single yaw damper.
Flight control systems provide three operation options to the
flight crew: manual, automatic, or semi-automatic. Manual operation allows the crew to fly the aircraft guided by cues from the
flight director instrumentation. Automatic operation flies the aircraft through the autopilot coupled to the flight director; the crew
only monitors system operation. Semi-automatic operation
allows the crew to fly the aircraft through switches on the control
wheels. In addition, a Mach trim system provides automatic aircraft speed stability and attitude control if the autopilot disengages or fails.
Please refer to the applicable pilots manuals, Aircraft Flight
Manual and component maintenance manuals for a thorough
discussion of these systems and operating procedures for the
particular components of the flight control system.
4A-22

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Learjet 55
September 2003

Avionics

Autopilot
The autopilot system provides automatic control and stabilization
of the aircraft about the pitch and roll axes. It positions the aircraft
elevator and ailerons in response to flight computer steering
commands. An integrated or separate yaw damper system provides stability in the yaw axis. Selectable operating modes provide the ability to maintain automatically a desired altitude, pitch
attitude or heading, and to capture automatically and track localizer, glideslope, and VOR signals.
A typical autopilot system consists of:

autopilot controller

autopilot switches

autopilot electrical control box

autopilot computer

pitch and roll servo actuators

pitch and/or roll position sensors.

The autopilot system obtains signals from the air data computers,
vertical accelerometer, the vertical and directional gyros, and navigation receivers. With this data, the autopilot drives the pitch and
roll actuators to maintain a desired aircraft altitude and attitude.

Autopilot Controller
The autopilot controller is on the top center of the instrument
panel. The controller contains the autopilot engage and self-test
buttons as well as annunciators and mode selectors for the
autopilot and flight director. The following description concerns
the J.E.T. FCC-500 autopilot. The autopilot controller for the
Collins APS-85 is similar.
Primary controls and annunciators for the autopilot include the
ENG (engage) button, the TST (test) button, and the PWR
(power) annunciator. Additional buttons select the various autopilot operating modes including soft ride (SFT), heading (HDG),
Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

4A-23

CAE SimuFlite
half-bank (1/2 BNK), navigation (NAV), wing levelling (LVL), and
speed hold (SPD and V/S). Amber and green annunciators illuminate to indicate selection and engagement of the various system modes.
Before engaging the autopilot with the ENG button, turn the
AUTOPILOT and PITCH TRIM switches ON. The aircraft must
be in less than a 42bank angle. After pressing the ENG button,
the autopilot engages and the PITCH and ROLL annunciators
illuminate to indicate pitch and roll axis engagement.
Pressing the TST button illuminates the annunciators on the
autopilot controller.
Pressing the TST and ENG buttons simultaneously initiates a
self-test of the:

pitch and roll servo and clutch engage circuits

roll rate gyro

vertical gyro

vertical accelerometer

pitch and roll monitors

autopilot release circuits.

After pressing the TST and ENG buttons, the MON, ROLL, and
PITCH annunciators illuminate. If MON, ROLL, and PITCH
annunciators extinguish after approximately nine seconds, the
autopilot passed the self-test and is operational. If either the
ROLL or PITCH annunciators begin flashing, the associated axis
is malfunctioning; the autopilot failed the self-test. The MON
annunciator remains illuminated to indicate axis failure; the
autopilot is not operational.
The Collins APS-85 autopilot on the Learjet 55B and 55C has a
self-test feature. Turning aircraft batteries ON powers up the
autopilot and initiates the system self-test. If the autopilot fails the
self-test, the autopilot will not engage and an FD flag appears on
the EADIs.
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Learjet 55
September 2003

Avionics
Autopilot Switches
Additional controls for the autopilot are on the instrument panel,
pedestal, and on the control wheels.
The AUTOPILOT switch on lower left instrument panel supplies
power to the autopilot system. The PITCH TRIM switch on the
pedestal affects the operation of the autopilot. The switch must
be in either PRI or SEC for the autopilot to operate.
The control wheel master switch (MSW) on the outboard horns
of the pilots and copilots control wheels disengages the autopilot. The PITCH and ROLL annunciators extinguish and the
autopilot disengage tone sounds to indicate autopilot disengagement.
A control wheel trim switch is above each control wheel master
switch. The switches either disengage the autopilot, make trim
adjustments with the autopilot pitch and roll axes disengaged
using the barrel portion of the trim switch. The switch has four
positions: LWD (left wing down), RWD (right wing down), NOSE
UP, and NOSE DN (nose down).

Autopilot Computer
The autopilot computer (flight control computer) computes and
processes commands for the autopilot and flight guidance systems. The computer then provides driving signals to the servos.

Servo Actuators
Servo actuators position the ailerons, elevators, and rudder.
Each servo drives its flight control with a DC torque motor. Once
the flight control reaches the desired position, a feedback signal
from a position sensor cancels the command signal and de-energizes the servo. If a flight control moves from a set position, a
generated error signal commands the servo to reposition the
flight control.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

4A-25

CAE SimuFlite
Yaw Damper
The Learjet 55 possesses a dual yaw damper (primary and secondary) system that operates independently from the autopilot.
The Learjet 55B has a dual yaw damper system with a primary
system which operates through the autopilot and a secondary
system that operates independently. The Learjet 55C has a single yaw damper system that is part of the flight control system.
This discussion focuses on the Learjet 55 and 55B system.
The system consists of:

computer

control panel

yaw servo and capstan

yaw follow-up

rate gyro

lateral accelerometer.

The computer accepts signals from an airspeed sensor, rate


gyro, and the accelerometer. The computer processes, then
provides driving signals to the yaw servo. The servo positions
the rudder with the yaw follow-up providing feed-back signals to
the computer.
The yaw damper control panel on the pedestal provides separate
controls for the primary and secondary yaw damper systems.
Each side of the panel contains power and engage buttons an
annunciators. A force gage provides a visual indication of yaw
damper effort and operation. A single TST button in the center of
the panel initiates a self-test of both systems.
To test the yaw damper system on the Learjet 55, press the PRI
PWR and SEC PWR buttons on the yaw damper panel; the PRI
and SEC ON lights illuminate. Pressing and holding the TST button initiates the system test; the PRI and SEC ENG lights illuminate and both yaw damper force indicators deflect right then left.
Release the TST button. Test the secondary first then primary
yaw damper by engaging each system separately then applying
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Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Avionics
pressure to each of the rudder pedals; there should be resistance. Use the control wheel master switch to disengage the yaw
damper. The complete yaw damper check is recommended to be
accomplished when maintenance has been accomplished, and
periodically at the discretion of the operator or pilot.
Testing of the yaw damper on the Learjet 55B is similar to the
procedure for the Learjet 55. Instead of testing the primary and
secondary yaw dampers, only test the secondary yaw damper.
The primary yaw damper is part of the autopilot system and it
undergoes a test during the autopilot self-test.
The yaw damper on the Learjet 55C is part of the flight control
system. The system operates similarly with the flight control computer providing the driving signals to the rudder servo. The system is not required for flight, only for the autopilot function. The
yaw damper control panel on the pedestal contains a single YD
ENG button and ENG annunciator. Testing of the yaw damper is
through the autopilot self-test.
On all aircraft, the control wheel master switches also controls
the yaw damper system. Pressing either button sends a disengage signal to the yaw damper. The ENG annunciator extinguishes to indicate yaw damper disengagement.

Flight Director
The flight director system generates vertical and lateral steering
commands for the attitude director indicator (ADI) and the autopilot system. The ADI displays these commands as command
bars; the autopilot uses them as steering commands.
The four flight director systems available on the Learjet 55
include:

Collins FIS-84

Collins FDS-85

Collins FD-109Y

Sperry SPI-501/502.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

4A-27

CAE SimuFlite
Depending on the system installed, the flight director interfaces
with the autopilot computer or has its own flight director computer. Each system interfaces with the navigation receivers, vertical
and horizontal gyros (or AHS), and the radio magnetic indicators
(RMIs).

Flight Control Computer


The flight director computer (autopilot computer) provides pitch
and roll commands to the flight control system and the autopilot.
The computer uses signals supplied by the navigation receivers,
air data computer, and vertical gyros to generate the pitch and
roll commands. The computer also supplies flight control system
status warnings to the flight crew.

Mode Selector Panel


The mode selector panel allows the selection of operating modes
for the flight control computer. Separate vertical and lateral
modes are selectable on the flight guidance panel.

Attitude Director Indicator


An attitude director indicator (ADI) provides a three-dimensional
display of aircraft attitude and flight control system commands.
The attitude director indicator displays:

pitch and roll commands

flight director steering commands

localizer and glideslope deviation

rate-of-turn

radio altitude

decision height

speed deviation.

A rate-of-turn sensor detects aircraft lateral turn rate and drives


the ADI rate-of-turn display.

4A-28

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Avionics
Two bars flanking the aircraft symbol display steering commands
from the flight director. The bars are servo-driven for combined
pitch and roll commands. Numerous warning flags within the
indicator alert the crew to invalid information received by the ADI.

Horizontal Situation Indicator


A typical horizontal situation indicator displays:

aircraft position and heading in relation to magnetic or true


north

selected heading and selected course

distance to and from a DME station or waypoint

deviation from selected VOR, localizer (LOC), or other


navigation aid

vertical deviation from glideslope, and TO/FROM and


bearing/track pointer information

speed, elapsed time or time-to-go.

Numerous warning flags appear to alert the crew to invalid data


and system and component failures.

Collins EFIS-85 (Learjet 55B/C)


The Collins EFIS-85 electronic flight instrument system (EFIS)
consists of:

four EFD-85 electronic flight displays

one MFD-85A multifunction display

one WXP-85C weather radar panel

one EFIS control panel

two DCP-85E display control panels

two CHP-86B course heading panels

two DPU-85G display processor units

one MPU-85G multifunction processor unit

EFIS cooling panel.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

4A-29

CAE SimuFlite
Two electronic flight displays on each side of the instrument
panel replace the mechanical attitude director and horizontal situation indicators with color CRTs. The top unit of each pair functions as an electronic attitude director indicator (EADI). The bottom unit is an electronic horizontal situation indicator (EHSI). The
multifunction display is both a weather radar and navigation information display.
If an EADI or EHSI fails, the operating display can present a
combined EADI/EHSI display. The multifunction function display
also can replace a failed EADI or EHSI.
The electronic flight instrument system receives data from various sources:

VHF navigation equipment (VOR/LOC/glideslope)

distance measuring equipment

automatic direction finding (ADF)

flight control system

radio altimeter

air data system

autopilot

weather radar.

The system processes this data and presents it on the EADI,


EHSI, and multifunction display.

EADI
Each electronic attitude director indicator is a color CRT driven
by a display processor unit. The EADI displays:

localizer deviation

glideslope deviation

radio altitude

decision height

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Learjet 55
September 2003

Avionics

angle-of-attack fast/slow

flight director command bars

autopilot and flight director annunciators

data loss and system failure warnings.

A mechanical inclinometer on the bottom of the display uses a


weighted ball in a curved tube to show aircraft slip.

EHSI
Each electronic horizontal situation indicator presents the same
information as its mechanical counterpart. The EHSI displays:

aircraft position and heading with respect to magnetic or


true north

selected heading and selected course

DME slant range

vertical deviation from glideslope

TO/FROM indication from the selected VOR navigation aid

bearing and track information

ground speed in knots

navigation source selected.

The EHSI operates in either full-compass format, partial-compass format, or weather data mode. Full-compass format displays a 360 compass rose; partial-compass displays only 90 of
compass coordinates.
The advantage of a partial compass format is the ability to display additional information such as weather radar returns, navigation aid position, range rings, and wind vector. Format selection is through the display controller.
System failures displayed on the EHSI include heading, course,
azimuth and vertical deviation failure.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

4A-31

CAE SimuFlite
Multifunction Display
The multifunction display (MFD) on the center instrument panel
replaces the standard weather radar display. Driven by the multifunction processor unit, the MFD presents weather radar, navigation, and checklist data.
Controls on the MFD allow the selection of radar, navigation,
flight plan, and emergency data. Line select and line advance
buttons allow cursor movement and mode selection.

Weather Radar Panel


A weather radar panel is below the MFD. This panel contains the
controls normally found on most radar systems: mode selection,
gain adjustment, antenna tilt, and range selection.
Additional buttons allow the selection of target alerting, display
freezing, and stabilization disabling.

Display Control Panels


A display control panels for each side of the EFIS are on the
pedestal. Each panel contains controls for selecting HSI display
format, navigation source, bearing point, course transfer, and
HSI weather radar display.
Additional controls vary display brightness, select decision
height, and test the radio altimeter.

Course Heading Panels


A course heading panel for each side of the EFIS are on the
pedestal. Each panel contains EHSI controls for selecting
course, heading, and navigation data. Pressing a pushbutton on
the course and heading knobs respectively slews the HSI course
arrow to the selected VOR station and the heading cursor to the
current aircraft heading.

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September 2003

Avionics
Processor Units
The display processor units are the heart of the electronic flight
instrument system. The processor units receive information from
the navigation receivers, gyros, weather radar, and guidance
systems to provide an integrated display of navigation and aircraft guidance information on the EADIs, EHSIs, and MFD.
Navigation and guidance equipment provide pitch and roll information, heading, glideslope, localizer (LOC), course deviation,
bearing (NAV and ADF), aircraft position, airspeed, and ground
speed. The processor units process this information, then present it on the respective display.

EFIS Cooling Panel


The EFIS cooling panel on the center instrument panel has
annunciators for the displays and processor units. If a fan fails,
the respective annunciator illuminates.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

4A-33

CAE SimuFlite

4A-34

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

The Learjet 55/55B/C direct current (DC) electrical system provides and distributes 28.5V DC power to the appropriate buses
for systems requiring direct current.

Power Sources
DC electrical power sources are:

two 36 amp-hour, 24V DC lead-acid batteries or optional


40 amp-hour, 24V DC nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cad) batteries
(S/N 102 and subsequent may have two optional high
capacity lead-acid batteries)

two engine-driven 30 volt, 400A DC generators

external DC power supply

single or optional dual emergency power pack system


(Learjet 55)

dual emergency battery system (Learjet 55B/C).

Batteries
Two lead-acid or optional nickel-cadmium batteries in the aft
compartment provide secondary aircraft electrical power as well
as power for engine starts when external power is not used.

Lead-Acid Batteries
Two 36 ampere-hour, 24V DC lead-acid batteries supply main
battery power through their respective Battery buses. Each plastic battery case contains 12 interconnected cells filled with electrolyte (i.e., diluted sulfuric acid). Two vents, one on each battery
case, expel hydrogen gags as the battery charges and discharges. The vents also drain electrolyte spillage or overflow.
On S/N 104 and subsequent and aircraft with AAK 55-83-5, a
battery vent sump jar on the lower aft side of the left battery contains bicarbonate of soda to neutralize any electrolyte spillage,
overflow, or hydrogen gas vented from the batteries.
Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

4B-1

Electrical System

DC Electrical System

CAE SimuFlite
Nickel-Cadmium (Ni-Cad) Batteries
Aircraft with optional ni-cad batteries have two 40 ampere-hour,
24V DC batteries in the aft compartment to supply main battery
power. Each stainless steel battery case contains 19 or 20 cells
and has a removable cover. Type TCA 5 batteries have 19 cells;
types TCA 5-20 and TCA 5-20-1 have 20 cells.
The battery vent system consists of hoses connected to the battery case vent ports and overboard vents. The right drain vents
aft and the left drain vents forward to produce an airflow through
the batteries. Ensure the gas vents are clear at all times. If the
vents are not properly vented, a hydrogen gas build-up can lead
to an explosion. Electrolyte spillage can corrode the aircraft.

Battery Switches
The two-position battery switches (BAT 1/2/OFF) on the lower
center instrument panel control the aircraft batteries. Each battery is wired directly to the corresponding Battery bus.
When either battery switch is on (i.e., in the BAT position), the corresponding 16-volt battery relay closes to connect the respective
Battery bus to the Battery Charging bus. When the switch is OFF,
the battery relays de-energize, isolating the affected Battery bus
from the Battery Charging bus.

BAT TEMP Indicator (Ni-Cad Batteries)


On aircraft with ni-cad batteries, the dual BAT TEMP L/R indicator on the pilots switch panel or in the center pedestal is
divided into three temperature ranges, color-coded as follows:

lower green band 50F to 140F

center yellow band 140F to 160F

upper red band above 160F.

Battery Overheat Annunciators


A battery overheat warning system alerts the crew of an imminent
battery overheat condition. When battery temperature reaches
4B-2

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Electrical System
140F, the red BAT 140 annunciator illuminates; if this occurs in
flight, follow the Abnormal Procedures checklist. If it occurs during
engine start, do not take off.
When battery temperature reaches 160F, the red BAT 160
annunciator illuminates. If this occurs in flight, identify the malfunctioning battery on the BAT TEMP indicator, isolate that battery
by setting its switch to OFF, and follow the Abnormal Procedures
checklist. If it occurs on the ground, do not take off. In all cases,
replace the battery.

Generators
A 30V DC, 400 amp, air-cooled, brushless generator on each
engine generates 28.5V DC output with a maximum load limit of
325 amps. During normal operation, both generators operate in
parallel to supply those systems requiring DC power. If no oil
pressure registers during an engine start, the affected generator
cannot come on-line.

Starter-Generator Switches
Two three-position starter-generator switches (GEN/OFF/START
L/R) on the center switch panel control the engine generators
(see Engine Starting, this chapter).

L/R GEN RESET Switches


The two-position (RESET/NORM) switches on the center switch
panel are spring-loaded to the NORM position. If a generator
exceeds 31V DC output, the corresponding voltage regulator
energizes an overvoltage relay to open the affected generator
field circuit.
Momentarily pressing the applicable GEN RESET switch to
RESET resets the overvoltage relay and closes the affected generator field circuit. The GEN RESET switch has no effect on the
corresponding START GEN switch that is set to OFF.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4B-3

CAE SimuFlite
DC Electrical System
Learjet 55B/C
LEFT
GENERATOR

TRIP

VOLTAGE
REGULATOR

RESET

L
GEN

CONTROL

D
C

2
1
x100

A
M
P
S

L LANDING LIGHT

G
E
N

L GEN
RESET
NORM

FIELD
CONTROL

LEFT
BATTERY

A
M
P
S

HOT
L STALL WARNING
ENTRY LIGHTS

L
D
C

B
U
S

STARTER

STARTER
ENGAGED LIGHT

275A
AIR IGN

FUEL COMPUTER
45 - 50% N 2

L IGN
& START

BAT 1

GEN
OFF

OFF

START
PRIMARY TRIM
STBY
PUMP

1
30

EMER
BUS
CONTROL

EMER BUS
2

20
10

NORMAL

FUEL CONTROL
RELAY PANEL

D
C
V
O
L
T
S

AUXILIARY
HYDRAULIC PUMP

C
H
A
R
G
I
N
G

FUEL COMPUTER
45 - 50% N2

STBY
PUMP

RIGHT
BATTERY

B
A
T
T
E
R
Y

GROUND POWER
OVERVOLT
CUTOUT

GROUND POWER CONTROL


(MUST HAVE ONE BATTERY
SWITCH ON)

OFF

IDLE TO
70%

AIR
IGNITION
BOX

OFF

BAT 2
START
OFF

FUEL CONTROL
RELAY PANEL

OFF
R IGN
& START

B
U
S

AIR
IGNITION
BOX

GE
N

FUEL FLOW
DC VOLTMETER
DEFOG HEAT (INTERNAL)
BLOWER BUS
INTERNAL AUX DEFOG BLOWER
COCKPIT BLOWER
L CABIN BLOWER
R CABIN BLOWER
STAB ACTUATOR (PRIMARY TRIM
ACTUATOR POWER)
ELECTRIC HYDRAULIC PUMP
AUX HEAT LEFT
AUX HEAT RIGHT
FREON COOLING
STABILIZER HEAT
RECOGNITION LIGHT
UTILITY LIGHT (TAILCONE)
CABIN INTERIOR INTER BUS
CONTROL
DEFOG / CLIMATE CONTROL CABIN
BLOWER (POWER)

CUR
LIM

R AIR
IGN
STARTER

275A

HOT
R STALL WARNING

STARTER
ENGAGED LIGHT

R GEN
RESET

R
GEN

CONTROL
NORM
BATTERY POWER
GPU

RESET

LEFT GEN POWER


RIGHT GEN POWER

VOLTAGE
REGULATOR

FIELD
CONTROL

TRIP
RIGHT
GENERATOR

4B-4

R
G
E
N
R LANDING LIGHT

B
U
S
L

D
C

A
M
P
S

2
1
x100

R
D
C
A
M
P
S

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Electrical System

LEFT MAIN POWER


OVERLOAD
SENSOR
2A

L
E
S
S
E
N
T
I
A
L
B
B
U
S

20A

MAIN BUS CONTROL


PRI INV
L IGN & START (GENERATOR FIELD)

CONTROL

L LESS B BUS
L AIR IGN
L STBY PUMP
L JET PUMP & XFR V
L FW SOV
L ENG FIRE DET
L ENG FIRE EXT
CAB FIRE DET
L PITOT HT
L ICE DET
OXY VALVE
INSTR LTS
ROLL TRIM
YAW TRIM
FCC 1
MSP 1
PRI YAW DAMP
FCC / AHS FANS
BUS TIE

MAIN BUS

L
E
S
S
E
N
T
I
A
L
A
B
U
S

20A

AVIONICS MSTR
L FUEL CMPTR
L N1
HOUR METER
FPA
FLITEFONE
SELCAL
CAB AUDIO
FMS 1
OSS
CLOCK
SAT / TAS ALT ALERT
PRI ECP SEL
PRI ECP ANN
RADIO ALT
ATC 1
EADI 1
EHSI 1

MPU PWR 1
LORAN SENSOR
SEC ECP ANN
ATC 2
MPU PWR 2
EADI 2
EHSI 2
COMM 2
NAV 2
T / R CONT

EMER
BUS
CONTROL
EMER
BUS
CONT

EMER
BUS
TIE

1
EMER
BUS
CONTROL

20A

E
M
E
R
B
U
S

E
S
S
E
N
T
I
A
L
B
B
U
S

LEAR 55B
RIGHT ESSENTIAL B BUS
ESS B BUS TIE
R ESS B BUS
R AIR IGN
R STBY PUMP
R JET PMP & XFR V
R FW SOV
R ENG FIRE DET
R ENG FIRE EXT
R PITOT HT
R ICE DET
OIL TEMP
CAB AIR
INSTR LIGHTS
PED LTS
SYSTEM TEST
FCC 2
MSP 2
PRI YAW DAMP

A
B
U
S

3
LEAR 55B
RIGHT ESSENTIAL A BUS
ESS A BUS TIE
R ESS A BUS
AVIONICS MSTR
R FUEL CMPTR
R N1
AIR PRESS IND
HYD PRESS IND
AUTO TEMP CONT
CAB PRESS
STATIC PORT SEL
TAT PROBE HT

B
U
S

ADC 2 A / S
ADC 2 ALTM
VSI 2
CLOCK
AHS 1 XFR
EPD / DPU FAN 2
FMS 2

EMER BAT 1
L N2
NAV LTS
STROBE LTS
MAN TEMP CONT
TEMP CONT IND
FREON CONT
L BLEED VALVES
L STALL HT
L NAC HT
APR
SQUAT SW
ANTI-SKID
AHS 2 XFR
AHS 1
HF 1 ADPTR

HF 1 RCVR / EXCT
HF 1 COMM
MFD
DCP 1 & CHP 1
DPU 1
DME 1
RADAR 1
ADF 1
COPILOT RMI
MFD / MPU FAN
EFD / DPU FAN ANN
PASS INFO
T / R LIGHTS
T / R EMER STOW

BUS TIE

BLOWER BUS

R
E
S
S
E
N
T
I
A
L

L
P
O
W
E
R

50A

BUS TIE
INTERIOR BUS

EMER BUS TIE


WARN LTS
XFLOW VALVE
FUS TANK XFR PMP
L ITT
PRI PITCH TRIM
WHEEL MSTR
FLOOD LTS
AUDIO 1
ADC 1 A / S
ADC 1 ALRM
VSI 1
COMM 1
NAV 1
AVIONICS MASTER
SWITCH CIRCUITS

4
EMER
BUS
CONT

R
EMER
BUS
CONTROL

E
M
E
R
B
U
S

GEAR
WARN LTS
FUEL QTY
FUS TANK AUX PMP
R ITT
SEC PITCH TRIM
FLAPS
TRIM / FLAP INDS
AUDIO 2
AHS 2
PILOT RMI
SPOILER
SEC YAW DAMP
EMER BUS INV
AVIONICS MASTER
SWITCH CIRCUITS

R
P
O
W
E
R
B
U
S

PWR BUS TIE


R N2
EMER BAT 2
BCN LTS
AUX CAB HT
WSHLD HT
ALC SYSTEM
R BLEED VALVES
R STALL HT
R NAC HT
WING HT

STAB HT
WING INSP LT
NOSE STEER
RUDDER PED ADJ
DCP 2 & CHP 2
DPU 2
DME 2
SEC ECP SEL
ADF 2CAB DISPLAY
RAZOR

40A
40A

OVERLOAD
SENSOR

MAIN BUS
CONTROL
RIGHT MAIN POWER
2A

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

MAIN BUS CONTROL


SEC INV
R IGN & START (GENERATOR FIELD)

4B-5

CAE SimuFlite

4B-6

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Electrical System

DC Electrical System
LEFT
GENERATOR

Learjet 55
TRIP

HOT

STARTER

LEFT
BATTERY

STARTER
ENGAGED LIGHT
AIR IGN
FUEL COMPUTER
45 TO 50% N2
GEN

AIR
IGNITION
BOX

STBY FUEL CONTROL


PUMP RELAY PANEL

IDLE TO
70%

30
20
10

GROUND POWER
OVERVOLT
CUTOUT

OFF

D
C
V
O
L
T
S

GROUND POWER CONTROL


(MUST HAVE ONE BATTERY
SWITCH ON)

STBY
PUMP
START
OFF

FUEL COMPUTER
45 TO 50% N2
OFF
AIR
IGNITION
BOX

FUEL CONTROL
RELAY PANEL

GEN

B
A
T
T
E
R
Y
C
H
A
R
G
I
N
G

R IGN
& START

INTERIOR BUS

OFF

OFF

2A

L
275A

START

BAT 2

OVERLOAD
SENSOR

AIR
IGN

OFF

RIGHT
BATTERY

A
M
P
S

1
x100

B
U
S

FUEL FLOW
DC VOLTMETER
RIGHT ESSENTIAL A & B BUSES
1
LEFT ESSENTIAL A & B BUSES
DEFOG HEAT (INTERNAL)
BLOWER BUS
INTERNAL AUX DEFOG BLOWER
COCKPIT BLOWER
L CABIN BLOWER
R CABIN BLOWER
STAB ACTUATOR (PRIMARY TRIM
ACTUATOR POWER)
ELECTRIC HYDRAULIC PUMP
AUX HEAT LEFT
AUX HEAT RIGHT
FREON COOLING
STABILIZER HEAT
RECOGNITION LIGHT
UTILITY LIGHT (TAILCONE)
CABIN INTERIOR INTER BUS
CONTROL
DEFOG / CLIMATE CONTROL CABIN
BLOWER (POWER)

B
U
S

CUR
LIM

HOT
STARTER
STARTER
ENGAGED LIGHT

R GEN
RESET

NORM

GPU

FIELD
CONTROL

LEFT GEN POWER


RIGHT GEN POWER

1
1

S/N 003 TO 089 WITHOUT


AMK 55-84-1

RESET
TRIP

VOLTAGE
REGULATOR

CONNECT TO BATT
CHARGING BUS

Learjet 55
March 2002

R
GEN

CONTROL

BATTERY POWER

Developed for training purposes

RIGHT
GENERATOR

275A

BLOWER BUS

E
S
S
E
N
T
I
A
L
B

AIR
IGN

R STALL WARNING

LEFT MAIN POWER


MAIN BUS
CONTROL

MAIN BUS CONTROL


PRI INV
L IGN & START (GENERATOR FIELD)

B
U
S

NORM

L IGN
& START

D
C

L LANDING
LIGHT

G
E
N

L
GEN

CONTROL

BAT 1

FIELD
CONTROL

L GEN
RESET

L STALL WARNING
ENTRY LIGHTS

A
M
P
S

VOLTAGE
REGULATOR

RESET

L
D
C

20A

R
E
S
S
E
N
T
I
A
L
B
B
U
S

R
G
E
N
R LANDING
LIGHT

B
U
S
L

D
C

D
C

A
M
P
S

2
1
x100

A
M
P
S

40A

L ESS B BUS
XFLOW VALVE
L STBY PUMP
L FILL & XFER
L JET PUMP
L F/W SOV
L ENG FIRE DET
L ENG FIRE EXT
SMOKE DET
INSTR LTS
L PITOT HT
L ICE DET
L AIR IGN
OXY VALVE
PITCH TRIM
YAW TRIM
AFCS
AFCS PITCH
AFCS ROLL
AFCS YAW

BUS TIE

R ESS B BUS TIE


R ESS B BUS
R STBY PUMP
R FILL & XFER
R JET PUMP
R F/W SOV
R ENG FIRE DET
R ENG FIRE EXT
COMM 2 A/C BAT
INSTR LTS
OIL TEMP
R PITOT HEAT
R ICE DET
R AIR IGN
BLEED AIR
SEC PITCH TRIM
TEST SYSTEM
TAB FLAP POSN
SEC AFCS
GEAR
FLAPS
SPOILER

L
E
S
S
E
N
T
I
A
L
A

L ESS A BUS
AUX INV
L FAN RPM
L ITT
L STALL HT
L FUEL COMPTR
WARN LTS
MAN TEMP
PRI FLT DIR
AUDIO 1
COMM 1A OR
COMM 1
NAV 1
ATC 1
RADIO ALTM
FPA

B
U
S

20A

BUS TIE

R
E
S
S
E
N
T
I
A
L
A
B
U
S

R ESS A BUS TIE


R ESS A BUS
R FAN RPM
R ITT
R STALL
R FUEL CMPTR
WARN LTS
STATIC PORT SEL
FUEL QTY
AIR PRESS IND
AUTO TEMP
CAB TEMP
CAB PRESS
HYD PRESS IND
SEC FLT DIR
AUDIO 2
COMM 1B
(WOLFSBERG)
NAV 2
ATC 2
ALTM
CLOCK

L TURB RPM
EMER BAT 1
NAV LTS
STROBE
ANTISKID
AISLE LTS
L NAC HT
TEMP CONTROL
FREON CONTROL
WHEEL MASTER
RADAR
L ECS VALVE
SQUAT SW
AIR DATA SEN
ADF 1
DME 1
PRI MKR BCN
PRI RMI

L
E
F
T
M
A
I
N
B
U
S

50A

PRI VLF NAV


FLITE FON
SELCAL
PRI HF COMM SW
PRI HF COMM
PRI HF COMM
T/R STOW
T/R LIGHTS
HOT CUP
GALLEY
TOILET
PUMP
HEATER
AFT FUS TANK
AFT FUS TANK PUMP
XFER VALVE

BUS TIE

R
I
G
H
T
M
A
I
N
B
U
S

MAIN BUS TIE


BCN LTS
STEREO
WING INSP LTS
AFT BAG LTS
R NAC HT
WING HT
STAB HT
WSHLD HT
RH READ LT
R ECS VALVE
AUX CABIN HT
ALC SYSTEM
RUDDER PEDAL ADJ
R TURB RPM
NOSE STEER

ADF 2
DME 2
SEC MKR BCN
SEC RMI
SEC VLF NAV
CABIN DISPLAY
PASS INFO
EMR BATT 2
COMM 2
SEC HF COMM
SEC HF COMM
SEC HF COMM
SNSR HTR
CABINET LTS
T/R CONTROL

40A

RIGHT MAIN POWER


OVERLOAD
SENSOR

MAIN BUS
CONTROL
2A

MAIN BUS CONTROL


SEC INV
R IGN & START (GENERATOR FIELD)

4B-7

CAE SimuFlite

4B-8

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Electrical System

Emergency Bus System


Learjet 55B/C
PILOT'S CB PANEL
BATTERY 1

WARN LTS
XFLOW VALVE
FUS TANK XFR PUMP
L ITT
PRI PITCH TRIM
WHEEL MASTER
FLOOD LTS
EMER BUS
AUDIO 1
CONT
ADC 1 A/S
3
ADC 1 ALTM
VSI
COMM 1
NAV 1
EMER
BUS
TIE
L EMER BUS
3

L ESS A BUS

2
2

BATTERY
1

SWITCH
DECK A

SWITCH
DECK B
BATTERY
CHARGING
BUS

OFF

EMER
BUS

STAB ACT

L 26V AC BUS
NAV 1

AUX HYD PUMP


NORM

DC VOLTMETER

COPILOT'S CB PANEL

BATTERY
2

SWITCH
DECK A

SWITCH
DECK B
OFF

R ESS A BUS

1
BATTERY 2
EMER BUS
CONT
3

R 26V AC BUS
GEAR
WARN LTS
FUEL QTY
FUS TANK AUX PUMP
R ITT
SEC PITCH TRIM
FLAPS
TRIM/FLAP IND
AUDIO 2
AHS 2
PILOT RMI
SPOILER
SEC YAW DAMP

AHS 2
PILOT RMI

115/26V AC
TRANSFORMER
R AC BUS
26V AC
CONTROL

R EMER BUS

GROUND TO ACTIVATE RELAYS SUPPLIED THROUGH


EMER BUS POSITION OF EMER BUS SWITCH AND
ON POSITION OF BATTERY SWITCHES.

GROUND TO ACTIVATE RELAYS SUPPLIED THROUGH


EMER BUS POSITION OF EMER BUS SWITCHES.

POWER TO ACTIVATE CB PANEL RELAYS SUPPLIED


THROUGH EMER BUS CONT CIRCUIT BREAKERS AND
GROUND SUPPLIED THROUGH EMER BUS POSITION
OF EMER BUS SWITCH.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

SEC YAW DAMP


PULLER

115V AC

3
SECONDARY
EMERGENCY
POWER
SUPPLY

4B-9

CAE SimuFlite

4B-10

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Electrical System

DC Generator and Start System


L GEN
INTERFACE

LEFT STARTER

L VOLTAGE
REGULATOR
CROSS START
CURRENT
LIMIT

PCB

L START
L START
RELAY 2

EMER
BUS

L START
RELAY 1

NORM
OFF

OFF
BAT 1

BAT 1
LEFT
BATTERY

LEFT
BATTERY

LEFT
BATTERY
RELAY

LEFT
BATTERY
BUS

LEFT
BATTERY
RELAY

EXTERNAL
POWER
RECEPTACLE

EXTERNAL POWER
OVER VOLTAGE
CUTOUT CIRCUIT

RIGHT
BATTERY
RELAY

RIGHT
BATTERY

EXT
PWR
RELAY

EXTERNAL POWER
OVER VOLTAGE
CUTOUT CIRCUIT

RIGHT
BATTERY
RELAY

RIGHT
BATTERY

BAT 2

BAT 2

OFF

OFF

LEARJET 55

RIGHT
BATTERY
BUS

TRIP

L IGN
GEN

R AIR
IGN
R IGN
GEN

AIR IGN RIGHT

L GEN

LEFT
GEN
BUS

RESET

D
C

D
C

2
1
x100

A
M
P
S

CUR
LIM
DC VOLTS

BATTERY CHARGING BUS


30

RESET

RIGHT
GEN
BUS

R GEN

20
10

NORM

R GEN
CONTROL
CIRCUIT

D
C
V
O
L
T
S

R
GEN

FUEL
CONTROL
RELAY

CURRENT
SENSOR

TRIP

FUEL
COMPUTER
OVERVOLTAGE
GND
FIELD POWER

RIGHT
STANDBY
PUMP
R START
PCB

RIGHT STARTER

Developed for training purposes

R GEN
RESET

START R
OFF
GEN

R START
RELAY 1

NORM

OFF
R THROTTLE SW

A
M
P
S

AIR IGN LEFT

AIR IGN

R START
RELAY 2

March 2002

CURRENT
SENSOR

L
GEN

OFF

AIR IGN

LEARJET 55B/C

Learjet 55

DC AMPS

L GEN
RESET
L THROTTLE SW

R IGN &
START

FIELD POWER
OVERVOLTAGE
GND

L GEN
CONTROL
CIRCUIT

L AIR
IGN
EXTERNAL
POWER
RECEPTACLE

LH
GEN

FUEL
COMPUTER

GEN
OFF
START L

L IGN &
START

EXT
PWR
RELAY

LEFT
STANDBY
PUMP
FUEL
CONTROL
RELAY

R GEN
INTERFACE

CROSS START
CURRENT
LIMIT
R VOLTAGE
REGULATOR

RH
GEN

4B-11

CAE SimuFlite

4B-12

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Electrical System
L/R GEN Annunciators
Amber L/R GEN annunciators on the glareshield panel illuminate
if:

a corresponding generator fails or is off-line due to an


undervoltage or overvoltage (31V DC) condition

the corresponding START GEN switch is in either START or


OFF and at least one BAT switch is ON.

DC Ammeter
A dual-indicating DC ammeter (L/R DC AMPS) on the instrument
panel indicates amperage output of each generator. Ammeter
range is 0 to 400 amps, color-coded as follows:

green 0 to 320 amps (normal)

yellow 320 to 400 amps

red 400 amps.

DC Voltmeter
On Learjet 55, the voltmeter indicates Battery Charging bus voltage from 0 to 30V DC; the red range begins at 30V.
On Learjet 55B/C, when the EMER BUS switch is in the NORM
position, the DC voltmeter indicates the voltage on the Battery
Charging bus. However, if the EMER BUS switch is in the EMER
position, the voltmeter indicates the voltage of the left and right
main aircraft batteries through the EMER BUS control circuits.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4B-13

CAE SimuFlite

External Power
A ground power unit (GPU) connects to the aircraft DC electrical
distribution system through a standard external power receptacle
underneath the right engine pylon. To start an engine or operate
aircraft systems using external power, at least one BAT switch
must be in the ON position. If the external power source exceeds
approximately 33V DC, external power overvoltage protection
circuits open the external power relay and disconnect the external power from the aircraft DC distribution system. Auxiliary
power amperage must be limited to maximum to 1,100A and a
minimum of 500A, as specified on the placard above the external power receptacle.

DC Electrical Load Distribution System


The base of the DC distribution system is an electrical power distribution panel in the aft equipment compartment. All electrical
load current flows through the distribution panel, from which control circuits and distribution buses dispense electrical power
before either generator assumes the electrical load. The distribution panel is controlled by the switch panel on the lower center
instrument panel.
The distribution panel is composed primarily of a current limiter
panel and a generator control panel with distribution buses and
integrated protective devices. Components include current limiters, a generator interface box, DC relays, and voltage regulators.

Current Limiter Panel


The current limiter panel distributes electricity from the batteries,
generators, and external power to aircraft systems. Current limiters and current limiting fuses on the panel protect against
excessive current loads.
Current limiter failure typically occurs during engine starts; however, the operating generator is regulated to provide lower than
normal voltage during cross starts to prevent overloading the
275A current limiters.
4B-14

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Electrical System
A spare current limiter box, if installed, is in the aft compartment and contains a spare current limiter of each size used in
the aircraft.
The red CUR LIM annunciator on the glareshield panel indicates
the continuity of two 275A current limiters, which connect the
Battery Charging bus to the Generator buses. If both current limiters fail, the ships batteries power the Battery Charging bus
and the Essential buses on S/N 003 through 089 without AMK
55-84-1. The Essential buses are tied to the generator bus on
S/N 003 through 089 with AMK 55-84-1 and S/N 090 and subsequent.
Sensors wired across the current limiter terminals illuminate the
CUR LIM annunciator if either current limiter fails.

Generator Control Panel


The generator control panel functions as a voltage regulator by
monitoring generator output, then regulating the generator to
meet the demands of the system. When the generators are operating in parallel, the generator control panel reads the differences
in generator voltage and feeds the change to the voltage regulator. In addition, an equalizing circuit allows the control relay to
completely isolate a tripped generator.
The generator control panel also takes a generator off-line if it
senses undervoltage or reverse current. Usually a generator
shutdown due to a ground fault or an overvoltage can be brought
back on-line by momentarily pressing the GEN RESET button.

Generator Interface Box


Each generators interface box provides linkage for the following
circuits:

an input DC voltage circuit between the voltage regulator


and the aircrafts DC bus. On S/N 003 through 088, this
circuit is between the voltage regulator and the generator;
on S/N 089 and subsequent, it is between the voltage regulator and the current limiter panel

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4B-15

CAE SimuFlite

an equalizer circuit between the voltage regulator and the


current limiter panel

a current-limiting, cross-starting circuit between the voltage


regulator and the generator.

DC Relays
A relay serves as a gate through which current flows to power
specific components; it opens or closes in response to particular
switch positions or to certain system conditions.

Voltage Regulators
Two solid state voltage regulators on the left side of the aft
equipment compartment, one for each engine, maintain a constant output voltage (approximately 28V DC) to the Generator
buses under varying engine speeds and load conditions by automatically adjusting the generator field current. Four circuits in
each regulator function as follows:

the voltage regulator equalizer circuit connects during parallel generator operation. This equalizer circuit senses any
change in the applicable generator load and automatically
adjusts the respective generator field until a balanced condition results

if a generator overvoltage condition occurs (31 0.5V DC),


an overvoltage regulator circuit completes a ground to a
solenoid in the generator reset/trip relay. See GEN RESET
switches in this section

an auxiliary regulator circuit receives voltage from the S+


terminal on the generator

another circuit limits generator current during engine crossstarting and ground operation.

4B-16

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Electrical System

DC Bus System
The Learjet 55 electrical system uses 15 DC distribution buses
to supply power from the engine generators, the aircraft batteries, and/or a ground power unit (GPU) to systems and equipment
requiring 28V DC current. The Learjet 55 DC buses are:

Battery 1 and 2

Left and Right Generator

Battery Charging

Left and Right Main Power

Left and Right Essential A

Left and Right Essential B

Interior (S/Ns 90, 92, 93, 97, and subsequent)

Blower

Left and Right Main.

The Learjet 55B/C electrical systems use the following 17 DC


distribution buses:

Battery 1 and 2

Left and Right Generator

Battery Charging

Left and Right Main Power

Left and Right Essential A

Left and Right Essential B

Blower

Interior

Left and Right Power

Left and Right Emergency.

Battery Buses
The main aircraft batteries feed the corresponding Battery buses
in the circuit breaker panels through 20A current limiters.
Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4B-17

CAE SimuFlite
Equipment connected to the Battery buses is always available
for use, regardless of the battery switch position. The following
circuits are wired to the Left Battery bus:

left stall warning system

single point refueling panel

external battery switch on S/N 127 and subsequent and


prior aircraft with optional external battery switch
installed.

entry door light

optional tailcone compartment light.

The following circuits are wired to the right battery bus:

right stall warning system

baggage compartment lights

Generator Buses
Each generator feeds power to its respective Generator bus,
which connects to the Battery Charging bus through a 275A
current limiter.
The Generator buses power the following buses or circuits:

Battery Charging bus through the 275A current limiters

Left and Right Main buses (Learjet 55)

Left and Right Power buses (Learjet 55B/C) in the circuit


breaker panels through a 100A current limiter, an overvoltage sensor, and a control relay

Main Power buses in the circuit breaker panels through 10A


current limiters

Essential A and B buses (S/N 089 and subsequent and


aircraft with AMK 55-84-1)

associated AC inverter

left or right landing light.

4B-18

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Electrical System
Battery Charging Bus
During normal operation, each generator supplies 28V DC
regulated output to its respective Generator bus, which in turn
applies voltage to the Battery Charging bus through a 275A
current limiter.
Without engine power or a loss of both 275A current limiters, the
main aircraft batteries and/or a ground power unit feed the
Battery Charging bus, which, on S/N 003 through 089 and aircraft without AMK 55-84-1, powers the Essential buses in the
circuit breaker panels through 50A current limiters. On S/N 090
and subsequent and aircraft with AMK 55-84-1, the Generator
buses supply the Essential buses.
At least one battery switch must be on to connect the GPU output voltage to the Battery Charging bus.
The Battery Charging bus powers the following circuits:

fuel flow

DC Voltmeter

internal defog heat

Blower bus, which powers the internal auxiliary defog blower,


the cockpit blower, and the left and right cabin blowers

stabilizer actuator (primary trim actuator power)

electric hydraulic pump

left and right auxiliary heat

Freon cooling

stabilizer heat

recognition light

cabin interior bus control

Left and Right Essential A/B buses (S/N 003 through 089
without AMK 55-84-1).

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4B-19

CAE SimuFlite
Essential A and B Buses
On S/N 003 through 089 without AMK 55-84-1, the Battery
Charging bus feeds the Essential DC buses through a current
limiter and a circuit breaker.
On S/N 090 and subsequent and aircraft with AMK 55-84-1,
the Generator buses feed the Essential buses.
The Essential buses in early unmodified aircraft depend on the
Battery Charging bus for power. If both 275A Battery Charging
bus current limiters fail simultaneously, generator power is isolated from the Battery Charging bus. The only remaining power
for Essential bus loads is the main aircraft batteries. If the aircraft
is operated in this condition with minimum IFR equipment and
assuming the batteries are new and fully charged, the batteries
will deplete in 30 minutes or less, and power is lost to the Battery
buses, Battery Charging bus, and Essential A/B buses.
In later and modified models with Essential buses independent
of the Battery Charging bus, the negative impact of dual 275A
current limiter failure is greatly reduced. In this case, there is a
significantly lower drain on the aircraft batteries, and if the batteries fail, power is lost only to the Battery buses and Battery
Charging bus.
On the Learjet 55B/C, when the EMER BUS switch is in the
NORM position, the Essential A buses supply power to the associated equipment on the left and right Emergency buses; when the
EMER BUS switch is in the EMER BUS position, the main aircraft
batteries supply power to equipment on the Emergency buses.

Main Buses (Learjet 55)


The left and right Generator buses feed the left and right Main
DC buses, respectively, through a 100A current limiter, self-resetting overload sensors, and control relays. (See Overload
Sensors this chapter.)

4B-20

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Electrical System
Power Buses (Learjet 55B/C)
The Power bus in the Learjet 55B/C is essentially the same bus
as the Main bus in the Learjet 55. The name was changed in the
later models to avoid confusion between names of the Main bus
and Main Power bus.
The left and right Generator buses feed the left and right Power
buses, respectively, through a 100A current limiter, a self-resetting overload sensor, and a control relay.

Main Power Buses


The left and right Generator buses feed the left and right Main
Power buses, respectively, through a current limiter. The Main
Power bus supplies power to the Main bus control relay, the
starter and generator control circuits, and the inverter control
relays.
In the Learjet 55, the Main Power bus 2A CBs are on both the
left and right circuit breaker panels.
In the Learjet 55B/C, the Main Power bus 50A CBs are on the
left circuit breaker panel. The MAIN BUS TIE CB is in the second
row of the right circuit breaker panel.
The Left Main Power bus CBs are:

Left Main bus on the Learjet 55/Left Power bus on the


Learjet 55B/C

left ignition and start

primary inverter.

The Right Main Power bus CBs are:

Right Main bus on the Learjet 55/Right Power bus on the


Learjet 55B/C

right ignition and start

secondary inverter.

The ignition and start 7.5A CBs power the generator control
circuits.
Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4B-21

CAE SimuFlite
Blower Bus
The Blower bus on the right circuit breaker panel supplies power
to the cabin and cockpit blowers from the Battery Charging bus.
The Blower bus circuit breakers are:

AUX DEFOG

COCKPIT BLOWER

R CABIN BLOWER

L CABIN BLOWER

Interior Bus
The Interior bus CBs on S/N 90, 92, 93, 97, and subsequent
supply power through a 50A current limiter and a 50A CB to
equipment in the passenger cabin. The Battery Charging bus
feeds the Interior bus through the 50A INTR BUS CONT CB.
Although equipment in the passenger cabin varies from aircraft
to aircraft, a typical setup would include the following circuit
breakers:

INTR BUS CONT

STEREO/MAINT ICS

RH READ LTS

AISLE LTS

CABINET LTS

TOILET

GALLEY.

Bus Overload Sensors


Overload sensors between the Main buses and associated
Generator buses prevent a current limiter fault that could isolate
systems connected to the Main bus. If an overload condition
occurs (70A), the circuit breaker repositions a switch to de-energize a power relay and disconnect the Main bus.
Additionally, the switch applies a ground to trip the affected MAIN
BUS CONTROL CB on the Main Power bus. When the overload
4B-22

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Electrical System
sensor CB cools, the switch resets; however, the power relay
does not re-energize because of the open MAIN BUS CONTROL CB. Once the malfunction is corrected and the affected
MAIN BUS CONTROL CB is reset, the power relay re-energizes
and restores power to the MAIN BUS.

DC Circuit Breakers
Push-to-reset, thermal circuit breakers (CBs) protect the aircrafts DC electrical circuits. All DC and AC CBs are on the pilots
and copilots circuit breaker panels.
The pilots and copilots 40A ESS A and ESS B buses interconnect through the 20A ESS A BUS TIE and ESS B BUS TIE CBs
on the copilots circuit breaker panel.
The pilots MAIN BUS and copilots MAIN BUS interconnect
through the 50A MAIN BUS TIE CB on the copilots circuit
breaker panel.

Bus Tie Circuit Breakers


The buses on the left side of the aircraft connect directly to the
buses on the right side of the aircraft through the associated bus
tie CB.
If a bus control CB opens, the bus on the opposite side carries
the full load of the affected bus unless the affected bus load
exceeds the value of the bus tie, in which case the tie opens and
the affected bus loses power. If the combined load exceeds the
value of the unaffected control CB, the unaffected control CB
opens and power is lost to both sides.

Emergency Power Systems


The Learjet 55/55B/C emergency power systems are independent of the aircraft normal power supplies and provide both DC
and AC voltage for a limited time (approximate maximum 30 minutes) to corresponding critical systems if there is a total electrical
system failure.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

4B-23

CAE SimuFlite
Learjet 55 Emergency Power System
The Learjet 55 emergency power supply system has a nickelcadmium or lead-acid battery to provide 24/28V DC and 5V DC
power for critical systems if both generators fail. This emergency
power pack supplies power to the standby attitude indicator,
landing gear, flaps, and N1 indicator, as well as the emergency
power (EMER PWR) indicator. The aircraft generators deliver a
constant trickle-charge to the emergency power pack via the
right Essential B bus.
An emergency power switch (EMER BAT 1) on the center switch
panel controls the emergency power pack. The switch has three
positions: BAT 1/STBY/OFF.
If a DC power loss occurs with the emergency power switch in
STBY, the power pack automatically powers the standby attitude
indicator, engine N1 indicators, and the EMER PWR indicator.
If a DC power loss occurs with the switch in BAT 1, the power
pack automatically powers the standby attitude indicator, the
landing gear actuating and indicating systems, the N1 engine
indicators, and the flap actuating system (the flap position indicator is inoperative).
The EMER PWR indicator on the left instrument panel illuminates
during emergency power operation of the selected systems.

Optional Learjet 55 Dual Emergency Power System


If installed, a second emergency power pack powers the COM
2 radio and various other avionics specified by the original owner
at the time the aircraft was manufactured. The second systems
two-position ON/OFF switch is adjacent to the single emergency
power switch; the EMER PWR 1 and EMR PWR 2 indicators are
adjacent to the standby attitude indicator.
Unlike the Learjet 55B/C emergency systems, the Learjet 55
does not have emergency buses.

4B-24

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Electrical System
Learjet 55B/C Emergency Power System
The Learjet 55B/C has a dual emergency power battery system; the EMER PWR BAT 1/2 switches control the emergency
batteries.
Emergency battery 1 powers the 28V DC standby attitude indicator, the EMER PWR 1 annunciator, and lights in the following
equipment for approximately 30 minutes:

left and right fan speed indicators

magnetic compass

standby airspeed indicator

standby altimeter

standby attitude indicator.

Emergency battery 2 powers the following:

left and right fan speed indicators

landing gear indications

AHS 1 and 2 systems (11 minutes).

EMER PWR 2 Annunciator


With the EMER PWR BAT switches on (i.e., in BAT 1 and BAT 2
positions), the left and right Power buses supply the corresponding batteries through the 7.5A EMER BAT 1 and 2 CBs,
respectively.
If current flow to the Power buses is interrupted, the emergency
batteries, when on, power the associated equipment. During
emergency battery operation when the emergency batteries are
not being recharged by the normal system, the EMR PWR 1/2
annunciators on the center instrument panel illuminate.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4B-25

CAE SimuFlite
Learjet 55B/C Emergency Bus System
An Emergency bus system supplies 28V DC, 115V AC and 26V
AC to selected systems if both generators fail. In addition, the
emergency bus system de-energizes and isolates all nonessential equipment in the event of electrical smoke or fire.
The aircraft batteries power the DC equipment on the Emergency
bus while the secondary emergency power supply inverter provides AC power to the AC equipment on the Emergency bus.

Emergency Bus Circuit Breakers (CBs)


The aircraft batteries supply 28V DC power to the Emergency
bus system control circuits through the EMER BUS CONT CBs.
All EMER BUS CBs have red collars. With the exception of the
EMER BUS CONT CB and the EMER BUS TIE CB, all
Emergency bus CBs are on the top row of both the left and right
circuit breaker panels.
The EMER BUS TIE is on the top row of the pilots circuit breaker panel. The EMER BUS CONT CB is on the ESS B bus row in
each pilots circuit breaker panel just forward of the NORM BKUP
switch.

Emergency Bus (EMER BUS) Switch


The two-position EMER BUS/NORMAL switch on the center
switch panel selects the power sources for the Emergency
buses. When the EMER BUS switch is in NORMAL, the normal
electrical system powers equipment on the Emergency buses.
When the switch is in the EMER BUS position, the emergency
bus system powers equipment on the Emergency buses. When
the battery relays de-energize, the aircraft batteries are completely isolated from the Battery Charging bus and the normal
DC power distribution system. Selecting EMER BUS distributes
electrical power as follows:

4B-26

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Electrical System

DC power for the stabilizer actuator, auxiliary hydraulic


pump, and DC voltmeter switches from the Battery Charging
bus to the aircraft batteries.

DC powered equipment on the Emergency buses switches


from the associated Essential A bus to the aircraft batteries.
The EMER BUS TIE CB interconnects the left and right
Emergency DC buses.

An Emergency bus converter in the secondary emergency power


supply feeds 115V AC to the secondary yaw damper, puller circuit, and to the 26V AC transformer in the copilots CB panel. The
26V AC output from the transformer routes to the AHS 2 and
PILOT RMI CBs in the copilots panel, then switches to the NAV
1 AC CB in the pilots panel.

Learjet 55B/C Avionics Master and


Backup Power System
An avionics power system on S/N 135 through 147 powers
selected DC avionics systems on the pilots or copilots side. The
system consists of an AVIONICS MASTER switch for each
crewmember, a NORM BKUP switch in each circuit breaker
panel, and a control relay in each circuit breaker panel.
The control relays operate on 28V DC supplied through the corresponding AVIONICS MSTR CB in the associated circuit breaker panel. The AVIONICS MASTER and NORM BKUP switches
have no effect if the generators are off-line when the EMER BUS
is selected.

RADIO MASTER Switches


If installed, the RADIO MASTER switches power selected
equipment on the associated side. If power is on the aircraft,
moving the left or right RADIO MASTER switch to the ON position activates the corresponding control relay to power the associated avionics equipment. (See Avionics chapter).

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4B-27

CAE SimuFlite
Engine Starting
A 28V DC starter and igniter box on each engine provide engine
starting. Prior to starting an engine, set the following switches to
ON:

the BAT 1/2 switches (to supply power to the left and right
IGN & START CBs)

the applicable FUEL CPMTR (to supply fuel scheduling for


the engine start)

at least one INVERTER (to provide an AC power supply to


the OIL PRESS indicating system).

Starter
With the battery, fuel computer, and starter-generator switches
on, a 28V DC starter on the engine accessory section provides
normal engine starting from either external power or the aircraft
battery system. Once the engine stabilizes at approximately 45%
to 50% N2, the fuel computer turns off the igniters and the starter.
(See Power Plant chapter).

Igniters
A 28V DC ignition system consists of an ignition exciter box on
the left side of each engine. The igniters provide continuous ignition when the pilot manually sets the AIR IGN L/R switches as
follows:

OFF position power for ignition comes from the 7.5A


START IGN CB through the throttle quadrant ignition switch

AIR IGN position power for ignition comes directly from


the left or right 7.5A AIR IGN CBs to the ignition unit
(bypassing the throttle quadrant ignition switch).

An amber indicator above each ignition switch illuminates when


the ignition system is operating.

4B-28

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Electrical System
Starter Generator Switch in START Position
With the thrust lever at CUTOFF and the BAT switches ON, the
L/R IGN & START CBs apply DC power to close the left and right
number 1 start relays. Then with the GEN START switch set to
START, the corresponding IGN & START CB applies DC power
to:

close the corresponding number 2 starter relay

activate the corresponding standby fuel pump

shut down the cooling, auxiliary heat, and stabilizer heat


systems

activate the ignition switch in the throttle quadrant.

When the number 2 starter relay closes, the starter begins to


spool the engine and the red START indicator beneath the corresponding starter-generator switch illuminates. Moving the corresponding thrust lever from CUTOFF to IDLE closes the
switches in the throttle quadrant and activates the ignition system. When turbine speed (N2) reaches 45%, the fuel computer
energizes a fuel control relay to remove power from the number
2 starter relay and throttle ignition switches. The starter then disengages and the START indicator and AIR IGN annunciator
extinguish.

Starter Generator Switch in GEN Position


During the engine start sequence, when engine RPM reaches
idle speed, set the GEN START switch to GEN to accomplish the
following:

disengage the associated number 1 starter relay

shut down the corresponding standby pump

activate the corresponding generator

reset the cooling, auxiliary heat, and stabilizer heat


systems cutout relays.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4B-29

CAE SimuFlite
Engine Starting Methods
Soft Start
All starters have soft start provisions. When 28V DC is initially
applied to the starter, an internal resistor circuit allows only 10 to
14V DC to the starter. After approximately 1.5 seconds, the voltage drop across the resistor decreases until system voltage is
applied to the starter. This occurs on all types of engine starts.

External Power Start


An external power unit connects to a receptacle under the right
engine pylon to power the aircraft electrical system. The ground
power unit (GPU) must be set to provide a minimum 500 amps
to a maximum 1,100 amps to 28V DC.
The GPU connects to the aircraft electrical system through a
cutout relay. At least one main aircraft battery switch must be on
to enable the cutout relay; when the relay closes, the GPU distributes power to all electrical system DC buses. A voltage sensor removes power from the cutout relay to protect the electrical
system if the GPU voltage exceeds 33 2 volts.

Battery Start
A battery start differs from a GPU start only in that GPU power is
not available. Once an engine starts, its generator charges the
batteries and powers a cross generator start on the other engine.

Cross Generator Start


During a cross generator start, the operating generators voltage
regulator output reduces to approximately 26.5V DC to prevent
opening the 275A current limiter to the Battery Charging bus. The
operating engine remains at idle during the second engines
start.

4B-30

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Electrical System

AC Electrical System

PRI
INV

Learjet 55B/C

PRIMARY
INVERTER

OVERLOAD
SENSOR
60A

FROM
DC LEFT
GEN BUS

LOAD EQL CKT


115V AC OUTPUT

POWER
RELAY
PRI
INV

FROM DC
LEFT MAIN
POWER

WARNING
LIGHTS
CONTROL

FREQ SYNC CKT

PRI

2A

OFF
AUX
INV

WARNING
LIGHTS
CONTROL

WARNING LIGHT

AUX SWITCH LEFT BUS

P
S
O
FROM DC
LEFT ESS
A BUS

AUX
INV

PRI

2A

60A
OVERLOAD
SENSOR

115V AC OUTPUT

SECONDARY
INVERTER

OVERLOAD
SENSOR
60A

INV
SEC

LEFT AC BUS

L AC
BUS
L AC BUS
L AUX AC BUS
PRI AC VM
MACH TRIM
NOSE STEER
EL LTS
RADAR
26V AC CONT

L AUX
BUS
TO LEFT AUX AC BUS

PRI AC
VM
EMERGENCY
BUS
CONTROL
SI - 100
EMERGENCY
AC
INVERTER

150

A
C

100

A
C

V
O
L
T
S

50
0

7.5A

V
O
L
T
S

SEC AC
VM
0.25A

TO RIGHT AUX AC BUS


10A

R AC BUS
TO RIGHT AC BUS
N

A
U
T
O

26V AC
BUS

10A
115V AC

AC BUS TIE
RIGHT AC BUS

AC BUS TIE
R AC BUS
R AUX AC BUS
SEC AC VM
SPOILERON
EL LTS
CAB AC LTS
NOSE FAN
26 AC CONT

SI-100 115V AC
SEC YAW DAMP
PULLER

2A

26V AC EMERGENCY PWR

115V AC OUTPUT
FREQ SYNC CKT

POWER
RELAY
SEC
INV

2A

OFF

March 2002

LOAD EQL CKT

NAV 1

26V AC
BUS

115V AC

FREQ SYNC CKT

SEC
INV

26V AC EMERGENCY PWR

TO LEFT AC BUS

POWER
RELAY

FROM DC
RIGHT EMER BUS

Learjet 55

R AUX BUS

LOAD EQL CKT

FROM DC
BATTERY
CHARGING BUS

FROM DC
RIGHT GEN BUS

L OIL PRESS
AHS 1
FMS 1
ADF 1
COPILOT RMI

AUXILIARY
INVERTER

OFF

FROM DC RIGHT
MAIN POWER

T
R
A
N
S
F
O
R
M
E
R

26V AC BUS

26V AC

B
O
X

AUX SWITCH RIGHT BUS

P
S
O

S
E
C

P
A
R
A
L
L
E
L
I
N
G
C
O
N
T
R
O
L

AUX SWITCH RETURN

P
S
O

I
N
V
E
R
T
E
R

A
U
T
O

Developed for training purposes

WARNING
LIGHTS
CONTROL

T
R
A
N
S
F
O
R
M
E
R

26V AC

AHS 2
PILOT RMI
N

26V AC BUS
E

R OIL PRESS
FMS 2
ADF 2
NAV 2

4B-31

CAE SimuFlite

4B-32

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Electrical System

AC Electrical System

PRI
INV

Learjet 55

WARNING
LIGHTS
CONTROL

A
U
T
O

PRIMARY
INVERTER
LOAD EQL CKT

OVERLOAD
SENSOR
60A

FROM DC LEFT GEN BUS

FREQ SYNC CKT

PRI
INV

I
N
V
E
R
T
E
R

PRI

FROM DC LEFT MAIN POWER


2A
OFF

AUXILIARY
INVERTER

OVERLOAD
SENSOR
60A

FROM DC BATTERY CHARGING BUS

115V AC OUTPUT

FREQ SYNC CKT

POWER
RELAY
AUX
INV
AUX
INV
FROM DC ESS A BUS

LOAD EQL CKT

WARNING
LIGHTS
CONTROL

AUX INV
ON

P
A
R
A
L
L
E
L
I
N
G

OFF

B
U
S

26V AC
BUS
115V AC
L
E
F
T

L AC
BUS

L AC TO BUS

L AUX
BUS

A
C

AUX INV
L BUS
150

R BUS

100
50
0

A
C
V
O
L
T
S

AC BUS
PRI

SEC

SEC
VM

R AUX
BUS
10A

0.25A

R AC
BUS
10A
R AC TO BUS

B
O
X

SECONDARY
INVERTER

FROM DC RIGHT GEN BUS

SEC
INV

INV
SEC

FROM DC RIGHT MAIN POWER


OFF

March 2002

115V AC OUTPUT

FREQ SYNC CKT

POWER
RELAY

SEC
INV

2A

Learjet 55

LOAD EQL CKT

OVERLOAD
SENSOR
60A

Developed for training purposes

WARNING
LIGHTS
CONTROL

B
U
S

PRI
VM

C
O
N
T
R
O
L

2A

A
C

26V AC

T
R
A
N
S
F
O
R
M
E
R

115V AC OUTPUT

POWER
RELAY

2
6
V

A
U
T
O
T
R
A
N
S
F
O
R
M
E
R

115V AC

26V AC
BUS

ALTM & ROC


L OIL PRESS
PRI FLT DIR
PRI FLT DIR ATTD
PRI HDG & CRS SEL
NAV 1
ADF 1
PRI MACH A / S IND
PRI RMI / HSI BRG
PRI VLF BRG
L AC BUS
L AUX AC BUS
PRI FLT DIR
EL LTS
NOSE STEER
PRI VM
PRI YAW DAMP
MACH TRIM
AIR DATA SEN
AFCS PITCH
AFCS ROLL
PRI DIR GYRO
PRI VENT GYRO
RADAR
PRI FLT DIR ATTD
PRI RATE GYRO
PRI FLT DIR HDG
26V AC BUS
AC BUS TIE

7.5A

R
I
G
H
T
A
C
B
U
S

AC BUS TIE
R AC BUS
R AUX AC BUS
EL LTS
CAB LTS CB
SEC VM
SEC YAW DAMP
SPOILERON
SEC DIR GYRO
SEC VERT GYRO
SAT TAS COMP
SEC FLT DIR ATTD
SEC RATE GYRO
26V AC BUS

2A

2
6
V
26V AC

A
C
B
U
S

SEC VLF BRG


ADF 2
R OIL PRESS
TONE GEN
SEC FLT DIR CMD
SEC FLT DIR ATTD
SEC HSI
SEC HDG & CRS SEL
NAV 2
SEC MACH A / S IND
SEC RMI / HSI BRG

4B-33

CAE SimuFlite

4B-34

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Electrical System

AC Electrical System
The Learjet 55/55B/C AC electrical system receives DC power
from the aircraft generators and converts it to 115V AC and 26V
AC as the aircraft AC systems require. A primary and secondary
inverter in the aft compartment generate and distribute AC power
via a paralleling control box. Other AC system components
include two auto transformers that convert 115V AC to 26V AC
and overload sensors and current limiters that protect the system. In addition, an optional third inverter may be installed.

AC Inverters
Two 115V AC, 400 Hz, 1,000 VA solid state static inverters are in
the aft equipment section above the baggage compartment. An
exception is S/N 142, in which the inverters are in the nose
avionics compartment.
The left and right DC Generator buses supply 28V DC through a
100A current limiter, an automatic reset overload sensor, and an
inverter relay to the primary and secondary AC inverters, respectively. The DC Main Power buses power the inverter control
relays through a circuit breaker and the inverter switch. Either
inverter is capable of carrying the entire AC system load. At 400
Hz 1%, the inverter frequency is compatible with sensitive aircraft instruments.
During normal operation, the primary and secondary inverters
apply 115V AC power to the left and right AC buses, respectively, through the paralleling control box. The left and right AC buses
interconnect through the 7.5A AC BUS TIE CB on the copilots
circuit breaker panel.

Inverter Switches
Each of two INVERTER (PRI/SEC) switches on the center switch
panel controls its respective primary or secondary inverter. When
either switch is on (in PRI or SEC position), the associated power
relay supplies input power to the associated inverter. The 2A
Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4B-35

CAE SimuFlite
PRI-INV and SEC-INV CBs on the left and right circuit breaker
panels supply 28V DC power to the primary and secondary
inverter control circuits, respectively.

Optional Auxiliary AC Inverter


If installed, an optional auxiliary static inverter in the aft equipment compartment below the refrigeration compressor supplies
AC power to either the left or right AC distribution bus, as selected with the auxiliary inverter bus selector switch.

Auxiliary Inverter Switch


On Learjet 55 with an auxiliary inverter, two AUX INV switches
on the center panel control auxiliary inverter operation through
an auxiliary power relay. When selected ON, the AUX INV
ON/OFF switch applies auxiliary inverter power to the bus
selected on the AUX INV L BUS/R BUS switch.
On Learjet 55B/C with an auxiliary inverter, one three-position
AUX INV PRI/SEC/OFF switch controls the auxiliary inverter.
Selecting PRI applies power to the left AC Distribution bus;
selecting SEC applies power to the right AC Distribution bus.

Inverter Annunciators
The applicable amber inverter annunciator (PRI INV or SEC
INV) on the glareshield panel illuminates if the inverter supplies
less than 90V (switch OFF or malfunction) or if a malfunction
downstream reduces demand on the inverter to approximately
10 volt-amps. In addition, the annunciators illuminate if the primary or secondary inverter switches are selected OFF while
electrical power is available. The AUX INV annunciator does not
illuminate when the switch is off; it illuminates only if the switch is
on and the inverter fails.

Overload Sensors
An overload sensor on each inverter protects the inverter from
DC current flow overload damage. The overload sensor is a 60A
thermal CB mechanically connected to an internal switch.
4B-36

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Electrical System
When the overload sensor CB cools, the switch resets; however,
the power relay does not energize because the inverters control
CB is open. After the malfunction is corrected and the affected
inverter control CB resets, the power relay energizes and the
affected inverter comes back on-line.

Paralleling Control Box


The paralleling control box is in the aft equipment compartment
on all models except S/N 142, where it is in the nose avionics
compartment.
AC power from the inverters routes to the paralleling control box,
which provides automatic functions, switching logic, and warning
signals.
Automatic functions include the following:

An automatic frequency circuit synchronizes inverter output frequencies.

An automatic load circuit equalizes the AC load between


static inverters.

An automatic fault circuit isolates all open, fault to ground,


fault to 28V DC, and fault to 115V AC wires that connect to
the paralleling control box.

Switching functions for the paralleling control box include the following:

115V AC from the primary inverter to the left AC distribution bus

115V AC from the secondary inverter to the right AC distribution bus

115V AC from an optional auxiliary inverter to the left or


right AC distribution bus.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4B-37

CAE SimuFlite
If an inverter function becomes erratic, the paralleling box
reduces the malfunctioning inverters output. The minimum
acceptable voltage for reliable operation of the equipment
powered through the AC buses is 90V AC. If an inverter fails,
creating insufficient inverter current flow, or if an inverter control
CB fails, the paralleling control box illuminates the corresponding
amber annunciator (PRI INV, SEC INV, or AUX INV).

AC Buses
The primary and secondary inverters feed the left and right AC
buses respectively through the left and right 10A AC BUS CBs.
The 7.5A AC BUS TIE CB connects the L/R AC buses.
The auxiliary inverter can feed either the left or right AC bus
through the left AUX BUS or right AUX BUS CB, as selected with
the AUX INV L/R BUS switch.

Autotransformers
Two autotransformers, one in each pilots circuit breaker panel,
reduce the 115V AC voltage to 26V AC for certain aircraft and
avionics systems. The autotransformers also regulate the lowered output voltage so that it maintains a constant value regardless of variations in the input voltage.

AC Voltmeter and Bus Switch


On the Learjet 55, a single reading, vertical scale voltmeter (AC
VOLTS) in the center instrument panel monitors the 115V AC
distribution buses.
Selecting PRI on the AC BUS switch on the center switch panel
monitors the primary (left) 115V AC distribution bus. Selecting
SEC on the AC BUS switch monitors the secondary (right) 115V
AC distribution bus.
On the Learjet 55B/C, a dual-reading AC voltmeter monitors
both the left and right 115V AC distribution buses. The primary
and secondary voltmeter (PRI VM and SEC VM) CBs feed inputs
to the voltmeter.
4B-38

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Electrical System
Circuit Breaker Protection
Push-to-reset magnetic circuit breakers protect the aircraft AC
electrical circuits. Two circuit breaker panels, one on each side of
the cockpit, contain rows of circuit breakers arranged with AC
buses on top and DC buses on the lower three rows.
The top row contains the left and right AC bus, the 115V AC
bus, and the 26V AC bus CBs. In the Learjet 55B/C, the
Emergency DC bus is on the top row as well. The 7.5A AC BUS
TIE circuit breaker in the copilots panel interconnects the left
and right AC buses and powers the opposite bus if one bus CB
or current limiter fails.

Emergency AC Power
(Learjet 55B/C)
The 115V, 75VA SI-100 inverter provides emergency AC power
from the DC Emergency bus via the EMER PWR CB. (See DC
Electrical System, Emergency Power Systems.)
With the emergency bus switch in EMER BUS position, the
Emergency bus control circuits apply 115V AC power directly to
the following:

NAV 1 CB on the left 115V AC bus

SEC YAW DAMP and PULLER CBs on the right 115V AC


bus (55B only)

right 26V AC auto transformer.

With the Emergency bus switch in the NORM position, the


following occurs:

the left 115V AC bus distributes power to the NAV 1 CB

the right 115V AC bus distributes power to the SEC YAW


DAMP and PULLER CBs and the right 26V AC auto transformer (55B only)

all the equipment on the 26V AC bus is powered normally.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4B-39

CAE SimuFlite
Exterior Lighting
Landing/Taxi Lights
Two lights, one on each main gear, are full bright for landing and
dim for taxiing. A three-position (L or R/TAXI/OFF) LDG LT switch
on the center instrument panel controls the landing/taxi lights as
follows:

With the switch in the L or R (on) position, the lights receive


28V DC to illuminate full bright.

With the switch in the TAXI position, resistors shunt the


lights input power to 21V DC to dim the lights.

The landing light control circuits are wired through the main gear
down-and-locked switches; therefore, the landing lights are inoperative when the landing gear is not down and locked.

Navigation Lights
Navigation lights are on the forward portion of the wing tips and
in the vertical stabilizer aft bullet. The two-position NAV LT/OFF
switch on the copilots outboard switch panel controls the navigation lights. With the switch in NAV LT (on) position, the following occurs:

the navigation lights illuminate

most instrument panel avionics annunciators dim

most instrument panel and pedestal peanut lights dim

the LANDING GEAR position light dimmer rheostat activates.

The bulbs and control circuits receive power from the left Main
bus on the Learjet 55, or from the left Power bus on the Learjet
55B/C, through the 7.5A NAV LTS CB on the pilots circuit
breaker panel.

4B-40

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Electrical System
Anti-Collision (Beacon) Lights
Dual-bulb anti-collision lights are on top of the vertical stabilizer
and on the lower fuselage. The tandem mounted bulbs oscillate
approximately 180 at 45 cycles per minute. An integral lens concentrates the light beam and produces an illusion of 90 flashes
per minute due to the oscillating.
The BCN LT switch on the copilots outboard switch panel controls the lights, which operate on 28V DC supplied through the
7.5A BCN LTS CB on the copilots circuit breaker panel.

Strobe Lights
Strobe lights are in the outboard side of each winglet and in the
vertical stabilizer aft bullet. The strobe system consists of the
three lights, a power supply unit for each light, and the STROBE
LT switch, on the copilots outboard switch panel.
With the STROBE LT switch on, each lights power supply
receives 28V DC via the 7.5A STROBE LTS CB on the pilots circuit breaker panel. Each power supply produces a 450V DC
pulse to flash the associated light at a rate of approximately 50
pulses per minute.

Recognition Light
A recognition light is on the upper leading edge of the vertical
stabilizer. The two-position RECOG LT/OFF switch, on the copilots outboard switch panel controls the light. When the switch
is on, control circuits apply 28V DC from the Battery Charging
bus to illuminate the light. To extend the life of the bulb, turn the
recognition light off at altitudes of 18,000 ft or above. The light
and control circuits operate on 28V DC supplied through a 30A
current limiter.

Wing Ice Inspection Light


The wing ice inspection light below the copilots side window
allows inspection of the right wing leading edge for ice accumulation. A switch on the copilots dimming control panel controls
the 28V DC light via a 5A CB.
Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4B-41

CAE SimuFlite
Interior Lighting
Interior lighting includes systems for the cockpit, passenger compartment, and aft compartments.

Cockpit Lighting
Instrument Panel Floodlights
Three cold-cathode, fluorescent lights in the glareshield illuminate the instrument panel. The FLOOD rheostat on the pilots
dimmer panel controls and dims the floodlights. The 7.5A
FLOOD LTS CB on the pilots circuit breaker panel supplies 28V
DC to two power supply units that operate the fluorescent lights
on 600V AC.

Instrument Lights
Three 5V DC power supply units power the incandescent lighting
for the instrument panel indicators, center pedestal indicators,
and the magnetic compass. The 7.5A INSTR LTS CB on the
pilots circuit breaker panel feeds provides 28V DC to the power
supply units.
The pilots INSTR dimmer switch controls brightness for the pilots
engine instruments, stall margin indicator, flight instruments, subpanel, and auto-pilot controller mode selector switch lights.
Normally, a separate dimmer switch immediately forward of the
dimmer panel controls the pilots flight director LED readout.
Copilots INSTR dimmer switch controls brightness for the copilots stall margin indicator, copilots flight instruments, cabin
temperature indicator, pressurization instruments, and the copilots subpanel. A separate dimmer switch immediately forward
of the dimmer panel controls the copilots flight director LED
readout.
The copilots CTR PNL/PEDESTAL dimmer switch controls the
brightness for the center instrument panel (except engine instruments), magnetic compass, pedestal, and autopilot controller.

4B-42

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Electrical System
Switch Panel Lighting
The following panels have 115V AC electroluminescent lighting
via the 2A EL LTS circuit breakers on both pilots circuit breaker
panels:

both pilots switch panels

audio control panels

microphone jack panels

center switch panel

pressurization and temperature control panel

circuit breaker panels

dimmer panels.

The EL PANEL and C/B PNL rheostat switches on the pilots and
copilots dimmer panels control and dim the panel lighting.
The pilots EL PNL dimmer switch controls the electroluminescent lighting of the pilots inboard and outboard switch panels,
the center switch panel, the pilots audio control panel, the pilots
microphone control/jack panel, and the pilots dimmer panel. The
pilots C/B PNL dimmer switch controls the electroluminescent
lighting of the pilots circuit breaker panel.
The copilots EL PNL dimmer switch controls the electroluminescent lighting of the copilots outboard switch panel, the pressurization and temperature control panel, the copilots audio control
panel, the copilots microphone control/jack panel, and the copilots dimmer panel.

Map Reading Lights


Map reading lights on flexible conduits are on the left and right
sidewalls above the circuit breaker panels. A rheostat switch on
the base of each light assembly controls the light. The 7.5A
INSTR LTS CB on both pilots circuit breaker panels supplies
28V DC to the map reading lights.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4B-43

CAE SimuFlite
Optional Dome Lights
Optional dome lights in the overhead panel illuminate the entire
cockpit area. The OVERHEAD LIGHT rheostat switch (Figure
5C-25) on the copilots side panel controls and dims the dome
lights. The STEP LIGHT switch also controls these lights. The
7.5A INSTR LTS CB on the copilots circuit breaker panel supplies 28V DC to the dome lights.

Passenger Compartment Lighting


The passenger compartment lighting consists of aisle lights,
passenger reading lights, overhead lights, entry lights, NO
SMOKING/FASTEN SEAT BELT signs, lavatory lights, cabin
baggage compartment lights, and the refreshment cabinet lights.

Aisle Lights
Aisle lights on each side of the center aisle provide foot path
lighting. The AISLE LIGHT rocker switch on the left service cabinet near the entry door controls the aisle lights. The 7.5A AISLE
LTS CB on the pilots circuit breaker panel supplies 28V DC to
the aisle lights.

Passenger Reading Lights


Passenger reading lights are in the convenience panels above
the seats on each side of the cabin. Two directionally adjustable
lights and a push-on, push-off switch are in each convenience
panel, along with a fresh air outlet. The 7.5A AISLE LTS CB on
the pilots circuit breaker panel and the 7.5A RH READ LTS CB
on the copilots circuit breaker panel supply 28V DC to the passenger reading lights on the left and right sides of the cabin,
respectively.

Overhead Lights
Cold-cathode fluorescent lighting recessed in the cabin headliner provides general cabin lighting.

4B-44

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Electrical System
Normally, the three-position OVERHEAT LIGHT rocker switch on
the left service cabinet near the entry door controls and dims the
overhead lights.
In the event of cabin depressurization, the center lights automatically illuminate full bright if the cabin altitude reaches approximately 14,000 ft.
In aircraft with an optional emergency lighting system, two power
supply units illuminate the lights with 28V DC supplied through
the 10A CABIN LTS CB on the copilots circuit breaker panel. If
the normal electrical system fails, the emergency lights automatically illuminate.

Entry Light
A cabin entry door light on the left service cabinet illuminates the
lower door steps. The STEP LIGHT rocker switch on the left service cabinet near the entry door controls the entry light. The lights
are wired to the Left Battery bus through the 5A ENTRY LT CB
on the pilots circuit breaker panel; the light is on operative
regardless of the BAT switch position.

Baggage Compartment Light


The BAGGAGE LIGHT rocker switch on the left service cabinet
near the entry door controls the cabin baggage compartment
overhead light. The lights circuits are wired to the right Battery
bus through the 5A AFT BAG LTS CB on the copilots circuit
breaker panel; the light is operative regardless of the BAT switch
position.

Lavatory Lights
The LAV LTS switch in the vanity cabinet controls lights in the
lavatory headliner.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

4B-45

CAE SimuFlite
No Smoking and Fasten Seat Belt Signs
The flight crew controls the no smoking and fasten seat belt symbolic signs in the forward and aft cabin headliner. When the
switch on the cockpit center switch panel is set to NO SMOKING
FASTEN SEAT BELT, both symbols illuminate and an audible
tone sounds. When the switch is set to FASTEN SEAT BELT,
only the fasten seat belt symbol illuminates and the tone sounds.
In addition, a RETURN TO SEAT sign in the lavatory illuminates
whenever the fasten seat belt symbol is activated.

Optional Emergency Lighting System


If the normal electrical system fails, an optional emergency lighting system provides cabin and exit lighting. The system consists
of two emergency power supplies, an upper cabin entry door
light, an emergency exit/baggage door light, and the cabin overhead fluorescent lights.
Two sealed ni-cad batteries and a control circuitry module comprise each of two power supplies, one forward and one aft.

EMER LIGHT Switch


The three-position (TEST/ARM/DISARM) EMER LIGHT switch
on the pilots or center switch panel tests the system and provides automatic emergency lights illumination if the normal electrical system fails.
Setting the switch to TEST simulates a normal electrical system
power failure; a control circuit completes a power circuit from the
power supply batteries to illuminate the emergency lights.
Setting the switch to ARM arms the system so that if the normal
electrical system fails, the emergency lights automatically
illuminate.

4B-46

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Electrical System
Setting the switch to DISARM isolates the emergency lights from
the emergency batteries. Reposition the switch to ARM prior to
takeoff. If the switch is in the DISARM position and at least one
BAT switch is on, the amber light adjacent to the EMER LIGHT
switch illuminates to remind the crew to reset the switch to ARM.
Move the switch to DISARM prior to setting the BAT switches off.

EMER LTS NORM Switch


The EMERGENCY LIGHTING/NORMAL switch on the left service cabinet near the entry door manually controls the emergency lights. Setting the switch to EMERGENCY LIGHTING
illuminates the entry door, emergency exit/baggage door, and
cabin overhead lights.
For normal operation, set the EMER LIGHT switch in the cockpit
to ARM and the EMERGENCY LIGHTING/NORMAL switch to
NORMAL; this does not hinder automatic illumination of the
emergency lights in the event of overpressurization of the cabin
above 14,000 ft. This setting applies 28V DC to each power supply to maintain a standby mode; it also provides a trickle charge
to the ni-cad batteries.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4B-47

CAE SimuFlite
Electrical System
Learjet 55
Power Source

DC
Generators (2 engine-driven)
Batteries (2 nicad or lead acid)
AC
Static inverters (2)
Third optional inverter
Emergency power pack(s) (1 or 2)

Distribution

DC buses
Generator L/R
Battery L/R
Battery Charging
Essential A/B L/R
Main Power L/R
Main L/R
Blower
Interior
Emergency battery 1
Optional Emergency battery 2
AC buses
AC L/R
26V AC L/R

Control

Switches
START/GEN
RESET
Battery
Inverter
Auxiliary Inverter (if installed)
EMER BAT

Monitor

Annunciators
GEN L/R
BAT 140
BAT 160
DC ammeter
DC voltmeter
BAT TEMP gage

4B-48

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Electrical System

Electrical System (cont.)


Learjet 55
Protection

Learjet 55
September 2003

Circuit breakers
Current limiters
GPU overvoltage 33V DC
Generator overvoltage 31V DC
Inverter overcurrent 60A
Main/Power bus overcurrent 70A
Generator 325A continuous

Developed for training purposes

4B-49

CAE SimuFlite
Electrical System
Learjet 55B/C
Power Source

DC
Generators (2 engine-driven)
Batteries (2 nicad or lead acid)
AC
Static inverters (2)
Third optional inverter
Emergency power pack(s) (1 or 2)
SI-100 Emergency inverter

Distribution

DC buses
Generator L/R
Battery L/R
Battery Charging
Essential A/B L/R
Main Power L/R
Main L/R
Blower
Interior
Emergency L/R
Emergency batteries (2)
AC buses
AC L/R
26V AC L/R

Control

Switches
START/GEN
RESET
Battery
Inverter
Auxiliary Inverter (if installed)
EMER BAT
EMER BUS

4B-50

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Electrical System

Electrical System (cont.)


Learjet 55B/C
Monitor

Annunciators
GEN L/R
BAT 140
BAT 160
DC ammeter
DC voltmeter
BAT TEMP gage

Protection

Circuit breakers
Current limiters
GPU overvoltage 33V DC
Generator overvoltage 31V DC
Inverter overcurrent 60A
Main/Power bus overcurrent 70A
Generator 325A continuous

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

4B-51

CAE SimuFlite

4B-52

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Environmental Systems

Pneumatic Distribution
COCKPIT AIR
DISTRIBUTION

CABIN AIR
DISTRIBUTION

CABIN AIR
DISTRIBUTION

EMERGENCY
PRESSURIZATION VALVE

EMERGENCY
PRESSURIZATION VALVE
645

BLEED-AIR
SHUTOFF
VALVE

645

NACELLE HEAT

NACELLE HEAT

LP ENGINE BLEED

250

250

BLEED
AIR
MIX
VALVE

BLEED
AIR
MIX
VALVE

WING
ANTI-ICE

BLEED
AIR L

HIGH PRESSURE
SHUTOFF SOLENOID

WINDSHIELD
ANTI-ICE
GROUND
SERVICE

ALCOHOL
ANTI-ICE

LP ENGINE BLEED

BLEED
AIR R

HIGH PRESSURE
SHUTOFF SOLENOID
FAN SPINNER
ANTI-ICE

FAN SPINNER
ANTI-ICE

PRESS
SYSTEM

TEMP
CONTROL
SYSTEM

HYD
SYSTEM
FLOW
CONTROL
VALVE

HP ENGINE BLEEDS

LEFT
ENGINE

HP ENGINE BLEEDS
RIGHT
THRUST
REVERSER

LEFT
THRUST
REVERSER
TEMP
CONTROL
SYSTEM

RIGHT
ENGINE

TEMP
CONTROL
SYSTEM

RAM AIR
RAM AIR
HEAT
EXCHANGER

BLEED AIR
EXCHANGER OUTPUT

RAM AIR
PLENUM

CONDITIONED AIR
OVERBOARD

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4C-1

CAE SimuFlite

4C-2

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Environmental Systems

Pneumatic System

TO COCKPIT
SENSOR FAN

R
M
A
I
N

LEARJET 55B/C
(R BLEED VALVES)
R ECS VALVE

13
2

15

7.5A

E
S
S

B
U
S

R FW SOV

12

6
BLEED
AIR R

LEARJET 55B/C
(CAB AIR)
BLEED AIR CABIN

AIR ON

17

1A
T
E
M
P
C
O
N
T
C
R
E
W

23

DUCT
OV HT

HOT

5
4
3
2
1
COLD

T
E
M
P
C
O
N
T
C
A
B

24 CABIN TEMP CONTROL

3 R PRESS REGULATOR SHUTOFF VALVE

25 COCKPIT TEMP CONTROL

4 L PRESS REGULATOR SHUTOFF VALVE

26 COCKPIT TEMP CONTROL VALVE

5 DUCT TEMP SENSOR (645F)

27 CABIN TEMP CONTROL VALVE

6 PYLON TEMP SENSOR (250F)

28 SERVO PRESS REGULATOR

7 COCKPIT DUCT OVERTEMP SENSOR (300F)

29 COCKPIT TEMP TORQUE MOTOR

8 CABIN DUCT OVERTEMP SENSOR (300F)

30 CABIN TEMP TORQUE MOTOR

9 COCKPIT DUCT TEMP SENSOR

31 EMERGENCY PRESS ANEROID


SWITCH 9,500 FT CABIN ALT

10 CABIN DUCT TEMP SENSOR

32 10 SEC DELAY TIMER

11 L BLEED AIR MIXING VALVE


1 LEFT ECS CONTROL VALVE

12 R BLEED AIR MIXING VALVE

2 RIGHT ECS CONTROL VALVE

13 LP BLEED ENGINE

14 HP BLEED ENGINE

26

23 WARNING LIGHT CONTROL

2 L EMERGENCY VALVE

OFF

B
U
S

7.5A

7
1

P
W
R

14

16

32

1 R EMERGENCY VALVE

15 THRUST REVERSER AIR

RAM AIR

16 NACELLE LIP HEAT AIR

HEAT
EXCHANGER

10

20

18

CONDITIONED AIR

19 WING ANTI-ICE AIR

RAM AIR VENTILATION

20 WINDSHIELD ANTI-ICE AIR

19
AUTO

21

HOT BLEED AIR

18 WINDSHIELD ALCOHOL AIR

27

FLOW
CONTROL
VALVE

COLD CONDITIONED AIR

17 RAM AIR

29

22

SERVO AIR

21 VAC REG & HYD RES AIR

CONTROL AIR

22 GROUND SERVICE PORT

FORCED AIR

24

30
MAN

CABIN
TEMP

AUTO

TEMP CONTROL
(IND.)

OVERBOARD

28

25
MAN

TO COCKPIT AIR SENSOR


TO COCKPIT SKIN TEMP SENSOR
TO CABIN TEMP SENSORS
TO CABIN SKIN TEMP SENSOR

6
BLEED
AIR R

23

11
16

14
15
13

L ECS VALVE
EMER
PRESS

1
4
2

75A
LEFT
ECS
VALVE
CONTROL
BOX

CREW
TEMP

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

ENG FIRE
PULL

1A

OVERRIDE

MAN
TEMP

CAB TEMP
(IND)

1A

M
A
I
N

E
S
S

TO CABIN
TEMP GAGE

NORM

EMER
ON

L FW SOV
5A

AUTO
TEMP

COLD HOT

OFF

COLD HOT

E
S
S

B
U
S

LEARJET 55B/C
(L BLEED VALVES)
L ECS VALVE

P
W
R

7.5A

B
U
S

A
B
U
S

L FW SOV
1

5A

L
E
S
S
B
B
U
S

4C-3

CAE SimuFlite
Freon Cooling System
B
A
T
LEFT
CABIN
BLOWER
POWER

C
H
A
R
G
I
N
G

CABIN
FANS
LO
HI

OFF

HI
HI

B
U
S

COOL
F
A
N

FREON
CNTRL

LO

M
A
I
N
P
W
R

RIGHT
CABIN
BLOWER
POWER
1

B
U
S

5
LO

MOTOR

FREON
PRESSURE
SWITCH

2
4

COCKPIT
AUX FAN

OFF

CABIN
BLOWER
EXPANSION
VALVE
COCKPIT
EVAPORATOR

COMPRESSOR
CONDENSER

EVAPORATOR
PRESSURE
REGULATING VALVE

CABIN
BLOWER

RECEIVER /
DRYER

CABIN
EVAPORATOR

EXPANSION VALVE
COCKPIT
BLOWER

1 ENERGIZED WHEN GENERATOR IS ON


OR GPU IS CONNECTED
2 COCKPIT BLOWER ON LOW WHEN
FREON AC IS POWERED

HIGH PRESSURE VAPOR


LOW PRESSURE VAPOR
HIGH PRESSURE LIQUID
LOW PRESSURE LIQUID

3 OPEN WHEN CABIN TEMP CONTROL


VALVE IS OPEN 15 OR MORE
4 ENERGIZED WHEN STAB HEAT IS
POWERED AND DURING ENGINE STARTS
5 OPEN WHEN CABIN AIR IS ON
6 ENERGIZED OPEN DURING START

4C-4

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Environmental Systems

Cabin Air Distribution


1

R CABIN BLOWER CONTROL

CONDITIONED AIR

L CABIN BLOWER CONTROL

DEFOG HEATED AIR

HIGH HT CONTROL

FREON

LOW HT CONTROL

GROUND: FREON OR HEATED AIR


FLIGHT: CONDITIONED AIR

CABIN AIR CUT-OUT

GPU OR GEN ON

AC ON / START-DISABLE

BLOWER OVERLOAD AND CONTROL

HEAT CONTROL

CABIN

CABIN

FLOOR DIFFUSER
CABIN TEMP
SENSORS

FOOT WARMER
DIFFUSER

INTERNAL
DEFOG OUTLET

OVERHEAD
LIGHT
GASPER

1 CABIN
SENSOR
FAN

CABIN
TEMP
0

S/N 019 AND SUBSEQUENT;


SENSOR FANS ARE TIMED
(10 SEC) THROUGH SQUAT
SWITCH RELAY PANEL.

10

A
U HI L
X
O
H OFF
T

HI
LO

7 AUX CAB HEAT

CABIN
FANS
LO

80

COCKPIT FREON
EVAPORATOR

B
A
T

OVERHEAD VARIABLEOPENING AIR OUTLETS

LO

INTERNAL
DEFOG OUTLET
THERMAL
FUSE 430F

COCKPIT
BLOWER

THERMAL
FUSE
430F

5
OVERHEAD DIFFUSER

DOOR

B
L
L CABIN O
BLOWER W
E
R

15A

AUX
HT HI

AUX
HT LOW

C
H
A
R
G
I
N
G
B
U
S

B
U
S

6
INTERNAL
DEFOG BLOWER

B
U
S

R CABIN
BLOWER
15A

HI

INTERNAL
DEFOG
BLOWER

B
U
S

LO
TEMP
SENSOR
125-150

B
A
T

P
W
R

HI

OVERHEAD DIFFUSER
TEMP SENSORS
125-150

R
M
A
I
N

7.5A

HI

C
H
A
R
G
I
N
G

TAILCONE

SIDE WINDOW DIFFUSER

90

COCKPIT

CABIN SKIN
TEMP SENSOR

CABIN FREON
EVAPORATOR

FLOOR DIFFUSER
7

B
L
O
W
E
R

AUX
DEFOG
HI
L
O
OFF

VARIABLE-OPEN
AIR OUTLET

COCKPIT SKIN
TEMP SENSOR

SIDE WINDOW
DIFFUSER

COCKPIT
SENSOR
FAN

AFT
PRESSURE
BULKHEAD

COCKPIT AIR
TEMP SENSOR

B
U
S

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4C-5

CAE SimuFlite

4C-6

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Environmental Systems

Pressurization System
MANUAL CONTROL
VALVE

N.C.
VACUUM
REGULATOR
1

DIFFERENTIAL
PRESSURE RELIEF
(9.4 PSI)

N.O.

(TO CABIN CLIMATE


CONTROL SYSTEM)

3
N.C.

N.C.
4

FWD
PRESSURE
BULKHEAD
CABIN
ALTITUDE
LIMITER
11,500 FT

N.O.
5

MANUAL MODE SOLENOID

DEPRESSURIZATION SOLENOID

CABIN AIR DEPRESS SOLENOID

RELAY ISOLATION SOLENOID

PRESSURE SURGE CONTROL

82% PRESSURE SURGE


CONTROL SOLENOID

RH
THRUST
LEVER
SWITCH

AIR

MANUAL
CABIN
ALT

WARNING
LIGHT
CONTROL

OUTSIDE STATIC AIR


CONTROL AIR

March 2002

GROUND
CAB
PRESS

REGULATED VACUUM

Learjet 55

40

5
x

AL
TF
10 T
00

AFT
PRESSURE
BULKHEAD

CABIN
CONTROLL

INCR

RATE

AUTO

BLEED AIR

CABIN AIR

>82%

C
AC ABI
FT N

<82%

N.O.

CABIN
ALTITUDE
LIMITER
11,500 FT

AUTOMATIC
CABIN ALTITUDE
CONTROLLER

CABIN AIR

MAXIMUM
DIFFERENTIAL
PRESSURE
RELIEF
(9.7 PSI)

PNEUMATIC
RELAY

CABIN AIR
EXHAUST
CONTROL
VALVE

Developed for training purposes

8,750 FT
ANEROID
SWITCH

E
S
S

E
S
S

B
U
S

B
U
S

LEARJET 55B/C
CABIN AIR

CABIN
AIR ON

SQUAT
SWITCH
AIR

LEARJET 55
BLEED AIR
OFF

GROUND

10,000 FT
ANEROID
SWITCH

AURAL
WARNING
BOX

CABIN ALTITUDE
WARNING HORN

4C-7

CAE SimuFlite

4C-8

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Environmental Systems

Environmental Systems
This chapter describes the systems that extract, distribute, and
control engine bleed air. The pneumatic, pressurization, and air
conditioning systems are combined in this chapter to present the
flow of engine bleed air and its use throughout the aircraft.
The pneumatic system extracts bleed air from the engines
and transfers it to various systems (i.e., air conditioning, ice and
rain protection, and pressurization). In addition, bleed air pressurizes the hydraulic reservoirs and on some models the alcohol reservoir.
The air conditioning system routes engine bleed air collected
by the pneumatic system through a heat exchanger for cooling.
This section also discusses aircraft heating, the refrigeration unit,
and the auxiliary cabin heater.
The pressurization system utilizes engine bleed air to provide
cabin pressurization.

Pneumatic System
The pneumatic system provides engine bleed air for the following:

air conditioning and heating

cabin pressurization

airframe and engine anti-ice

alcohol anti-ice reservoir

Aeronca thrust reversers

temperature control system

emergency pressurization valves

hydraulic system.

Each engine supplies high and low pressure bleed air to its
respective mix valve. The mix valve combines the high and low
pressure bleed air and also acts as a high pressure shutoff valve.
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March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4C-9

CAE SimuFlite
Bleed air from the mix valves passes through shutoff valves to the
bleed air manifold for distribution to the various airplane systems.
The system consists of two independent distribution systems
connected to a common distribution point. Two bleed air switches
control the system; two annunciators on the glareshield monitor
system operation.

Components
Each distribution system consists of:

bleed air mixing valves

bleed air regulator and shutoff valves

emergency pressurization valves

bleed air check valves

bleed air switches.

A bleed air manifold assembly controls the distribution of engine


bleed air for systems that require it.

Bleed Air Mixing Valves


The bleed air mixing valve mixes the high and low pressure
bleed air to maintain a constant supply. In EMER, the emergency
pressurization valves open and route bleed air directly to the
cabin for pressurization. Bleed air to the wing, windshield, and
cabin distribution systems is not available.
Without power to the solenoid (switch in OFF), the mixing valve
prevents HP bleed air from mixing with the LP bleed, and only LP
bleed air is available to the aircraft systems. With power applied
to the solenoid (switch in ON), HP and LP are delivered to the
systems using bleed air. If insufficient LP bleed air is present, HP
bleed provides the only source for the mixing valve; a check
valve in the mixing valve closes and prevents HP bleed from
back-flowing into the LP port.

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Environmental Systems
Shutoff/Regulator Valve
A bleed air regulator and shutoff valve is in the bleed air supply
line from each engine. From the left and right pressure regulator
shutoff valve, bleed air is distributed to the wing anti-ice system,
air conditioning system, ground service port, pneumatic system,
windshield anti-ice, pressurization vacuum source, and hydraulic
system.
The bleed air shutoff/regulator valve is spring-loaded to the
closed position; it is opened pneumatically with the BLEED AIR
switch in ON whenever bleed air is available from the mixing
valve. Setting the appropriate BLEED AIR switch to ON opens
the valve at 5 PSI and limits system pressure to 35 2 PSI.
The normally open solenoid on the shutoff/regulator valve closes
whenever the BLEED AIR switch is placed to OFF or EMERGENCY. The valves, in addition to being controlled by the
BLEED AIR switches, are energized closed by two other means:

pulling of the associated ENG FIRE PULL T-handle

automatic activation of emergency pressurization through


the respective aneroid.

Check Valves
Bleed air check valves between the bleed air shutoff/regulator
valve and the manifold assembly prevent reverse air flow to the
ram air plenum. The check valves allow bleed air to flow from the
engine; they close with reverse flow. This prevents loss of bleed
air during single engine operation by stopping flow from the operative engine through the ducts to the inoperative engine.

Manifold Assembly
The manifold assembly in the aft compartment is the common
bleed air distribution point for the environmental and alcohol
pneumatic (anti-ice) systems. By routing bleed air to various systems, the manifold accomplishes the following:

Learjet 55
March 2002

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4C-11

CAE SimuFlite

cabin air conditioning

cabin pressurization

windshield and wing anti-ice

hydraulic reservoir pressurizing.

Conditioned air is the result of bleed air routed by the manifold


through the heat exchanger; it then travels to the cabin and cockpit through ducting. Controlling the amount of bleed air allowed
to bypass the heat exchanger varies cabin heating and cooling.
Cabin pressurization is the result of routing engine bleed air into
the cabin and controlling its escape through the cabin air exhaust
valve.
The manifold directs conditioned air through ducting and control
valves to external outlet nozzles forward of the windshield to provide windshield anti-icing. In addition, air is directed through the
manifold to the wing leading edges to provide anti-ice protection.

BLEED AIR Switch


The lever-locking, three-position BLEED AIR switches on the
copilot lower subpanel control bleed air mixing, regulate air flow,
and operate the emergency pressurization valve (see
Pressurization System, this chapter) through the Environmental
Control System (ECS) box.
With a BLEED AIR switch in the OFF position, the HP solenoid
is de-energized closed and HP bleed air flow stops.
With the BLEED AIR switch in the ON position, the shutoff/regulator valve and the emergency pressurization valve do not
receive electrical power. Both valves remain in their respective
normally open and closed position if DC power is lost. When a
BLEED AIR switch is placed in ON, the shutoff/regulator valve
opens to allow regulated air flow into the bleed air distribution
manifold; the HP solenoid is energized open to allow HP bleed
air flow into the mixing valve. The emergency pressurization
valve is de-energized closed. The associated emergency pres4C-12

Developed for training purposes

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March 2002

Environmental Systems
surization aneroid also receives 28V DC power when the BLEED
AIR switch is ON (see Pressurization System, this chapter).
When the associated BLEED AIR switch is placed in EMER, the
HP shutoff solenoid is de-energized closed and the bleed air
shutoff/regulator valve closes to stop the flow of air into the bleed
air distribution manifold. The emergency pressurization valve
receives electrical power and is energized open to allow hot
unconditioned bleed air to flow directly into the cabin distribution
ducts for emergency pressurization. In addition, the amber
EMER PRESS annunciator illuminates (see Pressurization
System, this chapter).

Duct and Pylon Overtemp Sensors


Each engines bleed air system has two overtemp sensors: one
for the duct and one for the pylon. The duct sensor completes a
ground to illuminate the red L or R BLEED AIR annunciator and
the red MSTR WARN light. The lights illuminate when the
respective duct reaches approximately 645F. When the duct
temperature drops below 615F the lights extinguish. Depending
on altitude and power settings, temperature in the duct varies
between 200F and 600F.
The normally open pylon overtemp sensor closes if the pylon
temperature exceeds approximately 250F; this illuminates the
red L or R BLEED AIR annunciator. When the pylon temperature
drops below 240F the annunciator extinguishes.

Flow Control Valve


The flow control valve regulates the volume of air entering the
cabin through the air-conditioning and heating system. A venturi
downstream of the flow control valve senses system pressure
and modulates the flow control valve to maintain a constant flow.
The flow control valve also acts as a cabin air shutoff valve. The
CABIN AIR switch turns the flow of air to the cabin on or off. Hot
bleed air routes from the flow control valve through either the
temperature control valves or the heat exchanger.
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March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4C-13

CAE SimuFlite
CABIN AIR Switch
The two-position CABIN AIR switch on the pressurization and
temperature control panel manipulates the flow control valve.
With the BLEED AIR switches in ON, setting the CABIN AIR
switch to ON de-energizes the valves solenoid to allow system
pressure to the valves controlling chambers.
On S/N 019 and subsequent, setting the CABIN AIR switch to
OFF energizes the valves control solenoid after a six second
delay; this shuts off control pressure to allow the valve shutoff
sleeve to block bleed air flow.

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March 2002

Environmental Systems

Air Conditioning System


A Freon refrigeration system and auxiliary cabin heater system
supplement the normal air-conditioning system. These systems
are independent of the bleed air system and can be used without engine operation.
The climate control box in the left side of the aft compartment
contains relays that control the operation of the refrigeration and
auxiliary cabin heating systems. It contains:

a generator relay that completes a circuit from the cooling


system switch to the compressor motor relay

an external power relay that energizes when external power


is connected with both Battery switches on. The relay completes two circuits: one to the cooling system switch to
bypass the generator relay, and one to the auxiliary heat CB

a start cutout relay that cuts power to the compressor motor


during engine start

a cabin blower relay that energizes when the cooling system switch is in COOL or FAN

a cabin blower relay that trips when the CABIN AIR switch
is in ON

an auxiliary heat cutout relay that energizes to prevent the


heater and refrigeration system from operating at the same
time.

Refrigeration System
The refrigeration system provides ground cooling, inflight cooling
at lower altitudes, and cabin dehumidification. The Freon cooling
system requires DC power and can only be used if an APU, or at
least one generator is powering the aircraft. System operation is
inhibited during engine starts and when the stabilizer anti-ice is
in operation. The Freon system also shuts off automatically if the
cabin temperature control valve opens more than 15 (HOT).
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March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4C-15

CAE SimuFlite
On aircraft prior to S/N 089 without AAK 55-83-6, the Freon
compressor receives 28V DC power from the Battery Charging
bus through a 175A current limiter and power relay any time the
system is in operation.
On S/N 089 and subsequent, a 5 hp motor replaces the 3 hp
compressor motor. If the system shuts down automatically
because of a fault, the system may be restored by placing the
COOL/FAN/OFF switch to OFF and then back to COOL. This
should reset the system back to normal operation.

Operation
With the compressor operating and the CABIN AIR switch in the
OFF position, Freon is compressed and circulated throughout
the system while the cabin blowers circulate air across the cabin
evaporator to the overhead diffusers.
With the CABIN AIR switch in ON, the cockpit blower (AUX FAN)
circulates Freon cooled air to the variable outlets (wemacs) in the
cockpit and cabin. If the cockpit AUX FAN switch is in OFF and
the COOL/FAN/OFF switch is in COOL, the cockpit blower automatically operates at low speed. This ensures proper airflow
across the cockpit evaporator when the system is in operation.
With the CABIN AIR switch in ON, pneumatic bleed air flows
through the cabin evaporator for cooling.
The cabin blowers can be operated independently of the Freon
system by placing the cooling system switch in FAN whenever
the CABIN AIR switch is in OFF.
A refrigerant pressure switch plumbed to the compressor discharge port provides system overpressurization protection. If the
compressor discharges pressure reaches approximately 335
10 PSI, the Freon control relay de-energizes and cuts power to
the compressor motor.
When the pressure drops to approximately 205 40 PSI, the
Freon control relay energizes and the motor starts.

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March 2002

Environmental Systems

FREON ON Light
The optional green FREON ON light on the glareshield illuminates when the Freon cooling system is energized. The light
extinguishes whenever the system is de-energized.

Cabin/Cockpit Air Distribution


The cabin air supply duct is split into ducts for left and right sides
of the aircraft; air is ducted to floor diffusers and to the blower
housing overhead in the aft cabin. The blower assembly in the aft
cabin contains two cabin blowers, the cabin Freon cooling system evaporator, the auxiliary cabin heating elements, and ducting for the left and right overhead diffusers.
The cockpit air supply is split left and right to the side window diffusers, foot warmers, pedestal diffusers, four eyeball wemacs,
and the forward windshield diffusers.

Cockpit Blower
A cockpit blower (cockpit auxiliary fan) under the floor beneath
the pilots seat provides additional air circulation in the cockpit
and cabin. The COCKPIT AUX FAN switch on the copilot lighting
panel has an ON/OFF detent; the switch is rotated clockwise to
increase the speed of the blower. Air is distributed to the cockpit
by two overhead wemacs and to the cabin by the overhead
adjustable wemacs.
The cockpit blower can be used in flight or on the ground for air
circulation. It also operates as a function of the Freon cooling
system. It can be operated through the rheostat whenever the
aircrafts main batteries are on. The blower motor, however, must
be off during the start checklist.

Cabin Blowers
Two cabin blowers (cabin fans) on the left and right sides of the
aft cabin admit air across the evaporator when the CABIN AIR

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CAE SimuFlite
switch is off. When the CABIN AIR switch is ON, the pneumatic
bleed air flows across the evaporator for cabin cooling and
heating.
The cabin blowers are used to circulate air in the cabin through
the overhead diffusers. The COOL/FAN/OFF switch or the AUX
HT switch on the copilot depressurization and temperature control panel controls the blowers.
Variable blower speeds can be selected with the CABIN FANS
switch on the copilot lighting control panel. With the CABIN AIR
switch in OFF and the COOL/FAN/OFF switch in FAN, the blowers operate in low speed unless power is available from a generator or ground power unit.
With the CABIN AIR switch in OFF, the cabin blowers automatically energize whenever the AUX HT is placed to HI or LO,
or the Freon cooling system is placed to COOL.

Dual Temperature Control System


The dual-zone temperature control system automatically controls
the temperature of the aircraft cockpit and cabin at levels selected
by manually positioning temperature selectors on the temperature control panel. The cockpit and cabin temperature control
systems are independent and parallel except for a shared pressure regulator. The system consists of the following components:

two temperature control system mode switches

two temperature selectors

a dual-pointer temperature control indicator

two temperature controllers

two temperature sensors

two skin temperature sensors

two pneumatic temperature control valves

two torque motors

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Environmental Systems

a pressure regulator

two pressure regulator check valves

two air distribution check valves

two duct temperature sensors

two duct overheat thermostats

cabin climate control box.

Both temperature control mode switches are two-position, toggle


types; they are labeled AUTO/MAN and installed on the pressurization control panel below the temperature selector the switch
controls.
The crew and cabin temperature selectors are dial-mounted
pointers that can be rotated clockwise from COLD to HOT;
temperatures range from 60F to 90F.
The CREW/CABIN TEMP control indicators are on the copilot
center instrument panel. The indicator is a dual-pointer, vertical
reading dial with COLD at the bottom and HOT at the top.

Temperature Control Valves


The temperature control valves actuate pneumatically; they are
held closed by spring pressure. An electric torque motor applies
pressure to the valve in proportion to the signal it receives from
the temperature control unit to override the spring pressure. The
torque motor positions the individual valves to bypass the
required amount of hot bleed air around the heat exchanger.

AUTO/MAN Operation
With the temperature control system in AUTO mode, the temperature control system automatically maintains the selected
temperature with the (CREW or CABIN) temp selector. Duct
temperature sensors in each system close the affected temperature control valves and illuminate the amber DUCT OV HT
annunciator when excessive high temperatures are sensed in
either duct supply line.
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March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4C-19

CAE SimuFlite
When MAN mode is selected with either system AUTO/MAN
switch, rotate the CREW or CABIN TEMP selector knob to position the temperature control valve position. The valves stay in the
position selected and only respond when manually moved or reselected to AUTO. Duct overheat protection is also available in the
manual mode.
On aircraft prior to S/N 019, the cabin and cockpit temperature
sensor blowers become operational when the CABIN AIR switch
is placed to ON. On S/N 19 and subsequent, the sensor blowers have a 10 second time delay before becoming operational.
When the mode selector is in MAN, the manual temperature
selector knob removes the cabin and cockpit temperature sensors from the system and controls pressure to the bypass valves.
On S/N 127 and subsequent and as an option on prior aircraft, an AUTO/CABIN/MAN three-position switch below the
CABIN TEMP selector knob provides an additional operation
automatic remote. The AUTO mode performs the same function
as previously detailed. The CABIN mode operation is identical to
AUTO except the cabin temperature is set using a CABIN TEMP
HOT/COLD selector in the cabin. The passengers can adjust
their own desired temperature using the HOT/COLD selector.
When the cabin temperature control valve is adjusted through
the cabin selector, it can be observed on the CABIN TEMP indicator by vertical needle movement. When MAN is selected, the
HOT/COLD selector is bypassed and the cabin temperature is
adjusted with the cockpit HOT/COLD selector knob.
The CABIN TEMP HOT/COLD selector is normally in the mid
cabin sidewall area with the Flitefone.

Cabin Temperature Gage


The gage on the center pedestal or copilots instrument panel
includes a temperature sensor. A 2A CB supplies 28V DC power.
Color bands indicate the following temperatures:

blue 60 to 70F

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March 2002

Environmental Systems

green 70 to 80F

red 80 to 90F.

Duct Overheat
The cabin and cockpit temperature controllers limit duct temperature to below 250F. Duct temperature overheat sensors illuminate the amber DUCT OV HT light whenever excessive high
temperatures (300F) are sensed.
The temperature indicator needle moves to the full cold position
to signify which duct supply line is overheating.

Windshield AUX DEFOG


Windshield internal defogging is normally accomplished with the
normal air circulation system. If additional defogging is required,
an auxiliary defogging system utilizes airflow forced across heating elements and ducted to diffusers on the bottom inboard side
of the windshield.
The system consists of a blower under the center pedestal cockpit floor, an electric heater slightly forward of the blower, thermoswitch, thermal fuse, system switch, windshield diffusers, and
associated wiring. The auxiliary defogging system requires electrical power from either a ground power unit or an operating
engine generator because the control circuits are wired through
the start cutout relay; the system, therefore, is inoperative during
engine start.

AUX DEFOG Switch


The AUX DEFOG switch on the center switch panel controls the
windshield defogging system. The switch has three positions:
OFF/LO/HI. When the switch is set to LO or HI, power energizes
the defog heater and activates the defog blower. Airflow from the
defog blower is forced across heater elements and ducted to two
windshield diffusers on the lower inboard side of the windshield.

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March 2002

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4C-21

CAE SimuFlite
Auxiliary Cabin Heater
An auxiliary cabin heater in the cooling system ducting provides
additional heating for the cabin only. The heater consists of two
heater coil assemblies, a three-position system switch, and a
thermal switch and fuse for each heating assembly. Each coil
assembly has two heating elements. With the AUX HT switch set
to HI, all four heating elements in the ducts energize. With the
switch set to LO, only two heater elements energize (one in each
coil assembly).
The thermoswitches and thermal fuses wired in series provide
overheat protection to the heater coils. Should either coil become
overheated, power is disconnected to both coils. The thermoswitches cycle the heating coils to maintain a constant 125F to
150F airflow temperature. If a malfunction occurs, the thermal
fuses melt at approximately 430F to disconnect electrical power
from the heater coils.
The thermoswitches also prevent the cabin blowers from operating during initial startup until the airflow across the heater coils
reaches 150F.
The AUX HT system shuts down automatically during engine
start, and is not available when the CABIN AIR switch is in ON or
the COOL/FAN/OFF switch is in COOL.

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September 2003

Environmental Systems

Pressurization System
Routing engine bleed air into the cabin and controlling its escape
with the cabin air exhaust valve provides cabin pressurization. In
flight, normal pressurization operation does not require electrical
power; the system uses regulated vacuum from an ejector pump
in the aft equipment bay.
Components of the pressurization system include the following:

cabin air exhaust valve

cabin safety valve

differential pressure relief valves

cabin altitude limiter

pressurization air filters

jet pump and pressurization vacuum regulator

pressurization aneroid switch(es)

pressurization module.

Air Source
Normally, conditioned air ducts into the cabin through the air conditioning and heating system. In an emergency pressurization situation, engine bleed air routes directly into the cabin, bypassing
the cabin air-conditioning ducting.

Cabin Air Exhaust Valve


The escape of cabin air is regulated by modulating the cabin air
exhaust (outflow) valve to maintain a constant cabin pressure.
The outflow valve is under the copilots floor on the forward pressure bulkhead at frame 8.

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March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4C-23

CAE SimuFlite
Manual Control Valve (Cherry Picker)
The cabin air exhaust valve can also be controlled manually;
however, manual control requires DC electrical power. In flight,
the manual control valve accomplishes this. A small lever with a
bright red knob on the end, located on the pressurization control
module, controls the valve. The lever is commonly referred to as
the cherry picker, because of its appearance, or as the UPDOWN control knob. The three-position (up, down, and neutral)
manual control valve lever is spring-loaded to the neutral position.

AUTO-MAN Switch
The AUTO-MAN switch, on the pressurization and temperature
control panel, provides automatic and manual mode selection for
normal pressurization. DC power is required to place the system
in MAN. With the switch set to MAN, solenoid valves in the regulated vacuum lines energize to remove regulated vacuum from
the cabin controller. The control valve operates manually by the
red UP-DOWN control knob cherry picker.
When the AUTO-MAN switch is set to AUTO, the solenoid valves
de-energize and allow regulated vacuum to the cabin controller
for automatic pressurization control. Normally, the AUTO-MAN
switch remains in the AUTO position.
With the pressurization switch in MAN, the red UP/DN manual
control knob cherry picker applies either cabin pressure or
ambient outside static air pressure to the valve.

Cabin Safety Valve


The cabin safety valve on the aft pressure bulkhead is a springbalanced poppet valve. Its operation is separate from that of the
cabin altitude controller and cabin air exhaust valve.
It is held open on the ground until the CABIN AIR switch is ON.
With the CABIN AIR switch OFF, 28V DC through the 2A BLEED
AIR CB from the R ESS B bus holds open a normally-closed
solenoid valve. The open solenoid directs regulated vacuum to
the cabin safety valve, holding it open.
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Environmental Systems

Differential Pressure Relief Valves


There are two differential relief valves in the system. One is in the
pressurization module and one is on the aft pressure bulkhead
next to the cabin safety valve.
If the cabin reaches the differential setting of the forward relief
valve (9.4 PSI), it opens and allows static air pressure from the
right heated static port to open the cabin exhaust valve. As the
cabin differential falls below the preset level, the outflow valve
closes. This safety feature is not available in manual pressurization mode. If in manual or if it fails, the aft pressurization differential relief valve opens at its preset differential (9.7 PSI).

Cabin Altitude Limiter


There are two cabin altitude limiters in the aircraft: one each in
the forward and aft cabin areas. The limiters maintain cabin altitude at approximately 11,500 1,500 ft if the differential pressure
valve malfunctions. If the cabin altitude reaches 11,500 ft due to
loss of pressurization, the limiters close both outflow and safety
valves to try to maintain an 11,500 ft cabin.
The altitude limiters on the Learjet 55B/55C operate in the same
manner.

Pressurization Filters
Three filters remove contaminants from the air and operate the
pressurization control system. One is in the pressurization module, one is on the cabin safety valve, and one is on the aft pressure bulkhead.

Jet Pump and Pressurization


Vacuum Regulator
The pressurization vacuum regulator (jet pump) is in the aft compartment on the left side.

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March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4C-25

CAE SimuFlite
The jet pump utilizes engine bleed air to generate a vacuum
(negative pressure) in the venturi. A vacuum of 4.00 0.75 in Hg
differential pressure is maintained between the cabin and the
vacuum line through the regulator.

Pressurization Aneroid Switches


If the cabin altitude increases to a predetermined level, the
aneroid switches complete a circuit to close the normally open
solenoid valve in the pressurization module. This isolates the
cabin air exhaust control valve (forward outflow valve) from the
mini-controller. The manual control valve cherry picker must be
used to control the cabin altitude.
Two aneroid switches are in the pressurization module. One in
the pressurization module automatically selects the manual
mode if certain conditions are met and illuminates the CABIN
ALT annunciator; the other sounds the aural warning horn.
The cabin air exhaust control valve aneroid switch activates at
8,750 250 ft and resets on or before 7,230 ft; this aneroid switch
activates the CABIN ALT annunciator and closes a solenoid
valve to isolate the auto mini-controller which switches the system to MANUAL. The cabin pressure aneroid switch activates at
10,100 250 ft and resets on or before 8,600 ft; this aneroid
switch actuates the aural warning horn. The HORN SILENCE
switch on the center subpanel silences the aural horn. The horn
resets after 60 seconds and must be resilenced each time.
Two emergency pressurization aneroid switches forward of the
pilots and copilots CB panels actuate at 9,500 250 ft cabin altitude. They automatically position the mixing valves and the
emergency pressurization valves to emergency to route LP
bleed air directly to the cabin for pressurization.

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Learjet 55
September 2003

Environmental Systems

Pressurization Module
The pressurization module on the copilots lower panel consists
of:

rate selector

rate controller

cabin altitude controller

differential pressure relief valve

manual cabin altitude control valves

solenoid valves

cabin altitude and differential pressure gage

pneumatic relay.

The manual cabin altitude control valve cherry picker allows the
crew to change cabin altitude if normal pressurization system
controls malfunction. The knob labeled UP/DN is in the top corner of the pressurization control panel.
The cabin altitude and differential pressure gage vents to ambient pressure and cabin pressure. Two pointers indicate flight altitude and differential pressure.

Pressurization Controls
The cabin pressure controller, including the rate controller, controls normal pressurization. Prior to takeoff, the AUTO-MAN
switch is set to AUTO, the CABIN AIR switch to ON, and the aircraft altitude selector knob to cruise altitude. The rate knob may
be turned to obtain a 600 50 fpm rate of cabin pressurization.
The rate is monitored by the cabin rate-of-climb indicator and can
be varied with the RATE selector knob. Cabin altitude is monitored with the cabin altimeter, which includes a cabin pressure
differential scale.

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March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4C-27

CAE SimuFlite
Cabin Altitude Warning
An amber CABIN ALT annunciator on the glareshield visually
warns the crew that cabin altitude is increasing and that a solenoid in the pressurization module closed to remove the controller
and put the system in manual mode. The manual control valve
cherry picker must be used to close or open the outflow valve.
A rotary test switch on the center instrument panel tests the aural
cabin altitude warning circuits.
When the cabin altitude light illuminates, the pressurization system automatically switches to manual and the mini-controller is
isolated from the outflow valve. The cabin only be controlled by
the manual control valve cherry picker until the system is reset
at 7,230 ft.

Emergency Pressurization
When cabin altitude reaches 9,500 250 ft, emergency pressurization actuates; the valves reset at 8,300 ft. There are two ways
to actuate the emergency pressurization system:

automatically by the aneroid switches

manually by placing the bleed air switches in EMER.

The amber EMER PRESS annunciator illuminates when the


valves go to the emergency position for any reason.

EMER PRESS Override Switches


Emergency pressurization override switches allow takeoffs and
landings at field elevations higher than the emergency pressurization aneroid switch settings (9,500 250 ft). The switches are
on the copilots subpanel and are labeled EMER PRESS OVERRIDE NORMAL L and R. With the switches in OVERRIDE, the
emergency pressurization aneroid switches are electrically isolated from the emergency pressurization valves. With the override switches in NORMAL, actuation of the aneroid switches has
no effect if the BLEED AIR switches are in OFF or EMER.
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Environmental Systems

Emergency Pressurization Valves


Two emergency pressurization valves allow bleed air to route
directly to the cabin distribution ducts for emergency pressurization. The emergency valves are electrically controlled and actuated by bleed air; they are independent of one another. Placing
a bleed air switch in EMER manually applies 28V DC power to
the associated emergency valve control solenoid to open the
valve. Automatic actuation of emergency airflow occurs through
an aneroid switch if the cabin altitude exceeds 9,500 250 ft. The
aneroid switch resets itself at 8,300 ft and the emergency valves
can be set to OFF by cycling the switch to OFF and then to ON.
If a BLEED AIR switch is turned off or the ground is removed
from the aneroid switch(es) through the override switches, the
emergency pressurization valve(s) cannot be activated.
When both valves are open, temperature control and bleed air
for wing and windshield anti-ice is unavailable.

Operation
When on the ground with the cabin air switch off, the cabin safety valve is held open by the regulated vacuum through the normally closed solenoid valve L-13. During ground operation, the
two normally closed solenoids (L-2 and L-4) in the pressurization
module are electrically held open through the squat switch relay
panel. The normally open solenoids (L-5 and L-6) in the module
remain open with no power. Turning the cabin air switch on
removes DC power from solenoid L-13 to cause it to go to the
normally closed position. The cabin safety valve then closes.
Once airborne, the squat switch relay box removes DC power
from solenoid valves L-2 and L-4. This causes the valves to go
to their normal closed position.
Depending on the setting of the cabin altitude controller, a modulated vacuum is applied to the outflow valve through the normally open solenoid valves L-1 and L-6. Solenoid valve L-1 iso-

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4C-29

CAE SimuFlite
lates the cabin altitude controller from the outflow valve if the
cabin exceeds 8,750 ft or if the AUTO-MANUAL switch is in
MANUAL.
The manual control valve cherry picker can be used in manual
or auto modes; the difference is that the pressurization system
returns to its previous setting in automatic mode.

Before Takeoff
If the CABIN AIR switch is ON and the safety valve closes, the
cabin cannot pressurize until the pilot advances the right thrust
lever past 82% N1 power on takeoff. This feature prevents a
cabin pressure bump immediately after rotation. At 82%, solenoid L-5 and L-6 are electrically closed and traps pressure in the
cabin controller and pneumatic relays at approximately 200 ft
below field elevation. This pressure remains until rotation and the
squat switch puts the aircraft in the air mode and opens the L-6
solenoid at the outflow valve and the L-5 solenoid at the cabin
pressure controller. This releases the trapped pressure in the
cabin controller and pneumatic relay, causing the outflow valve
to modulate to the adjusted rate of climb set by the pilot.

Cruise and Descent


Once at cruise, the cabin pressure controller modulates the outflow valve as necessary to maintain the desired cruise altitude.
On descent, set the cabin pressure controller to field elevation
and adjust the rate controller to a 500 fpm descent (or as
desired).

Cabin Protection
If the cabin climbs above 8,750 ft, the manual pressure aneroid
illuminates the CAB ALT light. If the cabin continues to rise, at
approximately 11,500 ft both cabin altitude limiters open to cabin
pressure which closes the spring loaded outflow and safety
valves.

4C-30

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Environmental Systems
If overpressurization occurs, the 9.4 PSID differential relief valve
applies the static air pressure from the static port to the outflow
valve to open it. If this fails and the pressure continues to
increase to 9.7 PSID, the aft differential relief valve applies static
pressure from a static port on the aft pressure bulkhead of the
cabin to the cabin safety valve; the cabin safety valve opens and
relieves cabin pressure.

Landing
As the aircraft descends and reaches the preselected cabin altitude, the cabin air exhaust control valve modulates toward the
open position. As the aircraft descends below the pre-selected
cabin altitude, the cabin becomes unpressurized and follows the
aircraft rate of descent to touchdown. With the thrust lever setting reduced to less than 82% N1, the throttle switches actuate to
the less-than-82% position, which has no effect on the system
until the squat switches are actuated. As the aircraft touches
down, the squat switches actuate to the ground position. This
allows solenoid air valve L-2 to open and, with the CABIN AIR
switch set to OFF, the vacuum shutoff solenoid valve (L-13)
opens. Regulated vacuum reduces control chamber pressure in
the cabin air exhaust control and cabin safety valve, and the poppets move to the full-open position to allow residual air at cabin
pressure to flow to atmosphere.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4C-31

CAE SimuFlite
Pneumatic Systems
Air Conditioning/Heating System
Power Source

Bleed air
Essential A/B L/R buses

Distribution

Flow control valve


Temperature control valves
Heat exchanger
Air distribution ducts

Control

Switches
CAB AIR
COOL/FAN
COCKPIT AUX FAN
CREW TEMP selector
CABIN TEMP selector

Monitor

Cabin temperature gage


Gages
CREW TEMP control
CAB TEMP control
Annunciators
DUCT OV HT
FREON ON (optional)

Protection

Circuit breakers

4C-32

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Environmental Systems

Auxiliary Heating System


(Ground Mode only)
Power Source

Control
Battery Charging bus
Operation
Right Main bus (Learjet 55)
Right Power bus (Learjet 55B/C)

Distribution

Electrical elements in aft cabin blower duct

Control

Switches
AUX HT HIGH/LOW/OFF
CABIN AIR

Protection

Two temperature thermal switches


Two thermal fuses

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4C-33

CAE SimuFlite
Bleed Air System
Power Source

Left/right engines HP/LP bleed air


L/R Main buses (Learjet 55)
L/R Power buses (Learjet 55B/C)
Right Essential B bus BLEED AIR switches

Distribution

Aeronca thrust reversers


Engine spinner heat
Alcohol anti-ice reservoir pressurization
Pressurization control system
(vacuum jet pump)
Bleed air mixing valve
Nacelle inlet heat
Emergency pressurization valves
Pressure regulator/shutoff valves
Bleed air manifold
Air conditioning/heating system
Windshield defog heat
Wing anti-ice

Control

Switches
BLEED AIR L/R
CAB AIR

Monitor

Annunciators
BLEED AIR L/R
EMER PRESS

Protection

Circuit breakers

4C-34

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Environmental Systems

Freon Cooling System


Power Source

Battery Charging bus


Left Main bus (Learjet 55)
Left Power bus (Learjet 55B/C)

Distribution

Freon compressor
Condenser
Evaporators

Control

Switches
COOL/FAN/OFF
CABIN AIR

Monitor

Fault sensor

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4C-35

CAE SimuFlite
Pressurization System
Power Source

Bleed air
Outside static air
Right Essential B bus
Emergency pressurization
Main L/R buses (Learjet 55)
Power L/R buses (Learjet 55B/C)

Distribution

Cabin air exhaust (outflow) valve


Cabin safety valve
Differential pressure relief valves
Cabin altitude limiters
Pressurization aneroid switches

Control

Switches
CAB AIR
AUTO/MAN
EMER PRESS OVERRIDE
Cabin air exhaust manual control knob
(cherry picker)
CABIN RATE CONTROLLER

Monitor

Annunciators
CABIN ALT
EMER PRESS
Gages
CABIN ALT
CABIN CLIMB
Cabin altitude warning horn

Protection

Cabin altitude limiters to maintain cabin altitude if differential pressure valves malfunction

4C-36

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Fire Protection

Fire Protection System


Learjet 55B/C

ENG
EXT
ARMED

ENG FIRE
PULL

PRESSURE
INDICATOR

600
300
0

FIRE
CONTROL

ENG FIRE
PULL

PRESSURE
INDICATOR

FUEL FIREWALL
SHUTOFF VALVE
(AFT EQUIPMENT BAY)

R FIRE EXT

R FIRE DET

L FIRE EXT

L FIRE DET

L FW SOV

FIRE
CONTROL

ENG
EXT
ARMED

R FW SOV

RH ESS B BUS

LH ESS B BUS

600
300

900

1200

TWO-WAY
CHECK
VALVE

PSI

LH
BOTTLE

900
1200
PSI

RH
BOTTLE

EXPLOSIVE
SQUIBS
TWO-WAY
CHECK VALVE
RELIEF
VALVE (217F)

LH
NACELLE
BLEED AIR
SHUTOFF VALVE
(AFT EQUIPMENT BAY)

RH
NACELLE

HYDRAULIC FIREWALL
SHUTOFF VALVE
(AFT EQUIPMENT BAY)
THERMAL
DISCHARGE
INDICATOR

MANUAL
DISCHARGE
INDICATOR

EXTINGUISHING AGENT

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4D-1

CAE SimuFlite
Fire Protection System
Learjet 55

ENG
EXT
ARMED

ENG
EXT
ARMED

ENG
EXT
ARMED

ENG FIRE
PULL

PRESSURE
INDICATOR

600
300
0

FIRE
CONTROL

ENG FIRE
PULL

PRESSURE
INDICATOR

FUEL FIREWALL
SHUTOFF VALVE
(AFT EQUIPMENT BAY)

ENG
EXT
ARMED

R FIRE EXT

R FIRE DET

L FIRE EXT

L FIRE DET

L FW SOV

FIRE
CONTROL

R FW SOV

RH ESS B BUS

LH ESS B BUS

600
300

900

1200

TWO-WAY
CHECK
VALVE

PSI

LH
BOTTLE

900
1200
PSI

RH
BOTTLE

EXPLOSIVE
SQUIBS
TWO-WAY
CHECK VALVE
RELIEF
VALVE (217F)

LH
NACELLE
BLEED AIR
SHUTOFF VALVE
(AFT EQUIPMENT BAY)

RH
NACELLE

HYDRAULIC FIREWALL
SHUTOFF VALVE
(AFT EQUIPMENT BAY)
THERMAL
DISCHARGE
INDICATOR

MANUAL
DISCHARGE
INDICATOR

EXTINGUISHING AGENT

4D-2

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Fire Protection

Fire Protection System


The fire protection system consists of a direct current overheat
sensing system for each engine. A warning light in the cockpit
notifies of an overheat condition or fire in either nacelle.
The engine fire extinguishing system includes two independent
fire bottles that discharge to either nacelle. The aircraft contains
portable fire extinguishers in the left refreshment cabinet and/or
behind the pilots seat.

Fire Detection System


The fire detection system identifies an overheat condition or fire
in either nacelle or in the cabin and advises the crew with lights
in the cockpit.

Engine Fire Detection System Components


Components of the fire detection system include:

control units

sensing elements/assemblies

ENG FIRE PULL T-handles.

Control Units
Two control units in the tailcone control the nacelles fire detection system by monitoring resistance through sensing elements.
If resistance drops below 350 ohms, the appropriate control unit
illuminates the affected nacelles T-handle ENG FIRE PULL light
and the Master Warning lights.

Sensing Element Assemblies


Each sensing element assembly consists of three tube-like components: around the tailcone, on a support tube around the
accessory gearbox, and on the firewall.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4D-3

CAE SimuFlite
ENG FIRE PULL T-Handles
The control units in the aft compartment illuminate the ENG FIRE
PULL T-handle for the affected engine if thermistor core resistance levels indicate an overheat condition or fire.
When an accessory gearbox or firewall sensing elements resistance level is roughly equivalent to 300F, the control unit illuminates the ENG FIRE PULL lights for the affected engine.
Because normal tailcone ambient temperatures are significantly
higher than on an accessory gearbox or firewall, the tailcone elements resistance level must be approximately equivalent to
700F before the light illuminates.
Electrical power for the system passes through the 7.5A L/R
ENG FIRE DET CB on the pilots and copilots ESS B panels
respectively.

Cabin Fire Detection System


Components of the cabin smoke detection system include:

a smoke detector

an amplifier

a circuit breaker

a CAB FIRE annunciator.

Smoke Detector
The smoke detector is in the upper left side of the cabin baggage
compartments aft bulkhead. The SMOKE DET CB on the pilots
CB panel powers the detector, which sends a signal to the
smoke detector amplifier.
The smoke detector amplifier in the upper LH side of the aft bulkhead of the cabin baggage compartment amplifies the signal
from the smoke detector and applies it to a transistor circuit.

4D-4

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Fire Protection
CABIN FIRE Annunciator
The transistor circuit receives the signal from the amplifier and
completes a ground to illuminate the red CABIN FIRE annunciator on the glareshield annunciator panel, causing it to flash on
and off.

Engine Fire Extinguishing System


The engine fire extinguishing system in the aft compartment provides fire suppressing capabilities for both engine nacelles. A
portable fire extinguisher in the cabin serves as protection for the
flight and passenger compartments.

Components
The fire extinguishing system consists of the following:

fire bottles/extinguishing agent

check valves

ENG FIRE PULL T-handles

ENG EXT ARMED switchlights

discharge valves/indicators

portable fire extinguisher.

Fire Bottles/Extinguishing Agent


Two Walter Kidde or HTL Advanced Technology (formerly
American Standard) bottles in the aft compartment contain a fire
extinguishing agent, CF3Br (Halon 1301), at 600 PSI. A pressure
gage on each bottle indicates the containers pressure.
An explosive cartridge (i.e., squib) detonates to discharge the
bottles contents. The bottle discharges (full discharge) in
approximately one to two seconds. The agent is noncorrosive.
There is no requirement for engine or nacelle cleaning after discharge.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4D-5

CAE SimuFlite
ENG FIRE PULL T-Handles
Pulling an ENG FIRE PULL T-handle closes the respective
engines main fuel shutoff valve, hydraulic shutoff valve, and
bleed air shutoff and pressure regulator valve.
On the Learjet 55, both amber ENG EXT ARMED switchlights
above the pulled T-handle illuminate. The amber EMERG
PRESS annunciator also illuminates.
On the Learjet 55B and 55C, both ENG EXT ARMED single
lights illuminate. The EMERG PRESS annunciator also illuminates.
On all models, the EMERG PRESS annunciator may be extinguished by turning OFF the associated BLEED AIR switch during the Engine Fire Shutdown checklist.

ENG EXT ARMED Switchlights


Pressing an illuminated ENG EXT ARMED switchlight extinguishes the light, disables the corresponding light above the
second T-handle and applies 28V DC to the explosive cartridge
on the respective bottle. The bottle discharges its contents into
the nacelle associated with the T-handle.
When DC is removed from the aircraft, then restored, both ENG
EXT ARMED lights illuminate even if a bottle is empty. An
illuminated ENG EXT ARMED light does not guarantee bottle
readiness.
Resetting the ENG FIRE PULL T-handle in flight after pressing
an ENG EXT ARMED light has no effect on the light indications.
On the ground or in flight with the T-handle pulled and a fire bottle
discharged, setting the battery switches to OFF and pushing the
ENG FIRE PULL T-handle in resets the ENG EXT ARMED lights
through the master warning box. When the battery switches are
reset to ON, with the fire bottle empty, the ENG EXT ARMED
lights function normally when the ENG FIRE PULL
T-handle is pulled a second time.

4D-6

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Fire Protection
Discharge Valves/Indicators
A thermal discharge valve in each bottle relieves pressure when
bottle temperature reaches 102.8C (217F) and vents bottle
contents overboard. A red thermal discharge disc ruptures when
either of the fire extinguisher bottles discharge overboard.
If a bottle discharges into a nacelle, a yellow manual discharge
indicator disc under the left nacelle pylon ejects. During the preflight inspection, visually check for missing discs. If a disc is missing, contact maintenance.

Portable Fire Extinguisher


The portable fire extinguisher is available for use in the flight and
passenger compartments. Its location varies by aircraft.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4D-7

CAE SimuFlite
Fire Protection System
Power Source

Essential B L/R buses

Distribution

Each bottle discharges to either engine

Control

ENG FIRE PULL T-handle


ENG EXT ARMED switchlights

Monitor

ENG FIRE PULL T-handle lights


ENG EXT ARMED switchlights
Red thermal discharge indicator disc
Yellow manual discharge indicator disc
Fire bottle pressure gage (600 PSI at 70F
fully charged)

Protection

Overpressure relief: thermal discharge valve


on each bottle
Extinguishing agent backup prevention: two
one-way check valves in lines between
bottles

4D-8

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Controls

Flaps System
FLAPS
R ESS B BUS (R EMER
PWR BUS LEARJET 55B/C)

3A

VALVE ENERGIZED
TO UP POSITION

VALVE IN NEUTRAL
POSITION

RETURN

FLAP CONTROL VALVE


FLAP CONTROL
VALVE

RESTRICTOR

RELIEF
VALVE

FLAP BLOW UP
1,650 PSI

PRESSURE
FLAP & TAB
POSN
R ESS B BUS
(R EMER PWR BUS)

2A

FLAP POSITION
SWITCHES
FLAP POSITION
FOLLOW-UP
DOWN

UP

UP

FLAP CONTROL
SWITCHES

DOWN
ACTUATOR

ACTUATOR
INTERCONNECT
UP

LEFT FLAP

8
20
30
DN

PRESSURE
RETURN

Learjet 55
March 2002

F
L
A
P

RIGHT FLAP

FLAP POSITION SWITCH FUNCTION


L & R SWITCHES
3 STALL WARNING BIAS
SPOILER LIGHT MODE
YAW DAMPER FORCE REDUCTION
AUTOPILOT APPROACH BIAS
13 STALL WARNING BIAS
25 STALL WARNING BIAS
SPOILER AILERON AUGMENTATION
LEFT SWITCH
25 GEAR WARNING AURAL TONE
LEFT CONTROL SWITCHES
7, 9 FLAP POSITION CONTROL
RIGHT CONTROL SWITCHES
19, 21 FLAP POSITION CONTROL

Developed for training purposes

4E-1

CAE SimuFlite
Spoilers System
RESTRICTOR BYPASS
SOLENOID (DE-ENERGIZED)

SELECTOR
VALVE

TORQUE
MOTOR

LEFT
SERVO
VALVE

RIGHT
SERVO
VALVE

MANIFOLD

TORQUE
MOTOR

AILERON
AUGMENTATION
FOLLOW-UP
15 LIMIT
AUGMENTATION
SWITCH

SPOILER
FOLLOW-UP
45

DOWN AND
LOCKED SWITCH
ACTUATOR

ACTUATOR

LEFT SPOILER

RIGHT SPOILER
SPOILERON
COMPUTER
AMPLIFIER

FLAP 25 SWITCH

FLAP 3 SWITCH
SPOILER
SPOILER

WARNING
LIGHT
CONTROL

AUG
AIL

3A
SPOILERON

(R EMER BUS 55B/C)


R ESS B BUS
R AC BUS 115V AC

3A
SQUAT
SWITCH

SPOILER
MON
SPOILER
ARMED

LEFT
THRUST LEVER
IDLE SWITCH

RIGHT
THRUST LEVER
IDLE SWITCH
S RET
P
O
I ARM
L
E
R EXT

PRESSURE

SPOILER
SWITCH

RETURN

L 55 NOT MODIFIED

4E-2

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Controls

Stall Warning System


R. STALL WARNING VANE
0.5 G
LIMITER

ALTIMETER
100

18,000' BIAS

8
7

FEET

1
1013
MILLIBARS

0, 00
6

IN

ALT

2992
4

R. STALL
WARNING
COMPUTER

HDG

STALL
MARGIN

MSW

R
STALL

STALL
MARGIN
INDICATOR
GAGE

STICK
SHAKER

STALL WARN
R
L
FLAP BIAS 3, 13 AND 25

OFF

STALL
MARGIN
INDICATOR
GAGE

UP/DOWN
SPRING
ASSEMBLY

MSW

L
STALL

STICK
SHAKER

PITCH SERVO

STALL
MARGIN

S/Ns 55-003 THRU 55-126


100

18,000' BIAS
7

FEET

1
1013
MILLIBARS

0, 00
6

ALT

2992
4
IN

L. STALL
WARNING
COMPUTER

HDG

NUDGER PUSHER SIGNAL


0.5 G
LIMITER

ALTIMETER

HORN
L. STALL WARNING VANE

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4E-3

CAE SimuFlite

4E-4

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Controls

Mach Trim System


1

PRIMARY TRIMLOW RATE

N DN
4 AFT
6 TO

TO MACH TRIM COMPUTER

PITCH
TRIM

8 TRIM

AIR
DATA
COMPUTER

PRIMARY TRIMHIGH RATE

MACH TRIM
FOLLOW-UP

N UP

TO AUTOPILOT COMPUTER
STAB POSITION
SWITCH

LEARJET 55B/C: S/N 55-127 AND SUBSEQUENT

MACH TRIM
COMPUTER

1
AIR
DATA
SENSOR

P
R
I
PRI TRIM
SPEED
MONITOR

MACH TRIM
PRIMARY TRIM

S
E
C

ELEVATOR

MACH MON

AUTOPILOT TRIM

AUTOPILOT
PITCH
COMPUTER

SECONDARY TRIM

O
F
F
SEC

UP/DOWN
SPRING
ASSEMBLY

NOSE
DN

PITCH
TRIM

NOSE
UP

WHEEL MASTER
SWITCH (MWS)
FOUR-WAY (THUMB)
TRIM SWITCH

3 FLAP
SWITCH
AURAL
TRIM-IN-MOTION

PITCH SERVO

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4E-5

CAE SimuFlite

4E-6

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Controls

Flight Controls
The primary flight controls are mechanically driven by direct cable
connection to the corresponding cockpit control; they consist of
the following:

ailerons

elevators

rudder.

Secondary flight controls are electrically controlled and hydraulically operated. They are as follows:

flaps

spoilers.

Trim tabs for roll and yaw trim are on the left aileron and the rudder. Positioning the horizontal stabilizer results in pitch trim. The
autopilot, stall warning, Mach overspeed, and pitch trim systems
also affect control of the aircraft.
In addition to the primary and secondary flight controls, the
following complete the flight controls systems:

stall warning

Mach overspeed devices

pitch trim systems

autopilot (see Avionics chapter).

Primary Flight Controls


The primary flight controls (i.e., the ailerons, elevators, and rudder) permit command of the aircraft through the roll, pitch, and
yaw axes. They receive input from the control wheels, control
columns, and pedals in the cockpit via cables and bellcranks.

Ailerons
Rotation of the control wheel moves the ailerons inversely to one
another producing aircraft movement around the roll axis (i.e.,
Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4E-7

CAE SimuFlite
the aileron on one wing moves up and the aileron on the opposite wing moves down). Full range of travel for the ailerons is 18
1 up and 18+1, -2 down.

Roll Trim
A trim tab on the left ailerons inboard trailing edge provides lateral trim capability. A rotary-type electric actuator connects to the
tab using a push-pull rod.
A trim switch on the outboard horn of the left and right control
wheel controls the actuator. The trim switch is a dual-function
(trim and trim arming) switch. The switchs four positions are as
follows:

LWD (left wing down)

RWD (right wing down)

NOSE UP

NOSE DN.

The actuation of the pilots switch overrides the actuation of the


copilots switch. The actuation of either switch disengages the
autopilot (if autopilot MANUV R/P switch has not been pressed).
On the trim indicator panel of the pedestal, the AIL TRIM indicator symbolizes the aileron trim tab position. The two semi-circular
scales and pointers present the trim tab position for the LWD and
RWD.

Elevators
The elevators on the trailing edge of the horizontal provide pitch
control of the aircraft mechanically through fore and aft movement of the control column or electrically through the autopilot
pitch servo.
A closed loop cable assembly from the control column to the tail
section drives the elevators through a range of 15 30 trailing
edge up travel on the Learjet 55 and 55B. On Learjet 55C the
trailing edge travel is 15 30 up and 16.5 30 down.
4E-8

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Controls
Rudder
A direct connect cable system from both sets of rudder pedals to
the tail section drives the aircraft rudder. The rudder, at the trailing edge of the vertical stabilizer, provides directional control of
the aircraft about the vertical axis. Full range of motion is 30 +2
-1 left and right of center. Rudder pedals or the PRI or SEC yaw
damper servos control the rudders.

Rudder Trim
The rudder trim system reduces pilot input forces to aid the pilot
in maintaining control of the aircraft.
The dual rotary-type trim tab switch labeled NOSE LEFT/OFF/
RIGHT on the center pedestal positions the rudder trim tab on
the lower trailing edge of the rudder. Moving both rudder trim
switches from the spring-loaded OFF position to either the right
or the left operates the tab electrically.
The rudder semi-circular scale and pointer trim indicator on the
center pedestal shows the position of the rudder trim tab. Trim
tab travel is 11 1 left and right.

Horizontal Stabilizer
The horizontal stabilizer is an airfoil attached to the top of the vertical stabilizer, which provides stability in pitch. Repositioning the
horizontal stabilizer with a dual motor, screw-jack type actuator
produces pitch trim.

Mach Trim
The Mach trim system provides automatic pitch trim compensation at operation of airspeeds above 0.70 Mach. The system
operates through a Mach trim computer and a primary pitch trim
motor, which activates to induce the required 1 lb. of control yoke
force with a 6 KTS airspeed change whenever the autopilot is
disengaged or inoperative. The Mach trim system engages automatically upon reaching 0.70 Mach.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4E-9

CAE SimuFlite
A malfunction circuit automatically disengages the Mach trim system and alerts the crew both visually with the red MACH TRIM
annunciator on the glareshield and aurally with the overspeed
warning horn, if the Mach speed is greater than 0.74 Mach.
With the aircraft on the ground, the SYS TEST switch on the center switch panel at MACH TRIM, and the center button pressed,
a test of the Mach trim system occurs. This test also checks the
Mach trim/overspeed warning circuits and causes the overspeed
warning horn to sound when the Mach trim disengages.
Pressing the MACH TRIM test button simulates continuous
Mach trim operation with the primary trim system operating. The
Mach monitor detects the continuous trim signal as a Mach trim
computer output error. This illuminates the red MACH TRIM and
amber PITCH TRIM annunciators.
Pressing the MACH TRIM test button in flight resynchronizes the
Mach trim system to the horizontal stabilizer position and existing Mach speed.

Pitch Trim
Repositioning the horizontal stabilizer with a dual-motor actuator
results in pitch trim. The primary trim motor is operated by the primary pitch trim switches. The secondary pitch trim switch and the
autopilot control the secondary trim motor. A speed controller in
the primary pitch system changes trim rate as a function of horizontal stabilizer trim position (6.5 on trim indicator). The speed
controller allows high trim rates for takeoff or approach and low
trim rates for cruise. A trim speed monitor in the speed controller
warns of a trim speed error. The primary and secondary pitch
trim systems are electrically independent.
The PITCH TRIM indicator displays the degree of the horizontal
stabilizer trim in increments of one to eleven degrees nose-up to
nose-down. An index mark at the 6.5 position separates the high
and low trim rate ranges.

4E-10

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Controls
The amber PITCH TRIM annunciator illuminates for any of the
following:

when the trim speed monitor detects a trim rate fault

the pitch trim selector switch selected to OFF and DC


power is applied to the aircraft

the wheel master switch pressed

attempting to trim using the control wheel trim switch when


the pitch trim selector switch is in SEC.

on the ground, the annunciator indicates the pitch trim is


more than 1.2 outside the takeoff segment on the pitch
trim indicator.

In flight, the simultaneous illumination of the PITCH TRIM and


MACH TRIM annunciators indicates a Mach trim computer output error. If this occurs, the Mach monitor removes power from
the primary trim motor, which disables the Mach trim. To regain
use of the primary trim, set the primary trim switch to OFF then
PRI. To regain Mach trim, move the rotary TEST switch to
MACH TRIM and press the TEST button; this resynchronizes
the Mach trim system to the horizontal stabilizer position and
existing Mach speed.
The Mach trim system is inoperative with the PITCH TRIM selector switch in the OFF or SEC positions. The autopilot is inoperative with the PITCH TRIM selector switch in the OFF position.

Control Wheel Master Switches


Each control wheels outboard horn has a control wheel master
switch (MSW) beneath the control wheel trim switch. In addition
to their other functions, either MSW, when pressed, inhibits primary and secondary pitch trim. When using the MSW to inhibit
the primary pitch trim, the primary pitch trim does not resume
until the release of the MSW. Until the release of the MSW, the
secondary pitch trim remains disabled.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

4E-11

CAE SimuFlite
Pedal Adjust Switches
Each set of rudder pedals individually adjusts through the
PEDAL ADJUST switch on the respective pilots outboard switch
panel. Both switches have three positions:

FWD

OFF

AFT.

Selecting FWD or AFT moves the electrically controlled actuator


to adjust the pedals to the desired position. The pedals adjust
approximately five inches.

Yaw Damper
The yaw damper on the Learjet 55/55B provides automatic stabilization about the yaw axis by controlling transient yaw motion
(dutch roll) through a dual (primary and secondary) yaw damper
system.
Both yaw damper systems for the Learjet 55 must be operational
for flight. Engage the yaw damper from engine start to shutdown
except for takeoff, retrimming the rudder and No Flap Landing.
While taxiing, the yaw damper delivers better steering feel and
improves nosewheel centering through the rudder pedals. Yaw
damper authority adjusts with the flaps extended beyond 3.
Pressing the wheel master switch disengages the yaw damper.
The J.E.T. yaw dampers in the Learjet 55 require 28V DC and
115V AC of power.
The Learjet 55Bs primary yaw damper is part of the Collins
autopilot system and does not require AC power. The secondary
yaw damper manufactured by J.E.T. operates independently of
the autopilot.
Both yaw dampers for the Learjet 55/55B must be operational for
flight with one engaged after takeoff and operated constantly,
except when trimming the rudder, and the yaw damper must be
disengaged prior to touchdown if landing with zero flaps.
4E-12

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Controls
The Learjet 55C consists of one yaw damper, which operates
identically to the primary yaw damper on the Learjet 55B. There
is no operational requirement and the system performs its own
self-test.

Yaw Damper Control Panel


The yaw damper control panel on the pedestal for the Learjet 55
provides yaw damper selection and indicating functions. The
panel divides into the PRI (left) and the SEC (right) yaw damper
buttons, annunciators, and effort indicators.
Control wheel master switches on the outboard horn of the pilots
and copilots control wheels disengage the yaw dampers and
sound the yaw damper disengage tone.
The Learjet 55Bs yaw damper controller consists of the primary
(PRI) and secondary (SEC) system, which operate independently. The primary system operates with the autopilot system,
and the secondary system operates independently. The SEC system operates only with the PRI system disengaged.
On Learjet 55, check both yaw dampers for operation before
flight. On the Learjet 55B, the secondary yaw damper must be
checked for operation before flight; the primary yaw damper
does a self test. Engagement of one damper throughout the
flight, except for takeoff and while trimming rudder, is required.
The Learjet 55Cs yaw damper controller is in the pedestal.
Pressing the YD ENG button engages and disengages the yaw
damper. Engaging the yaw damper illuminates the ENG annunciator above the button. The control wheel master switch disengages the yaw damper from either control wheel.

Trim-in-Motion Audio Clicker


A trim-in-motion audio clicker system alerts the crew of horizontal stabilizer movement. After approximately one second of continuous stabilizer movement, a detector box produces a series of
audible clicks through the headsets and cockpit speakers. The
trim-in-motion audible clicker may or may not sound during Mach
trim or autopilot trim due to the duration of the trim inputs.
Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4E-13

CAE SimuFlite
On S/N 042 and subsequent, the trim-in-motion audio clicker
system, which is wired through the flap position switches, does
not sound with the flaps beyond 3. During the pitch trim system
check, the flaps must be up to verify clicker operation prior to
flight. On prior aircraft, the clicker sounds anytime stabilizer
trimming occurs.

Secondary Flight Controls


Electrically controlled and hydraulically operated secondary flight
controls include the following:

flaps

spoilers.

Flaps
The flaps attach to the rear wing spar with tracks, rollers, and
hinges. Full flap travel is from 0 to 40, and interconnecting cables
and pulleys synchronize flap movement throughout the range of
flap travel.
The preselect flap switch on the right side of the pedestal operates the electrically controlled and hydraulically actuated singleslotted flaps. The switch has four positions: UP, 8, 20, DN.
On S/N 3 to 126, if a DC electrical power loss occurs, the
EMERG BAT 1 (ON) sends electrical current to the flap control
valve and the flap selector. On S/N 127 and subsequent, selecting emergency bus supplies power to the flaps from the Right
EMERG bus. If the aircraft batteries contain sufficient electrical
power, the flaps operate.

Flap Position Indicator


A flap position indicator on the instrument panel provides a visual
indication of flap position.
A 1,650 PSI pressure relief valve in the flap extension line allows
the flaps to retract if flight loads become too high for the structure.

4E-14

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Controls
Flap selection during an excessive airspeed will lower the flaps
until the airflow pressure exceeds the limit of the relief valve; the
flaps remain at this position until airspeed reduction occurs, then
the flaps continue the extension to the preselected position.
The flap position indicator does not operate if a loss of DC power
occurs with the selection of flaps through the EMERG BAT 1
position.

Spoiler Operation
The spoiler (EXT or RET) switch extends or retracts the spoilers.
Setting the switch to extend applies power to the spoiler computer through its SPOILER CB on the copilot ESS B bus (Learjet
55B/C, right EMER bus).
The amber SPOILER annunciator on the glareshield illuminates
when either spoiler is more than 1 from the retracted position.
The light flashes whenever the spoilers are extended and flaps
are selected beyond 3.
The spoilers provide a more positive roll control at slow airspeeds during approach. The Spoileron Mode automatically
engages when flaps are selected beyond 25.
In the event of a malfunction, (6 split between spoilers in Spoiler
Mode or a 6 split between spoiler and associated aileron in the
Spoileron Mode) a monitor circuit automatically disengages the
augmentation system, illuminates the AUG AIL or SPOILER
MON annunciator on the glareshield, and retracts the spoiler.
Movement of the SPOILER RESET switch on the test switch
panel restores system operation. The spoiler/spoilerons are
inoperative inflight whenever the amber AUG AIL or SPOILER
MON lights are illuminated and the 115V AC spoileron CB (right
AC bus) is pulled. On the ground, a squat switch on the landing
gear allows the spoilers to operate normally through the 3A spoiler CB on the copilots ESS B bus (right EMER bus on Learjet
55B/C). They operate normally on the ground through DC power.
The Spoiler Mode overrides the spoilerons when the system is
operating.
Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

4E-15

CAE SimuFlite
If a hydraulic failure occurs, the spoilers blow down and are inoperative. A check valve upstream from the spoiler actuator prevents spoiler activation by the auxiliary hydraulic pump.
On S/N 086 and prior; when not incorporating SB 55-27-7,
AMK 55-84-7A, or AAK 55-83-4, increased calculated landing
distance by 4% (by 15% if the spoilers are inoperative) to allow
for longer spoiler extension time on unmodified aircraft.

Autospoiler Mode
On S/N 065, 087, and subsequent and aircraft with AAK 5583-4, a switch on the forward pedestal assembly controls the
autospoiler system. In ARM, the spoilers deploy automatically (in
one to four seconds) with weight-on-the-gear (closing the squat
switches) and throttle levers at IDLE. The one-to-four second
time delay prevents spoiler deployment on a bounced landing.
Advancing either throttle stows the spoilers in one second, and
they remain stowed until the throttle lever(s) return to IDLE. Flap
position has no effect on the autospoiler mode of operation.
Normal selection of extension or retraction modes overrides the
autospoiler mode.
Arm the autospoiler system for landing on S/N 117 and subsequent, and prior aircraft with AAK 55-85-1. Without the modification, do not arm the system for landing.

Stall Warning System


(Learjet 55 and 55B)
The stall warning system for the Learjet 55 and 55B provides
flight control information to the pilot (visual and tactile warning)
relative to a stall and automatically forces the aircraft nosedown to prevent an aerodynamic stall. The system consists of
the following:

left and right stall vanes

a two channel computer-amplifier

flap position switches for each flap

4E-16

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Controls

an altitude switch in each airspeed/Mach indicator

two 0.5g accelerometers

a stick nudger

a stick pusher

a stick shaker for each crew position

a stall margin indicator for each crew position

L and R STALL warning annunciators

L and R STALL WARN switches.

The flap position and altitude switches provide bias information


to the computer-amplifier, which shifts stall indication speeds
downward as the flaps go from 0 to 40 and shifts stall indication speeds approximately 10 kts upwards at approximately
18,000 ft pressure altitude.
The nudger control circuits utilize the autopilot pitch axis circuitry
to pulse the elevator servo. With the engagement of the autopilot, activation of the nudger cancels any selected autopilot vertical modes and inhibits the autopilot pitch axis until nudger
release occurs. If the nudger fails to activate, a nudger monitor
circuit sounds a warning horn.
As the AOA increases to a speed approximately 7% above the
pusher speed for the appropriate configuration, the stall marginindicator pointers enter the yellow segment, the L and R STALL
annunciators illuminate and flash, and the stick shakers and stick
nudger actuate. Should the AOA increase to a point just above
aerodynamic stall, the stall margin indicator pointers enter the
red segment and the stick pusher (elevator servo) commands a
nose-down altitude.
The red L/R STALL warning annunciators in the glareshield
annunciator panel indicate an impending stall or a system malfunction. During flight operations, the annunciators flash if the
shaker actuates. The annunciators pulse at the same frequency
and duration as the shakers; therefore, flash duration increases
from initial shaker actuation to pusher actuation. At or just prior to
Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4E-17

CAE SimuFlite
pusher actuation, the flash duration is sufficient to cause the
annunciators to appear steady. Steady illumination of the annunciators at any time other than pusher actuation indicates a computer power loss or an internal malfunction. The annunciators
illuminate whenever the STALL WARN switches are OFF and
the BAT switches are ON.

Stall Warning System


(Learjet 55C)
The stall warning system for the Learjet 55C provides flight
control information to the crew (visual and tactile warning) relative to an impending aerodynamic stall. The system consists of
the following:

left and right stall vanes on the forward fuselage

a two channel computer-amplifier

shaker interrupt box

flap position switches for each flap

two 18,000 ft altitude switches

a stick shaker for each crew position activated by the Mach


indicator for the associated crew position

stall margin indicator for each crew position

L and R STALL warning annunciators.


The flap position switches provide bias information to the computer-amplifier, which decreases stall warning speeds as the
flaps go from 0 to 40. Above approximately 18,000 ft pressure
altitude, the altitude switches bias the system to increase stall
warning speeds approximately 15 kts.

The stick shaker and stall warning annunciator are deactivated


when the squat switches are in the ground mode. The stick shaker and STALL warning annunciators activate three to five seconds after lift-off. The AOA indicator remains active both on the
ground and in flight.

4E-18

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Controls
The stall margin indicator pointers enter the yellow segment, the
L and R STALL annunciators illuminate then flash, and the stick
shakers actuate when the angle of attack increases to an angle
corresponding to an airspeed at least 7% above the stall speed
published in the Airplane Flight Manual.
The red L and R STALL warning annunciators in the glareshield
annunciator panel indicate an impending stall or a system malfunction. During flight operations, the annunciators illuminate and
flash if the shaker actuates. The annunciators pulse at the same
frequency and duration as the shakers. The flash frequency
increases as the AOA increases from initial shaker actuation. At
or just prior to the stall margin pointer entering the red segment,
the flash frequency is sufficient to cause the annunciators to
appear steady.
On S/N 101, 105, 107, and subsequent; and aircraft with AMK
55-84-4, the stall warning system includes an ALFA DOT airspeed sensing and signal biasing unit. Aircraft without the
improvement are restricted from performing intentional stall
maneuvers with the aircrafts center of gravity aft of 17% MAC.
On S/N 003 to 134, the test circuit (i.e., rotary test switch) operates only with the squat switches in the ground mode and the
stall warning switches on.
On S/N 003 to 027 except 025, the flaps must be up to obtain a
valid stall warning system test. On S/N 025 to 100; 102 to 104;
and 106; except 026, 027, 101, and 105; and prior aircraft
with SSK 55-504, the flaps must be down to obtain a valid system test. The modification replaces the stall warning computer.
On S/N 101, 105, 107, and subsequent; and prior aircraft with
AAK 55-83-4, flap position does not affect system test.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4E-19

CAE SimuFlite
Stall Warning System Test Switch
The Learjet 55 and 55B stall warning systems are tested on the
ground using the rotary-type systems test switch on the center
switch panel. The L STALL position tests the left stall warning
system. The nudger monitor horn sounds for approximately one
second to indicate proper operation of the horn and the applicable 0.5g accelerometer. The corresponding stall margin indicator pointer begins to sweep from the green segment toward
the red segment.
As the pointer passes the green-yellow margin, the stick-shaker
actuates, the stick nudger actuates and the L STALL annunciator
flashes. As the pointer passes the yellow-red margin, the pusher
replaces the nudger action. After a brief interval of full pusher
force, the needle sweeps back to the yellow or green segment. If
the needle remains in the yellow segment, the shaker and
nudger continue to operate until the test button is released.
The R STALL position tests the right stall warning system. The
nudger monitor horn sounds for approximately one second to
indicate proper operation of the horn and the applicable 0.5 g
accelerometer. The corresponding stall margin indicator pointer
begins to sweep from the green segment toward the red segment. As the pointer passes the green-yellow margin, the stickshaker and stick nudger actuate and the R STALL annunciator
flashes. As the pointer passes the yellow-red margin, the pusher
replaces the nudger action. After a brief interval of full pusher
force, the needle sweeps back to the yellow or green segment. If
the needle remains in the yellow segment, the shaker and
nudger continue to run until the release of the test button.
Upon completion of both stall tests, repeat the right stall test with
either control wheel master switch depressed. Verify that as the
stall margin indicator needle moves through the arc, the nudger
and pusher do not actuate, and the failure tone sounds. The final
test is to operate the flaps through a complete extension or
retraction sequence and check that both stall margin indicator
needles make one significant shift in position.
4E-20

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Controls
The Learjet 55C stall warning systems are tested on the ground
using the rotary-type systems test switch on the center switch
panel. Rotate the test switch to L STALL, press and hold the center test button. The pilots stall margin indicator needle should
begin to sweep from the green segment to the red segment. As
the needle passes the green-yellow margin, the shaker actuates,
the MASTER WARNING lights illuminate, and the red L STALL
warning annunciator flashes. High frequency vibration of the control column verifies shaker actuation. Release the test button.
Rotate the test switch to R STALL, press and hold the center test
button. The copilots stall margin indicator needle begins to
sweep from the green segment to the red segment. As the
needle passes the green-yellow margin, the shaker actuates, the
MASTER WARNING lights illuminate, and the red R STALL
warning annunciator flashes. High frequency vibration of the control column verifies shaker actuation. Release the test button.

Stall Fences
The stall fences help reduce the spanwise progression of a stall
from the top of the wing to the tip and thereby provide improved
aileron control at or near stalling speed.
On S/N 003 to 086 without AAK 55-83-4, a stall strip is on each
wings leading edge, inboard of WS 90. On S/N 135 and subsequent (Learjet 55C) the stall strip is on each wings leading
edge, inboard of WS 103.
On S/N 087 to 134 and prior aircraft, with AAK 55-83-4, a wing
stall triangle on each wings leading edge, outboard of WS 92.52,
causes the center section of the wing to stall before the tip. This
assures lateral control throughout the stall. Individual stall
triangles on the wings leading edge starting at WS 149.95 are
spaced evenly every 1.8 inches, outboard to WS 160.75.
On S/N 135 (Learjet 55C) and subsequent, two wing stall
triangle strips are on each wings leading edge with one outboard
of WS 195.5 and the other outboard of WS 231.3. Additional individual wing stall triangles on the wings leading edge start at WS
137.35 and are spaced evenly every 1.8 inches, outboard of WS
148.15.
Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4E-21

CAE SimuFlite
Mach/Overspeed Warning System
The Mach/overspeed warning system warns the pilot if the aircraft exceeds VMO or MMO. An overspeed horn sounds when the
airspeed exceeds 300 kts below 8,000 ft or when the airspeed
exceeds 350 kts indicated airspeed or Mach 0.81 to 0.79, as
appropriate for altitude, above 8,000 ft. Exceeding MMO, the left
stall warning system actuates the stick puller by using the stall
warning/autopilot pitch servo interface and pulls the nose up to
aid in reducing airspeed. Pressing the wheel master switch interrupts the stick puller.
For the Learjet 55, a switch module senses indicated airspeed
in excess of 300 kts, flight altitude below 8,000 ft, and 0.74 Mach.
If airspeed exceeds 0.74 with the autopilot disengaged and Mach
trim inoperative, the speed switch turns on the overspeed warning
horn. The warning horn also sounds when the indicator needle
coincides with the barberpole above 8,000 ft, which occurs at
350 kts indicated airspeed and between 0.81 and 0.79 Mach.
The airspeed warning system uses switches in either the
Mach/airspeed indicators or separate ADC-driven switches to
activate a rising-tone aural overspeed warning. Warning
system activation airspeed or Mach number varies with the aircraft model, altitude, and operation of the autopilot and Mach
trim system.
On the Learjet 55, the system activates with the autopilot
engaged and the Mach trim system operative if airspeed
exceeds:

300 5 KIAS (VMO) below 8,000 ft

350 6 KIAS (VMO) between 8,000 and 24,000 ft

0.81 Mach (MMO) between 24,000 and 37,000 ft

0.81 Mach (MMO) varying to 0.79 Mach (MMO) with altitude


changes from 37,000 and 45,000 ft

0.79 Mach (MMO) above 45,000 ft.

4E-22

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Controls
With the autopilot disengaged and the Mach trim system not
operative, the aural warning sounds when Mach number
exceeds 0.74 (MMO).
The stick puller begins applying force below 24,000 ft once airspeed reaches two to six kts. above the overspeed warning activation speed. The stick puller also activates above 24,000 ft. if
airspeed increases 0.005 to 0.015 Mach above the warning system activation speed.
The Learjet 55B and 55Cs primary and secondary air data
computers (ADC) provide inputs to the overspeed control printed
circuit board (PCB) within the autopilot electrical box. The overspeed control PCB turns on the overspeed warning horn when
speed exceeds 300 kts. below 8,000 or 350 above 8,000 ft.
When the aircraft Mach speed reaches 0.81 between 24,000 to
37,000 ft. and above 37,000 ft. when the Mach speed reaches
0.81 to 0.79, the overspeed horn sounds.
With the autopilot not engaged, the Mach trim system inoperative; when the Mach speed exceeds 0.74, the overspeed PCB
turns on the overspeed warning horn.
On the Learjet 55B and 55C, the system activates with the
autopilot engaged and the Mach trim system operative if airspeed exceeds:

302 3 KIAS (VMO) below 8,000 ft

352 3 KIAS (VMO) between 8,000 and 23,600 ft

0.81 to 0.82 Mach (MMO) between 23,600 and 37,000 ft

0.80 to 0.81 Mach (MMO) between 37,000 and 43,500 ft

0.79 to 0.80 Mach (MMO) between 43,500 and 51,000 ft.

With the autopilot disengaged and the Mach trim system not
operative, the aural warning sounds when Mach number
exceeds 0.74 (MMO).

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4E-23

CAE SimuFlite
If the airspeed exceeds the maximum allowable, the stick puller
activates. On the Learjet 55B, a pusher/puller servo applies
force to attain a nose-up attitude. On the Learjet 55C, the autopilot pitch servo applies force to attain a nose-up attitude. With
the autopilot disengaged, there is no stick puller function.
The stick puller on the Learjet 55C does not function during an
overspeed condition. If an overspeed condition exists with the
autopilot on, the system disengages altitude hold and commands
a slight pitch-up attitude with the stick puller. If the flight director
is in the active mode, the system disengages altitude hold and
commands a pitch-up attitude on the altitude command bars;
there is no stick puller command.

4E-24

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Controls

Flight Controls
Ailerons
Power Source

Left Essential B bus

Control

Control wheel

Monitor

Trim indicator

Protection

ROLL TRIM CB
Aileron balance tabs

Elevators
Power Source

Left Essential B bus

Distribution

Mechanical cables and pulleys

Control

Control wheel
Stall warning pitch actuator (Learjet 55/55B)
Autopilot pitch actuator
J.E.T. servo for autopilot, stall pusher, and
mach puller (Learjet 55/55B)
Collins autopilot servo and J.E.T. servo
for stall position and mach puller
(Learjet 55B)
Collins servo for autopilot (Learjet 55C)

Monitor

L/R STALL annunciators


Stall margin indicators L/R

Protection

PITCH TRIM CB
Stall warning computers L/R
Nudger (Learjet 55/55B)
Shaker
Pusher (Learjet 55/55B)
Mach overspeed puller Left only
(Learjet 55/55B)

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4E-25

CAE SimuFlite
Flaps
Power Source

Hydraulic pressure
Right Essential B bus

Control

Preselect flap position switches

Monitor

Flap indicator

Protection

Mechanical flap interconnect

Rudder
Power Source

Actuation
Left Essential B bus
Indication
Right Essential B bus (Learjet 55)
Right Emergency Power bus
(Learjet 55B/C)

Control

NOSE LEFT/OFF/RIGHT switch

Monitor

RUDDER TRIM indicator

Protection

YAW TRIM CB

4E-26

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Controls
Pitch Trim Horizontal Stabilizer
Power Source

Learjet 55
Battery Charging bus
Essential B L/R buses
Learjet 55B/C
Battery Charging bus
Right Battery bus
Right Emergency bus

Control

Switches
Control wheel
PRI/OFF/SEC
Pedestal trim
Autopilot

Monitor

PITCH TRIM annunciator


Trim indicator
Trim speed monitor
Audio trim in motion clicker
Flaps 3

Protection

Circuit breakers

NOTE: In flight, simultaneous illumination of the PITCH


TRIM and MACH TRIM annunciators indicates a MACH
TRIM computer output error.

NOTE: The Mach trim system is inoperative with the


PITCH TRIM selector switch in the OFF or SEC positions.
The autopilot is inoperative with the PITCH TRIM selector
switch in the OFF position.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4E-27

CAE SimuFlite
Spoilers
Power Source

Control
Right Essential B bus (Learjet 55)
Right Emergency bus (Learjet 55B/C)
Actuation
Engine-driven hydraulic pump

Control

Spoiler RET/ARM/EXT switch


SPOILERON RESET/TEST switch
Automatic control: Spoileron computer/
monitor automatic spoiler actuation in
conjunction with flap position for roll
augmentation

Monitor

Learjet 55 Annunciators
AUG AIL/SPOILER MON
SPOILER
SPOILER ARMED
Learjet 55B/C Annunciators
SPOILER MON
SPOILER ARMED
SPOILER

Protection

Circuit breakers
Squat switches
Autospoiler mode (ARM position): one- to
four-second time delay that prevents
spoiler deployment on bounced landing

4E-28

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Controls
Stall Warning System
Power Source

Hot Battery L/R buses


Essential B L/R buses

Control

STALL WARN L/R switches

Monitor

Learjet 55/55B
Stick nudger
Stick pusher
Stick shaker (each crew position)
Stall margin indicator (each crew position)
STALL L/R warning annunciators
Learjet 55C
Stick shaker (each crew position)
Stall margin indicator (each crew position)
STALL L/R warning annunciators

Protection

Circuit breakers
Current limiters
GPU overvoltage 33V DC
Generator overvoltage 31V DC
Inverter overcurrent 60A
Main/Power bus overcurrent 90A
Generator 325A continuous

WARNING: On Learjet 55, even small accumulations of


ice on the wing leading edge can cause aerodynamic stall
prior to activation of the stick pusher. In addition, these
accumulations may cause stall margin indicator information
to be unreliable.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4E-29

CAE SimuFlite
WARNING: On Learjet 55B, even small accumulations of
ice on the wing leading edge can cause aerodynamic stall
prior to activation of the stick pusher, nudger, and/or pusher. In addition, these accumulations may cause stall margin
indicator information to be unreliable.

WARNING: On Learjet 55C, even small accumulations of


ice on the wing leading edge can increase stall speed and
may degrade stall characteristics.

Yaw Damper
Power Source

Learjet 55 dual yaw dampers


Computer 115V AC L/R buses
Actuator Left Essential B bus (28V DC)
Learjet 55B dual yaw dampers
Primary (Collins) Left Essential B bus
(28V DC)
Secondary (J.E.T.) Left 115V AC bus
and Emergency bus
Learjet 55C single yaw damper
Left Essential B bus
Emergency bus

Control

Yaw damper control panel buttons


PRI
SEC
ENG
PWR

Protection

Circuit breakers

4E-30

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

L IGN
& START

L
M
A
I
N

7.5A

GEN
O
F
F

OPEN

M
A
I
N

ON

ON
CLOSED

P
W
R

FUEL
CFLO

OFF
STANDBY PUMP

B
U
S

LEARJET 55B/C
XFLOW VALVE

1
CROSS FLOW
START L

WING
L

LOW
FUEL

FULL
R

OFF
STANDBY PUMP
WING
L

O
F
F

SQUAT
SWITCH
AIR

LEARJET 55

XFLOW
VALVE
L
E
M
E
R
B
U
S

5A
FUS TANK
XFER PUMP

L STBY
PUMP

L
E
S
S
B
B
U
S

15A
L FW SOV
5A
L JET
PUMP
5A

E
S
S

5A
L STBY
PUMP

AUX/XFR

OPEN
O
F
F

OFF

EMPTY

SINGLE POINT
DISTRIBUTION
MANIFOLD

FUS

10A
L FW SOV

5A

R FUS TANK
XFER PUMP

EMPTY

L FUEL
2.75 PSI PRESS

R FILL
& XFER

E
S
S

R STBY
PUMP

15A

B
U
S

R FW SOV

R FW SOV
ENG FIRE
PULL

FULL

ENG FIRE
PULL

10A

CAP

R FUEL 2.75 PSI


PRESS

AUX/XFR

7.5A
R JET
PUMP
5A

AFT
FUS
TANK

FULL

R
E
M
E
R

15A

FILL

CLOSED
GRAVITY XFER

15A
L FILL
AND XFER

5A
L JET
PUMP

LEARJET 55B/C

XFR

B
B
U
S

B
U
S

R STBY
PUMP

FUS TANK

R IGN
& START

GEN

FULL
R

P
W
R

START R

SQUAT
SWITCH
AIR

LEARJET 55

Fuel System

Fuel System

7.5A
R JET
PUMP
5A

R
E
S
S

B
U
S

B
B
U
S

OFF

75 PSI
L
M
A
I
N
P
W
R

ON

AFT FUS
TANK PUMP

March 2002

XFR
AFT
FUS
TANK

OFF
JET PUMPS

XFER
VALVE

B
U
S

Learjet 55

75 PSI

AFT FS
TANK

Developed for training purposes

ON
O
F
F

FILL

SQUAT
SWITCH
GROUND

OFF
JET PUMP

SCAVENGE PUMP CONTROL RELAY

AFT FUSELAGE TRANSFER


PUMP RELAY

AFT FUSELAGE AUX TRANSFER


PUMP CONTROL RELAY
FLOAT SWITCH

SQUAT
SWITCH
GROUND

FUEL
FILTER

JET PUMP
STANDBY

ELECTRIC PUMP

PUMP OR
GRAVITY FLOW

PRESSURE SENSOR

MOTIVE FLOW

CHECK VALVE

STORAGE/FUEL

PRESSURE SWITCH

4F-1

CAE SimuFlite
Fuel Vent System
VENT
FLOAT
VALVE

FLUSH
DRAIN

FLAME
ARRESTOR

FUSELAGE
SUMP

WING
SUMP

RAM AIR
SCOOP

DRAIN
VALVE

EXPANSION
LINE
FUSELAGE
TANK
FLOAT
VALVE

FLUSH
DRAIN

VENT
FLOAT
VALVE

VACUUM
RELIEF VALVE
(-0.15 PSI)

PRESSURE RELIEF VALVES


(1.5 PSI WITHOUT AFT TANK
3.0-3.5 PSI WITH TANK)

FLAME
ARRESTOR

OVERBOARD VENT

FLAME
ARRESTOR

VACUUM
RELIEF VALVE
(-0.15 PSI)

EXPANSION
LINE

OVERPRESSURE
RELIEF VALVE
(3.25 TO 3.50 PSI)

AFT FUSELAGE
TANK
FUEL STORAGE
VENT

4F-2

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Fuel System

Single-Point Pressure Refueling System

V
E
N
T

F
U
L
L

F
U
S

O
P
E
N

FUSELAGE
FLOAT SWITCH

TOTAL

VENT
VALVE

PARTIAL

FUS
TANK

FUSELAGE
PRECHECK
VALVE

WING
FLOAT
SWITCH

L WING
FULL

WING
PRECHECK
VALVE

FUSELAGE FUEL
SHUTOFF

R WING
FULL

R WING TANK

L WING TANK
WING PILOT
VALVE

SOLENOID
SHUTOFF
REFUEL
ADAPTER

WING FUEL
SHUTOFF

WING FUEL
SHUTOFF

WING PILOT
VALVE

AFT FUSELAGE
SHUTOFF VALVE
SOLENOID
VALVE
1

FILL

AUX TRANSFER AND


REFUELING SHUT OFF VALVE

SOLENOID OPENS, FUSELAGE AND


WING TANKS FILL AT SAME TIME

SOLENOID VALVE OPENS WHEN WINGS


ARE FULL SO FUSELAGE TANK CAN BEGIN
TO FILL

AFT FUSELAGE
PILOT VALVE

OFF
AUX
FUSELAGE
TANK

AUX
TRANSFER
PUMP

FUEL
PRESSURE

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4F-3

CAE SimuFlite
Aft Fuselage Tank
L XFR
VALVE

XFR
VALVE

R XFR
VALVE

SPPR
TO
WINGS

FUS TANK
R XFR
PUMP

L XFR
PUMP

FUS TANK
FULL
SPPR
REFUEL
ADAPTER

SOLENOID
SHUTOFF

AFT
FUS
FUEL
SHUTOFF

AUX XFR
XFR
OFF

OFF
FILL
XFR
PUMP

FILL

PILOT
VALVE
(FLOAT)

OFF

AUX XFR
PUMP

SINGLE POINT
REFUELING
SELECTOR

AFT FUS TANK


EMPTY

FULL

FUEL STORAGE
VENT

4F-4

Developed for training purposes

March 2002

Fuel System

Fuel System
The fuel system includes the following subsystems:

a storage system that includes the wing tanks and fuselage tank(s), vents, and quantity indicators

a distribution and control system that includes pumps,


valves, and the plumbing required to move the fuel
through the aircraft to the engines. Fuel filtration is part of
the fuel distribution system.

Fuel filler ports on the upper surface of each wing near the
winglets and a filler on the top RH side of the fuselage fuel cell
provide access for all fueling operations. An optional singlepoint pressure refueling system is also available.
Integral wing tanks and a bladder fuel cell in the fuselage provide
fuel storage. An optional fuel tank may be installed in the aft
fuselage baggage compartment inside the passenger cabin.

Fuel Storage
Wing Tanks
The full-span, integral wing tanks are the main fuel tanks.
Separated by the center bulkhead, they are formed by sealing
the wing structure. Together, the wing tanks store 425 gallons
(2,848 pounds) or usable fuel.

Fuselage Tank
The single bladder cell fuselage tank behind the aft pressure
bulkhead between the engines has a capacity of 573 gallons
(3,842 pounds) of fuel. Two transfer lines, valves, and pumps in
the tank provide transfer capability between the fuselage tank
and the wing tanks.
A fuselage-full float switch terminates fuel transfer and illuminates the green FUS TANK FULL indicator to alert the pilot that
the fuselage tank is full and that the TSFR/FILL switch should be
moved to OFF.
Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4F-5

CAE SimuFlite
The fuselage single-point pressure refueling manifold and filler
port are inside the fuselage tank. Illumination of the FUS CAP
light indicates the fuselage filler cap is not properly secured.
The fuselage tank is refueled by any of three methods: by the
wing tanks standby pumps through both transfer lines; through
the fuselage tank filler on the upper right side of the fuselage; or
the single-point pressure refuel system.

Aft Fuselage Tank


An optional aft fuel tank, with a capacity of 54 gallons (359
pounds), can be installed in lieu of the aft unpressurized baggage compartment. The tank is a single bladder that has a transfer valve, pump, and line connecting the aft fuselage tank to the
left transfer line of the fuselage tank.
Illumination of the AFT FUS TANK EMPTY light indicates the aft
fuselage tank is empty and the pressure in the transfer line has
dropped below 0.25 PSI. The pump continues to run and the normal XFR valve remains open until the XFR-FILL switch is set to
OFF. Illumination of the AFT FUS TANK FULL light indicates the
aft fuselage tank is full.

Ventilation
The fuel vent system provides continuous ram air pressure to the
wing tanks and fuselage tank (or tanks) while the aircraft is in
flight; this ensures positive pressure during all flight conditions.
Flush-mounted, NACA-type, underwing ram airscoops admit air
through tubing into the wing tanks and fuselage tank(s).
Outboard ram air inlets provide venting for the wing tanks. The
outboard inlets connect to float valves in the wing tanks to prevent fuel from flowing out through the vent when the associated
wing is full.

4F-6

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Fuel System

Fuel Quantity Indication


Fuel Quantity Selector/Indicator
The fuel quantity selector/indicator is a four-position rotary
switch for reading fuel quantity in each tank as well as total quantity. Each position is labeled with the name of its corresponding
tank and its capacity; the TOTAL position reads quantity in all
tanks combined. Usable tank capacities labeled on the selector
switch are based on fuel density of 6.7 pounds per gallon.
The FUEL QUANTITY indicator shows pounds of fuel in increments of 1,000 pounds for the fuel tank indicated. The quantity
indicated on the gage is compensated for fuel temperature, but
can be in error by as much as 100 pounds in each position;
therefore, the most accurate reading is obtained in the TOTAL
position.
An amber LOW FUEL annunciator illuminates when a float
switch indicates the fuel level in either wing drops below 250
pounds for aircraft S/N 001 through 052 and 057. In aircraft
S/N 053 and subsequent, except 057, the LOW FUEL quantity indication occurs with 350 pounds remaining.

Fuel Counter
The digital-type fuel counter indicates total pounds of fuel used.
Pressing the fuel counter reset button resets the four digit
counter to zero. The fuel flow transmitter of each engine supplies
voltage to the fuel monitor computer to operate the fuel counter
and fuel flow gage.

Fuel Distribution
Fuel is transferred to the wing tanks by any of four methods:
normal fuel transfer, auxiliary fuel transfer, rapid fuel transfer,
and gravity transfer. During the normal fuel transfer, the left
fuselage tank transfer pump feeds fuel into both wing tanks.
During the auxiliary fuel transfer, the right fuselage tank transfer pump feeds fuel into both wing tanks. Fuel transfers at 50
pounds per minute in both the normal and auxiliary modes.
Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4F-7

CAE SimuFlite
For rapid fuel transfer, both the normal and the auxiliary fuel
transfer modes energize. During gravity fuel transfer, fuel flows
to both wing tanks through both transfer lines.
The fuel distribution/control system consists of two independent
systems one for each engine. Each system consists of the following components:

fuel pumps, including two jet pumps, an electric standby


pump, and an electric scavenge pump

a fuel filter

fuel valves, including a shutoff valve, a motive flow valve,


and fuel supply line check valves

fuel drains

a low pressure switch

control relays.

The fuel control panel on the center pedestal manages fuel distribution with relays in the fuel control relay panel in the aft section under the air conditioner compressor assembly. A singlepoint pressure refueling panel is on the right side of the fuselage
above the trailing edge of the wing.

Components
Fuel Pumps
Each of the two distribution systems contains three types of
pumps: two jet pumps, an electric standby pump and an electric
scavenge pump.

Jet Pumps
The jet pumps have no moving parts and operate on the venturi
principle. When the JET PUMP switch is set to ON, the motive
flow valve opens. High pressure fuel from the engine-driven fuel
pump is directed through a nozzle in the jet pump to draw fuel
from the tank.
4F-8

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Fuel System
A red FUEL PRESS annunciator illuminates if fuel pressure to
the associated engine drops below 2.75 PSI; it extinguishes if
pressure rises above 3.75 PSI.

JET PUMP Switches


The JET PUMP switches on the fuel control panel control the
motive flow valves. Setting a JET PUMP switch to ON opens the
corresponding motive flow valve and allows high-pressure fuel
from the corresponding engine-driven fuel pump to flow to the
corresponding jet pumps; disagreement lights show that the
motive flow valve position does not correspond to the associated
jet pump switch setting.
The JET PUMP switches normally remain ON. Setting a JET
PUMP switch OFF closes the corresponding motive flow valve
and prevents fuel system pressurization until the standby pumps
are energized.

Standby Pumps
An electric standby pump is adjacent to the fuel pump. The submerged standby pump is used for fuel crossflow, fuselage fill
operation, and engine starting; it also provides standby fuel flow
in the event a jet pump fails. Switches on the fuel control panel
actuate the standby pumps, which provide a maximum output
flow of 18 PSI.

STANDBY PUMP Switches


The STANDBY PUMP switches normally remain OFF; turn them
ON if a jet pump fails or for crossflow. Regardless of switch position, the standby pumps automatically de-energize during fuselage fuel transfer operations.
The standby pumps automatically energize when the FUS TANK
XFR-OFF-FILL switch is set to FILL or the START-GEN switch is
placed in START.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4F-9

CAE SimuFlite
Scavenge Pumps
An electric submerged scavenge pump in the forward section of
the wings near the fuselage pumps fuel to the main jet pumps.
Both scavenge pumps are activated automatically when the
amber LOW FUEL annunciator illuminates. The pumps may be
tested during preflight by pressing the annunciator TEST button
on the glareshield and listening for the audible sound of the
pump operation.

Fuel Filters
Each engine has two low pressure fuel filters: one on the engine
fuel control and one in the feed line to the engine. The filters in
the main fuel line from tank to engine remove contaminants from
the fuel before it enters the engine. They are mounted in the tailcone equipment bay on the aft bulkhead of the fuselage fuel
tank.
A switch connected to the bypass illuminates the amber FUEL
FILTER annunciator when a pressure differential indicates that
bypass of either fuel filter is imminent.
On the ground, the tailcone fuel filters (secondary filters) illuminate the amber FUEL FILTER annunciator through the squat
switch. In flight, the differential pressure switch for the tailcone
filters is disabled through the squat switch.
In flight, the engine-driven fuel pump fuel filter (primary filter)
takes priority. If the filter becomes contaminated or if ice forms on
the filter, a differential of 6-8 PSID across the filter element illuminates the FUEL FILTER annunciator. If the differential pressure exceeds 9-14 PSID, fuel bypasses around the filter.

Fuel Valves
Firewall Shutoff Valve
Each distribution system incorporates a fuel shutoff valve in the
engine feed line adjacent to the fuel filters. The electrically operated shutoff valves are two-position (open and closed) ball-and4F-10

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Fuel System
seat type that allow the pilot to shut off the supply of fuel to the
engine if an engine fire occurs. When pulled out, the ENG FIRE
PULL T-handle on the glareshield provides DC power to close the
valve; when the handle is pushed in, DC power opens the valve.
The firewall shutoff valve is a motor-driven valve that remains in
the last position selected in the event of DC power failure.

Motive Flow Valve


The motive flow valves are on the aft fuselage fuel tank bulkhead
above the fuel filters. The jet pump switch electrically controls the
two-position (open/closed) rotary actuator type valves.

High Pressure Relief Valve


A high pressure relief valve is in the main fuel line adjacent to the
shutoff valve. The valve relieves any pressure buildup caused by
thermal expansion of trapped fuel when the engine is shut down.
The relief valve opens at 75 PSI and vents fuel overboard to
drain out the bottom of the engine.

Crossflow Valve
The crossflow valve, controlled by the CROSSFLOW switch on
the fuel control panel, permits transfer of fuel between wing
tanks.

CROSSFLOW Switch
Placing the CROSSFLOW switch in the OPEN position opens
the crossflow valve for fuel transfer between wing tanks; a disagreement light illuminates when the crossflow valve position
does not correspond to the setting on the crossflow, transfer/fill,
or fuselage valve switches. Placing the switch in the CLOSE
position closes the crossflow valve to prohibit fuel transfer
between wing tanks. A green (amber fuel XFLO on Learjet
55B/C) FUEL CFLO annunciator on the glareshield illuminates
when the crossflow valve is open.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4F-11

CAE SimuFlite
Fuel Supply Line Check Valve
The fuel supply line check valve is adjacent to, and downstream
from, the jet pump in the wing. These flappertype check valves
prevent fuel from being pumped backward through each pump
by its adjacent pump. A small orifice in the flapper allows fuel to
drain back from the engines after engine shutdown.

Fuel Drains
Quick-drain valves are provided in the fuel lines, the crossflow
lines, the vent system lines, the fuel computer lines, and the fuel
filters, in addition to each fuel tank. These push-to-open type
drain valves are semi-flush and externally-mounted to allow
draining of sediment, moisture, and/or fuel from the system.

Fuel Control Panel


The fuel control panel in the center pedestal provides the pilot
with control and management of the fuel system; lights and
annunciators provide verification of system operation.

Normal Operations
During normal operations, each engine receives fuel via its jet
pump at 10 to 12 PSI from its respective tank. During engine
start, the electric standby pumps supply fuel to the engines.
With the L/R FUEL CMPTR switches ON and the START-GEN
switch in START, the standby pump is energized; this moves fuel
through the fuel filter and firewall valve to the engine-driven fuel
pump (refer to Powerplant chapter). IGN is operative and fuel is
supplied to the engine when the thrust lever is moved out of
CUTOFF. An amber L (or R) FUEL CMPTR annunciator illuminates when there is a failure in, or loss of power to, the associated computer.
After the engine reaches approximately 45% N2, the fuel computer relay terminates the starting sequence. The ignition is
turned off, and the start relay opens. The standby pump is deenergized when the START/GEN switch is placed in OFF. The
4F-12

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Fuel System
starter engagement light extinguishes. After the motive flow pressure regulator reaches about 300 PSI, the motive flow regulator
supplies motive flow fuel pressure to the jet pumps through the
motive flow valve. A red FUEL PRESS annunciator illuminates
on the glareshield if fuel pressure to the associated engine drops
below 2.75 PSI.

Crossflow Operations
Crossflow normally is not used during a routine flight; however, it
may be required to balance the fuel load during single engine
operations or if an uneven load was acquired during fueling.
To initiate crossflow operations, position the CROSSFLOW
switch to OPEN (green FUEL CFLO annunciator on Learjet 55 or
amber FUEL XFLO annunciator on Learjet 55B/C illuminates);
this applies power to open the crossflow valve. The crossflow
valve opens automatically during fuselage tank filling or fuel transfer. Switch on the standby pump on the heavy wing to transfer the
fuel to the light wing; switch the light wing standby pump off.
To terminate crossflow operations, position the CROSSFLOW
switch to CLOSED and the STANDBY PUMPS switches to OFF.

Fuel Transfer
XFR-OFF-FILL Switch
Moving the XFR-OFF-FILL switch to XFR opens the left transfer
valve and crossflow valve. It turns the left transfer pump on and
disables the standby pumps; the transfer pump then transfers
fuel from the fuselage tank into the wing tanks.
Moving the switch to the OFF position from XFR closes the transfer and crossflow valves and turns the transfer pumps off.
Moving the switch to OFF and the FILL position closes the transfer and crossflow valves and turns the wing standby pumps off.
With the switch in the FILL position, the transfer and crossflow
valves open and the wing standby pumps turn on.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4F-13

CAE SimuFlite
FUS TANK Lights
The white EMPTY light illuminates when a pressure switch in the
transfer line detects approximately 1.5 PSI in the line, the fuselage tank is empty, or when the transfer pump malfunctions.
A green FULL light indicates the fuselage tank is full and the float
switch has terminated the left transfer operation. This light extinguishes when the switch is moved to OFF.

FUS TANK XFR-OFF-FILL Switch


The FUS TANK XFR-OFF-FILL switch operates the left fuel
transfer system and fills the fuselage tank from the wing tanks.
With the switch set to FILL, fuel pumps into the fuselage tank
from the wing tanks until the switch is placed in OFF or the fuselage tank float switch actuates, illuminating the green FUS TANK
FULL light. Place the switch to OFF to extinguish the FUS TANK
FULL light.
With the switch set to XFR, the left transfer pump energizes. Fuel
then pumps from the fuselage tank to the wing tanks until the
wing gloat switches actuate. If the squat switch is in the air mode,
the applicable green WING FULL light illuminates (the crossflow
valve remains open).
If the fuselage tank empties before the wing float switches shut
down the left transfer system, a pressure switch (1.5 PSI) in the
fuselage tank transfer line illuminates the white FUS TANK
EMPTY light. Setting the switch to OFF extinguishes the FUS
TANK EMPTY and/or WING FULL lights (if illuminated).
On S/N 127 and subsequent and aircraft incorporating AMK
55-86-4, the XFR-FILL switch incorporates a magnetic latch in
the FILL position. Hold the switch in this position for a minimum
of three seconds to engage the switch. When the switch is in the
FILL position and the LOW FUEL annunciator illuminates (or the
squat switch goes into the air mode), the XFR-FILL switch disengages and goes to the OFF position.

4F-14

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Fuel System
FUS TANK GRAVITY XFR Switch
The FUS TANK GRAVITY XFR switch panel initiates fuselage
fuel transfer without using the transfer pumps. The switch has
two positions: OPEN and CLOSED.
With the switch set to OPEN, fuel gravity flows from the fuselage tank to the wing tanks until the wings are full or the wing
and fuselage tank heads are equal.
When using this method to transfer fuel, approximately 350
pounds of fuel remain in the fuselage tank and the FUS TANK
EMPTY light is inoperative. The remaining fuel must be
pumped to the wings. When the tank is nearly empty, use the
XFR-OFF-FILL switch to pump the remaining fuel to the wings.

FUS TANK AUX XFR Switch


The FUS TANK AUX XFR switch operates the right fuel transfer system, which provides an alternate transfer system if the
left system fails. Additionally, when used with the left system,
aux transfer allows rapid transfer of fuselage fuel. The switch
has two positions: AUX XFR and OFF.
Moving the switch to AUX XFR pumps fuel from the fuselage
tank into the wing tanks. Set the switch to OFF when either the
white FUS TANK EMPTY light or either of the green WING
FULL lights illuminate. Setting the switch to OFF extinguishes
the FUS TANK EMPTY and WING FULL lights, if illuminated.
Actuation of the wing float switches has no effect on the auxiliary (right) fuel transfer system. Therefore, if the switch is not in
OFF when the WING FULL lights illuminate, fuel continues to
circulate between the fuselage and wing tanks through the wing
expansion and fuel transfer lines. When the fuselage tank is
empty and the pressure drops to 1.5 PSI or less, a pressure
switch in the right transfer line actuates to illuminate the FUS
TANK EMPTY light.
The AUX XFR switch has priority over the XFR-OFF-FILL and
GRAVITY XFR switches.
Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4F-15

CAE SimuFlite
AFT FUS XFR-OFF-FILL Switch (if installed)
To fill the aft fuselage tank, move the AFT FUS TANK XFR-OFFFILL switch to FILL. A float switch in the aft tank turns on the
green aft fus tank FULL light, turns off the transfer pump and
closes the aft transfer valve when the aft tank is full.
The aft tank can also be filled through the single-point pressure
refueling system.
To transfer fuel from the aft fuselage tank, the AFT FUS TANK
XFR-OFF-FILL switch is moved to XFR. When the main fuselage
tank is full, the float switch in the main fuselage tank turns on the
green fuselage tank FULL light. When the aft fuselage tank is
empty, the pressure switch (0.25 PSI) in the transfer line turns on
the white AFT FUS TANK EMPTY light on the fuel panel. The
switch is turned off to shut off the pump and the EMPTY light.

AFT FUS TANK VALVE Light (when installed)


Illumination of this light indicates that the aft fuselage tank transfer valve is not in the position commanded by the aft fuselage
transfer-fill switch. The light illuminates momentarily while the
valve is in transit.

AFT FUS TANK AUX XFR Switch (when installed)


The fuel in the aft fuselage tank can also be transferred using the
AFT FUS TANK AUX XFR switch. With the switch in the ON
position fuel transfers to the single-point pressure refueling system and is distributed to the left and right wing tanks.
If the wing tanks become full, the wing FULL lights do not come
on, and the pump continues to operate until the switch is turned
off. When the aft fuselage tank is nearly empty and fuel transfer
stops, a pressure switch in the aux transfer line turns on the
white AFT FUS TANK EMPTY light. Turning the AUX XFR switch
OFF turns off the pump and the EMPTY lights and closes the
transfer valve.

4F-16

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Fuel System

Single-Point Pressure Refueling


When installed, the single-point pressure refueling system is
integrated into the right side of the fuselage above the trailing
edge of the wing. A control panel is in the access opening next to
the filler port.
The single-point pressure refueling system consists of the following components:

a pilot valve and shutoff valve in each wing tank and fuselage tank

vent valve check valve

solenoid valve

fueling adapter

two manually-operated precheck valves

refueling lines

precheck lines pilot lines

refueling control panel

a relay box.

On aircraft with the aft fuselage tank, the single-point pressure refueling system also includes an aft fuselage tank full pilot
valve, an aft fuselage tank shutoff valve, a fuel shut-off solenoid
valve, a precheck line check valve, a pilot line, a fill line and an
orifice plate in the fill line.
A REFUEL TOTAL-OFF-PARTIAL switch and a REFUEL AFT
FUS FILL-OFF switch (if the aft fuselage tank is installed) are
on the control panel. On aircraft 55-127 and subsequent, a
single-point pressure refueling battery switch on the precheck
panel allows application of electrical power to the single-point
pressure refueling system in lieu of applying electrical power to the
aircraft through the battery switches on the center switch panel.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4F-17

CAE SimuFlite
A green VENT OPEN annunciator and an amber FUS FULL
annunciator provide system monitoring. Two precheck valves,
one for the wing and one for the main fuselage tank shutoff
valves, provide system testing.
CAUTION: A pre-check should be made of the refueling
system before attempting a partial or total fill of the system.

NOTE: The TOTAL/PARTIAL switch must be in TOTAL


position for system pre-check. If the switch is in the
PARTIAL position during pre-check, only wing pilot valves
will be tested.

CAUTION: If fuel flow does not stop within 20 seconds, do


not use single-point refueling.

Refuel Selector Switch


The DC powered REFUEL CONTROL switch actuates the normally closed fuselage tank solenoid valve in the pilot line. The
switch selects the tanks to be refilled during refueling.
In aircraft without an aft fuselage tank, the switch has two
positions: TOTAL and PARTIAL.
In aircraft with an aft fuselage tank, the switch has three positions: TOTAL, WING, and PARTIAL. Aft fuselage tank selection
is provided by a separate switch, labeled AFT FUS, on the
single-point refueling panel.
With the refuel selector switch in TOTAL, the wing and fuselage
tanks fill simultaneously.

4F-18

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Fuel System
When TOTAL is selected and refueling pressure begins, the
fuselage tank shutoff valve opens and admits fuel into the fuselage tank. The tanks shutoff valve stops fuel flow from the refueling truck when the tank is full.
With the refuel selector switch in PARTIAL, the wing tanks fill
first, then the fuselage tank fills. This position is useful when conditions require full wings and less than full fuselage fuel.
Selecting only the wings permits incoming fuel until both the left
and right wing full float switches actuate. With both float switches
closed, the fuselage solenoid receives power and opens, and the
fuselage tank fills.
The WING position of the refuel selector is applicable only to
aircraft with the aft fuselage fuel tank. Placing the switch in
WING fills the wings only, or fills the wing tanks simultaneously
with the aft fuselage tank.

AFT FUS Switch


The AFT FUS switch on the single-point refueling panel selects
the aft fuselage tank for refuel. The switch can be used in conjunction with the TOTAL, PARTIAL, or WING positions of the
refuel selector switch.
With the switch set to FILL and refueling pressure applied, the
vent valve opens and circuits are completed to open the aft fuselage tank solenoid valve.
With switch in OFF, the aft fuselage tank does not fill.

Refueling
Refuel the aircraft through the filler ports on the upper surface of
each wing near the winglets and through a filler in the top RH
side of the fuselage fuel cell. An optional single-point pressure
refueling system can also be used to fuel the aircraft. Approved
grounding procedures for the aircraft and fuel truck must be followed during refueling. Anti-icing additive is not required when
single-point pressure refueling system is installed. However, for
Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

4F-19

CAE SimuFlite
microbial protection, an approved biocidal additive is recommended to be used at least once a week for aircraft in regular
use and whenever a fueled aircraft will be out of service for a
week or more.

Fuselage Tank Filling


To fill the fuselage tank, move the XFR-OFF-FILL switch to FILL.
When the fuselage tank is full, a float switch in the fuselage tank
stops the refueling process; it turns off the standby pumps,
closes the transfer valve, and illuminates the green FULL light on
the fuel control panel. Placing the XFR-OFF-FILL switch in OFF
closes the crossflow valve and extinguishes the FULL light.

Fuselage Tank Transferring


To transfer fuel to the wing tanks from the fuselage tank, place
the XFR-OFF-FILL switch in XFR. When a wing tank becomes
filled, its wing full float switch turns off the fuselage transfer pump
and illuminates its associated green L or R WING FULL light.
If the fuselage transfer pump fails, or if the fuselage tank
becomes empty, a pressure switch (1.5 PSI) in the transfer line
illuminates the white EMPTY light on the fuel panel. Because the
transfer pump depends on fuel for lubrication, the pilot should
turn off the transfer switch when the EMPTY light illuminates to
prevent damaging the pump. Placing the switch in OFF extinguishes the EMPTY and/or WING FULL lights and closes the
crossflow valve.

Single-Point Pressure Refueling System Operation


A fuel truck connects to the single-point pressure refueling port
on the right side of the fuselage. Fuel under pressure enters the
tanks through the system plumbing; all aircraft tanks can be refueled through the single-point system.
Pressure applied to the vent valve provides DC power to the
green VENT OPEN light and to the fuselage solenoid valve. If
the vent valve is not actuated, the fuselage tank does not fill
because the solenoid valve cannot open.

4F-20

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Fuel System

Fuel System
Power Source

Essential B L/R buses


Engine-driven fuel pressure motive flow

Distribution

Wing tanks to jet pump to standby pump to


engines
Standby pumps to fuselage tank
Transfer pump to wing tanks
Scavenge pumps to main jet pumps
Gravity transfer lines to wings
Engine motive flow to wing jet pumps
Jet or standby pump to:
Fuel filter
Firewall shutoff valve
Pressure switch
Engine-driven fuel pump

Control

Switches
STANDBY PUMP
START/GEN
XFR-FILL
GRAVITY XFR
AUX XFR
CROSSFLOW OPEN/CLOSE
ENGINE FIRE PULL T-handle

Monitor

Fuel panel lights


JET PUMPS ON/OFF L/R
FUS CAP
WING FULL L/R
FUS TANK FULL/EMPTY
GRAVITY XFR OPEN
CROSS FLOW OPEN
Annunciators
LOW FUEL
FUEL PRESS L/R
FUEL FILTER
FUEL CMPTR L/R
FUEL CFLO (Learjet 55)
FUEL XFLO (Learjet 55B/C)

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4F-21

CAE SimuFlite
Fuel System (cont.)
Protection

4F-22

Circuit breakers
Float switch: fuselage tank overfill protection
Firewall shutoff valve
Fuel vent for negative pressure relief
wing tank
Overpressure relief (center bulkhead)

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Hydraulic Systems

Hydraulic System
55B/C ONLY

FILTER

RIGHT
BATTERY

PRESSURE
REGULATOR

MAX
20 PSI

CHECK VALVE

NORMAL
17 PSI

BLEED
AIR

OVERBOARD
RELIEF
VACUUM
RELIEF

-0.5 PSI
HYDRAULIC
RESERVOIR

FILTER

B
A
T
T

ENG FIRE
PULL

7.5A

SHUTOFF
VALVE

ENG FIRE
PULL

C
H
A
R
G
I
N
G

HYD
PUMP

7.5A

R ESS B BUS

SERVICE
PORT

AUX PUMP
CONTROL
RELAY

EMER BUS
RELAY CONTROL

L ESS B BUS

R FW SOV

EMER BUS
FUSE BOX

B
U
S

L FW SOV

ENGINE-DRIVEN
PUMPS

LOW HYD
PRESS

AUXILIARY
PUMP 0.5 GPM

OFF

LOW PRESS SWITCH


(OPENS @ 1,125 PSI
CLOSES @ 1,000 PSI)

PRESSURE
RELIEF
(1,700 PSI)

FILTER

850

FILTER

PSI

TAILCONE

HYD PRESS
SENSOR

CHARGE
VALVE

HYD
PRESS IND
2
P
S
I
x
1 1
0
0
0

H
Y
D
P
R
E
S
S

March 2002

FLAP
SYSTEM

LNDG GEAR
DOORS
SELECTOR
VALVE

LNDG GEAR
SELECTOR
VALVE

BRAKE
SYSTEM

SPOILER
SYSTEM
FLUID SUPPLY
PRESSURE

R ESS A BUS

Learjet 55

1A

Developed for training purposes

RESTRICTOR
(BRAKE SNUBBING)

RETURN
ACCUMULATOR
CHARGE

4G-1

CAE SimuFlite

4G-2

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Hydraulic Systems

Hydraulic System
The Learjet 55 hydraulic system supplies fluid for operation of
the following:

brakes

landing gear

main gear doors

flaps

spoilers.

Hydraulic fluid flows from a reservoir through supply lines and


shutoff valves to separate engine-driven pumps and an auxiliary
hydraulic pump. The engine-driven hydraulic pumps maintain
fluid under pressure through lines, check valves, and filters to the
hydraulically operated systems upon demand.
The auxiliary pump provides an alternative option for maintaining
system pressure.
The hydraulic system operates a 1,550 PSI using MIL-H-5606
red hydraulic fluid.

Components
The hydraulic system consists of the following:

a HYD PRESS indicator

a hydraulic reservoir

three system filters

two shutoff valves

two engine-driven pumps

an accumulator

a pressure relief valve

an electric auxiliary pump (see Auxiliary System, this


chapter).

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4G-3

CAE SimuFlite
HYD PRESS Indicator
The HYD PRESS indicator on the lower center instrument panel
displays system pressure (PSI x 1000). The indicator markings
are at 500 PSI increments with a pointer at the right margin of the
indicator. The pressure range for the indicator is 0 to 2,000 PSI
with three color pressure bands:

Yellow band 0 to 1,000 PSI

Green band 1,000 to 1,750 PSI

Red line 1,750 PSI.

Hydraulic Reservoir
The 1.9 gallon capacity hydraulic reservoir in the tailcone equipment bay supplies fluid for hydraulic system operation. Prior to
reaching the reservoir, engine low pressure (LP) bleed air travels
through the following:

a pressure regulator filter

a pressure regulator

a check valve

a reservoir pressure relief valve

a reservoir vacuum relief valve.

The reservoir automatically pressurizes to 17 PSI with operation


of either of the engines. This pressure provides a positive fluid
flow to the engine-driven pumps and prevents fluid foaming.
The reservoir design allows for a 0.4 gallon fluid reserve, which
is sufficient to operate the flaps or brakes. The 20 PSI relief valve
in the overhead relief line prevents overpressurization of the
reservoir. Pressure in excess of 20 PSI vents overboard through
the valve.
A -0.5 PSI vacuum line relief valve prevents vacuum lock on initial system pressurization by equalizing system pressure to
atmospheric pressure.
4G-4

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Hydraulic Systems
System Filters
Two hydraulic filters in the pressure lines and one in the return
line prevent foreign matter from circulating in the system and
damaging components. The filters incorporate a bypass valve
that allows fluid to reach system components if a filter clogs.
The bypass valve in the top of each filter opens at approximately
100 PSI.

Shutoff Valves
Each shutoff valve isolates fluid from its respective engine-driven
pump by blocking flow from the reservoir. The respective ENG
FIRE PULL T-handle in the cockpit controls the ball-type motordriven shutoff valve.
Pulling the ENG FIRE PULL T-handle closes the corresponding
motor-driven shutoff valve. In addition, the respective fire extinguisher ENG EXT ARMED annunciator illuminates (see Fire
Protection chapter).

Engine-Driven Pumps
Each engine incorporates one self-regulating, constant pressure,
variable volume pump that delivers 4.0 GPM at 1,550 PSI. The
pump delivers fluid received from the reservoir and dispenses it
for the operation of hydraulic systems. A shear pin in the drive
shaft protects the engine if the pump seizes.

Accumulator
The cylindrical hydraulic accumulator absorbs and dampens
sudden hydraulic surges and helps maintain system pressure.
An air charging valve and direct-reading pressure gage on the air
side of the accumulator allow servicing of the unit. The accumulator contains an 850 PSI charge of dry nitrogen or air.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4G-5

CAE SimuFlite
Pressure Relief Valve
The pressure relief valve prevents damage to the hydraulic system due to excessive pressure from a hydraulic pump malfunction
or an improperly adjusted ground test cart. The spring-loaded
poppet valve bypasses fluid from the pressure line to the return
line if system pressure exceeds 1,700 PSI.
The Auxiliary system supplies fluid to the hydraulic components
in the event of a malfunction of during engine-off operations.

Auxiliary Hydraulic System


Auxiliary system components are:

a LO HYD PRESS annunciator

a HYD PUMP switch

an auxiliary hydraulic pump.

LO HYD PRESS Annunciator


The LO HYD PRESS annunciator on the glareshield illuminates
to alert the crew of a system pressure drop below 1,000 PSI and
extinguishes when pressure reaches approximately 1,125 PSI
(or 1,250 PSI with the higher pressure switch). The annunciator
illuminates via the system pressure sensed by the auxiliary
hydraulic pump pressure switch.

HYD PUMP Switch


The HYD PUMP switch on the lower center instrument panel
provides a completed circuit to operate the auxiliary pump. On
S/N 003 to 046, except 029 and 037, the switch label reads
ON/OFF. On S/N 047 and subsequent, the switch reads HYD
PUMP/OFF. Selection of HYD PUMP (ON) arms the Auxiliary
power circuit, initiating the pump to run with pressure below
1,000 PSI.

4G-6

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Hydraulic Systems
Auxiliary Hydraulic Pump
The auxiliary hydraulic pump in the aft compartments hydraulic
panel provides standby hydraulic power. The pump discharges
pressure at 0.5 GPM and 1,125 PSI, maintaining sufficient pressure to support the following:

flap system

landing gear door selector valve

landing gear selector valve

brake system.

The operations of the Auxiliary system occurs with the HYD


PUMP (ON) switch and pressure below 1,000 PSI. The drop in
pressure closes the auxiliary pump pressure switch and illuminates the LO HYD PRESS annunciator. Fluid from the bottom (or
reserve portion) of the reservoir supplies the hydraulic system at
approximately 0.5 GPM from the auxiliary pump.
Pressure builds to approximately 1,250 PSI to open the pressure
switch and interrupt power to the auxiliary pump. The pump continues to cycle on and off with the increase and decrease of system pressure until the HYD PUMP (ON) switch is moved to OFF.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

4G-7

CAE SimuFlite
Hydraulic Systems
Power Source

Main hydraulic system


Left/right engine-driven hydraulic pumps
(4.0 GPM at 1,550 PSI each)
Auxiliary hydraulic pump
Battery Charging bus (0.5 GPM at
1,125 PSI)
Emergency Power bus
Right essential A bus (Learjet 55B/C)
Pressure switch (1,000 to 1,125 PSI)

Distribution

Engine-driven pumps
Spoilers
Flaps
Gear
Brakes
Auxiliary pump
Flaps
Gear
Brakes

Control

HYD PUMP switch


ENG FIRE PULL T-handle
Individual systems controls

Monitor

HYD PRESS indicator


LOW HYD PRESS annunciator
Accumulator precharge direct reading gage

Protection

Overpressure relief
Auxiliary pump
Auxiliary pump secondary power supply from
Right Emergency bus (Learjet 55B/C)

4G-8

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Ice and Rain Protection

Engine/Nacelle Anti-Ice System


WARNING
LIGHTS

R ENG
ICE

SPINNER ANTI-ICE
SHUTOFF VALVE

SPINNER
PRESSURE
SWITCH
(6 PSI)

SPINNER ANTI-ICE CONTROL


SOLENOID VALVE (N.C.)
TO PYLON

DIFFUSER TUBE

Pt2/Tt2
PROBE

BLEED AIR
MODULATING
SHUTOFF VALVE
WARNING
ANNUNCIATOR
RELAY

ANTI-ICE
PRESSURE
SWITCH
(2 PSI)

R NAC HT

ON
OFF

ENGINE ANTI-ICE
SOLENOID CONTROL
VALVE (N.C.)

7.5A

NAC HEAT
L
R

OFF

OFF

R
M
A
I
N
P
W
R
B
U
S

SPINNER
PRESSURE
SWITCH

HOT BLEED AIR (HP)


NACELLE
PRESSURE
SWITCH

Learjet 55
March 2002

SPINNER SENSE LINE


MECHANICAL CONNECTION

Developed for training purposes

4H-1

CAE SimuFlite
Wing Anti-Ice System

W
I
N
G

WARNING
LIGHTS

T
E
M
P

WING ANTI-ICE
SHUTOFF AND PRESSURE
REGULATOR VALVE (N.C.)

WING
OV HT
215F

R
STAB
WING
HEAT

WING
HT

TO 15 PSI
3A
HOT BLEED AIR

BLEED AIR

OFF

M
A
I
N
P
W
R
B
U
S

4H-2

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Ice and Rain Protection

Horizontal Stabilizer Anti-Ice System

WARNING
LIGHTS
CONTROL

STAB
HEAT

4
STAB
STAB WING
HEAT HEAT
7.5A

2
OFF

STABILIZER
HEATING BLANKET
(7 ELEMENTS
PER SIDE)

DISTRIBUTION BOX

SQUAT
SWITCH

R
TIMER AND
RELAY BOX

M
A
I
N

B
A
T
T

P
W
R
B
U
S

Learjet 55
September 2003

OPEN DURING ENGINE START

CLOSED WHEN L OR R GEN IS ON-LINE

OPEN WHEN AIRCRAFT IS ON GROUND

CLOSED WHEN PARTING ELEMENTS


LOSE POWER

Developed for training purposes

C
H
A
R
G
I
N
G

4H-3

CAE SimuFlite
Windshield Bleed Air Anti-Ice System
LOW LIMIT
THERMOSTAT
250F ,121C
(GROUND), LIGHT OUT
AT 240F, 115C

R
M
A
I
N

HIGH LIMIT
THERMOSTAT
347F, 175C
(AIR) LIGHT OUT
AT 311F, 155C

SQUAT SWITCH
AIR

P
W
R
GROUND

B
U
S

WINDSHIELD
GROUND WSHLD
OV HT

WSHLD
HT

7.5A

WSHLD
HT

DEFOG
O/HT
SHUTOFF
RELAY

WINDSHIELD
ANTI-ICE
OVERHEAT
SHUTOFF
VALVE (N.C.)

BLEED AIR
MANIFOLD

WARNING
LIGHTS
CONTROL

H
O
L
D

WSHLD
HT ON

TEMPERATURE
SENSOR

HOT

WINDSHIELD ANTI-ICE
CONTROL VALVE

COLD
OFF

OVERBOARD
HOT BLEED AIR

DEFOG HEAT
EXCHANGER

RAM
AIR
RAM AIR
MODULATING
VALVE

CONDITIONED BLEED AIR


ALCOHOL FLOW

4H-4

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Ice and Rain Protection

Windshield Alcohol Anti-Ice System


ALC SYSTEM
R MAIN PWR BUS

5A

LEARJET 55
R PWR BUS
LEARJET 55B/C

WINDSHIELD
OUTLETS

WSHLD
ALC
BLEED AIR
FROM RH
ENGINE

OFF

3-WAY
SHUTOFF
VALVE
ALC
AI
FILTER

SHUTOFF AND
PRESSURE
REGULATOR VALVE

PRESSURE
RELIEF VALVE

2.35 GAL RESERVOIR


(APPROX 2.4 PSI ABOVE
AMBIENT)

FLOAT
SWITCH

OVERBOARD DRAINS
(2.6 PSI ABOVE AMBIENT)

CHECK
VALVE

CHECK
VALVE

BLEED AIR
FROM LH
ENGINE

SUPPLY
BLEED AIR PRESSURE
REGULATED PRESSURE
ALCOHOL FLOW

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4H-5

CAE SimuFlite

4H-6

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Ice and Rain Protection

Ice and Rain Protection


This chapter describes the operation of the Learjet 55 ice and
rain protection systems that include wing and horizontal stabilizer leading edges anti-ice, nacelle inlet and fan spinner anti-ice,
pitot static and stall warning anti-ice, and windshield anti-ice and
defogging systems.
Three sources protect aircraft surfaces from ice and rain:

engine bleed air prevents ice formation on the wing leading


edges, nacelle inlet, fan spinner, and windshield

electric heating elements protect the Pt2/Tt2 probes, pressurization static port, stall warning vanes, and the horizontal
stabilizer leading edge

a methyl alcohol (methanol) pilots windshield anti-ice system provides a backup for the bleed air anti-icing system.

Ice Detection Lights


During day operation, visually check the lower corners of the
windshield for ice accumulation. Use ice inspection lights during
night operation, especially if moisture is visible. In addition, monitor the wing temperature indicator on the center instrument panel.

Wing Inspection Light


During night operation, use the wing inspection light on the right
forward fuselage to inspect for ice accumulation on the right wing
leading edge. Press the WING INSP momentary push-button on
the copilots dimmer panel to illuminate the wing inspection light.
The light beams on an area with a black dot on the outboard wing
leading edge.

Windshield Ice Detection Lights


When the battery (BAT 1/2) switches are on, two red ice detection lights on the forward glareshield illuminate the windshield to
reveal any ice or moisture accumulation during night operation.
Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4H-7

CAE SimuFlite
When particles of ice or moisture form, light refraction results in
the appearance of two red areas approximately 1/2 inches in
diameter on the windshield.
The red areas indicate ice when OAT is below freezing and moisture when OAT is above freezing.
The light on the pilots side illuminates an area of the windshield
that is cleared by the windshield defog airstream. The copilot
light illuminates an area not in the defog airstream; therefore, if
the defog system is in operation, monitor the right windshield for
ice accumulation.

Wing Anti-Ice System


Engine bleed air directed through a diffuser tube in each wing
leading edge inhibits ice formation. The heated air flows to the
wing root and along the leading edge, then exits into the center
wing/wheel well area for brake de-icing and slush removal. The
system includes a thermoswitch, a wing temperature sensor, an
anti-ice shutoff and pressure regulator valve, and a wing temperature indicator.
In case of electrical system failure, the wing shutoff and pressure
regulator valve fails closed and wing anti-ice is not available.

WING TEMP Indicator


The WING TEMP indicator on the center instrument panel provides visual indication of the wing leading edge temperature via
the wing temperature sensor on the inner surface of the left wing
leading edge. The three-segment indicator face is color-coded
as follows:
Blue the wing leading edge temperature is below 35F (1.7C),
where moisture freezes on the surface. The pointer in the blue
segment with the STAB WING HEAT switch on indicates a
system malfunction. Energize the wing anti-ice system if there is
visible moisture, the WING TEMP indicator pointer is in the blue
segment, and the R.A.T. is 50F (10C) or lower or the S.A.T. is
41F (5C) or lower.
4H-8

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Ice and Rain Protection


Green the wing leading edge temperature is above 35F
(1.7C), and moisture does not freeze on the surface.
Red the wing leading edge temperature is above 215F
(102C) and requires corrective action.

WING OV HT Annunciator
The red WING OV HT annunciator illuminates if the wing leading
edge heats to 215F (102C). An overheat warning thermoswitch
on the inner skin of the right wing leading edge energizes the
annunciator.

Horizontal Stabilizer Anti-Ice System


An electrically operated heating blanket bonded to the horizontal
stabilizer leading edge provides anti-ice protection during flight.
The stabilizer anti-ice system includes the STAB WING HEAT
switch, STAB HEAT annunciator, and sequence timer.

STAB WING HEAT Switch


The two-position STAB WING HEAT switch on the center instrument panel controls both the wing and horizontal stabilizer antiice systems.

Wing Heat Function


When the STAB WING HEAT switch is on and at least one
engine is operating, the anti-ice shutoff and pressure regulator
valve control solenoid closes to allow pressure buildup within the
valve reference chambers. The pressure opens a butterfly valve
in the bleed air airstream to allow heated air through the ducting
into the wing diffuser tubes for wing anti-icing.
The pressure regulator valve maintains a regulated 15 PSI bleed
air flow as long as it remains open. In the event of electrical system failure, the valve shuts off the bleed air flow, and wing antiice protection is not available.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4H-9

CAE SimuFlite
Stabilizer Heat Function
When the aircraft is in flight, with at least one generator operating and the STAB WING HEAT switch on, 28V DC power is supplied through the stab heat relay box to the sequence timer.
There are seven heating elements in each side of the stabilizer
heating blanket: one parting element at the leading edge, three
elements above, and three elements below. The sequence timer
distributes intermittent electrical power to the elements in a forward-to-aft sequence of 15 seconds duration each; the circuit
completes a full cycle in approximately three minutes.
Meanwhile, the heating blanket parting element receives continuous electrical power. During normal stabilizer heat operation,
the aircraft DC ammeters reflect a pulsating current drain at
approximately 60A in 15-second cycles.
The stabilizer heat system is inoperative during engine start and
when the aircraft is on the ground (i.e., the squat switch is in the
ground mode) because the stabilizer heat control circuits route
through a start cutout relay and the right squat switch. Once the
aircraft leaves the ground, if the switch is on, the stabilizer heat
system activates, and stabilizer anti-ice systems are operative in
flight.

STAB HEAT Annunciator


The amber STAB HEAT annunciator illuminates whenever the
STAB WING HEAT switch is on and the blanket parting elements
are not receiving electrical power. During flight, this illumination
indicates system failure. During ground operation, the STAB
HEAT annunciator illuminates whenever the STAB WING HEAT
switch is on and the squat switch is in the ground mode and at
least one generator is on.

Engine and Nacelle Inlet Anti-Ice


Each engine and nacelle anti-ice system utilizes bleed air and
electric heating elements for anti-ice protection. Each system is
independent and includes a Pt2/Tt2 mast heating element, a
4H-10

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Ice and Rain Protection


nacelle anti-ice control valve, a fan spinner anti-ice control valve,
and two pressure switches.
Engine bleed air flows through diffuser tubes along the inner surfaces of the nacelle inlet lip and the fan spinners to inhibit ice formation in the engine. Electrical heating elements are in the
bases of each engine Pt2/Tt2 (pressure sensor/air temperature)
probe.

NAC HEAT Switches


The left and right two-position NAC HEAT switches on the pilots
outboard or center switch panel independently control the left
and right engine and nacelle inlet anti-ice systems.
Setting a NAC HEAT switch on (in L or R position) energizes the
associated Pt2/Tt2 sensor element and opens the associated
solenoid-operated fan spinner and nacelle anti-ice control
valves. Engine bleed air flows through the open valves to diffuser
tubes that distribute the heated air on the inner surface of the fan
spinner and nacelle inlet lip.
On S/N 127 and subsequent (Learjet 55B/C), a green L/R NAC
HEAT annunciator illuminates when the individual NAC HEAT
switches are in the ON position.
If the electrical system fails, fan spinner and nacelle inlet anti-ice
is inoperative because there is no power to the solenoid-operated
control valves, which are spring-loaded to the OFF position.

ENG ICE Lights


The amber L and R ENG ICE annunciators on the glareshield
annunciator panel provide visual indication of a fan spinner or
nacelle inlet anti-ice system malfunction. Pressure switches in
the associated fan spinner and nacelle inlet bleed air plumbing
operate the lights.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4H-11

CAE SimuFlite
Illumination of either ENG ICE annunciator indicates the following:

if the associated NAC HEAT switch is on, the engine antiice system has insufficient pressure because of fan spinner
or nacelle anti-ice control valve malfunction. Also, under
certain conditions, there may not be sufficient bleed pressure across the anti-ice pressure switch to turn the light off.

if the associated NAC HEAT switch is off, bleed air pressure


is still being applied to the engine anti-ice system because
of a fan spinner or nacelle anti-ice control valve malfunction.
Turning the NAC HEAT switch on and back off may close
the affected valve and extinguish the light. If the light is still
illuminated, pull the affected NAC HT CB. Without electrical
power, the valve should fail closed.

The associated ENG ICE annunciators act similar to disagreement lights with relative switch positions and valve positioning
according to the NAC HEAT switch positions.

Windshield Anti-Ice System


Conditioned bleed air flows onto the windshield through two
exterior outlet nozzles to provide primary windshield anti-icing
and de-fogging. The windshield anti-ice system components in
the tailcone include an anti-ice heat exchanger, ram air regulating valve, duct temperature sensor, and bleed air ducting. In
addition, components in the cockpit include overheat thermoswitches in the outlet nozzles.

Windshield Heat Control Switch


The three-position WSHLD HT switch on the pilots outboard or
center switch panel controls the windshield anti-ice system.
If electrical power is lost in flight, the shutoff valve fails closed
and windshield heat is not available, even if the modulating valve
is open.

4H-12

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Ice and Rain Protection


Subsequently, moving the WSHLD HT switch to the ON position
illuminates the WSHLD HT annunciator and starts the anti-ice
modulating valve to open. The valve fully closes or opens in 5 to
8 seconds after switch activation.
To deliver partial airflow to the windshield, place the WSHLD HT
switch in the ON position momentarily, then to the HOLD position. This places the modulating valve in a partially open position.
For full windshield anti-ice, place the WSHLD HT switch in the
ON position. The anti-ice modulating valve moves to the full open
position, and under normal conditions, the temperature is automatically controlled.
In flight, the shutoff valve closes when the temperature reaches
the high-limit on the overheat thermoswitch at the windshield outlet nozzle. The low-limit thermoswitch only activates on the
ground when either or both squat switches and the relay box
place the aircraft in the ground mode.
If an overheat condition occurs in flight during windshield heat
operation, move the WSHLD HT switch to OFF momentarily,
then back to HOLD.

Anti-Ice Heat Exchanger


The anti-ice heat exchanger precools engine bleed air to approximately 300F (149C) before the air is routed to the windshield
exterior nozzles. A ram air modulating valve regulates the
amount of ram air that enters the heat exchanger to cool the
bleed air. The anti-ice duct temperature sensor, downstream of
the heat exchanger, controls the ram air modulating valve. On
the ground, ram air is not available to cool the bleed air in the
event of an overheat condition.

Windshield Heat Annunciator


The green WSHLD HT annunciator on the glareshield panel illuminates when the WSHLD HT switch is on and remains illuminated as long as the anti-ice modulating valve remains open.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4H-13

CAE SimuFlite
Windshield Overheat Annunciator
The red WSHLD OV HT annunciator on the glareshield panel
indicates that the bleed air temperature in one or both of the windshield outlet nozzles has reached the respective thermoswitch
settings and the windshield anti-ice system has shut down.
A low-limit and a high-limit thermoswitch is in each of two external
nozzles on each side of the windshield center post. The low-limit
thermoswitch prevents the windshield from overheating while the
aircraft is on the ground. The high-limit thermoswitch prevents
the windshield from overheating while the aircraft is in flight.
If the bleed air temperature in either outlet nozzle reaches 250F
(121C) during ground operation, the low-limit overheat thermoswitches close the anti-ice shutoff valve and illuminate the red
WSHLD OV HT annunciator. If the bleed air temperature in either
outlet nozzle reaches 347F (175C) in flight, the high-limit
thermoswitches close the anti-ice shutoff valve and illuminate the
red WSHLD OV HT annunciator.
When the windshield anti-ice bleed air temperature drops to
240F (115C) on the ground or 311F (155C) in flight, the overheat thermoswitches reset to open the anti-ice shutoff valve, and
the WSHLD OV HT annunciator extinguishes.
When the red WSHLD OVHT annunciator illuminates due to
an overheat condition, the green WSHLD HT annunciator
extinguishes and remains extinguished until the overheat condition cools. When the temperatures drop below those prescribed, the overheat shutoff valve resets to closed, the green
WSHLD HT annunciator illuminates, and the system returns to
normal operation.

Windshield Anti-Ice Alcohol System


If the bleed air windshield anti-ice system malfunctions, an alcohol system provides back-up anti-icing for the pilots windshield
only. Methyl alcohol (methanol) sprayed onto the left windshield
surface through an external nozzle in the heat outlet nozzle
assembly helps prevent ice accumulation.
4H-14

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Ice and Rain Protection


The alcohol anti-ice system includes a 2.35 gallon alcohol reservoir, a float switch, a filter, a relief valve, a three-way control
valve, and a bleed air shutoff and pressure regulator valve.
The pressure relief valve prevents system overpressurization by
venting system pressure greater than 2.6 PSI above ambient
and by venting bleed system pressure when the alcohol anti-ice
system is off.

Windshield Alcohol Switch


The two-position WSHLD ALC switch on the pilots outboard or
center switch panel controls the windshield alcohol anti-ice system. Setting the switch to the WSHLD ALC position opens the
shutoff and pressure regulator valve and positions the three-way
control valve for alcohol flow to the windshield.
The alcohol reservoir, pressurized to approximately 2.4 PSI
above ambient through the shutoff and pressure regulator valve,
supplies alcohol to the windshield outlet through a filter and the
three-way control valve.
When the WSHLD ALC switch is set to OFF, the shutoff and
pressure regulator valve closes, the three-way valve repositions
to cut off the flow, and the system pressure bleeds off through the
pressure relief valve.

Alcohol Anti-Ice Annunciator


Illumination of the amber ALC AI annunciator on the glareshield
panel indicates the reservoir alcohol supply is low. The reservoir
float switch illuminates the annunciator through a relay when the
float switch is in the full down position. When the relay is energized, a holding circuit prevents the annunciator from flickering
due to the bobbing motion of the float. When the battery switches
(BAT 1/2) are OFF and the alcohol reservoir is full, the holding
circuit is de-energized.
A completely filled reservoir supplies the left windshield alcohol
anti-ice system with approximately 45 minutes of alcohol flow.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

4H-15

CAE SimuFlite
Optional ANTI-ICE ON Annunciator
If illuminated, an optional green ANTI-ICE ON annunciator on
the glareshield panel indicates the windshield alcohol anti-ice
system is in operation. The annunciator extinguishes when the
system is off.

Windshield Auxiliary Defogging System


The normal air circulation system normally defogs the internal
windshield. If additional defogging is necessary, an auxiliary
defogging system utilizes airflow forced across heating elements
and ducted to diffusers on the bottom inboard side of the windshield. The system consists of a blower, defog electrical heater,
thermoswitch, thermal fuse, windshield diffusers, and associated
aircraft wiring.
The system is inoperative during engine start since the auxiliary
defog control circuits are wired through the start cutout relay. The
auxiliary defog blower motor and heater elements are beneath
the cockpit floor under the pedestal; the elements are just forward of the motor.

Auxiliary Defog Switch


The three-position AUX DEFOG switch on the pilots outboard
panel or the center switch panel controls the windshield auxiliary
defog system. Either an engine generator or GPU power provides a ground path for the defog heater power relay and defog
protection circuitry.
Setting the AUX DEFOG switch to the LO or HI position energizes the defog heater and activates the defog blower. The defog
blower motor operates in either high or low speed range,
depending on the AUX DEFOG switch position. To control the
defog air temperature, a thermoswitch opens at approximately
150F (65.5C) and resets at approximately 125F (52C). If
there is a malfunction, a thermal fuse melts at approximately
430F (221C) and disables the heater. The auxiliary defog system automatically shuts down during engine start.
4H-16

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Ice and Rain Protection

Pitot/Static and Stall Warning


Anti-Ice System
Integral heating elements in the pitot-static probe and stall warning vane anti-ice system prevent ice accumulation on the
pitot/static probes, stall warning vanes, the pressurization static
port, and, if installed, the total air temperature probe.
In the standard configuration, both left and right systems utilize
the same PITOT HEAT annunciator.
An optional configuration has dual L/R PITOT HEAT annunciators.

PITOT HEAT Switches


The two-position PITOT HEAT switches on the pilots outboard
or center switch panel control the pitot/static heat systems individually. When the left or right PITOT HEAT switch is on (L or R
position), the corresponding pitot/static probe, stall warning
vane, pressurization static port heater, and, if installed, the total
air temperature probe receive power.

Pitot Heat Annunciators


A dual pitot heat monitor system alerts the crew if a pitot/static
probe heating element receives insufficient current. The monitor
system is available with either the standard, single PITOT HEAT
annunciator or the optional dual L/R PITOT HEAT annunciator.
The monitors are wired to the ground side of the pitot/static probe
heating elements. Each monitor is basically a relay that maintains an open circuit for the PITOT HEAT annunciator as long as
sufficient current is applied to the associated pitot/static probe
heating element. In the event of a malfunction or loss of power to
the associated pitot/static probe heating element, the relay
releases and completes the PITOT HEAT annunciator circuit.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

4H-17

CAE SimuFlite
Single PITOT HEAT Annunciator
Illumination of the amber PITOT HEAT annunciator indicates
there is a malfunction in either the left or right pitot/static heat
system or that at least one PITOT HEAT switch is off.

Optional Dual L/R PITOT HEAT Annunciators


Illumination of either amber L/R PITOT HEAT annunciator indicates there is a malfunction in the associated pitot/static heat
system or that the associated PITOT HEAT switch is off.

4H-18

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Ice and Rain Protection

Ice and Rain Protection System


Engine Anti-Ice System
Power Source

Bleed air
Nacelle inlet lip
Fan spinner
Main bus (Learjet 55)
Pt2/Tt2 probe heat
Power bus (Learjet 55B/C)
Pt2/Tt2 probe heat

Distribution

Bleed air mixing valve


Nacelle inlet anti-ice control valve
Spinner anti-ice control valve

Control

NAC HEAT L/R switches

Monitor

Annunciators
Amber ENG ICE L/R
Green NAC HT L/R (if installed)

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4H-19

CAE SimuFlite
Wing and Stabilizer Anti-Ice System
Power Source

Bleed air
Right Main bus (Learjet 55)
Right Power bus (Learjet 55B/C)
Battery Charging bus: Stabilizer heat

Distribution

Bleed air
Bleed air manifold
Wing anti-ice regulator control valve
Wing leading edge diffuser tubes
Left and right wheels

Control

STAB & WING HEAT switch

Monitor

Annunciators
STAB HEAT
WING OV HT
WING TEMP indicator

Windshield Heat Anti-Ice System


Power Source

Bleed air manifold


Right Main bus

Distribution

Bleed air manifold


Overheat shutoff valve
Windshield heat modulating valve
Heat exchanger
Windshield diffuser outlets

Control

WSHLD HT switch

Monitor

Annunciators
WSHLD HT
WSHLD OV HT

Protection

Automatic overheat shutoff:


In flight high-limit thermal switch
Ground low-limit thermal switch

4H-20

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Landing Gear and Brakes

Landing Gear System

RELIEF
VALVE

TO BRAKE
SYSTEM

LANDING GEAR
SELECTOR VALVE

FILTER
GEAR BLOW-DOWN
CONTROL VALVE

CHECK
VALVE
AIR
BOTTLE

14

LANDING GEAR DOOR


SELECTOR VALVE

OVERRIDE
CHECK VALVE

PRIORITY
VALVE
CHARGING
VALVE

SHUTTLE
VALVE
NOSE GEAR
ACTUATOR
UPLATCH
ACTUATOR

3,500 PSI

MAIN GEAR
ACTUATOR

13

EMERGENCY
BRAKE
SELECTOR
VALVE

10

R MAIN
GEAR

L MAIN GEAR
UPLATCH
ACTUATOR

3
7
4

UPLATCH

DOOR
ACTUATOR

FILTER
NOSE
GEAR

CHARGING
VALVE
FREE FALL
UPLATCH
ACTUATOR

1,800 TO 3,000 PSI


TO EMERGENCY
BRAKE SYSTEM

G
E
A
R
A
I
R

B
R
A
K
E
A
I
R

PSI x
1000

FREE FALL
UPLATCH
ACTUATOR

1 R SQUAT SWITCH

8 R DOOR CLOSED SWITCH

AIR
PRESS
IND

E
S
S

2 L SQUAT SWITCH

9 L DOOR CLOSED SWITCH

1A

A
B
U
S

11

RESTRICTOR

ARD
FORW

FREE FALL
CONTROL
VALVE

3 R GEAR DOWN SAFETY SWITCH

UPLATCH
GEAR DOOR

10 NOSE GEAR UPLOCK SWITCH

12

FREE FALL
UPLATCH
ACTUATOR

S/N 55-140 AND


SUBSEQUENT;
PRIORITY VALVE HAS
BEEN REMOVED

ACTUATOR
2

HYDRAULIC PRESSURE
EMERGENCY AIR
HYDRAULIC RETURN

R DOOR OPEN SWITCH

11 R GEAR DOWN LOCK SWITCH

5 L DOOR OPEN SWITCH

12 L GEAR DOWN LOCK SWITCH

6 L GEAR UP SWITCH

13 NOSE GEAR DOWNLOCK SWITCH

EXTEND

7 R GEAR UP SWITCH

14 FREE FALL HANDLE MUST BE RESET TO RESTORE

RETRACT

HYDRAULIC PRESSURE TO GEAR AND BRAKES.

VENT

MECHANICAL CONNECTION

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4I-1

CAE SimuFlite
Landing Gear System Electrical Logic
Aircraft on Ground
FROM WARNING
LIGHT POWER

LANDING GEAR
10
9

12

UP

13

NOT
UP

NOT DOWN

11

NOT UP

11

UNSAFE LOCKED DN
UP
1

AIR

UP

UP

CLOSE DOOR
CONTROL
VALVE
OPEN

12
NOT
DOWN
NOT DOWN DOWN

DOWN
AIR
2

OPEN

OPEN

DOWN
GND GND

UP
GEAR
CONTROL
VALVE

DOWN

DOWN

DOWN
4

R
E
M
E
R
B
U
S

NOT
OPEN

NOT
OPEN

R
E
M
E
R

GEAR
TO GEAR
POSITION
INDICATORS

2A

B
U
S

EMER BAT
#2
28V DC

GEAR
2A

EMER BAT
#1
28V DC

LEARJET 55

LEARJET 55B/C

MECHANICAL CONNECTION

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

4I-2

R SQUAT SWITCH
L SQUAT SWITCH
R GEAR DOWN SAFETY SWITCH
R DOOR OPEN SWITCH
L DOOR OPEN SWITCH
L GEAR UP SWITCH
R GEAR UP SWITCH

8
9
10
11
12
13

R DOOR CLOSED SWITCH


L DOOR CLOSED SWITCH
NOSE GEAR UPLOCK SWITCH
R GEAR DOWNLOCK SWITCH
L GEAR DOWNLOCK SWITCH
NOSE GEAR DOWNLOCK SWITCH

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Landing Gear and Brakes

Nosewheel Steering System


RH OUTBOARD ANTI-SKID GEN
RH INBOARD ANTI-SKID GEN
LH INBOARD ANTI-SKID GEN
R

STEER
ON

M
A
I
N
P
W
R

NOSE
STEER

ANTI-SKID
GEN

2
L

1
STEER LOCK

B
U
S

WHEEL MASTER
BUTTONS

COMPUTER
AMPLIFIER

SQUAT
SWITCH
RELAY
PANEL
FOLLOW UP

L
A
C
B
U
S

NOSE
STEER
PEDAL
SYNCHRO
CLUTCH
COPILOT'S
RUDDER
PEDAL
LINKAGE

LH MAIN GEAR DOWNLOCK SWITCH

NOSE GEAR DOWNLOCK SWITCH

LOCATED ON THE PILOT'S AND


COPILOT'S SUB-PANEL

LOCATED ON THE CONTROL YOKES

MOTOR
AND GEAR

NOSE
GEAR

MECHANICAL CONNECTION

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4I-3

CAE SimuFlite
Emergency Braking System
EMERGENCY AIR BOTTLE
(1,800 TO 3,000 PSI)
RELIEF VALVE
(3,500 PSI)
R
AIR PRESS
IND

E
S
S
A

FILTER

FILLER
PORT
RET
S
P
O
I
L
E
R
EXT

PRESSURE
SENSOR

B
U
S

EMER
BRAKE
HANDLE

EMERG
BRAKE

GEAR FREE
FALL AIR
U
P

CUTOFF

G
E
A
R

A
I
R

1
PSI x
1000

ENG SYNC
N2

B
R
A
K
E
A
I
R

SYNC

8
OFF

N1

P
A
R
K
I
N
G

20

D
N

B
R
A
K
E

OVERBOARD
VENT
SHUTTLE
VALVES

SHUTTLE
VALVES

SUPPLY PRESSURE
BRAKE PRESSURE
VENT
HYDRAULIC PRESSURE
MECHANICAL CONNECTION

4I-4

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Landing Gear and Brakes

Brake System
TO
RESERVOIR
FROM NOSE
GEAR DOWN
LINE

LEARJET 55B/C
PARK
BRAKE
ANTI-SKID
L

PILOT
BRAKE
VALVE

PILOT
BRAKE
VALVE

COPILOT
BRAKE
VALVE

COPILOT
BRAKE
VALVE

R
M
A
I
N

PARKING
BRAKE

ANTI
SKID

P
W
R

PARKING
BRAKE
ANTI-SKID
DISCONNECT
SWITCH

B
U
S

SERVO

FROM
EMERGENCY
AIR BOTTLE

SERVO

TO
RESERVOIR

ANTI-SKID
CONTROL
VALVE

HYDRAULIC
FUSE

ANTI-SKID
CONTROL
VALVE

SQUAT
SWITCH
28V DC
LH
MAIN GEAR

SERVO

SOLENOID
SHUTOFF

SQUAT
SERVO
SWITCH
28V DC
RH
MAIN GEAR

ANTI-SKID
CONTROL
BOX

ANTI-SKID
GEN
L

SUPPLY PRESSURE

T 1
E
S
T

WARNING
LIGHT
CONTROL

RH GEAR
DOWN SAFETY
SWITCH

BRAKE PRESSURE
RETURN
EMERGENCY AIR
MECHANICAL CONNECTION
1

LEARJET 55 ONLY
(LEARJET 55B/C TEST IS OPERATIVE IN FLIGHT)

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4I-5

CAE SimuFlite

4I-6

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Landing Gear and Brakes

Landing Gear Systems


The landing gear system on the Learjet 55 is a conventional tricycle configuration with air-hydraulic shock strut-type nose and
main gear. The gear is electrically controlled and hydraulically
operated.
The main gear consists of a dual wheel and brake assembly, and
the nose gear utilizes a single wheel. The nose gear has a chined
tire to prevent splashing water or slush into the engine inlets.
The brake system on the Learjet 55 has rudder-pedal-operated
multiple disc brakes on the main wheels. The system is mechanically controlled and hydraulically actuated. A pneumatic backup
system provides air pressure for braking if the hydraulic system
fails.
An anti-skid system provides maximum braking efficiency on all
runway surfaces. Speed sensors in each wheel provide electrical
signals to the anti-skid valves that release brake pressure when
an impending wheel lock and skid occurs.

Landing Gear System


Squat Switches
The squat switches, one on each main gear, provide verification
of the aircrafts status.
When the struts are compressed on the ground, the squat
switches close and place the relay box in the ground mode. As
the main gear struts extend on takeoff, the squat switches open
and send a signal to the relay box, placing it in the air mode.
Either of the squat switches can indicate that the aircraft is on
the ground; however, both squat switches must indicate that the
aircraft is in the air before the squat switch relay box is in the air
mode.
The individual left or right squat switches affect the aircraft
systems in either mode (ground or flight).
Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4I-7

CAE SimuFlite
Squat Switch Relay Box
The relay panel is powered to the ground mode when an electrical ground is present through either squat switch.
The squat switch relay panel connects to various aircraft systems
and activates depending on aircraft mode. The aircraft systems
affected by the squat switch relay panel include the following:

cabin pressurization

flaps 25 spoileron (airborne only)

nosewheel steering (ground only)

mach trim test mode (ground only)

thrust reversers (optional)

windshield heat low limit thermoswitch (ground only) and


10-second timer for red overheat light on landing

amber pitch trim light indicating out of the takeoff range


(ground only)

single generator current limiting (ground only)

green wing full lights (airborne only)

3 flap input to the yaw damper

gear warning tone (25 or more of flaps with gear UP)

autospoilers (ground only)

Hobbs meters (optional, airborne only)

radio transmitter (Learjet 55B/C ground only)

safety valve vacuum shutoff solenoid (ground only)

stall warning lights and shakers (Learjet 55C airborne only)

cabin and cockpit temp sensor motors

fuel transfer switch latch (Learjet 55B/C, or if installed).

4I-8

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Landing Gear and Brakes

Main Gear
The main gear assembly mounted to the wings consists of dual
wheels and brakes attached to a conventional air/hydraulic
shock strut. Other components include:

strut and torque arms

dual wheels with multiple disc brakes (see Brakes section,


this chapter)

gear doors

hydraulic actuator

squat switches on both main gear.

Each main landing gear wheel consists of two wheel halves


bolted together. Two fusible plugs release tire pressure if brake
energy is exceeded by hard braking. Wheel fuse plugs are
installed in S/Ns 003 to 76, without AAK 55-82-6. The fuse
plugs release tire pressure at 360F, and have a quick turn limitation. On S/N 77 and subsequent, and prior aircraft with
AAK 55-82-6, the fuse plugs release at 390F and have no
quick turn limitation.
Aircraft with a 21,500 lbs takeoff weight have 14-ply main gear
tires with a pressure of 201 5 PSI loaded.

Nose Gear
The nose gear is used for steering and towing the aircraft as well
as its primary functions. In addition to a shock strut similar to that
of the main gear and a torque arm, nose gear components
include:

single wheel and tire

gear doors (mechanically operated)

hydraulic actuator

nose gear downlock switch

self-centering cams.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4I-9

CAE SimuFlite
The nose landing gear wheel consists of inboard and outboard
wheel halves. An 18 x 4.4 inch, 10-ply, type VII chined, tubeless
tire is mounted on the wheel. Chines deflect water and slush
away from engine inlets to permit takeoffs with up to 3/4 inch of
water or slush on the runway. Tire pressure is kept at 104 to 114
PSI with the crew on board and the aircraft loaded.

Landing Gear Operation


Landing Gear Control Lever
The LANDING GEAR control lever on the center instrument
panel is a lever-lock type switch; it must be pulled aft before
selecting the UP or DOWN position. The switch controls the position of the gear and door selector valves through gear and door
position switches. The gear valve will not energize unless the aircraft is in the air mode.
If the landing gear is extended through alternate systems (e.g.,
blowdown, free-fall), both the gear and door selector valves are
pneumatically actuated.
On S/N 003 to 126, the gear can also be operated with the
emergency battery No. 1 switch in ON position if an electrical
failure occurs. On S/N 127 and subsequent, the gear must be
extended through an alternate means or by energizing the
Emergency Battery bus while experiencing electrical failure.

Retraction
Setting the landing gear control switch to UP energizes the gear
door control valve to the down position.
The two main gear UNSAFE lights illuminate and, when the
inboard main gear doors are fully open, the gear selector valve
energizes. With the gear off the ground, the squat switches are
in the air mode.
The nose gear and main gear inboard door uplatches engage
and hold the doors closed. When the gear is fully retracted with

4I-10

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Landing Gear and Brakes


all door closed, the door up switches and nose gear up and
locked switch extinguish the red UNSAFE lights.

Extension
Placing the landing gear control switch to DN energizes the open
solenoid on the gear door control valve to the down position.
When the door uplatches open, the door up switches cause the
red UNSAFE lights to illuminate.
On S/N 003 to 139 without AMK 55-91-1, a priority valve is in
the nose gear extend line. During gear retraction, the priority
valve offers no restriction to fluid flow; on gear extension, however, the priority valve initially stops fluid flow to the nose gear
and allows full hydraulic flow to the main gear. When system
pressure exceeds 500 to 550 PSI (main gear fully extended), the
priority valve opens and allows fluid flow to extend the nose gear.
On S/N 003 to 139 with AMK 55-91-1 and S/N 140 and subsequent, there is no priority valve; however, the system operates
with very little difference from aircraft with the valve.
Once the nose gear is down and locked, the nose gear downand-locked illuminates the green nose gear LOCKED DN annunciator and extinguishes the red UNSAFE light. When both main
gear and down and locked, the main gear down-and-locked
switches energize the gear door control valve to the UP position
and illuminate the green main gear LOCKED DN lights. Pressure
routes to the inboard main gear door actuators, and the inboard
main gear doors close.
Once the main gear door uplock mechanism engages, the door
up switches actuate and the left and right main gear red
UNSAFE lights extinguish.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4I-11

CAE SimuFlite
Landing Gear Indication
Visual Indication
Three green LOCKED DN and three red UNSAFE lights are
above the gear control switch on the copilots instrument panel.
Three green LOCKED DN lights, which are arranged in a tricycle gear pattern, indicate the gear is down and locked as each
individual gear locks down. Three red UNSAFE lights indicate
an unsafe gear condition; a gear assembly is in transit, a door
is not locked in position, or a gear is not down and locked. The
UNSAFE lights illuminate when the gear switch is moved out of
the UP detent and internal downlocks in the actuators disengage; the red main gear lights remain illuminated until the main
gear inner doors close. At retraction, each light illuminates
when the respective inner door opens; it remains illuminated
until the respective gear assembly is up and locked and the
inboard gear doors close.
If a main or nose gear is not down and locked, the appropriate
green light does not illuminate, although the red light does. It is
possible to have one or all gear down and locked (green lights
on) while an illuminated red light indicates a main gear door is
not locked.
Normal visual indications with the gear down are all three green
lights illuminated. When the gear is properly retracted, all six
lights should be extinguished.
Each main gear downlock switch completes a circuit for its
respective landing light; if a main gear is not down and locked,
its landing light does not illuminate. The nose gear downlock
switch is also tied to the ENG SYNC annunciator; if the nose
gear is down and locked with the engine synchronizer on, the
ENG SYNC light illuminates.
On S/N 003 to 126, the dimming rheostat has no effect on the
light dimming when the NAV LT switch is OFF. Selecting the
NAV LT to ON automatically dims the landing gear lights and
provides additional dimming through the rheostat. On S/N 127
4I-12

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Landing Gear and Brakes


and subsequent, the landing gear lights dim automatically when
the navigation lights illuminate.
The lights test at anytime by holding the TEST-MUTE switch
adjacent to the dimmer knob in the TEST position. When the
switch is held to TEST, both sets of lights illuminate and the landing gear warning horn sounds.

Audible Indication
A warning horn sounds, when the gear is retracted, at least one
thrust lever is retarded below 70% N1, altitude is less than
14,500 500 ft (15,300 ft for Learjet 55B/C), and indicated airspeed is less than 170 5 kts. The warning horn also sounds
when the gear is retracted and the flaps are extended more than
25. Lowering the gear, increasing power, moving the
TEST/MUTE switch to MUTE, or pressing the GEAR MUTE button the right thrust lever silences the gear warning horn if the
throttles are set lower than 70%, below 14,500 ft (15,300 ft for
Learjet 55B/C) at an indicated airspeed less than 170 5 kts with
the gear retracted. With the gear up and the flaps at more than
25, neither mute switch can silence the horn unless the gear is
lowered or the flaps are retracted above 25. In this condition, the
red UNSAFE lights do not illuminate.

Landing Gear Alternate Extension


In the event of a main hydraulic system failure or an electrical
system malfunction, extend the landing gear pneumatically.
Accomplish pneumatic gear extension using either the alternate
blow down system or the alternate free-fall system; however, to
ensure adequate emergency air supply for emergency braking
(hydraulic system failure) or to ensure hydraulic pressure can be
regained (electrical malfunction), select blow down first. If an
attempt to blow down the gear is unsuccessful, select alternate
gear free-fall.
The GEAR AIR emergency air bottle in the right side of the nose
aft avionics compartment supplies air pressure to operate the
Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4I-13

CAE SimuFlite
blow down system. The EMERGENCY BLOW DOWN GEAR
lever on the right side of the pedestal controls the GEAR AIR
emergency air bottle.
The BRAKE AIR emergency air bottle, also in the right side of the
nose aft avionics compartment, supplies air pressure to operate
the free-fall system. The EMERGENCY FREE-FALL GEAR
lever on the right side of the pedestal, forward of the blow down
lever controls the BRAKE AIR emergency air bottle.
When selecting alternate gear extension, place the LANDING
GEAR selector switch in the DN position and pull the GEAR CB
to prevent inadvertent gear retraction if electrical or hydraulic
power to the system is restored.
Both the GEAR AIR and BRAKE AIR bottles are charged to
1,800 to 3,000 PSI.

Landing Gear Blow Down


If the hydraulic system fails or an electrical fault exists in the landing gear system, use the blow down extension system to pneumatically blow the gear down. The emergency gear extension
handle on the center pedestal is recessed to prevent unintentional actuation.
Pushing the EMERGENCY BLOW DOWN GEAR lever on the
right side of the pedestal down admits air pressure from the
GEAR AIR emergency air bottle to the blow down system
through the lever-actuated blow down valve.
When the landing gear is down and locked, the three green
LOCKED DN lights illuminate. The two outboard red UNSAFE
lights remain illuminated after gear extension because the
inboard main gear doors remain open.
Return the EMERGENCY BLOW DOWN GEAR lever to the UP
position by lifting the lever ratchet release (small metal tab available through a small hole immediately forward of the lever) and
pulling the lever to the full UP (latched) position.

4I-14

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Landing Gear and Brakes


Landing Gear Free-Fall
Pushing the EMERGENCY FREE-FALL GEAR lever on the right
side of the pedestal down admits air pressure from the BRAKE
AIR emergency air bottle to the free-fall system through the
lever-actuated free-fall valve. The free-fall (BRAKE AIR) system
pneumatically repositions the gear and door selector valves to
the DOWN position, preventing inadvertent gear retraction. Full
gear extension occurs within 15 seconds.
When the landing gear is down and locked, the three green
LOCKED DN lights illuminate. The two outboard red UNSAFE
lights remain illuminated after extension because the inboard
main gear doors remain open. When emergency gear free-fall is
selected, return the EMERGENCY FREE-FALL GEAR lever to
the UP position to retain BRAKE AIR bottle pressure for emergency braking (hydraulic system failure) or to allow the hydraulic
override check valve to reposition, which allows the hydraulic
system to regain pressure (electrical malfunction).
Return the EMERGENCY FREE-FALL GEAR lever to the UP
position by lifting the lever ratchet release (small metal tab available through a small hole immediately forward of the lever) and
pulling the lever to the full UP (latched) position.

Brake System
The brake system incorporates four power-boosted disc brakes
with an integral anti-skid system. The system also incorporates a
parking brake.
Rudder-pedal controlled power brake valves hydraulically actuate the disc-type brake in each main landing gear. The hydraulic
brake system consists of the following components:

four multiple disc brake assemblies

four power brake valves

six shuttle valves

four hydraulic fuses

two parking brake valves.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4I-15

CAE SimuFlite
A main gear brake anti-skid control system prevents skidding and
provides maximum braking efficiency on wet, dry, or icy runways.
An emergency pneumatic braking system provides braking if the
hydraulic system fails. S/N 101, 105, 107, and subsequent and
those modified with AAK 55-84-2 have larger brakes than the
earlier models and non-modified models. Later and modified
brakes are thicker, can absorb 13% more energy, and have a
50% longer brake life.

Wheel Brakes
There is one brake assembly for each main gear wheel. Each
multiple disc brake assembly consists of:

two rotating discs

one stationary disc

one back plate

one torque tube

a brake housing.

The manually operated parking brake valves are interconnected.


Actuating the parking brake valves with brake pressure applied
closes the brake lines and maintains pressure on the brake
assemblies. Actuate the parking brake valves by pressing the
brake pedals and pulling the PARKING BRAKE handle to the
locked position, or by pulling the PARKING BRAKE handle and
pressing the brake pedals.
Pulling the parking brake handle out removes power from the
anti-skid system; the handle must be pushed in completely to
restore power to the anti-skid system. Pulling the PARKING
BRAKE handle also sends a signal to close a shutoff valve in
each anti-skid control valve to prevent a loss of pressure. On
S/N 127 and subsequent, and aircraft with AAK 55-86-1,
pulling the handle activates a switch on the right brake pressure
line; the switch activates the amber PARKING BRAKE light on
the anti-skid panel.
4I-16

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Landing Gear and Brakes


Brake Operation
Pressing the brake pedals opens the power brake valves and
directs hydraulic pressure through the anti-skid system, brake
fuses, and shuttle valves to the brake assemblies.
An integral brake snubber in the gear retraction system stops
main gear wheel rotation before full retraction. During gear
retraction, hydraulic fluid passes through a restrictor in a return
line common to the brakes. The restrictor creates a back pressure of 100 to 180 PSI in the brake system to lightly apply the
brakes. When the landing gear reaches the full up-and-locked
position, brake pressure is removed and the brakes release.

Nosewheel Steering
A variable authority, electrically controlled nosewheel steering
system is on the Learjet 55; as ground speed increases, the
available nosewheel turning angle decreases. Above 20 kts
groundspeed, 8 of nosewheel steering is available left and right
of center (16 total travel); at less than 10 kts, 55 is available left
and right of center (110 total travel). The nosewheel steering
system consists of:

steering position sensor (followup)

steering actuator assembly

rudder pedal position sensor (followup)

steering computer

steering relays and a squat switch relay

wheel master switch on each control wheel

STEER LOCK switch on the pilots and copilots sub-panel

wheel speed transducers (left inboard, right outboard, and


right inboard).

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4I-17

CAE SimuFlite
With the Nose Steer CB pulled (or in the case of DC failure), the
nose gear swivels 360. Use asymmetric braking/power to accomplish steering with the nosewheel steering system disengaged.
The right three anti-skid generators supply velocity information to
the nosewheel steering system. If two of the right three ANTISKID GEN lights are on, do not use nosewheel steering above
10 kts. The wheel master switch on the control wheels or the
STEER LOCK switches on the pilots and copilots sub-panel
activate nosewheel steering.
The STEER ON annunciator on the glareshield illuminates when
nosewheel steering is active. Without AC power, the annunciator
illuminates but steering is inoperative, as AC power controls the
systems and DC power actuates it. STEER LOCK is released by
depressing the control wheel master switch. The control wheel
master switch is normally used on takeoff for nosewheel steering.

Anti-Skid
The anti-skid system on S/Ns 003 to 126 consists of:

four wheel speed transducers

two anti-skid pressure control valves

one anti-skid control box

one anti-skid light panel

one anti-skid shutoff switch

one system control switch.

On S/N 127 and subsequent, add a parking brake switch and


an amber parking brake annunciator to the anti-skid system.

Anti-Skid Operation
The anti-skid system becomes operational at 7 to 10 kts groundspeed, or 150 RPM wheel spin-up. If the wheel speed deviates
from the normal deceleration limits, the control box signals the
affected wheels control valve and reduces braking pressure on
that wheel. Some of the hydraulic system pressure bypasses into
a return line via a servo-controlled valve in the control valve.
Normal braking pressure is restored as wheel speed increases.
4I-18

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Landing Gear and Brakes


To ensure full manual control of the hydraulic braking system
and to prevent pressure loss when the parking brake is set, a
solenoid-operated shutoff valve at each control valve return port
de-energizes closed when the ANTI-SKID switch is OFF or the
parking brake is set.
The gear down safety switch makes contact (right main gear) on
gear extension and sends electrical signals to the anti-skid control box to allow anti-skid testing only when the gear are down
and locked. Testing cannot be accomplished in flight with the
gear retracted. The squat switches provide locked wheel protection on landing. There will be no brake action until 1 to 1.5
seconds after touchdown. This will allow time for the anti-skid
generators to spin-up.
On Learjet 55B/C, power supplied to relays within the park brake
annunciator control box removes the ground circuit from the park
brake switch to the anti-skid annunciators. A relay within the park
brake annunciator control box that completes a test circuit to the
anti-skid control box de-energizes. This circuit provides for continuous testing of the anti-skid system in flight.

ANTI-SKID GEN Lights


Four red ANTI-SKID GEN lights on the pilots subpanel provide a
continuous cockpit indication of the anti-skid system control circuits. The two lights that are labeled L represent control circuits
for the left main gear brakes, and the two lights that are labeled
R represent control circuits for the right main gear brakes.
The anti-skid control box continuously monitors the system circuits and illuminates the applicable light(s) if any of the following conditions occur: loss of input power, open or short transducer circuits, open or short control valve circuits, and failure of
control box circuits. The lights also illuminate any time the gear
is down and locked, power is on the aircraft, and the anti-skid
switch is OFF.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

4I-19

CAE SimuFlite
On S/N 003 to 126, the anti-skid lights illuminated in flight only if
the gear is down and the anti-skid switch is OFF. This illuminates
the anti-skid lights, but does not test the system. On S/N 127 and
subsequent, push the glareshield annunciator test button to illuminate (test) the lights in flight.

Anti-Skid Switch
The anti-skid switch on the pilots switch panel has two positions:
ON (anti-skid) and OFF.
When the switch is in ON (anti-skid), the anti-skid system control
circuits receive 28V DC.
Normally, the switch remains in ON (anti-skid) for all operations.

Emergency Braking
In the event of main hydraulic system failure, apply the wheel
brakes pneumatically. The red EMERG BRAKE handle on the
pedestal to the left of the thrust levers initiates and controls emergency (pneumatic) braking. Pull the handle out of the recess and
push it down to initiate emergency braking.
Pushing the EMERG BRAKE handle down port air pressure from
the BRAKE AIR emergency air bottle to the wheel brake shuttle
valves through the lever-actuated emergency brake valve. If the
emergency air pressure is greater than the hydraulic system
pressure, the wheel brake shuttle valves reposition to admit air
pressure to apply the brakes. After brake handle release, excess
air vents overboard and the brakes release. The emergency air
lines are in the hydraulic brake system between the anti-skid
control valve and the wheel brakes. The parking brake is inoperable when using the emergency air brakes.

4I-20

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Landing Gear and Brakes

Landing Gear Systems


Landing Gear System
Power Source

Hydraulic system
Right Essential B bus
Emergency gear air bottle
Right Emergency bus/right main battery
(Learjet 55B/C emergency mode)

Distribution

Door control valve


Gear control valve
Door actuators
Gear actuators
Nose gear uplock release
Inboard door uplock releases
Air-only uplock releases on nose gear and
inboard doors
Hydraulic pressure OVERRIDE check valve

Control

LANDING GEAR control lever


EMERG BLOW DOWN GEAR EXTEND lever
EMER FREE FALL GEAR EXTEND lever
GEAR CB (pulled for emergency extension)
TEST/MUTE switch

Monitor

Pressure gages
HYD PRESS
BRAKE AIR
GEAR AIR
Indicator lights
3 green LOCKED DN
3 red UNSAFE
Gear warning horn
LOW HYD PRESS annunciator

Protection

Circuit breakers
Squat switch
Emergency gear air bottle

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4I-21

CAE SimuFlite
Brake System
Power Source

Rudder pedals power brake valves


Hydraulic system disc brake actuation
Left Main bus (Learjet 55)
Left Power bus (Learjet 55B/C)
Emergency brake air bottle

Distribution

Hydraulic pressure to
Power brake valves
Anti-skid system
Brake fuses
Shuttle valves
Brake assemblies
DC power
Parking brake
Anti-skid computer
Anti-skid control valves
Emergency brake air
Emergency brake valve
Pneumatic-hydraulic emergency brake
shuttle valves
Brake actuators
Hydraulic pressure OVERRIDE check valve

Control

Rudder pedals
PARKING BRAKE handle

Monitor

ANTI-SKID GEN lights


HYD PRESS LOW annunciator
Amber PARKING BRAKE light (S/N 127 and
subsequent; aircraft with AAK 55-81-1)

Protection

Squat switches
Hydraulic fuses

4I-22

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Landing Gear and Brakes


Squat Switches
Power Source

Left Main bus (Learjet 55)


Power bus (Learjet 55B/C)

Distribution
Ground Mode

Nosewheel steering
Mach trim test mode
Windshield heat low-limit thermoswitch/
10-second timer for WSHLD OV HT
annunciator (on landing)
Amber PITCH TRIM annunciator (out of
takeoff range)
Single generator current limiting
3 flap input to yaw damper
Autospoilers
Radar transmitter (Learjet 55B/C)
Safety valve vacuum shutoff solenoid
Stabilizer heat disabling/amber STAB HEAT
annunciator
Powerplant system ground idle mode
Left engine left squat switch
Right engine right squat switch
Thrust reversers (optional)

Distribution
Airborne Mode

Flaps 25 spoileron
WING FULL green lights
Gear warning tone (25 or more of flaps with
gear UP)
Hobbs meters (optional)
Stall warning system testing
Stall warning lights and shakers (Learjet 55C)
Cabin/cockpit temperature sensor motors

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4I-23

CAE SimuFlite
Squat Switches (cont.)
Distribution
Ground and/or
Airborne Modes

4I-24

Cabin pressurization
Fuel transfer switch latch (Learjet 55B/C)
FUEL FILTER annunciator
Anti-skid system ground mode
Outboard brakes disabling (left squat switch)
Inboard brakes disabling (right squat switch)
Anti-skid switch airborne mode
All brakes disabling (via anti-skid switch)
Gear retraction circuitry disabling (on ground)
Squat switch relay

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Oxygen System

Oxygen System
OXYGEN CYLINDER
(INSTALLED IN NOSE
OR DORSAL FIN)

MANUAL SHUTOFF VALVE


AND REGULATOR

DISCHARGE
INDICATOR
2

O
X
Y

P
R
E
S

P
S
I

CREW OXYGEN
MASK

FILLER
VALVE

PRESSURE
SENSOR

1
0
0
0

PASSENGER OXYGEN
VALVE

SOLENOID
VALVE
(N.C.)

OXY
VAL

7.5A

B
U
S

L
M
A
I
N
P
W
R

DOOR RELEASE VALVE


DOOR RELEASE MANUAL
LANYARD

P
ANEROID SWITCH
(14,000 FT CABIN
ALTITUDE)

CABIN
LIGHTS

OXYGEN FLOW
VALVE

PASSENGER MASK
ASSEMBLY
(TYPICAL 10 MASKS)

UPPER CENTER
PANEL LIGHTS

B
U
S

E
S
S

CREW OXYGEN
MASK

PASSENGER MASK
MANUAL DEPLOYMENT
VALVE

L
E
S
S

COCKPIT
PRESSURE GAGE

TRANSISTOR
CONTROL

OXY
VAL

OXYGEN
SOLENOID
VALVE

7.5A

B
B
U
S

Learjet 55
September 2003

ANEROID SWITCH
(14,000 FT
CABIN ALTITUDE)

OXYGEN SUPPLY PRESSURE


OXYGEN DISTRIBUTION

Developed for training purposes

4J-1

CAE SimuFlite

4J-2

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Oxygen System

Oxygen System
A typical oxygen system installation consists of a single 38 cubic
foot cylinder in the nose compartment or in the dorsal fin.
An optional emergency portable oxygen cylinder on the forward
lavatory/baggage wall provides oxygen for cabin altitudes of less
than 40,000 ft. The cylinder supplies a minimum of 67 minutes of
oxygen.
A fully serviced system should read between 1,550 and 1,850
PSI on the direct reading cockpit gage. On S/N 003 to 046
except 027 and 039, the pressure indicator gage in the center
switch panel displays oxygen pressure (OXY PRESS in PSI) in
the cylinder. On S/N 027, 039, and 047 and subsequent, the
display is in the lower, center section of the instrument panel
above the center switch panel. The pressure gage displays a
fully charged cylinders pressure, regardless of oxygen cylinder
shutoff valve position.
An optional low oxygen pressure warning system on S/N 92
and subsequent, consists of a low pressure switch and an
amber LOW OXYGEN PRESS warning annunciator.
If cylinder pressure exceeds 2,700 to 3,000 PSI, the oxygen
cylinder pressure relief valve opens t o release cylinder contents
overboard. On aircraft with the nose-equipped oxygen system, the indicator is on the right side of the nose. On aircraft
with the vertical-fin equipped oxygen cylinder, the indicator is
on the left side of the vertical stabilizer. Maintenance is required
before flight if the disc is dislodged.

Distribution
Oxygen flows under pressure from the oxygen cylinder(s)
through the cylinders pressure regulator and shutoff valve. The
regulator reduces normal cylinder pressure to approximately 60
to 80 PSI before it reaches the crew and passenger oxygen distribution systems.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4J-3

CAE SimuFlite
The passenger oxygen system provides oxygen automatically
in the event of pressurization failure. The oxygen aneroid switch
deploys the masks automatically above 14,000 750 ft cabin
altitude. Oxygen to the passengers is also available via the
manual/auto passenger mask valve.
The manual/auto passenger mask valve is on the left side of the
cockpit. The valve is in a bypass line, which passes around the
passenger mask solenoid valve. Manual opening of the valve
provides oxygen to the passenger masks if the oxygen aneroid
switch or passenger mask solenoid valve malfunctions. Manual
operation occurs by selecting MAN on the PASS MASK DROP
MAN AUTO shutoff valve.
The crew oxygen system provides oxygen in the event of pressurization failure, flight altitudes that require oxygen masks at all
times, or smoke in the cabin. With the oxygen storage cylinder
shutoff valve and regulator assembly open, oxygen flow is available anytime.
The bypass manual passenger mask valve on the left side of the
cockpit above the CB panel is normally open. To supply only the
crew oxygen close the valve upstream of the passenger mask
solenoid and manual/automatic passenger mask. To display the
status of the valve select AUTO or OFF on the PASS OXY
AUTO OFF shutoff valve.
On S/N 137 and subsequent, an optional dual oxygen system
is available.

Crew Masks
The Eros oxygen mask/oxygen regulator supplies the crew with
oxygen. The three-part Eros mask consists of a mask, microphone, and hose assembly.
The Eros mask uses a pneumatic harness, allowing singlehanded mask donning. Depressing the inflation control plate
expands the harness so the mask may slip over the head.
Disengaging the control releases air and the harness tightens.
4J-4

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Oxygen System
The regulator dilution nozzle holds the microphone capsule in
place. A microphone protector fitted for passage of the intermediate radio cord enables regulator uncoupling from the mask
without removing the microphone.
A two-position rocker switch (N/100%) controls oxygen supply to
the mask. In N (normal), an air-oxygen mixture supplied by the
mask, depends on the cabin altitude. As cabin altitude increases,
the ratio of air to oxygen decreases until at 30,000 ft the mixture
level is 100% oxygen. With the rocker in 100%, the mask distributes pure oxygen. An aneroid capsule controls the rate of air
to oxygen dilution supplied by the mask and supplies automatic
position pressure to the crew member at 37,000.
Rotating the PRESS TO TEST knob on the mask provides positive pressure for any altitude less than 37,000 ft. The switch
also allows mask testing on the ground with the rocker switch
in 100%.

Passenger Masks
The passenger masks stowed in the overhead containers drop
manually or automatically via PASS MASK DROP MAN/AUTO
valve, depending upon control switch position. Pulling the lanyard releases oxygen flow to masks. An orifice in the mask provides a constant flow of 4.1 liters per minute to the passenger.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4J-5

CAE SimuFlite
Oxygen System
Power Source

Left Essential B bus

Control

Oxygen control selector


PRESS TO TEST knob
NORM MIC/OXY MIC switch
Passenger manual shutoff valve
MAN/AUTO PASS MASK DROP
Crew mask selectors
Pressure-demand DILUTE/100% and
NORM/EMER
Diluter-demand NORMAL/100%

Monitor

Oxygen pressure gage(s)


Overboard discharge indicator
Visually scan passenger masks
Crew oxygen flow indicator (if installed)
Pressurization system annunciators, gages
Depressurization lighting

Protection

Circuit breakers

4J-6

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Powerplant

TFE 731-3A Engine


4-STAGE
LOW-PRESSURE
COMPRESSOR

HIGH-PRESSURE
COMPRESSOR

PT2/TT2

FUEL MANIFOLD
(PRIMARY/SECONDARY)

HIGH-PRESSURE
TURBINE

3-STAGE
LOW-PRESSURE
TURBINE
FAN

N1 MONOPOLE

PLANETARY
GEARBOX

OIL SCAVENGE
LINE

BYPASS
DUCT

ACCESSORY
GEARBOX

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

FUEL
NOZZLE

TRANSFER
GEAR BOX
ASSEMBLY
N2 MONOPOLE

4K-1

CAE SimuFlite

4K-2

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Powerplant

Fuel Pump System


With Motive Flow and Anti-Icing

P3 AIR
LOW PRESSURE FUEL
HIGH PRESSURE PUMP OUTPUT

TORQUE
MOTOR

FILTER BYPASS VALVE


ANTI-ICE
VALVE

ULTIMATE
OVERSPEED
SOLENOID(N.C.)

METERING
VALVE

METERED FUEL

P IND

S.O.
VALVE

PRESS
REG

MOTIVE
FLOW
LOCKOUT

OUTLET
PRESSURIZING VALVE

INLET
FILTER

FUEL INLET
TEMP PORT

BYPASS
VALVE

ACCEL
BELLOWS

FUEL/OIL
COOLER
FUEL
FLOW
METER

RELIEF
VALVE

FUEL FILTER

FUEL
S.O.
VALVE

TO PRIMARY
NOZZLES

EVAC BELLOWS
CHECK VALVE

FLOW DIVIDER
FUEL HEATER

POWER LEVER

PCD LIM

OVERBOARD
DRAIN

OIL FLOW

IDLE

CUT-OFF
MAN MODE
SOL ENERGIZED

MAX

BOOST PUMP ELEMENT


GOVERNOR
HIGH PRESS
PUMP ELEMENT

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

POWER LEVER
POT
MAN MODE
ADJ

EEC

4K-3

CAE SimuFlite

4K-4

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Powerplant

Engine Oil System


VENT

NO. 4 AND 5
BEARING CAVITY

TRANSFER
GEARBOX ASS'Y

ACCESSORY DRIVE
GEARBOX ASS'Y

BREATHER
PRESSURIZING
VALVE

PLANETARY
GEARBOX ASS'Y
NO. 1, 2, & 3
BEARING

180

O
I
L

150

O
I
L

T
E
M
P
C

120

60

T
E
M
P

30

90

TRANSFER
GEARBOX
ASSY SCAVENGE

ANTI-SIPHON
ORIFICE

OIL
PRESS

NO. 6 BEARING
SUMP

OIL TANK

75 PSI
55

OIL PUMP INLET

75
55

25

COMMON
SCAVENGE

OIL COOLER
(HALF SECTION)
LUBE AND
SCAVENGE
OIL PUMP

P INDICATOR
CHECK
VALVE

FILTER BYPASS
VALVE

FUEL
IN

25 PSI
R OIL
L OIL
PRESS
PRESS

TEMPERATURE
CONTROL VALVE
(65-77C)

BYPASS VALVE

FILTER

BYPASS VALVE
TEMP AND
PRESSURE
(99C)

FUEL
OUT

WARNING
LIGHT

FUEL/OIL
COOLER

WARNING
LIGHT

RH ENG
CHIP

0
L

METAL PARTICLE
DETECTOR

LH ENG
CHIP

25

FUEL IN
FUEL OUT
FUEL HEATER

HIGH PRESSURE OIL

BYPASS
VALVE
OIL COOLER
(QUARTER SECTION)

SCAVENGE OIL
VENT LINE

OIL TEMP

OIL SUPPLY
1

BELOW 29,000': AMBIENT


29,000' AND ABOVE: 3.5 PSI

Learjet 55
March 2002

R ESS B BUS

Developed for training purposes

R OIL PRESS
0.5A

R 26V AC BUS

1A

4K-5

CAE SimuFlite

4K-6

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Powerplant

Powerplant
The Powerplant chapter contains information on the following:

the turbofan engine, including its components, instrumentation and operation

engine oil and lubrication

ignition

engine fuel and fuel control

power control.

Two Garrett TFE731-3A or TFE731-3AR engines power the


Learjet 55.
The TFE731-3A engine produces 3,700 lbs of static thrust at sea
level. The TFE731-3AR engine has automatic performance
reserve (APR); the engine produces 3,700 lbs of static thrust at
sea level without the APR system operating, and 3,880 lbs of
thrust with the system operating.
The TFE731-3 is a lightweight, low noise, two-spool, front fan
engine with a high bypass ration. The engines modular design
allows for ease of maintenance and repair.
The relationship of the mass of bypassed air to the mass of air
going through the combustion chamber is the bypass ratio. The
basic TFE731-3A is a high bypass engine with a bypass ration of
2.76 to 1.0 and a static thrust rating of 3,700 lbs.
There are a variety of TFE731-3 engines on the Learjet 55.
Engine model number varies with the aircraft model and serial
number, whether the engine has fuel heaters, or has an automatic performance reserve system. Refer to Table 4K-A for a
breakdown of the various engines found on the Learjet 55. The
-2B and -3B engines have fuel heaters; -2B1 and -3B1 engines
do not. Engines with AR in their model number have automatic
performance reserve (APR) that provides an additional 180 lbs of
thrust per engine.
Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4K-7

CAE SimuFlite
Model
Learjet 55

Serial Numbers
55-003 through 55-0086 except
55-065, without AAK 55-83-4

Engine
TFE731-3A-2B
TFE731-3A-2B1

55-065, 55-087 through 55-126; TFE731-3AR-2B


prior aircraft with AAK 55-83-4
TFE731-3AR-2B1
Learjet 55B

55-127 through 55-134

TFE731-3AR-2B
TFE731-3AR-2B1

Learjet 55C

55-135 through 55-139

TFE731-3AR-2B
TFE731-3AR-2B1

55-139A through 55-147

TFE731-3AR-3B
TFE731-3AR-3B1

Table 4K-A; Learjet 55 Engines and Serial Numbers

Powerplant Systems
Powerplant systems include:

engine oil

ignition

fuel control

power control

fire protection.

Please refer to the Fire Protection chapter for details on engine


fire detection and extinguishing.

4K-8

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Powerplant

Lubrication
Oil under pressure lubricates the engine bearings and the transfer, accessory, and planetary gearboxes. The system consists of:

oil tank and sight gage

oil pump

chip detector (if installed)

oil filter and bypass valve

air/oil coolers and bypass valve

fuel heater

fuel/oil cooler

oil temperature control and bypass valve

breather pressurizing valve

pressure and temperature transmitters and indicators.

Rotation of the engine-driven oil pump draws oil from the reservoir. Oil under pressure flows through a pressure regulator, filter,
and temperature control components to the engine bearings,
transfer gearbox, accessory gearbox, and front fan planetary
gear assembly.
Aircraft with -2B and -3B engines (single-point refueling) have
fuel heaters on the left side of the engine. The heater uses hot
engine oil to heat fuel to prevent fuel controller icing.
If the temperature of the fuel is below 0C, the anti-icing valve
directs a portion of the bypass fuel to the fuel heater. Heated fuel
from the fuel heater mixes with low pressure discharge fuel to
prevent ice formation at the engine-driven fuel pump fuel filter.
The fuel/oil cooler (oil temperature regulator) uses aircraft fuel to
maintain oil at a constant temperature. The unit consists of a
temperature control valve and a heat exchanger.
Whatever the oil temperature, fuel constantly flows through the
unit; oil only flows through the cooler if temperatures are above
a set temperature. If oil temperature exceeds 99C (210F), the
control valve opens to route oil through the cooler.
Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4K-9

CAE SimuFlite
Venting for the oil tank and lubricating system is via the accessory gearbox. The accessory gearbox vents to the atmosphere
through a normally open breather pressurization valve. As pressure altitude increases above 27,000 ft, the breather pressurization valve begins to close to maintain an engine case pressure of
approximately 3.5 PSIA.
Pressure switches in each engines oil supply line operate the
red L OIL PRESS and R OIL PRESS annunciators. Normally,
engine oil pressure holds the switches open. If pressure drops
below 25 PSI, the switch closes to complete a circuit illuminating
the respective annunciator. The annunciator extinguishes once
oil pressure exceeds 25 PSI. With power on the aircraft and the
engines not running, the annunciators illuminate.

Ignition System
With the Battery switch on, the auxiliary contactor relay closes.
Placing the START/GEN switch to START supplies DC power to
closed contacts of the fuel control relay which applies DC voltage
to the standby pump and start relay. The starter rotates and
starter energized light illuminates. Taking the power lever out of
CUTOFF turns on the ignitors. As the engine approaches 45%
N2, the fuel computer applies power to the fuel control relay to
open the relay, thus removing power from the start relay and ignition circuits. The standby pump is shut off when the start switch
is placed to OFF. Placing the START/GEN switch in GEN
removes power from the auxiliary contactor relay, and it opens.
During a windmilling airstart when the START position of the
START/GEN switch is not used, manual activation of the standby
pumps and ignition is required. Switching the fuel panel standby
pump on applies DC power to the standby pump. Turning the AIR
IGN switch on applies power from the AIR IGN circuit breaker on
the ESS B bus to the ignition system. After the engine is started,
the standby pump and air ignition switches are turned off.

4K-10

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Powerplant

Fuel Control System


The engine fuel control system consists of:

fuel pump assembly

hydro-mechanical fuel control unit

fuel computer

fuel flow divider assembly

fuel atomizers

firewall fuel switches.

From the aircraft fuel system, the fuel control system pumps,
filters, meters, and atomizes fuel before the ignition system
ignites it to produce thrust.
The filter bypass valve on the fuel pump allows fuel to bypass the
filter if an excessive pressure drop across the filter occurs. An
electrical pressure switch illuminates the respective amber FUEL
FILTER annunciator in the cockpit when an excessive differential
pressure condition exists before actual bypassing occurs. The
light remains on as long as the fuel filter remains clogged.
The aircraft fuel system filter shares the same light as the engine.
The only difference is that the aircraft fuel filter is wired through
the landing gear squat switch. If the aircraft fuel filter begins
bypassing on the ground, the FUEL FILTER annunciator illuminates; the annunciator extinguishes once weight is off the wheels.
The fuel pump-driven fuel control unit (FCU) on the rear of the
fuel pump contains:

fuel metering valve (manual mode)

torque motor (normal computer on)

power level input (PLA)

ultimate overspeed shutoff valve

manual shutoff valve CUT OFF/IDLE

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4K-11

CAE SimuFlite

pneumatic P3 bleed air input

mechanical flyweight governor

outlet pressurizing valve.

The FCU schedules the proper fuel flow to the nozzles. In the
normal mode (computer on) the DC torque motor schedules fuel
flow from computer inputs. In the manual mode the FCU schedules fuel flow by pneumatically positioning the metering valve
with P3 bleed air pressure, according to thrust lever and engine
inputs.
The mechanical governor functions in two modes: as an overspeed governor for the HP rotor if the fuel computer is operative,
or as a hydro-mechanical (i.e., manual) control when the fuel
computer is inoperative. The governor will operate at 105% N2
and govern the engine at 105%.
The FCU has two shutoff valves. The thrust lever actuates one
valve (CUT-OFF/IDLE) and the fuel computer actuates the other.
If the computer senses an ultimate overspeed condition (109%
N1/110% N2), the computer closes the shutoff valve, fuel flow
stops, and the engine shuts down.
Each engine has an electronic fuel computer above the tailcone
baggage compartment that functions as a high pressure spool
(N2) speed governor. Separate ENG CMPTR switches on the
pilots subpanel select normal (on) or manual (off) operation.
Each computer uses:

engine inlet pressure (Pt2)

engine inlet temperature (Tt2)

interstage turbine temperature (ITT)

N2 speed

N1 speed

thrust lever position.

4K-12

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Powerplant
A MANUAL/NORMAL switch on the front of the fuel computer
and the cockpit ENG CMPTR switches control the fuel computers.
The computer switch must be in NORMAL and the cockpit
switches must be on for the system to function.
In the normal mode, the computer provides the following:

starting schedule to the idle position

acceleration control to prevent excessive ITT limiting

deceleration control to prevent mismatching of N1 and N2

variable idle speed with ambient change

maximum thrust (3,700 lbs) with ambient changes through


inlet pressure and inlet

temperature (Pt2/Tt2)

ITT limiting

surge bleed valve scheduling

45% speed switch for starter/ignition cutout

N1 limiting (101.6%)

ultimate overspeed protection (109% N1/110% N2)

automatic fuel enrichment (SPR) during start; manual SPR


during certain ambient conditions

internal monitoring automatically switches to manual when


computer voltage out of normal range (15-30V)

switches to manual mode automatically if all inputs and outputs (except ITT) are not correct.

In the manual mode (computer off), the following occurs:

power levers control the engine RPM through the N2


mechanical governor

FCU metering valve controls maximum ITT through pilot


induced thrust lever movement

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4K-13

CAE SimuFlite

available thrust lower

slower response (engine RPM) to power lever movement

thrust levers split with single computer off.

If the fuel computer malfunctions or loses power, the computer


automatically switches to manual mode and the respective ENG
COMPTR annunciator illuminates. The thrust lever manually
controls the fuel control unit.
If a fuel computer fails in flight, leave the fuel computer switch on
if no adverse conditions exist. This will maintain 109% N1 overspeed protection. If the fuel computer fails on the ground, a ferry
permit must be obtained to fly the aircraft. Before flight, the manual/normal switch on the fuel computer must be placed to the
manual position. The fuel computer in the cockpit must be ON.
This will restore the 109% N1 and 110% N2 overspeed protection.
Fuel enrichment increases fuel flow to improve fuel atomization
to assist light-off and engine acceleration toward idle. The
Learjet 55 has a starting pressure regulator (SPR) switch that
allows fuel enrichment beyond the 204C limit. Selecting L or R
on the SPR switch selects fuel enrichment (increased fuel
scheduling) beyond the normal cut-off temperature. During an
engine start requiring SPR, hold the switch in the respective position until ITT reaches 300 to 400C. Once released, the springloaded switch moves to OFF.
The engine manufacturer recommends use of SPR during ground
starts at ambient temperatures of 0F or below. With the fuel computer off or inoperative, SPR is unavailable.
A dual-reading fuel flow indicator on the center instrument panel
displays fuel flow for the left and right engines with a pointer moving over a graduated scale. The unit displays fuel flow in poundsper-hour (PPH) from 0 to 2,200.
Please refer to the Fuel Chapter for a full description of the aircraft fuel system.

4K-14

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Powerplant

Power Control System


The power control system for the TFE731-3 engine on the
Learjet 55 consists of:

thrust levers

fuel control unit

fuel computer

engine synchronization

automatic performance reserve (APR)

ground idle system.

Each thrust lever on the center pedestal mechanically connects


through cables and a teleflex control to a fuel control unit.
Movement of the thrust lever directly drives the fuel control unit
from idle to full open. The fuel control unit either decreases or
increases the flow of fuel to the engine to provide overspeed and
overtemperature protection.
With the fuel computer failed or turned off, the thrust lever directly controls engine power through the fuel control unit metering
valve.
An engine synchronizer system allows either N1 or N2 synchronization of the engines. The system compares the right engine
(slave) RPM to the left engine (master) RPM. Through the twoposition ENG SYNC switch, synchronization of either the fan
(N1) or turbine (N2) speeds can be selected.
Before activating the system, manually synchronize the engines
through thrust lever adjustment and observation of the R ENG
indicator on the center instrument panel. The synchronizer has
no effect at full thrust lever settings. The synchronizer is also
inoperative during arming or use of the optional automatic performance reserve (APR) system.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4K-15

CAE SimuFlite
During automatic power reserve (APR) operation, arming the
APR system automatically selects N2 and removes the trim signal from the slave engine by de-energizing the synchronizer
control relay.
Aircraft with TFE731-3AR engines have an automatic power
reserve (APR) system. If the takeoff power difference between
the two engines reaches 5% or greater with the APR system
armed, the APR system automatically provides additional thrust
by increasing N2 by 1% and raising the engine ITT limits by 22C;
this results in 180 lbs of additional thrust from each engine.
APR is either manually or automatically activated. Placing the
APR switch in ARM (center position) arms the system and the
amber APR ARM light illuminates. The system only activates if
there is a 5% or greater N2 difference at takeoff power settings.
Whenever APR activates to provide additional thrust, the green
APR ON light illuminates.
Placing the switch in ON manually activates APR; the APR ON
light illuminates. Lifting the switch and moving it to the
OFF/RESET position disables APR; the APR ON light extinguishes. To return the engines to the normal N2 and ITT limits,
use either the OFF/RESET position of the APR switch or retard
the thrust levers.
To slow aircraft taxi speed with the engines at idle thrust, a
ground idle system reduces normal engine idle turbine speeds
(N2). The system does not operate in flight or with thrust lever
above the idle thrust position.

4K-16

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Powerplant
On S/N 003 through 046 except 029 and 037, the two-position
(OV RIDE/OFF) ground idle switch controls the system; the system is inoperative with the switch in OFF and inoperative in OV
RIDE. The OV RIDE position on these aircraft overrides (interrupts) the system. On S/N 029, 037 and 047 and subsequent,
the two position (GND IDLE/OFF) ground idle switch controls the
system; the system is operative in GND IDLE and inoperative in
OFF. Whenever the system is operating (ground idle thrust), the
amber GND IDLE annunciator illuminates.
Advancing the thrust levers out of IDLE or turning the ground idle
switch OV RIDE (S/N 003 through 046 except 029 and 037) or
OFF (S/N 029, 037, and 047 and subsequent) disables the
ground idle system.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4K-17

CAE SimuFlite

4K-18

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Thrust Reversers

Aeronca TFE 731


Thrust Reverser System
OPERATING ROD
BLOCKER DOOR
YOKE
ASSEMBLY
OUTBOARD
PINION
GEARBOX

INBOARD
PNEUMATIC LATCH

SEQUENCING
LATCH
GEAR RACK

OUTBOARD
PNEUMATIC
LATCH

RANSLATING
EAM

GEAR RACK
OLLOW-UP
NULLING
ABLE)

FOLLOW-UP
(NULLING
CABLE)
SPUR
GEARBOX

PNEUMATIC
ACTUATOR
ASSEMBLY

TRANSLATING
BEAM
FLEXIBLE
DRIVE SHAFT

PRESSURE SWITCH
PNEUMATIC LATCH VALVE

HP BLEED AIR
BLEED VALVE

HP BLEED AIR

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4L-1

CAE SimuFlite

4L-2

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Thrust Reversers

Thrust Reverser System


The Aeronca TFE731 thrust reversers redirect engine thrust forward to provide additional deceleration on landing. The electrically controlled and pneumatically actuated Aeronca TFE731
system is a cascade-type reverser.

Components
The Aeronca TFE731 thrust reversers use engine bleed air to
power the reversers through the deploy and stow cycles.
Each thrust reverser consists of:

translating structure

blocker doors

pneumatic actuator assembly

two pneumatic latches

various position and sequencing switches

wiring and plumbing

thrust reverser levers

annunciator control panel.

Various switches are part of the Aeronca TFE731 thrust reverser


electrical system. The switches control thrust reverser operation
and indicate the proper and improper operation of the system.
Thrust reverser switches include:

a door position indicator switch

a pneumatic latch actuated switch

a deploy signal switch.

Steady illumination of the UNLOCK light indicates the respective


thrust reverser has not fully stowed or fully deployed, or a pneumatic latch has failed to engage after stowing or disengagement
sequence.
Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4L-3

CAE SimuFlite
A flashing UNLOCK light indicates, the blocker doors have not
properly stowed, or one or both blocker door position indicator
switches have failed.
If both the UNLOCK and DEPLOY lights illuminate when the
thrust reversers fully deploy, one or both of the door position
indicators has malfunctioned. During flight a flashing UNLOCK
light indicates possible DPI switch operation or a pneumatic latch
mechanical failure.
The position of the deploy signal switch determines whether the
UNLOCK or DEPLOY annunciator illuminates.
Two thrust reverser levers piggy back the thrust levers. The
reverser levers pivot on the main thrust levers and control the
system through the stow, deploy, and the adjustment of reverse
idle to maximum thrust reverse. Deploy and arming switches
within the throttle quadrant control the operation of the thrust
reverser system.
With the NORM/EMER STOW switch in NORM, the thrust
reverser levers provide all the necessary controls to operate the
thrust reverser system.
The annunciator control panel on the glareshield gives the crew
visual indications of thrust reverser arming, deploying, and stowing as well as malfunctions. The control panel includes:

EMER STOW indicator

two amber UNLOCK indicators

two amber DEPLOY indicators

two green BLEED PRESS indicators

NORM/EMER STOW switch

TEST button.

Pressing the TEST button on the thrust reverser annunciator


control panel illuminates the BLEED PRESS annunciator to indicate proper valve operation and both UNLOCK lights flash. On
4L-4

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Thrust Reversers
S/N 037, 049, and subsequent; and aircraft with AAK 5582-4, the thrust reverser warning horn sounds with the TEST button pressed.

Armed Condition
The thrust reverser system only operates with the EMER STOW
switch in the NORM position. The thrust reversers arm when the
squat switches indicate the aircraft is on the ground, the thrust
levers at idle stop, and both sublevers are actuated together.

Warning Horn
An aural warning horn will activate when either thrust lever is forward of idle and the thrust reverser lever is not in the stowed
position. The horn will also sound if a thrust lever is forward of
idle and a UNLOCK or DEPLOY light illuminates.

Thrust Reverser Operation


Deploy Cycle
The thrust reverser system actuates with the NORM/EMER
STOW switch in NORM, the aircraft weight on the wheels, and
the throttle levers in IDLE. Placing the reverse thrust levers in
idle releases the interlocks and allows the crew to lift the levers
up and aft.
Bleed air flows to the pneumatic latch control valves, and the
latches release. The UNLOCK annunciators illuminate when the
pneumatic latches energize.
Once the thrust reversers have fully deployed, the deploy limit
switches actuate and extinguish the UNLOCKED annunciator,
and illuminate the DEPLOY annunciator.
Actuation of a pressure switch at 55% N1 during reverse thrust
illuminates the green BLEED PRESS lights. This is designed to
prevent an inadvertent stow. The DEPLOY and BLEED PRESS
lights remain illuminated until the thrust reversers start to stow.

Learjet 55
September 2003

Developed for training purposes

4L-5

CAE SimuFlite
During single-engine operations, reverse IDLE/DEPLOY will only
be available on the operative engine. Since the inoperative
engine does not have reverse capability, the thrust lever interlocks in the throttle quadrant, will not release and the operable
engine will be limited to IDLE/DEPLOY only.
Both thrust levers must be at idle and both reverse levers
moved to the IDLE/DEPLOY position, the interlocks will prevent
both reverse thrust levers from moving past the IDLE/DEPLOY
position.
Under the throttle quadrant, a solenoid interlock will not release
and reverse thrust will not be available above 45% N1 when the
deploy lights are illuminated and the pilot has applied excessive
back pressure on the reverse levers. When excessive pressure
has been reduced, normal reverse will be available above 45%
N1.

Stow Cycle
Placing the thrust reverser levers in stow (full forward and down)
operates the reverser control switches that energize the reverser control relays to the stow position.
The DEPLOY annunciator extinguishes and the UNLOCK
annunciator illuminates. The reverse thrust lever interlock
engages and prevents the crew from selecting high thrust levels
while the thrust reversers are in motion.
The latches engage and the nulling cable turns off bleed air to
the pneumatic actuator. The UNLOCK annunciators extinguish.
The thrust reverser is in the armed condition.
As the engine RPM decreases and the engines reach reverse
idle (45% N1), the thrust reverser can be stowed.

4L-6

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Thrust Reversers
Automatic Stow Cycle
The automatic stow cycle activates whenever the thrust reverser
UNLOCK annunciator illuminates in flight if a pneumatic latch
disengages with the thrust levers above idle and the thrust
reverser levers in the stow position.

Emergency Stow Cycle


Selecting EMER STOW, removes electrical power from the normal thrust reverser electrical system and supplies power directly
to both air-on-valves and pneumatic actuators to stow the thrust
reversers. The EMER STOW light remains illuminated as long as
the NORMAL-EMER STOW switch is in EMER STOW selection.
The thrust reverser will not deploy with the NORM/EMER STOW
switch in the EMER STOW position.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4L-7

CAE SimuFlite
Thrust Reverser System
Aeronca TFE731
Power Source

Engine bleed air


Essential A L/R buses (Learjet 55)
Power L/R buses (Learjet 55B/C)

Control

Piggy-back thrust reverser levers


EMER STOW switch
Test button

Monitor

Indicators
UNLOCK/DEPLOY
EMER STOW
BLEED PRESS
Warning horn

Protection

Autostow (with unsatisfactory deploy


condition)
Emergency stow (pilot-selected)
Two mechanical latches per reverser
assembly
Thrust reverser lever lock-out
Asymmetrical thrust prevention
Failsafe design that prevents inadvertent
deployment in flight

4L-8

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Planning
Table of Contents
Frequent or Planned Destinations Record . . . . . . . 5-3
Flight Planning General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
Takeoff Weight Determination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
Maximum Allowable Landing
Gross Weight Determination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
Weight and Balance Determination . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
International Flight Planning

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13

Frequently Used International Terms . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13


International Operations Checklist

. . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15

ICAO Flight Plan Form Completion Items 7-19

. . . . 5-21

FAA Flight Plan Form Completion Instructions . . . . . . 5-31


ICAO Weather Format

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-35

Sample TAF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-37


Decoding TAFs

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-40

Sample METAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-42

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

5-1

CAE SimuFlite

5-2

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Planning

Frequent or Planned Destinations Record


Ident.

Airport

Tel: (

Fax: (

Tel: (

Fax: (

Catering

Tel: (

Airport

Ident.

FBO

Freq.

Hotel

FBO

Freq.

Tel: (

Fax: (

Tel: (

Fax: (

Catering

Tel: (

Airport

Ident.

Hotel

FBO

Hotel

Catering

Freq.

Tel: (

Fax: (

Tel: (

Fax: (

Tel: (

Notes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

5-3

CAE SimuFlite
Ident.

Airport
FBO

Freq.

Tel: (

Fax: (

Tel: (

Fax: (

Catering

Tel: (

Airport

Ident.

Hotel

Tel: (

Fax: (

Tel: (

Fax: (

Catering

Tel: (

Airport

Ident.

FBO

Freq.

Hotel

FBO

Hotel

Catering

Freq.

Tel: (

Fax: (

Tel: (

Fax: (

Tel: (

Notes

5-4

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Planning

Flight Planning General


Takeoff Weight Determination
Charts in the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM), Performance Section
V, facilitate determination of the maximum takeoff gross weight
permitted by FAR 25, as well as associated speeds and flight
paths.
The flow chart (Figure 5-1) on the following page illustrates the
steps to determine appropriate takeoff weight.
The aircraft may be limited in takeoff gross weight by the most
restrictive of aircraft, airport, or atmospheric conditions (Figure
5-2, page 5-7).

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

5-5

CAE SimuFlite
Takeoff Weight Determination Procedure
AIRCRAFT, AIRPORT, AND
ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS

MAX CERTIFIED
T.O. WEIGHT
LIMITATIONS

T.O. WEIGHT
LIMIT CLIMB OR
BRAKE ENERGY
PERFORMANCE

T.O. DISTANCE
PERFORMANCE

COMPARE AND SELECT


LOWEST WEIGHT

T.O. FLT PATH


AND CLIMB
GRADIENT

MAX LANDING
WEIGHT PLUS
FUEL BURN TO
DESTINATION

TAKEOFF SPEEDS,
PERFORMANCE

FINISHED

5-1

5-6

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Planning

Minimum Climb/Obstacle Clearance


One Engine Inoperative
T OTAL TAKEOFF P ATH

TAKEOFF DIST ANCE

TAKEOFF
FLIGHT PATH

TRANSITION
(ACCELERA TION)

FINAL
SEGEMENT
1.25 V SI

2nd
SEGMENT

1st SEGMENT

1.25 V SI

REFERENCE
ZERO
GROUND ROLL
BRAKE
RELEASE

V1

V R VLOF

GEAR
UP

V2

1500 FEET
MINIMUM

1500 FEET
(400 FEET
MINIMUM)

35 FEET

ENGINES

BOTH

ONE INOPERA TIVE

THRUST

AIRSPEED
LANDING
GEAR
FLAPS

MIN. T.O.
FLIGHT PA TH
CLIMB
GRADIENTS

MAX CONT . THRUST

TAKEOFF THRUST
V2

V ARIABLE

DOWN

V ARIABLE

1.25 V SI

RETRACTED
RETRACTION
TAKEOFF SETTING

POSITIVE

RETRACTION

2.4%

LEVEL

RETRACTED

1.2%

5-2

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

5-7

CAE SimuFlite
Maximum Allowable Landing
Gross Weight Determination
Charts in the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM), Performance Section
V, facilitate determination of approach and landing climb performance, landing field length requirements, and approach speed
values. The maximum allowable landing weight (Figure 5-3) is
limited by the most restrictive of the following: aircraft structure,
landing weight limit (i.e., approach climb, brake energy), or landing distance.
The flow chart (Figure 5-4) on the following page illustrates the
steps to determine maximum allowable landing gross weight.

Landing Path Profile

50'

THRESHOLD

VREF = 1.3 VSO

LANDING DISTANCE

EFFECTIVE RUNWAY LENGTH

5-3

5-8

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Planning

Landing Weight Determination Procedure


AIRCRAFT, AIRPORT, AND
ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS

MAXIMUM LANDING
WEIGHT (DESIGN
STRUCTURALLIMIT)
LIMITATIONS

LANDING WEIGHT
LIMITS (APPROACH
CLIMB, BRAKE ENERGY)
PERFORMANCE

LANDING DISTANCE
PERFORMANCE

COMPARE AND SELECT


LOWEST WEIGHT

FINISHED

5-4

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

5-9

CAE SimuFlite
Aircraft Loading Form
Interior Configuration
Missing or Additional Equipment
WEIGHT

F.S.

MOM/1000

BASIC EMPTY WEIGHT


Missing/Additional Equipment
Pilot Fwd/Aft
Copilot Fwd/Aft
Provisions Refreshment Cabinet
Provisions Vanity/Lavatory
Miscellaneous
OPERATING WEIGHT EMPTY
Baggage Nose
Baggage Cabin
Baggage Tailcone
Passenger 1
Passenger 2
Passenger 3
Passenger 4
Passenger 5
Passenger 6
Passenger 7
Passenger 8
ZERO FUEL WEIGHT
Fuel Fuselage Tank
Fuel Aft Fuselage Tank
Fuel Wing Tanks
RAMP WEIGHT
* Taxi Burnoff Out of Wings
4.25 lb. per Engine per Minute
TAKEOFF GROSS WEIGHT

% MAC

ZERO FUEL WEIGHT


Fuel Wing Tanks
Fuel Aft Fuselage Tank
Fuel Fuselage Tank
LANDING WEIGHT

* Fuel for Start, Taxi, and Takeoff Ground Roll is normally 250 pounds (wing fuel) at
an average Moment/100 of 101.74.
The formula to calculate the C.G. in % MAC is:
C.G. in % MAC = Fuselage Station (C.G.) - 365.085 X 100
80.09

5-10

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Planning

Weight and Balance Determination


Follow the steps below to compute a loading moment and establish that CG is within allowable limits.
1. Record the basic empty weight/moment (weight of the aircraft
including full oil and all undrainable fluids); find these figures on
the aircraft weighing form. If the aircraft is altered, refer to the
weight and balance record for corrected information.
2. Determined operating empty weight/moment by adding basic
empty weight/moment to those for the crew, provisions, miscellaneous supplies, and equipment. Assume standard fixed
weights of 170 lbs for each pilot, 20 lbs for refreshments, and 20
lbs for lavatory provisions.
NOTE: A load station's weight multiplied by its arm
(i.e., the distance from the reference datum line) equals
moment. Divide the moment by 1,000 to facilitate further
computations; this is sometimes referred to as moment/
index.
3. From the appropriate AFM Payload Moments Chart, find the
weight/moment of each element and record on the Aircraft
Loading Form. Add the weights/moments of passengers and
baggage to the operating empty weight/moment. The result is
zero fuel weight/moment.
4. Determine the moment for fuel required for the trip. Use the
Usable Fuel Moments tables to determine weight/moment of fuel
in the wing tanks. Record these figures on the loading form, then
subtract wing fuel figures from the total fuel load figures to determine fuselage tank fuel weight.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

5-11

CAE SimuFlite
5. To determine fuselage tank fuel moment, enter the Usable
Fuel Moments table and find the fuselage tank fuel load closest
to, but higher than, the actual fuel load. Divide the moment by the
weight, then multiply the result by 1,000; this is the fuselage
station for that fuel load.
6. Multiply the fuel load by the fuselage station and divide the
result by 1,000 to determine the moment for that load.
7. To determine ramp weight/moment, add the zero fuel, wing
fuel, and fuselage fuel weights/moments.
8. Determine the takeoff gross weight/moment by subtracting the
taxi fuel weight/moment from ramp weight/moment.
NOTE: Assume a standard taxi fuel burnoff of 250 lbs (a
moment of 104.74).

9. Use the AFM Weight-Moment-C.G. Envelope to determine


if the calculated takeoff weight/moment are within acceptable
limits.
10. Subtract the weight/moment of the total fuel burned in flight
(i.e., total fuel burn less 250 lbs taxi fuel burnoff) from the takeoff
weight/moment to determine landing weight.

5-12

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Planning

International Flight Planning


Frequently Used International Terms
International Term

Explanation

ACC

Area Control Center

ADCUS

Advise Customs

AFIL

Air-Filed ICAO Flight Plan

ARINC

Aeronautical Radio Inc.

ATS

Air Traffic Services

BERNA

Swiss Radio Service

DEC

General Declaration (customs)

ETP

Equal Time Point (navigation)

FIC

Flight Information Center

FIR

Flight Information Region

GCA

Ground Controlled Approach

GEOMETER

A clear plastic attachment to a globe that


aids in making surface measurements and
determining points on the globe

IATA

International Air Traffic Association

ICAO

International Civil Aviation Organization

MET

See METAR

METAR

Routine Aviation Weather Reports

MNPS

Minimum Navigation Performance


Specifications

NAT

North Atlantic

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

5-13

CAE SimuFlite
International Term

Explanation

NOPAC

North Pacific

OAG

Official Airline Guide

OKTA

Measure of cloud cover in eighths (five


OKTAs constitute a ceiling)

OTS

Organized Track Structure

PPO

Prior Permission Only

PSR

Point of Safe Return (navigation)

QFE

Used in some nations; an altimeter setting


that causes the altimeter to read zero feet
when on the ground

QNE

Altimeter setting used at or above


transition altitude (FL 180 in U.S.); this
setting is always 29.92

QNH

Altimeter setting that causes altimeter to


read field elevation on the ground

SITA

Societe Internationale de
Telecommunications Aeronautiques;
international organization provides global
telecommunications network information to
the air transport industry

SPECI

Aviation selected special WX reports

SSR

Secondary Surveillance Radar

TAF

Terminal Airdrome Forecast

UIR

Upper Information Region

UTA

Upper Control Area

WWV/WWVH

Time and frequency standard broadcast


stations

5-14

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Planning

International Operations Checklist


Aircrews are required to carry all appropriate FAA licenses and
at least an FCC Restricted Radio Telephone Operations
license. In addition, passport, visas, and an International
Certificate of Vaccination are often required. The International
Flight Information Manual (IFIM) specifies passport, inoculation
and visa requirements for entry to each country.
The IFIM is a collection of data from Aeronautical Information
Publications (AIP) published by the civil aviation authorities
(CAA) of various countries.
The following detailed checklist should be helpful in establishing international operations requirements and procedures. You
may want to use it to prepare your own customized checklist for
your organizations planned destinations.

I. DOCUMENTATION
PERSONNEL, CREW

Airmans certificates
Physical
Passport
Extra photos
Visa
Tourist card
Proof of citizenship (not drivers license)
Immunization records
Travelers checks
Credit cards
Cash
Passenger manifest (full name, passport no.)
Trip itinerary
International drivers license

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

5-15

CAE SimuFlite
AIRCRAFT

Airworthiness certificate
Registration
Radio licenses
MNPS certification
Aircraft flight manual
Maintenance records
Certificates of insurance (U.S. military and foreign)
Import papers (for aircraft of foreign manufacture)

II. OPERATIONS
PERMITS

Flight authorization letter


Overflights
Landing
Advance notice
Export licenses (navigation equipment)
Military
Customs overflight
Customs landing rights

SERVICES
Inspection
Customs forms
Immigrations
Agricultural (disinfectant)

Ground
Handling agents
FBOs
Fuel (credit cards, carnets)
5-16

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Planning
Maintenance
Flyaway kit (spares)
Fuel contamination check

Financial
Credit cards
Carnets
Letters of credit
Banks
Servicing air carriers
Handling
Fuelers
Travelers checks
Cash

COMMUNICATIONS
Equipment

VHF
UHF
HF SSB
Headphones
Portables (ELTs, etc.)
Spares

Agreements

ARINC
BERNA (Switzerland)
SITA
Stockholm

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

5-17

CAE SimuFlite
NAVIGATION
Equipment

VOR
DME
ADF
Inertial
VLF/OMEGA
LORAN
GPS

Publications

Onboard computer (update)


En route charts (VFR, IFR)
Plotting charts
Approach charts (area, terminal)
NAT message (current)
Flight plans
Blank flight plans

III. OTHER PUBLICATIONS

Operations manual
International Flight Information Manual
Maintenance manuals
Manufacturers sources
World Aviation Directory
Interavia ABC
Airports International Directory
MNPS/NOPAC

Customs Guide

5-18

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Planning

IV. SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT

Area survival kit (with text)


Medical kit (with text)
Emergency locator transmitter
Floatation equipment
Raft
Life Jackets

V. FACILITATION AIDS

U.S. Department of State


U.S. Department of Commerce
U.S. Customs Service
National Flight Data Center (FAA) Notams
FAA Office of International Aviation
FAA Aviation Security

VI. OTHER CONSIDERATIONS

Pre-flight planner
Aircraft locks
Spare keys
Security devices
Commissary supplies
Electrical adapters (razors, etc.)
Ground transportation
Hotel reservations
NBAA International Feedback cards
Catering
WX service
Reservations
Slot times

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

5-19

5-20
16

DESTINATION AERODROME
AERODROME DE DESTINATION

CRUSING SPEED
VITESSE CROISIERE

19

MIN.

CAPACITY
CAPACITE

DINGHIES / CANOTS
NUMBER
NUMBRE

JUNGLE
JUNGLE

COVER
COUVERTURE

ALTN AERODROME
AERODROME DE DEGAGEMENT

COLOR
COULEUR

2ND ALTN AERODROME


2EME AERODROME DE DEGAGEMENT

V
F

UHF

VHF

UHF

R U

VHF

ELBA

EMERGENCY RADIO / RADIO DE SECOURS

JACKETS / GILETS DE SAUVETAGE


LIGHT
FLUORES
LAMPE
FLUORES

TYPE OF FLIGHT / TYPE DE VOL

EQUIPMENT / EQUIPMENENT

SPACE RESERVED FOR ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS / ESPACE RESERVE A DES FINS SUPPLEMENTAIRES

PILOT-IN-COMMAND / PILOTE COMMANDANT DE BORD

REMARKS / REMARQUES

AIRCRAFT COLOUR AND MARKINGS / COUEUR ET MARQUES DE L'AERONEF

HR.

PERSONS ON BOARD / PERSONNES A BORD

SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT / EQUIPEMENT DE SURVIE


POLAR
DESERT
MARITIME
POLAIRE
DESERT
MARITIME

MIN.

ENEURANCE / AUTONOMIE
HR.

ROUTE / ROUTE

TOTAL EFT / DUREE TOTALE ESTIMEE

LEVEL / NIVEAU

10

WAKE TURBULENCE CAT


CAT. DE TURBULENCE DE SILLAGE

FLIGHT RULES / REGLES DE VOL

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION (NOT TO BE TRANSMITTED IN FPL MESSAGES)


RENSEIGMNEMENTS COMPLEMENTAIRES (A NE PAS TRANSMETTRE DANS LES MESSAGES SE PLAN DE VOL DEPOSE)

OTHER INFORMATION / RESEIGNEMENTS DIVERS

13

TIME / HEURE

AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION / IDENTIFICATION DE L'AERONEF

TYPE OF AIRCRAFT / TYPE D'AERONEF

DEPARTURE AERODROME / AERODROME DE DEPART

NUMBER / NOMBRE

MESSAGE / TYPE DE MESSAGE

FILED BY / DEPOSE PAR

18

15

ORIGINATOR / EXPEDITEUR

ADRESSEE(S) / DESTINATAIRE(S)

SERVICES DE LA CIRCULATION AERIENNE


OACI PLAN DE VOL

SPECIFIC IDENTIFICATION OF ADDRESSEE(S) AND/OR ORIGINATOR / IDENTIFICATION PRECISE DU9DES0 DESTINATAIRE(S) ET/OU DE L'EXPEDITEUR

FILING TIME / HEURE DE DEPOT

FF

PRIORITY / PRIORITE

AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES


ICAO FLIGHT PLAN

CAE SimuFlite
ICAO International Flight Plan Form

Developed for training purposes


March 2002

Learjet 55

Flight Planning

ICAO Flight Plan Form Completion


Items 7-19
Complete all ICAO flight plans prior to departure. Although the
ICAO flight plan form is printed in numerous languages, the format is always the same.
Always enter cruising speed and cruising level as a group. In the
body of the flight plan form, if one item changes, the other item
must be re-entered to keep speed and level a matched pair.
Always enter latitude and longitude as 7 or 11 characters. If
entering minutes of one, enter minutes of the other as well,
even if zeros.
Significant points should not be more than one hour apart.
Consider entering overflight/landing permissions after RMK/ in
Item 18.

Item 7: Aircraft Identification


(7 characters maximum)
Insert (A) the aircraft registration marking or (B) aircraft operating agency ICAO designator followed by the flight identification.
A. Insert only the aircraft registration marking (e.g., EIAKO,
4XBCD, N2567GA) if one of the following is true:

the aircrafts radiotelephony call sign consists of the aircraft


registration marking alone (e.g., OOTEK)

the registration marking is preceded by the ICAO telephone


designator for the aircraft operating agency (e.g., SABENA
OOTEK)

the aircraft is not equipped with radio.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

5-21

CAE SimuFlite
B. Insert the ICAO designator for the aircraft operating agency
followed by the flight identification (e.g., KL511, WT214,
K7123, JH25) if the aircrafts radiotelephony call sign consists of the ICAO telephony designator for the operating
agency followed by the flight identification (e.g., KLM 511,
NIGERIA 213, KILO UNIFORM 123, JULIETT HOTEL 25).

Item 8: Flight Rules and Type of Flight


(1 or 2 characters)
Flight Rules: Insert one of the following letters to denote the
intended flight rules category:
I if IFR
V if VFR
Y if IFR first*
Z if VFR first*
*Note: Specify in Item 15 (Route) the point(s) where a
flight rules change is planned.
Type of Flight: Insert one of the following letters to denote the
type of flight when so required by the appropriate ATS authority:
S if scheduled air service
N if non-scheduled air transport operation
G if general aviation
M if military
X if other than the above

Item 9: Number (1 or 2 characters) and Type of


Aircraft (2 to 4 characters) and Wake Turbulence
Category (1 character)
Number of Aircraft: Insert number of aircraft if more than one.
Type of Aircraft: Insert the appropriate designator as specified
in ICAO Doc 8643, Aircraft Type Designators. If no such designator has been assigned, or in case of formation flight comprising more than one aircraft type, insert ZZZZ, then specify in Item
18 the number(s) and type(s) of aircraft, preceded by TYP/.
5-22

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Planning
Wake Turbulence Category: Insert / + H, M, or L:
/H Heavy maximum certificated T/O mass of 136,000 kg
(300,000 lbs) or more
/M Medium maximum certificated T/O mass of less than
136,000 kg but more than 7,000 kg (between 15,500
and 300,000 lbs)
/L Light maximum certificated T/O mass of 7,000 kg or
less (15,500 lbs)

Item 10: Equipment


Radio Communication, Navigation, and Approach Aid
Equipment: Insert one of the following letters:
N if COM/NAV/approach aid equipment is not carried or
is inoperative.
S if standard COM/NAV/approach aid equipment
(VHF RTF, ADF, VOR, ILS, or equipment prescribed by
ATS authority) is on board and operative;
and/or insert one of the following letters to indicate corresponding
COMM/NAV/approach aid equipment is available and operative:
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M

not allocated
not allocated
LORAN C
DME
not allocated
ADF
(GNSS)
HF RTF
Inertial Navig.
(Data Link)
(MLS)
ILS
Omega

Learjet 55
March 2002

O
P
Q
R

VOR
not allocated
not allocated
RNP type certification

T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

TACAN
UHF RTF
VHF RTF
when prescribed by ATS
when prescribed by ATS
when prescribed by ATS
Other (specify in Item 18)

Developed for training purposes

5-23

CAE SimuFlite
SSR Equipment: Insert one of the following letters to describe
the operative SSR equipment on board:
N
A
C
X

None
Transponder Mode A (4 digits- 4 096 codes)
Transponder Mode A and Mode C
Transponder Mode S without aircraft ID or pressurealtitude transmission
P Transponder Mode S with pressure altitude transmission, but without aircraft ID transmission
I Transponder Mode S with aircraft ID transmission, but
without pressure-altitude transmission
S Transponder Mode S with both pressure altitude and
aircraft ID transmission

Item 13: Departure Aerodrome (4 characters) and


Time (4 characters)
Departure Aerodrome: Insert one of the following:

ICAO four-letter location indicator of the departure aerodrome.

If no location indicator assigned, insert ZZZZ, then specify in


Item 18 the name of the aerodrome, preceded by DEP/.

If flight plan submitted while in flight, insert AFIL, then specify in Item 18 the four-letter location indicator of the ATS unit
from which supplementary flight plan data can be obtained,
preceded by DEP/.

Time: Insert one of the following:

for a flight plan submitted before departure: the estimated offblock time

for a flight plan submitted while in flight: the actual or estimated time over the first point of the route to which the flight
plan applies.

5-24

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Planning
Item 15: Cruising Speed (5 characters), Cruising
Level (5 characters), and Route
Cruising Speed: Insert the true air speed for the first or whole
cruising portion of the flight in one of the following forms:

Kilometers per hour: K + 4 figures (e.g., K0830)


Knots: N + 4 figures (e.g., N0485)
Mach number: M + 3 figures (e.g., M082) if prescribed by ATS.

Cruising Level: Insert the planned cruising level for the first or
whole portion of the planned route using one of the following
forms:

Flight level: F + 3 figures (e.g., F085; F330)


Standard metric level in tens of metres: S + 4 figures (e.g.,
S1130) if prescribed by ATS.
Altitude in hundreds of feet: A + 3 figures (e.g., A045; A100)
Altitude in tens of metres: M + 4 figures (e.g., M0840)
For uncontrolled VFR flights: VFR

Route: Include changes of speed, level, and/or flight rules.


For flights along designated ATS routes:

If the departure aerodrome is on or connected to the ATS


route, insert the designator of the first ATS route.
If the departure aerodrome is not on or connected to the ATS
route, insert the letters DCT followed by the point of joining the
first ATS route, followed by the designator of the ATS route.
Insert each point at which a change of speed, change of level,
change of ATS route, and/or a change of flight rules is
planned. For a transition between lower and upper ATS
routes oriented in the same direction, do not insert the point
of transition.
In each case, follow with the designator of the next ATS route
segment even if it is the same as the previous one (or with
DCT if the flight to the next point is outside a designated route),
unless both points are defined by geographical coordinates.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

5-25

CAE SimuFlite
Flights outside designated ATS routes:
Insert points not normally more than 30 minutes flying time or
200 nautical miles apart, including each point at which a
change of speed or level, a change of track, or a change of
flight rules is planned.
When required by ATS, define the track of flights operating
predominantly in an east-west direction between 70N and
70S by reference to significant points formed by the intersections of half or whole degrees of latitude with meridians
spaced at intervals of 10 degrees of longitude. For flights
operating in areas outside those latitudes, define the tracks
by significant points formed by the intersection of parallels of
latitude with meridians normally spaced not to exceed one
hours flight time. Establish additional significant points as
deemed necessary.
For flights operating predominantly in a north-south direction,
define tracks by reference to significant points formed by the
intersection of whole degrees of longitude with specified parallels of latitude that are spaced at 5 degrees.
Insert DCT between successive points unless both points are
defined by geographical coordinates or bearing and distance.
Examples of Route Sub-entries
Enter a space between each sub-entry.
1. ATS route (2 to 7 characters): BCN1, B1, R14, KODAP2A
2. Significant point (2 to 11 characters): LN, MAY, HADDY
degrees only (7 characters insert zeros, if necessary):
46N078W
degrees and minutes (11 characters insert zeros if
necessary): 4620N07805W
bearing and distance from navigation aid (NAV aid ID [2 to
3 characters] + bearing and distance from the NAV aid
[6 characters insert zeros if necessary]): a point 180
magnetic at a distance of 40 nautical miles from
VOR DUB = DUB180040
5-26

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Planning
3. Change of speed or level (max 21 characters):
insert point of change/cruising speed and level
LN/N0284A045, MAY/N0305F180, HADDY/N0420F330,
DUB180040/M084F350
4. Change of flight rules (max 3 characters):
insert point of change (space) change to IFR or VFR
LN VFR, LN/N0284A050 IFR
5. Cruise climb (max 28 characters):
insert C/point to start climb/climb speed / levels
C/48N050W / M082F290F350
C/48N050W / M082F290PLUS
C/52N050W / M220F580F620

Item 16: Destination Aerodrome (4 characters),


Total Estimated Elapsed Time (EET, 4 characters),
Alternate Aerodrome(s) (4 characters)
Destination aerodrome: insert ICAO four-letter location indicator. If no indicator assigned, insert ZZZZ.
Total EET: insert accumulated estimated elapsed time. If no
location indicator assigned, specify in Item 18 the name of the
aerodrome, preceded by DEST/.
Alternate aerodrome(s): insert ICAO four-letter location indicator.
If no indicator assigned to alternate, insert ZZZZ and specify in
Item 18 the name of the alternate aerodrome, preceded by
ALTN/.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

5-27

CAE SimuFlite
Item 18: Other Information
This section may be used to record specific information as
required by appropriate ATS authority or per regional air navigation agreements. Insert the appropriate indicator followed by an
oblique stroke (/) and the necessary information. See examples
below.

Estimated elapsed time/significant points or FIR boundary


designators: EET/CAP0745, XYZ0830.

Revised destination aerodrome route details/ICAO aerodrome location indicator: RIF/DTA HEC KLAX. (Revised
route subject to reclearance in flight.)

Aircraft registration markings, if different from aircraft I.D. in


Item 7: REG/N1234.

SELCAL code: SEL/

Operators name, if not obvious from the aircraft I.D. in Item


.
7: OPR/

Reason for special handling by ATS (e.g., hospital aircraft,


one-engine inoperative): STS/HOSP, STS/ONE ENG INOP.

As explained in Item 9: TYP/

Aircraft performance data: PER/

Communication equipment significant data: COM/UHF Only.

Navigation equipment significant data: NAV/INS.

As explained in Item 13: DEP/

As explained in Item 16: DEST/

Other remarks as required by ATS or deemed necessary:


.
RMK/

5-28

.
.

.
, or ALTN/

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Planning
Item 19: Supplementary Information
Endurance: insert fuel endurance in hours and minutes.
Persons on Board: insert total persons on board, including passengers and crew. If unknown at time of filing, insert TBN (to be
notified).
Emergency Radio, Survival Equipment, Jackets, Dinghies:
cross out letter indicators of all items not available; complete
blanks as required for items available. (jackets: L = life jackets
with lights, J = life jackets with fluorescein).

ICAO Position Reporting Format


Outside the U.S., position reports are required unless specifically waived by the controlling agency.
Initial Contact (Frequency Change)
1. Call sign
2. Flight level (if not level, report climbing to or descending to
cleared altitude)
3. Estimating (next position) at (time) GMT
Position Report
1. Call sign
2. Position (if position in doubt, use phonetic identifier. For
oceanic reports, first report the latitude, then the longitude
(e.g., 50N 60W)
3. Time (GMT) or (UST)
4. Altitude or flight level (if not level, report climbing to or
descending to altitude)
5. Next position
6. Estimated elapsed time (EET)

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

5-29

PILOT BRIEFING

FLIGHT PLAN
1. TYPE

2. AIRCRAFT
IDENTIFICATION

VNR

TIME STARTED

SPECIALIST
INITIALS

STOPOVER
3. AIRCRAFT TYPE/
SPECIAL EQUIPMENT

4. TRUE
AIRSPEED

VFR

5. DEPARTURE POINT

6. DEPARTURE TIME
PROPOSED (Z)

7. CRUSING
ALTITUDE

ACTUAL (Z)

IFR
DVFR

Developed for training purposes

8. ROUTE OF FLIGHT

9. DESTINATION (Name of airport


and city)

10. EST TIME ENROUTE


HOURS

12. FUEL ON BOARD


HOURS

11. REMARKS

MINUTES

13. ALTERNATE AIRPORT(S)

14. PILOTS NAME, ADDRESS & TELEPHONE NUMBER & AIRCRAFT HOME BASE

MINUTES

15. NUMBER
ABOARD

17. DESTINATION CONTACT / TELEPHONE (OPTIONAL)

18. COLOR OF AIRCRAFT

Learjet 55

March 2002

FAA Form 7233-1 (8-82)

CIVIL AIRCRAFT PILOTS. FAR Part 91 requires you to file an IFR flight plan to operate under instrument flight rules in
controlled airspace. Failure to file could result in civil penality not to exceed $1,000 for each violation (Section 901 of the
Federal Aviation Act of 1956, as amended). Filing of a VFR flight plan is recomended as a good operating practice. See also
Part 99 for requirements concerning DVFR flight plans.

CLOSE VFR FLIGHT PLAN WITH_________________FSS ON ARRIVAL

CAE SimuFlite

(FAA USE ONLY)

FAA Flight Plan Form

5-30

US DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION

Flight Planning

FAA Flight Plan Form


Completion Instructions
Block 1

Check the type flight plan. Check both the VFR


and IFR blocks if composite VFR/IFR.

Block 2

Enter your complete aircraft identification, including


the prefix N, if applicable.

Block 3

Enter the designator for the aircraft, or if unknown,


the aircraft manufacturers name.
When filing an IFR flight plan for a TCAS equipped
aircraft, add the prefix T for TCAS.
Example: T/G4/R.
When filing an IFR flight plan for flight in an aircraft
equipped with a radar beacon transponder, DME
equipment, TACAN-only equipment or a combination of both, identify equipment capability by adding
a suffix to the AIRCRAFT TYPE, preceded by a
slant (/) as follows:
/X
/T
/U
/D
/B
/A
/M
/N
/P
/C

Learjet 55
March 2002

no transponder
transponder with no altitude encoding capability
transponder with altitude encoding capability
DME, but no transponder
DME and transponder, but no altitude encoding
capability
DME and transponder with altitude encoding
capability
TACAN only, but no transponder
TACAN only and transponder, but with no
altitude encoding capability
TACAN only and transponder with altitude
encoding capability
RNAV and transponder, but with no altitude
encoding

Developed for training purposes

5-31

CAE SimuFlite
/R RNAV and transponder with altitude encoding
capability
/W RNAV but no transponder
/G Global Positioning System (GPS)/Global
Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) equipped
aircraft with oceanic, en route, terminal, and
GPS approach capability.
/E Flight Management System (FMS) with
barometric Vertical Navigation (VNAV), oceanic,
en route, terminal, and approach capability.
Equipment requirements are:
(a) Dual FMS which meets the specifications of
AC25-15, Approval of Flight Management
Systems in Transport Category Airplanes;
AC20-129, Airworthiness Approval of Vertical
Navigation (VNAV) Systems for use in the U.S.
National Airspace System (NAS) and Alaska;
AC20-130, Airworthiness Approval of MultiSensor Navigation Systems for use in the U.S.
National Airspace System (NAS) and Alaska; or
equivalent criteria as approved by Flight
Standards.
(b) A flight director and autopilot control system
capable of following the lateral and vertical
FMS flight path.
(c) At least dual inertial reference units (IRUs).
(d) A database containing the waypoints and
speed/altitude constraints for the route and/or
procedure to be flown that is automatically
loaded into the FMS flight plan.
(e) An electronic map.
/F A single FMS with barometric VNAV, en route,
terminal, and approach capability that meets
the equipment requirements of /E (a) above.

5-32

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Planning
Block 4

Enter your true airspeed (TAS).

Block 5

Enter the departure airport identifier code, or if


code is unknown, the name of the airport.

Block 6

Enter the proposed departure time in Coordinated


Universal Time (UTC). If airborne, specify the actual or proposed departure time as appropriate.

Block 7

Enter the appropriate IFR altitude (to assist the


briefer in providing weather and wind information).

Block 8

Define the route of flight by using NAVAID identifier


codes, airways, jet routes, and waypoints.

Block 9

Enter the destination airport identifier code, or if


unknown, the airport name. Include the city name
(or even the state name) if needed for clarity.

Block 10 Enter estimated time enroute in hours and minutes.


Block 11 Enter only those remarks pertinent to ATC or to the
clarification of other flight plan information, such as
the appropriate call sign associated with the designator filed in Block 2 or ADCUS.
Block 12 Specify the fuel on board in hours and minutes.
Block 13 Specify an alternate airport, if desired or required.
Block 14 Enter the complete name, address, and telephone
number of the pilot in command. Enter sufficient
information to identify home base, airport, or operator. This information is essential for search and
rescue operations.
Block 15 Enter total number of persons on board (POB),
including crew.
Block 16 Enter the aircrafts predominant colors.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

5-33

CAE SimuFlite
Block 17 Record the FSS name for closing the flight plan. If
the flight plan is closed with a different FSS or
facility, state the recorded FSS name that would
normally have closed your flight plan. Information
transmitted to the destination FSS consists only of
that in Blocks 3, 9, and 10. Estimated time enroute
(ETE) will be converted to the correct estimated
time of arrival (ETA).
Optional Record a destination telephone number to assist
search and rescue contact should you fail to report
or cancel your flight plan within 1/2 hour after your
estimated time of arrival (ETA).

5-34

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Planning

ICAO Weather Format


On July 1, 1993, the worldwide (ICAO) and North American
aerodrome weather codes merged into a new international code
for forecasts and reports. The new codes are the result of an
effort to meet revised aeronautical requirements and reduce
confusion in the aviation community.
The United States converted to METAR/TAF format on July 1,
1996 with terminal aerodrome forecast (TAF) replacing the
terminal forecast airport and meteorological aviation routine
weather report (METAR) replacing the airport surface observation (AOS).
Although the aviation community now uses a standard set of
codes, some differences remain between U.S. and ICAO codes.
For example, the following differences may remain in effect:
Horizontal visibility is reported in statute miles (SM) in the
U.S. code and in meters in the ICAO code. To avoid confusion, the suffix SM follows the visibility value if it is reported in
U.S. code. Additionally, when forecast visibility in the U.S.
exceeds six statute miles, the prefix P appears (e.g., P6SM a visibility forecast greater than six statute miles).
Runway visual range (RVR) is reported in feet (FT) in the U.S.
code and in meters in ICAO code. When RVR is reported for
a U.S. runway, the suffix FT is added (e.g., R27L/2700FT,
runway 27 left RVR 2,700 ft). RVR is reported only in actual
weather, not a forecast TAF.
Ceiling and visibility okay (CAVOK) is not used in the U.S.
Temperature, turbulence, and icing conditions are not forecast in a U.S. TAF. Turbulence and icing are forecast in Area
Forecasts (FAS). Surface temperatures are forecast only in
public service and agricultural forecasts.
Trend forecasts are not included in U.S. METARs.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

5-35

CAE SimuFlite
An altimeter setting in a U.S. METAR is in inches of mercury.
In an ICAO METAR, it is in hectopascals (millibars). To avoid
confusion, a prefix is always assigned: an A for a U.S. report
or a Q for an ICAO report (e.g., A2992 or Q1013).
In the U.S., remarks (RMKs) precede recent (RE) weather
and wind shear (WS) information reported at the end of
METARs.
Low level windshear, not associated with convective activity,
will appear in U.S., Canadian, and Mexican TAFs.

5-36

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Planning

Sample TAF
A terminal aerodrome forecast (TAF) describes the forecast prevailing conditions at an airport and covers either a 9-hour period
or a 24-hour period. Nine-hour TAFs are issued every three
hours; 24-hour TAFs are issued every six hours. Amendments
(AMD) are issued as necessary. A newly issued TAF automatically amends and updates previous versions. Also, many
foreign countries issue eighteen hour TAFs at six hour intervals.
The following example has detailed explanations of the new
codes:
KHPN 091720Z 091818 22020KT 3/4SM -SHRA
BKN020CB FM2030 30015G25KT 1500 SHRA
OVC015CB PROB40 2022 1/4SM TSRA OVC008CB
FM2300 27008KT 1 1/2SM -SHRA BKN020
OVC040 TEMPO 0407 00000KT 1/2SM -RABR
VV004 FM1000 22010KT 1/2SM -SHRA OVC020
BECMG 1315 20010KT P6SM NSW SKC
KHPN. ICAO location indicator. The usual 3 letter identifiers we
are familiar with are now preceded by a K for the contiguous
United States. Alaska and Hawaii will use 4 letter identifiers with
PA and PH respectively. Changes are planned to incorporate
alphabetic identifiers for those weather reporting stations where
numbers and letters are now used (e.g., W10 changed to
KHEF).
091720Z. Issuance time. The first two digits (09) indicate the
date; the following four digits (1720) indicate time of day. All
times are in UTC or Zulu.
091818. Valid period. The first two digits (09) indicate the date.
The second two digits (18) are the hour that the forecast period
begins. The last two digits (18) indicate the hour that the forecast expires. The example is a 24-hour forecast.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

5-37

CAE SimuFlite
22020KT. Surface wind. The first three digits (220) are true
direction to the nearest 10. The next two digits (20) indicate
speed. KT indicates the scale is in knots. TAFs may also use
kilometers-per-hour (KMH) or meters per second (MPS). If
gusts are forecast, a G and a two-digit maximum gust speed follow the five-digit wind reading (e.g., 22020G10KT). Five zeros
and the appropriate suffix indicate calm winds (e.g.,
00000KT/KMH/MPS).
NOTE: Towers, ATIS and airport advisory service report
wind direction as magnetic.
3/4SM. Prevailing horizontal visibility. Visibility (3/4SM) is in
statute miles in the U.S. However, most countries use meters
which appears with no suffix (e.g., 1200).
-SHRA. Weather and/or obstruction to visibility. The minus sign
(-) indicates light, a plus sign (+) indicates heavy, and no prefix
indicates moderate. If no significant weather is expected, the
group is omitted. If the weather ceases to be significant after a
change group, the weather code is replaced by the code for no
significant weather (NSW).
BKN020CB. Cloud coverage/height/type. The first three letters
indicate expected cloud coverage. Cloud height is indicated by
the second set of three digits; these are read in hundreds of feet
(or multiples of 30 meters). When cumulonimbus is forecast,
cloud type (CB) follows cloud height.
When an obscured sky is expected and information on vertical
visibility is available, the cloud group is replaced by a different
five-digit code (e.g., VV004). The first two digits are Vs. The
three figures following indicate vertical visibility in units of 100 ft.
For indefinite vertical visibility, the two Vs would be followed by
two slash marks (VV//).
NOTE: More than one cloud layer may be reported.

5-38

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Planning
FM2030. Significant change expected in prevailing weather. The
from code (FM) is followed by a four-digit time code (2030).
Prevailing weather conditions consist of a surface wind, visibility,
weather, and cloud coverage.
PROB40 2022. Probability (PROB) and a two-digit code for percent (40) is followed by a four-digit code (2022) that indicates a
beginning time (20) and an ending time (22) to the nearest
whole hour for probable weather conditions. Only 30% and 40%
probabilities are used; less than these are not sufficient to forecast; 50% and above support the normal forecast.
TEMPO. Temporary change followed by a four-digit time.
Forecasts temporary weather conditions. Indicates that changes
lasting less than an hour and a half may occur anytime between
the two-digit beginning time and two-digit ending time.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

5-39

CAE SimuFlite
Decoding TAFs
The latter half of the sample TAF is decoded based on the preceding information.

30015G25KT 1/2SM SHRA OVC015CB

Surface winds, 300 true direction


Mean speed, 15 kts
Gusts, maximum gust 25 kts
Visibility, 1/2 statute mile
Moderate showers of rain
Overcast at 1,500 ft with cumulonimbus clouds

FM2300 27008KT 1 1/2SM -SHRA BKN020 OVC040

Significant change expected from 2300 hours


Surface winds, 270 true direction at 8 kts
Visibility, one and one-half statute mile
Light showers of rain
Broken clouds at 2,000 ft with a second overcast layer at
4,000 ft

TEMPO 0407 00000KT 1/4SM -RA BR VV004

Temporary between 0400 and 0700 hours


Calm winds
Visibility 1/4 statute mile
Light rain and mist
Indefinite ceiling, vertical visibility 400 ft

FM1000 22010KT 1/2SM -SHRA OVC020

Significant change expected from 1000 hours

Surface winds, 220 true direction at 10 kts


Visibility, 1/2 statute mile
Light showers of rain
Overcast skies at 2,000 ft

5-40

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Planning
BECMG 1315 20010KT P6SM NSW SKC

Change to the forecast conditions between 1300 and 1500


hours

Expected surface winds, 200 true direction at 10 kts

Visibility, more than 6 statute miles

No significant weather

Clear skies

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

5-41

CAE SimuFlite
Sample METAR
A routine aviation weather report on observed weather, or
METAR, is issued at hourly or half-hourly intervals. A special
weather report on observed weather, or SPECI, is issued when
certain criteria are met. Both METAR and SPECI use the same
codes.
A forecast highly likely to occur, or TREND, covers a period of
two hours from the time of the observation. A TREND forecast
indicates significant changes in respect to one or more of the following elements: surface wind, visibility, weather, or clouds.
TREND forecasts use many of the same codes as TAFs.
Most foreign countries may append a TREND to a METAR or
SPECI. In the U.S., however, a TREND is not included in a
METAR or SPECI.
The following example indicates how to read a METAR:
KHPN 201955Z 22015G25KT 2SM
R22L/1000FT TSRA OVC010CB 18/16 A2990
RERAB25 BECMG 2200 24035G55
KHPN. ICAO location indicator.
201955Z. Date and time of issuance. METARs are issued hourly.
22015G25KT. Surface wind (same as TAF). If the first three digits are VAR, the wind is variable with wind speed following. If
direction varies 60 or more during the ten minutes immediately
preceding the observation, the two extreme directions are indicated with the letter V inserted between them (e.g., 280V350).
NOTE: G must vary 10 kts or greater to report gust.

5-42

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Flight Planning
2SM. Prevailing horizontal visibility in statute miles. In the U.S.,
issued in statute miles with the appropriate suffix (SM) appended.
When a marked directional variation exists, the reported minimum visibility is followed by one of the eight compass points to
indicate the direction (e.g., 2SMNE).
R22L/1000FT. The runway visual range group. The letter R
begins the group and is followed by the runway description
(22L). The range in feet follows the slant bar (1000FT). In other
countries range is in meters and no suffix is used.
TSRA OVC010CB. Thunderstorms (TS) and rain (RA) with an
overcast layer at 1,000 ft and cumulonimbus clouds.
NOTE: More than one cloud layer may be reported.
18/16. Temperatures in degrees Celsius. The first two digits (18)
are observed air temperature; the last two digits (16) are dew
point temperature. A temperature below zero is reported with a
minus (M) prefix code (e.g., M06).
A2990. Altimeter setting. In the U.S., A is followed by inches and
hundredths; in most other countries, Q is followed by hectopascals (i.e., millibars).
RERAB25. Recent operationally significant condition. A two letter code for recent (RE) is followed by a two letter code for the
condition (e.g., RA for rain). A code for beginning or ending (B or
E) and a two-digit time in minutes during the previous hour.
When local circumstances also warrant, wind shear may also be
indicated (e.g., WS LDG RWY 22).
NOTE: A remark (RMK) code is used in the U.S. to
precede supplementary data of recent operationally significant weather.
NOTE: RMK [SLP 013] breaks down SEA LVL press to
nearest tenth (e.g., 1001.3 reported as SLP 013).
Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

5-43

CAE SimuFlite
BECMG AT 2200 24035G55. A TREND forecast. The becoming
code (BECMG) is followed by a when sequence (AT 2200) and
the expected change (e.g., surface winds at 240 true at 35 kts
with gusts up to 55 kts).
NOTE: For more information on METAR/TAF, consult the
FAA brochure New Aviation Weather Format METAR/TAF.
Copies may be obtained by writing to: FAA/ASY-20, 400 7th
Street, S.W. Washington, DC 20590.

5-44

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Servicing
Table of Contents
Servicing Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Fire Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Engine Fire Extinguisher Bottles

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5

Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Approved Fuels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Fuel Tank Capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Fuselage

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5

Electronic Fuel Computer Adjustment


(Specific Gravity) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
Fuel Additives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8
Refueling

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9

Ground Power Unit

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-17

Hydraulic System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-17


Landing Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-18
Struts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-18
Nose Strut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-18
Main Struts

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-18

Emergency Gear/Brake Air Bottles

. . . . . . . . . . . . 6-18

Tire Inflation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-19


Oil

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-20

Approved Oils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-20


Checking/Adding Oil
Oxygen

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-20

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-21

Windshield Anti-Ice Fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-21


Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

6-1

CAE SimuFlite

6-2

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Servicing

Servicing Record
DATE

QTY

DATE

QTY

Engine Oil

Hydraulic Fluid

Alcohol

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

6-3

CAE SimuFlite
Servicing Record (continued)
DATE

QTY

DATE

QTY

Pneumatic Bottle

Oxygen

Other

6-4

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Servicing

Fire Protection
Engine Fire Extinguisher Bottles
Gage Indication

. . . . . . . . . . APPROX 600 PSI AT 70F

Extinguishing Agent . . . . . . . . . . . CF3Br (HALON 1301)

Fuel
Approved Fuels
Mixing of fuel types is permissible (Table 6-A, following page).
Take special precautions to prevent electrostatic discharge
when switch-fueling. Refer to AFM Addendum 1, Fuel Servicing.

Fuel Tank Capacities


Obtain maximum fuel tank capacity through the fuselage filler.
The following weights are based on 6.7 lbs per U.S. gallon.
Wings (Both) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 GAL/2,848 LBS

Fuselage
Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573 GAL/3,842 LBS
Left/Right . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 672 GAL/4,499 LBS
Aft

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 GAL/359 LBS

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

6-5

CAE SimuFlite
Jet-A
(EMS 53111, Kerosene)

Jet-A1
(EMS 53112, Kerosene)

AMOCO Jet Fuel Type A


AMOCO Turbine Fuel
ASTM Jet A Aircraft Turbine Fuel
B.P. Oil Inc., Jet A
Chevron Jet Fuel A
Chevron Jet Fuel A-50
Exxon Turbo A
Gulf Jet A
Jet A Kerosene
Mobil Jet A
NATO F-30 (Jet A)
Phillips Philjet A-50
Richfield Jet A
Standard Oil of Ohio, Jet A
Shell Jet A
Texaco Avjet A
Union Turbine Fuel A

ASTM Jet A-1


Boron Oil Company Jet A-1
British Fuel D ENG RD 2492
AVTUR 50
Canadian Fuel 3-GP-23
Chevron Jet Fuel A-1
Exxon Turbo A-1
Jet A-1 Kerosene
Mobil Jet A-1
NATO F-34 (Jet A-1)
NATO F-35 (Jet A-1)
Richfield Jet A-1
Shell Jet A-1
Texaco Avjet A-1
Union Jet A-1

Jet-B or JP4 (EMS 53113,


Wide Cut Type Fuel)_

JP-5 (EMS 53116, High Flash


Point Type Fuel)

ASTM Jet B Aircraft Turbine Fuel


British Fuel D ENG RD 2486
AVTAG
Canadian Fuel 3-GP-22
Chevron Jet Fuel B
Conoco (JP-4)
Exxon Turbo B
MIL-T-5624G (JP-4)
Mobil JP-4
NATO F-40 (JP-4)
NATO F-45 (JP-4)
Richfield Jet B
Richfield JP-4
Texaco Avjet B
Texaco JP-4
Union JP-4

British Fuel D ENG RD 2498


AVCAT 48
Chevron Turbine Fuel JP-5
MIL-T-5624G (JP-5)
Mobil JP-5
NATO F-42 (JP-5)
NATO F-44 (JP-5)
Texaco JP-5

Table 6-A; Approved Fuels


6-6

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Servicing

Electronic Fuel Computer Adjustment


(Specific Gravity)
Adjust the engine electronic fuel computer to the recommended
specific gravity position listed in the Engine Log Book for the
type of fuel being used.
If there is no log entry, rotate the fuel adjustment knob one click
in either direction from the following recommended positions to
compensate for individual engine characteristics or installation
effects.
Jet A, Jet A-1, JP-5, and JP-8

. . . . . . . . . . POSITION 5

Jet B, JP-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . POSITION 6

WARNING: Engine surge may occur if the recommended


gravity adjustment is not made for the type of fuel being
used. If surge occurs, refer to the Engine Maintenance
Manual.

CAUTION: Clockwise trim (corresponding to a decrease


in specific gravity setting) on the fuel computer without a
change in fuel specific gravity results in higher turbine
temperatures in start, acceleration, and deceleration.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

6-7

CAE SimuFlite
Fuel Additives
Anti-Icing
On aircraft without fuel heaters installed or with inoperative fuel heaters, anti-icing additive is required in all fuels
except those with factory pre-blended additive.
Approved additives:

MIL-I-27686

MIL-1-85470

Concentration by Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.06 TO 0.15%


Refer to AFM Addendum I, Fuel Servicing.
CAUTION: Do not use less than 20 fluid ounces (one
can) of additive per 260 gallons (984.2 liters) or more
than 20 fluid ounces (one can) per 104 gallons (393.7
liters) of fuel.

Anti-Microbiological
Approved Additive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HI-FLOW PRIST
In addition, Biobar JF is approved as a biocide additive when
premixed with fuel at the fuel supply facility; Biobar JF is not
approved for over-the-wing mixing.

6-8

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Servicing
Follow the procedure below for blending Hi-Flow Prist:
Hi-Flow Prist Blender . . . . . . . . . ATTACH TO NOZZLE
Fuel Nozzle Flow Rate

. . . . . . . . . . . 30 TO 60 GPM

Additive Flow . . . . . . . . DIRECT INTO FUEL STREAM


Additive Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STOP
Fuel Flow

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STOP

CAUTION: Direct additive into the flowing fuel stream


and ensure additive flow stops before the fuel flow stops.
Do not allow concentrated additive to contact fuel tank
interior or aircraft painted surfaces.

WARNING: Anti-ice additive is toxic. It is dangerous


when breathed or absorbed into the skin. When in contact with anti-ice additive, use appropriate protective
equipment such as eye goggles, eye shield, respirator
with organic vapor cartridges, and non-absorbing gloves.
If additive enters the eyes, flush with water and contact a
physician immediately.

Refueling
Refuel the aircraft through filler openings in the fuselage or in
each wing tank. Fuel can be pumped into the fuselage tank via
the standby pumps in the wing sumps. In addition, fuel can be
transferred into the wing tanks from the fuselage tank to a level
above the wing fillers.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

6-9

CAE SimuFlite
Ensure aircraft is in a designated fueling area and fire equipment available. For all fueling procedures:

ensure fuel truck is grounded

bond aircraft to truck

bond fuel nozzle to aircraft.

Filling Wing Tanks


Ground Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONNECT
Wing Filler Caps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVE
BATTERY Switches
Fueling Operation

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . START

FUS TANK XFR-FILL Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FILL


FUS TANK FULL Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MONITOR
When FUS TANK FULL light illuminates or desired level reached:
FUS TANK XFR-FILL Switch

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF

Fueling Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTINUE UNTIL


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BOTH TANKS FULL
NOTE: The aircraft can be filled by completely filling one
wing and then the other. A bubble, however, often forms in
the low wing. To avoid this, top off the first wing after filling
the second wing tank.

When refueling completed:


BATTERY Switches

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF

Wing Filler Caps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALL


Ground Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DISCONNECT

6-10

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Servicing
Filling Fuselage Tank
Battery Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
GPU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONNECTED
Voltage Indication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28V DC
XFER-OFF-FILL Switch

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FILL

Fuse Valve Switch (if installed) . . . . . . . . . . . . CLOSED


At desired quantity indication (i.e., FULL light illuminated):
XFER-OFF-FILL Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Battery Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF

CAUTION: Monitor filling operation. If fuselage float


switch does not stop fuel transferring into the fuselage
tank, fuel overflows in to the wing vent system and out
through the wing vent air scoops. If this occurs, stop the
fueling operation and turn off the transfer and battery
switches. Drain the fuel vent sump until it is dry; ensure
the fuselage float switch is repaired.

CAUTION: Use reduced flow rates when refueling


through the fuselage filler; a high delivery rate causes
fuel to back up in the filler. When topping off the tank, the
flow rate should be 10 GPM or less. If the delivery system
cannot deliver fuel at a low enough rate, refuel through
the wing fillers.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

6-11

CAE SimuFlite
CAUTION: On aircraft without a properly bonded
tank, danger of explosion from static discharge exists. For
these aircraft, 400 lbs of fuel must be in the fuselage tank
prior to initiation of fuel flow. Refer to the manufacturers
Modification and Equipment index for applicability.

WARNING: To preclude possible fire or explosion caused


by static electricity or sparks, ground the following prior to
removing the filler cap: the fuel truck to the apron and the
nose gear uplatch spacer, the fuel nozzle to the filler, and
the jack.

Filling Aft Fuselage Tank (If Installed)


Battery Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
AFT FUS TANK XFR-FILL Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . FILL
The AFT FUS TANK FULL light illuminates when the tank is
full. Fuel transfers from the main fuselage tank into the aft
fuselage tank. If the main FUS TANK EMPTY light illuminates, fuel must be added to the main fuselage tank before
the aft tank can be completely filled.
AFT FUS TANK XFR-FILL Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Battery Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON

Refueling Through Fuselage Filler


Ground Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONNECT
Wing Filler Caps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALL
Protective Pads

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALL

Place protective pads over engine nacelle and fuselage


where fuel hose may contact aircraft.
6-12

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Servicing
BATTERY Switches

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON

CAUTION: Reduced fuel flow rate may be required to


avoid fuel spill or splash-back. If refuel rate cannot be controlled to 10 GPM (38 LPM) or less, use Filling Wing Tank
procedures for top-off.

Fueling Operation

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . START

Fuel Quantity Selector . . . . . . . . . . L WING OR R WING


Fuel Quantity Gage

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MONITOR

FUS TANK XFER-FILL Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XFR


FUS TANK AUX XFR Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . AUX XFR
When quantity gage indicates proper quantity:
Fuel Quantity Selector

. . . . . . . . . . OPPOSITE TANK

Fuel Quantity Gage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MONITOR


Fueling Operation . CONTINUE UNTIL BOTH TANKS FULL
FUS TANK XFER-FILL Switch
FUS TANK AUX XFR Switch

. . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF

NOTE: Fuel recirculates from the wing tanks to the fuselage


tank if fuselage transfer pumps are on and wings are full.
Fueling Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTINUE UNTIL
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .FUSELAGE TANK REFUELED
Fuselage Filler Cap
Ground Cables

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALL

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DISCONNECT

Fuselage Filler Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURE


FUS CAP Light

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF

Learjet 55

Developed for training purposes

March 2002

6-13

CAE SimuFlite
BATTERY Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Protective Pads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVE
CAUTION: On early aircraft without properly bonded
tank, ensure the fuselage tank contains at least 400 lbs of
fuel before adding fuel through the fuselage filler. See the
manufacturers Modification and Equipment Index.

Single-Point Refueling (If Installed)


Total Fill Procedure
Ground Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONNECT TO WINGS
Battery Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
S/N 55-127 and subsequent and modified aircraft:
Battery Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
NOTE: S/N 55-127 and subsequent and other
modified aircraft have a single-point pressure refueling
battery switch on the precheck panel.

Single-Point Panel Access Doors . . . . . . . . . . . . OPEN


Ground Cable

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONNECT

Fuel Adapter Cap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVE


Refueling Nozzle . . . . . CONNECT TO REFUEL ADAPTER
VENT OPEN/FUS FULL Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TEST
Depress each lens; the light illuminates.
WING and FUS PRECHECK VALVES
REFUEL Selector Switch
6-14

. . . . . . . . . OPEN

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TOTAL

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Servicing
Refuel Pressure

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APPLY

Fuel flows for 10 to 20 seconds and stops. The VENT OPEN


light illuminates and must remain illuminated as long as fuel
is flowing. The light may cycle once or twice as fuel begins to
flow.
CAUTION: If fuel flow does not stop or the VENT OPEN
light does not illuminate, do not use the single-point
refueling system.

Wing and FUS PRECHECK VALVES

. . . . . . . . CLOSED

The wing and fuselage tank fill simultaneously. Fuel flow terminates automatically before or when FUS FULL light illuminates.
CAUTION: If VENT OPEN light extinguishes during fueling operation or if fuel flow does not stop after FUS FULL
light illuminates, terminate operations immediately.

Refueling Nozzle Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLOSE


Ensure the VENT OPEN light is extinguished.
BATTERY Switches (if turned on) . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Refueling Nozzle

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVE

Refuel Adapter Cap


Ground Cables

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALL

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DISCONNECT

Single-Point Panel Access Doors

. . . . . . . . . . . CLOSE

Single-Point Refueling (If Installed)


Partial Fill Procedures
Ground Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONNECT TO WINGS
BATTERY Switches
Learjet 55
March 2002

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON

Developed for training purposes

6-15

CAE SimuFlite
S/N 55-127 and subsequent, and modified aircraft:
BATTERY Switches

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF

NOTE: S/N 55-127 and subsequent and other modified aircraft have a single-point pressure refueling
battery switch on the precheck panel.
Single-Point Panel Access Doors . . . . . . . . . . . . OPEN
Ground Cable

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONNECT

Fuel Adapter Cap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVE


Refueling Nozzle . . . . . CONNECT TO REFUEL ADAPTER
VENT OPEN/FUS FULL Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TEST
Depress each lens; the light illuminates.
WING and FUS PRECHECK VALVES
REFUEL Selector Switch
Refuel Pressure

. . . . . . . . . OPEN

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TOTAL

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APPLY

Fuel flows for 10 to 20 seconds and stops. The VENT OPEN


light illuminates and must remain illuminated as long as fuel
is flowing. The light may cycle once or twice as fuel begins to
flow.
CAUTION: If fuel flow does not stop or the VENT
OPEN light does not illuminate, do not use the singlepoint refueling system.

REFUEL Selector Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PARTIAL


This selection fills the wing tanks first, and then the fuselage
tanks.

6-16

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Servicing
Wing and FUS PRECHECK VALVES

. . . . . . . . CLOSED

CAUTION: If VENT OPEN light extinguishes during


fueling operation, terminate operations immediately.

When desired quantity obtained (refer to truck meter):


Refueling Nozzle Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLOSE
Ensure the VENT OPEN light is extinguished.
BATTERY Switches (if turned on) . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Refueling Nozzle

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVE

Refuel Adapter Cap


Ground Cables

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALL

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DISCONNECT

Single-Point Panel Access Doors

. . . . . . . . . . . CLOSE

Ground Power Unit


Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 to 33V DC
Amperage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500 TO 1,100A

Hydraulic System
Approved Fluid . . . . . . . . . . . MIL-H-5606 (RED FLUID)
Reservoir Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.9 GAL
Available to Engine-Driven Pumps . . . . . . . . . 1.5 GAL
Reserved for Auxiliary Pump

. . . . . . . . . . . . 0.4 GAL

Accumulator Preload:
Hydraulic System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 850 PSI
Minimum System Pressure

Learjet 55
March 2002

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 750 PSI

Developed for training purposes

6-17

CAE SimuFlite

Landing Gear
Struts
Do not service the landing gear struts with wheels on the ground.
Service with dry air or nitrogen and MIL-H-5606 hydraulic fluid.

Nose Strut
Extension (full fuel/no baggage,
passengers, or crew) . . . . . . . . . . 5.25 TO 5.75 INCHES
Static Deflection Limits . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 TO 8.16 INCHES
Limits vary according to takeoff weight.
Normal Inflation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 3 PSI

Main Struts
Extension (full fuel/no baggage,
passengers, or crew) . . . . . . . . . . . 3.0 TO 3.5 INCHES
Static Deflection Limits

. . . . . . . . . . 1.0 TO 7.5 INCHES

Limits vary according to takeoff weight.


Normal Inflation:
Not Certified for 21,500 Lb TOGW . . . . . . . 392 10 PSI
Certified for 21,500 Lb TOGW . . . . . . . . . 405 10 PSI

Emergency Gear/Brake Air Bottles


Service the gear/brake air bottles through charging valves on
the right side of the avionics nose compartment.
Type

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DRY AIR OR NITROGEN

Normal Pressure Range

6-18

. . . . . . . . . 1,800 TO 3,000 PSI

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Servicing

Tire Inflation
Nose Wheel (uploaded) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 5 PSI
Nose Wheel (loaded) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 5 PSI
Main Wheels Not Certified for 21,500 Lb TOGW:
Unloaded

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 5 PSI

Loaded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 5 PSI


Main Wheels Certified for 21,500 Lb TOGW:
Unloaded

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 5 PSI

Loaded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 5 PSI

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

6-19

CAE SimuFlite

Oil
Approved Oils
Mixing brands of the following approved Type II oils is permitted.

Aeroshell/Royco Turbine Oil 500 and 560

Castrol 5000

Exxon (Enco/Esso) Turbo Oil 2380

Mobil Jet Oil II

Mobil 254

Tank Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 GAL


Maximum Consumption . . . . . . . . 0.015 GPH (1qt/25 hrs)

Checking/Adding Oil
Check the oil shortly after engine shutdown; oil level remains
accurate for up to an hour. The engine should be static during
the oil check. If the reservoir is low, filter the oil as it is added.
Oil Access Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPEN
Filler Cap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVE
Right Engine Sight Gage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK
Left Engine Dipstick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK
Oil

. . . . . . . . . . . . ADD TO WITHIN ONE QT OF FULL

Use a 10-micron filter when adding oil.


Filler Cap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURE
Access Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURE
If oil quantity appears overfilled, motor the engine 10 seconds with the starter. Recheck. If the engine is cold and oil
level appears to be low, start the engine, bring it up to idle for
30 seconds, and recheck.
6-20

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
September 2003

Servicing

Oxygen
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MIL-0-27210,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TYPE A BREATHING OXYGEN
Normal Pressure Range
Purge Required

. . . . . . . . . 1,550 TO 1,850 PSI

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 PSI

Windshield Anti-Ice Fluid


Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MIL-0-M-232,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .GRADE A METHYL ALCOHOL
Reservoir Capacity

Learjet 55
March 2002

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.35 GAL

Developed for training purposes

6-21

CAE SimuFlite

6-22

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Emergency Information
Table of Contents
The ABCs of Emergency CPR

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3

Heart Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4


Choking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
Emergency Equipment Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
Emergency Exits

Learjet 55
March 2002

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7

Developed for training purposes

7-1

CAE SimuFlite

Airway

Breathing

Circulation
Reproduced with permission. MedAire, Inc.

7-2

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Emergency Information

The ABCs of Emergency CPR


Establish victims unresponsiveness.
Gently shake victim and shout, Are you all right?

AIRWAY

Open airway: lift chin, tilt head. (With neck injury, lift chin but
do not tilt head.)

Look for chest movement.

Listen for sound of breathing.

Feel for breath on your cheek.

BREATHING

Head tilt position pinch victims nose shut while lifting chin
with your other hand.

Give two full breaths while maintaining airtight seal with your
mouth over victims mouth.
Note: A pocket mask can be used instead, but proper head
position and air-tight seal must be maintained.

CIRCULATION

Locate carotid artery pulse; hold 10 seconds. If no pulse:

Begin external chest compressions by locating hand position


two fingers above notch and placing heal of hand on breastbone.

Perform 15 compressions of 11/2 to 2 inches at a rate of 80


to 100 compressions per minute. (Count, One and two and
three and , etc.) Come up smoothly, keeping hand contact
with victims chest at all times.

Repeat the cycle of two breaths, 15 compressions until victims


pulse and breathing return. If only the pulse is present, continue rescue breathing until medical assistance is available.

Reproduced with permission. MedAire, Inc.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

7-3

CAE SimuFlite

Heart Attack
Signals

Pressure, squeezing, fullness, or pain in center of chest


behind breastbone.

Sweating

Nausea

Shortness of breath

Feeling of weakness

Actions for Survival

Recognize signals

Stop activity and lie or sit down

Provide oxygen if available

If signals persist greater than two minutes, get victim to


medical assistance

Reproduced with permission. MedAire, Inc.

7-4

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Emergency Information

Choking
If victim can cough or speak:

encourage continued coughing

provide oxygen if available.

If victim cannot cough or speak

perform Heimlich maneuver (abdominal thrusts):


1. stand behind victim; wrap arms around victims waist
2. place fist of one hand (knuckles up) in upper abdomen*
3. grasp fist with opposite hand
4. press fist into upper abdomen* with quick, inward and
upward thrusts
5. perform maneuver until foreign body is expelled

provide supplemental oxygen if available.


*If victim is pregnant or obese, perform chest thrusts instead
of abdominal thrusts.

Reproduced with permission. MedAire, Inc.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

7-5

CAE SimuFlite

Emergency Equipment Record


Emergency
Equipment

Location

Date Last
Serviced

First Aid Kit


Fire Extinguisher(s)

Fire Axe
Life Raft
Life Vests

Seat pockets

Therapeutic
Oxygen
Overwater
Survival Kit
Other:

7-6

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Emergency Information

Emergency Exits
The plug-type emergency exit opens inward for quick egress.

To open an emergency exit from outside the aircraft, push


the release plate above the window. The window unlocks and
falls into the cabin.

To open an emergency exit from inside the aircraft, pull the


red release handle above the window. The window unlocks
and falls into the cabin. A fabric handle facilitates evacuation.

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

7-7

CAE SimuFlite

7-8

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Conversion Tables
Table of Contents
Distance Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
Meters/Feet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
Statute Miles/Kilometers/Nautical Miles

. . . . . . . . . . 8-4

Kilometers/Nautical Miles/Statute Miles

. . . . . . . . . . 8-5

Weight Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6


Fuel Weight to Volume Conversion

. . . . . . . . . . . 8-7

Volume Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8


Temperature Conversion

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9

International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) . . . . . . . 8-10


Altimeter Setting Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11
Cabin Altitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

8-1

CAE SimuFlite

8-2

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Conversion Tables

Distance Conversion
Meters/Feet
Meters
.3048
.61
.91
1.22
1.52
1.83
2.13
2.44
2.74
3.1
6.1
9.1
12.2
15.2
18.3
21.3
24.4
27.4
31
61
91
122
152
183
213
244
274
305

Learjet 55
March 2002

Feet

Meters

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000

Feet
3.2908
6.58
9.87
13.16
16.45
19.74
23.04
26.33
29.62
32.9
65.8
98.7
131.6
165.5
197.4
230.4
263.3
296.2
329
658
987
1316
1645
1974
2304
2633
2962
3291

Developed for training purposes

8-3

CAE SimuFlite
Statute Miles/Kilometers/Nautical Miles

8-4

Statute Miles

Kilometers

Nautical Miles

.62137
1.24
1.86
2.49
3.11
3.73
4.35
4.97
5.59
6.21
12.43
18.64
24.85
31.07
37.28
43.50
49.71
55.92
62.14
124.27
186.41
248.55
310.69
372.82
434.96
497.10
559.23
621.37

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000

.53996
1.08
1.62
2.16
2.70
3.24
3.78
4.32
4.86
5.40
10.80
16.20
21.60
27.00
32.40
37.80
43.20
48.60
54.00
107.99
161.99
215.98
269.98
323.98
377.97
431.97
485.96
539.96

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Conversion Tables
Kilometers/Nautical Miles/Statute Miles
Kilometers
1.8520
3.70
5.56
7.41
9.26
11.11
12.96
14.82
16.67
18.52
37.04
55.56
74.08
92.60
111.12
129.64
148.16
166.68
185.20
370.40
555.60
740.80
926.00
1111.20
1296.40
1481.60
1666.80
1852.00

Learjet 55
March 2002

Nautical Miles
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000

Statute Miles
1.1508
2.30
3.45
4.60
5.75
6.90
8.06
9.21
10.36
11.51
23.02
34.52
46.03
57.54
69.05
80.56
92.06
103.57
115.08
230.16
345.24
460.32
575.40
690.48
805.56
920.64
1035.72
1150.80

Developed for training purposes

8-5

CAE SimuFlite

Weight Conversion
Lbs/Kilograms
Lbs
2.2046
4.40
6.61
8.82
11.02
13.23
15.43
17.64
19.84
22.0
44.1
66.1
88.2
110.2
132.3
154.3
176.4
198.4
220
441
661
882
1102
1323
1543
1764
1984
2205

8-6

Kgs

Lbs

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000

Developed for training purposes

Kgs
.4536
.91
1.36
1.81
2.27
2.72
3.18
3.63
4.08
4.5
9.1
13.6
18.1
22.7
27.2
31.8
36.3
40.8
45
91
136
181
227
272
318
363
408
454

Learjet 55
March 2002

Conversion Tables

Fuel Weight to Volume Conversion


U.S. Gal/Lbs; Liter/Lbs; Liter/Kg
TURBINE FUEL Volume/Weight
(up to 5 lbs variation per 100 gallons due to fuel grade and temperature)
U.S.
Gal

U.S.
Lbs Gal

Lbs

Ltr

Lbs Ltr

Lbs

Ltr

Kg Ltr

Kg

.15

6.7

.57

1.8

1.25

.8

.30

13.4

1.14

3.6

2.50

1.6

.45

20.1

1.71

5.4

3.75

2.4

.60

26.8

2.28

7.2

5.00

3.2

.75

33.5

2.85

9.0

6.25

4.0

.90

40.2

3.42

10.8

7.50

4.8

1.05

46.9

3.99

12.6

8.75

5.6

1.20

53.6

4.56

14.4

10.00

6.4

1.35

60.3

5.13

16.2

11.25

7.2

1.5

10

67

5.7

10

18

12.5

10

3.0

20

134

11.4

20

36

25.0

20

16

4.5

30

201

17.1

30

54

37.5

30

24

6.0

40

268

22.8

40

72

50.0

40

32

7.5

50

335

28.5

50

90

62.5

50

40

9.0

60

402

34.2

60

108

75.0

60

48

10.5

70

469

39.9

70

126

87.5

70

56

12.0

80

536

45.6

80

144

100.0

80

64

90

162

113.5

90

72

100

180

125

100

80

13.5

90

603

51.3

15

100

670

57

30

200

1340

114

200

360

250

200

160

45

300

2010

171

300

540

375

300

240

60

400

2680

228

400

720

500

400

320

75

500

3350

285

500

900

625

500

400

90

600

4020

342

600

1080

750

600

480

105

700

4690

399

700

1260

875

700

560

120

800

5360

456

800

1440

1000

800

640

135

900

6030

513

900

1620

1125

900

720

150

1000

6700

570

1000

1800

1250

1000

800

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

8-7

CAE SimuFlite

Volume Conversion
Imp Gal/U.S. Gal; U.S. Gal/Ltr; Imp Gal/Ltr
Imp
Gal

U.S. Imp
Gal Gal

U.S.
Gal

U.S.
Gal

Imp
Ltr Gal

Ltr

.83267
1.67

1
2

1
2

4.5460
9.09

2.49

3.60

.79

11.35

0.66

13.64

3.33

4.80

1.06

4.16

6.01

1.32

15.14

0.88

18.18

18.92

1.10

23.73

5.00

7.21

1.59

5.83

8.41

1.85

22.71

1.32

27.28

26.50

1.54

31.82

6.66

9.61

2.11

30.28

1.76

36.37

7.49

10.81

8.3

10

12.0

2.38

34.07

1.98

40.91

2.6

10

37.9

2.2

10

45.6

16.7

20

24.9

30

24.0

5.3

20

75.7

4.4

20

91.0

36.0

7.9

30

113.5

6.6

30

136.4

33.3
41.6

40

48.0

10.6

40

151.4

8.8

40

181.8

50

60.1

13.2

50

189.2

11.0

50

227.3

50.0

60

72.1

15.9

60

227.1

13.2

60

272.8

58.3

70

84.1

18.5

70

265.0

15.4

70

318.2

66.6

80

96.1

21.1

80

302.8

17.6

80

363.7

74.9

90

108.1

23.8

90

340.7

19.8

90

409.1

1.2010 .26418
2.40
.52

Ltr

U.S.
Gal
1
2

Ltr

Imp
Gal

3.7853 .21997
7.57
0.44

83

100

120

26.4

100

379

22

100

455

167

200

240

53

200

757

44

200

909

249

300

360

79

300

1136

66

300

1364

333

400

480

106

400

1514

88

400

1818

416

500

601

132

500

1893

110

500

2273

500

600

721

159

600

2271

132

600

2728

583

700

841

185

700

2650

154

700

3182

666

800

961

211

800

3028

176

800

3637

749

900

1081

238

900

3407

198

900

4091

833

1000

1201

264

1000

3785

220

1000

4546

8-8

Developed for training purposes

Learjet 55
March 2002

Conversion Tables

Temperature Conversion
Celsius/Fahrenheit
C
-54
-53
-52
-51
-50
-49
-48
-47
-46
-45
-44
-43
-42
-41
-40
-39
-38
-37
-36
-35
-34
-33

F
-65
-63
-62
-60
-58
-56
-54
-53
-51
-49
-47
-45
-44
-42
-40
-38
-36
-35
-33
-31
-29
-27

Learjet 55
March 2002

C
-32
-31
-30
-29
-28
-27
-26
-25
-24
-23
-22

F
-26
-24
-22
-20
-18
-17
-15
-13
-11
- 9
- 8

-21
-20
-19
-18
-17
-16
-15
-14
-13
-12
-11

- 6
- 4
- 2
0
1
- 3
- 5
- 7
- 9
-10
-12

C
-10
- 9

F
14
16

- 8
- 7
- 6

18
19
21

23
25
27
28
30
32
34
36
37
39
41
43
45
46
48
50
52

5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

C
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33

F
54
55
57
59
61
63
64
66
68
70
72
73
75
77
79
81
82
84
86
88
90
91

Developed for training purposes

34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55

93
95
97
99
100
102
104
106
108
109
111
113
115
117
118
120
122
124
126
127
129
131

8-9

CAE SimuFlite

International Standard
Atmosphere (ISA)
Altitude/Temperature
Altitude
(ft)

ISA
(C)

Altitude
(ft)

S.L.
1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
10,000

15.0
13.0
11.0
9.1
7.1
5.1
3.1
1.1
-0.8
-2.8
-4.8

11,000
12,000
13,000
14,000
15,000
16,000
17,000
18,000
19,000
20,000
21,000

8-10

ISA
(C)

Altitude
(ft)

ISA
(C)

-6.8
-8.8
-10.7
-12.7
-14.7
-16.7
-18.7
-20.6
-22.6
-24.6
-26.6

22,000
23,000
24,000
25,000
26,000
27,000
28,000
29,000
30,000
31,000
32,000

-28.5
-30.5
-32.5
-34.5
-36.5
-38.4
-40.4
-42.4
-44.4
-46.3
-48.3

Developed for training purposes

Altitude
(ft)
33,000
34,000
35,000
36,000
37,000
38,000
39,000
40,000
41,000
42,000
43,000

ISA
(C)
-50.3
-52.3
-54.2
-56.2
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5

Learjet 55
March 2002

Conversion Tables

Altimeter Setting Conversion


Hectopascals or Millibars/Inches of Mercury
1 hectopascal = 1 millibar = 0.02953 inch of mercury
Hectopascals
or Millibars

880
890
900
910

25.99
26.28
26.58
26.87

26.02
26.31
26.61
26.90

26.05
26.34
26.64
26.93

26.07
26.37
26.67
26.96

26.10
26.40
26.70
26.99

26.13
26.43
26.72
27.02

26.16
26.46
26.75
27.05

26.19
26.49
26.78
27.08

26.22
26.52
26.81
27.11

26.25
26.55
26.84
27.14

920
930

27.17
27.46

27.20
27.49

27.23
27.52

27.26
27.55

27.29
27.58

27.32
27.61

27.34
27.64

27.37
27.67

27.40
27.70

27.43
27.73

940
950

27.76
28.05

27.79
28.08

27.82
28.11

27.85
28.14

27.88
28.17

27.91
28.20

27.94
28.23

27.96
28.26

27.99
28.29

28.02
28.32

960
970

28.35
28.64

28.38
28.67

28.41
28.70

28.44
28.73

28.47
28.76

28.50
28.79

28.53
28.82

28.56
28.85

28.58
28.88

28.61
28.91

980
990

28.94
29.23

28.97
29.26

29.00
29.29

29.03
29.32

29.06
29.35

29.09
29.38

29.12
29.41

29.15
29.44

29.18
29.47

29.21
29.50

1000
1010

29.53
29.83

29.56
29.85

29.59
29.88

29.62
29.91

29.65
29.94

29.68
29.97

29.71
30.00

29.74
30.03

29.77
30.06

29.80
30.09

1020
1030

30.12
30.42

30.15
30.45

30.18
30.47

30.21
30.50

30.24
30.53

30.27
30.56

30.30
30.59

30.33
30.62

30.36
30.65

30.39
30.68

1040
1050

30.71
31.01

30.74
31.04

30.77
31.07

30.80
31.10

30.83
31.12

30.86
31.15

30.89
31.18

30.92
31.21

30.95
31.24

30.98
31.27

Learjet 55
March 2002

Developed for training purposes

4
5
Inches of Mercury

8-11

8-12

0
10

SURE

PRES

URE

ESS

DEL
TA P
R

= 6.0

PSI

.0 PS
I

SI

= 2.0 P

DELT
A PR
ESSU
RE =
4

DELTA

DEL
TA
PRE
LTA
SSU
PR
ESS
RE
=8
UR
.0 P
E=
DE
SI
LTA
8.5
5
PSI
PR
ES
SU
RE
=9
.45
PS
I

DE

DELTA
PRESS
URE =
0.0

PSI

CABIN ALTITUDE 1000 FT

CAE SimuFlite

Cabin Altitude
8

7
CABIN ALTITUDE = 6500 FT

0
30
20
AIRCRAFT ALTITUDE 1000 FT

Developed for training purposes

40
50

March 2002

Learjet 55