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FM 3-20.

21
MCWP 3-12.2

Heavy Brigade Combat Team (HBCT) Gunnery

September 2009

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION. Distribution authorized to US Government agencies and


their contractors only to protect technical or operational information that is for official
government use. This determination was made on 5 January 2007. Other requests for this
document must be referred to Director, Directorate of Training, Doctrine, Combat
Development, and Experimentation (DTDCD-E), ATTN: ATZK-TDD-G, 204 1st Cavalry
Regiment Road Ste 216, U.S. Army Armor Center, Fort Knox, KY 40121-5123.
DESTRUCTION NOTICE. Destroy by any method that prevents disclosure of contents or
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Headquarters, Department of the Army

This publication is available at


Army Knowledge Online (www.us.army.mil) and
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Digital Library at (www.train.army.mil).

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2, C1
Change 1

Headquarters
Department of the Army
Washington, DC, 31 May 2010

Heavy Brigade Combat Team (HBCT) Gunnery


1. Change FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2, 3 September 2009, as follows:
Remove old pages:
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DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Distribution authorized to US Government agencies and their
contractors only to protect technical or operational information that is for official government use. This
determination was made on 5 January 2007. Other requests for this document must be referred to
Director, Directorate of Training, Doctrine, Combat Development, and Experimentation (DTDCD-E),
ATTN: ATZK-TDD-G, 204 1st Cavalry Regiment Road Ste 216, U.S. Army Armor Center, Fort Knox,
KY 40121-5123.
DESTRUCTION NOTICE: Destroy by any method that prevents disclosure of contents or
reconstruction of the document.

By Order of the Secretary of the Army:


GEORGE W. CASEY, JR.
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Official:

JOYCE E. MORROW
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
1013106
DISTRIBUTION: Active Army, Army National Guard, and U.S. Army Reserve: To be distributed in
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*FM 3-20.21
Headquarters
Department of the Army
Washington, DC

Field Manual
No. 3-20.21
Marine Corps Warfighting Publication
No. 3-12.2

Headquarters
Marine Corps Development Command
Department of the Navy
Headquarters
United States Marine Corps
Washington, DC
3 September 2009

Heavy Brigade Combat Team (HBCT) Gunnery


Contents
Page

PREFACE ..........................................................................................................xxx
Chapter 1

Introduction ....................................................................................................... 1-1


Section I Purpose .......................................................................................... 1-1
Section II Scope ............................................................................................. 1-2
Section III General Changes ......................................................................... 1-2
Chapters ............................................................................................................. 1-3
Appendices ......................................................................................................... 1-7

Chapter 2

Platform Systems Characteristics .................................................................. 2-1


Section I Abrams Systems ........................................................................... 2-1
M1A1 Model ....................................................................................................... 2-2
M1A1 AIM Model ................................................................................................ 2-2
M1A1 AIM SA Model .......................................................................................... 2-4
M1A2 SEP Model ............................................................................................... 2-5
M1A2 SEP V2 (Version 2) Model ....................................................................... 2-7

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION. Distribution authorized to US Government agencies and


their contractors only to protect technical or operational information that is for official
government use. This determination was made on 5 January 2007. Other requests for this
document must be referred to Director, Directorate of Training, Doctrine, Combat
Development, and Experimentation (DTDCD-E), ATTN: ATZK-TDD-G, 204 1st Cavalry
Regiment Road Ste 216, U.S. Army Armor Center, Fort Knox, KY 40121-5123.
DESTRUCTION NOTICE. Destroy by any method that prevents disclosure of contents or
reconstruction of the document.
*This publication supersedes FM 3-20.8, Scout Gunnery, 15 August 2005; FM 3-20.12, Tank
Gunnery (Abrams), 15 August 2005; FM 3-22.1 Bradley Gunnery, 28 November 2003; and
FM 17-12-7, Tank Gunnery Devices and Usage Strategies, 1 May 2000.
i

Contents

Section II Bradley Fighting Vehicle Systems .............................................. 2-9


M2A2 and M3A2 Models................................................................................... 2-10
M2A2 ODS and M3A2 ODS Models ................................................................. 2-10
M2A3 and M3A3 Models................................................................................... 2-11
M7 Bradley Fire Support Team ......................................................................... 2-14
Section III Guardian Armored Security Vehicle (M1117) .......................... 2-14
Section IV Armed HMMWV Systems .......................................................... 2-16
M1025A2/M1026A1 Armed HMMWV Model .................................................... 2-16
M1114 Up-Armored Armed HMMWV Model .................................................... 2-17
M1151 Enhanced Up-Armored Armed HMMWV Model ................................... 2-17
Section V M1064A3 Self-Propelled 120-mm Mortar Carrier ..................... 2-18
Chapter 3

Platform Weapon Systems Capabilities ......................................................... 3-1


Section I Automatic Machine Guns .............................................................. 3-1
M231 5.56-mm Firing Port Weapon .................................................................... 3-1
M249 Squad Automatic Weapon ........................................................................ 3-2
M240 Machine Gun Series ................................................................................. 3-4
M2 HB Caliber .50 Machine Gun ........................................................................ 3-6
MK19 MOD3 40-mm Grenade Machine Gun ..................................................... 3-7
Section II M242 25-mm Automatic Gun ....................................................... 3-8
M242 25-mm Automatic Gun .............................................................................. 3-8
Enhanced 25-mm Gun ........................................................................................ 3-9
Section III M256 120-mm Smoothbore Cannon ........................................... 3-9
Functional Components of the Gun Tube and Breech ..................................... 3-10
Components of the Recoil System ................................................................... 3-12
Section IV M121 120-mm Mortar ................................................................. 3-12
Section V Smoke Grenade Launchers ....................................................... 3-14
M250 Smoke Grenade Launcher ...................................................................... 3-14
M257 Smoke Grenade Launcher ...................................................................... 3-14
Section VI TOW ............................................................................................ 3-16

Chapter 4

Ammunition ....................................................................................................... 4-1


Section I Ammunition Terminology ............................................................. 4-2
Markings and Symbols........................................................................................ 4-2
Ammunition Lot Numbers ................................................................................... 4-4
Department of Defense Codes ........................................................................... 4-6
Color Coding ....................................................................................................... 4-8
Section II Machine Gun Ammunition ......................................................... 4-10
Packaging ......................................................................................................... 4-10
M249 5.56-mm Machine Gun Ammunition ....................................................... 4-12
M240 7.62-mm Machine Gun Ammunition ....................................................... 4-15
M2 HB Caliber .50 Machine Gun Ammunition .................................................. 4-17
Section III 25-mm Bradley Fighting Vehicle Ammunition ........................ 4-20
Classification ..................................................................................................... 4-20
Identification ...................................................................................................... 4-20
Service Ammunition .......................................................................................... 4-21
Target Practice Ammunition.............................................................................. 4-29

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3 September 2009

Contents

Safety Information ............................................................................................ 4-31


Section IV MK19 Mod 3, 40-mm Grenade Machine Gun .......................... 4-32
Service Ammunition.......................................................................................... 4-34
Training Ammunition......................................................................................... 4-35
Section V 120-mm Abrams Tank Ammunition ......................................... 4-38
Classification .................................................................................................... 4-39
Identification ..................................................................................................... 4-39
Service Ammunition.......................................................................................... 4-42
Target Practice Ammunition ............................................................................. 4-51
Safety Information ............................................................................................ 4-53
Section VI Mortar Ammunition ................................................................... 4-58
Classification .................................................................................................... 4-58
Authorized Cartridges ....................................................................................... 4-58
Service Ammunition.......................................................................................... 4-59
Target Practice Ammunition ............................................................................. 4-62
Fuzes ................................................................................................................ 4-63
Mortar Safety Information ................................................................................. 4-67
Section VII Smoke Grenades...................................................................... 4-68
Section VIII Missiles .................................................................................... 4-72
TOW Missile Ammunition ................................................................................. 4-72
Javelin Antitank Guided Missile........................................................................ 4-93
Safety Information ............................................................................................ 4-97
Section IX Planning Considerations.......................................................... 4-98
Section X Safety ........................................................................................ 4-103
Chapter 5

Detect ................................................................................................................. 5-1


Section I Engagement Process .................................................................... 5-1
Section II Detect............................................................................................. 5-2
Crew Search ....................................................................................................... 5-2
Sectors of Responsibility .................................................................................... 5-3
Target Detection ................................................................................................. 5-5
Target Location................................................................................................... 5-7
Search Techniques ............................................................................................ 5-9
Ground and Air Search Tips ............................................................................. 5-15

Chapter 6

Identify ............................................................................................................... 6-1


Section I Classification ................................................................................. 6-1
Section II Identification ................................................................................. 6-2
Ground Vehicle ................................................................................................... 6-2
Aircraft Vehicle Identification .............................................................................. 6-9
Section III Discrimination ........................................................................... 6-13
Discrimination Definitions ................................................................................. 6-13
Joint Combat Identification Marking Systems .................................................. 6-13

Chapter 7

Decide ................................................................................................................ 7-1


Section I Target Determination .................................................................... 7-1
Threat Levels ...................................................................................................... 7-2

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FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

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Contents

Target Prioritization ............................................................................................. 7-2


Weapon/Ammunition Selection ........................................................................... 7-3
Target Confirmation ............................................................................................ 7-4
Section II Immediate Range Determination ................................................. 7-5
Immediate Determination .................................................................................... 7-5
Laser Range Finder ............................................................................................ 7-5
Section III Deliberate Range Determination .............................................. 7-11
Mil Relationship Method.................................................................................... 7-11
Maps/Digital Maps Method ............................................................................... 7-17
Chapter 8

Engage Direct and Indirect Fires (Crew) ..................................................... 8-1


Section I Battlecarry ...................................................................................... 8-2
Prepare for Contact ............................................................................................. 8-2
Section II Fire Commands ............................................................................. 8-8
Fire Commands Categories .............................................................................. 8-17
Fire Command Terms ....................................................................................... 8-22
Subsequent Fire Commands ............................................................................ 8-26
Multiple Engagements ...................................................................................... 8-29
Section III Engagement Techniques .......................................................... 8-32
Employing Vehicle Machine Guns .................................................................... 8-33
Engage Soft Targets ......................................................................................... 8-33
Section IV Sample Fire Commands ........................................................... 8-43
Section V Indirect Fire ................................................................................. 8-65
Call for Fire........................................................................................................ 8-65
Adjusting Fires .................................................................................................. 8-74

Chapter 9

Engage Collective .......................................................................................... 9-1


Section I Section, Platoon, and Company Fire Control ............................. 9-2
Principles of Fire Control..................................................................................... 9-2
Fire Control Measures ........................................................................................ 9-3
Section II Direct Fire Planning and Execution .......................................... 9-13
Direct Fire Planning .......................................................................................... 9-13
Company/Platoon/Section Fire Commands...................................................... 9-14
Section III Indirect Fire Planning and Execution ...................................... 9-18
Indirect Fire Planning ........................................................................................ 9-18
Indirect Fire Team ............................................................................................. 9-19
Fire Planning ..................................................................................................... 9-19
Fire Support Planning for Offensive Operations ............................................... 9-20
Fire Support Planning for Defensive Operations .............................................. 9-21
Target Attack ..................................................................................................... 9-26

Chapter 10

Assess.............................................................................................................. 10-1
Section I Engagement Termination ............................................................ 10-2
Section II Engagement Assessment .......................................................... 10-2
Direct Fire Engagement Assessment ............................................................... 10-2
Indirect Fire Engagement Assessment ............................................................. 10-3
Section III Reports ....................................................................................... 10-4

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FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Contents

Chapter 11

Training Devices ............................................................................................. 11-1


Section I TADSS Overview ......................................................................... 11-1
Section II Common TADSS ......................................................................... 11-3
Training Aids ..................................................................................................... 11-3
Devices ............................................................................................................. 11-8
Simulators and Simulations .............................................................................. 11-9
Section III Abrams TADSS ........................................................................ 11-16
Training Aids ................................................................................................... 11-16
Devices ........................................................................................................... 11-19
Simulators and Simulations ............................................................................ 11-20
Section IV Bradley TADSS ........................................................................ 11-23
Training Aids ................................................................................................... 11-23
Devices ........................................................................................................... 11-25
Simulators and Simulations ............................................................................ 11-26
Section V Armed HMMWV TADSS ........................................................... 11-29
Training Aids ................................................................................................... 11-29
Simulators and Simulations ............................................................................ 11-31

Chapter 12

Gunnery Training Program ............................................................................ 12-1


Section I Training Assessment .................................................................. 12-2
Essential Warfighting Skills .............................................................................. 12-2
Battle Focus ...................................................................................................... 12-2
Mission-Essential Task List .............................................................................. 12-3
Commanders Assessment .............................................................................. 12-3
Section II Training Strategy ........................................................................ 12-4
Gunnery Tables ................................................................................................ 12-4
Individual Gunnery Phase ................................................................................ 12-5
Crew Gunnery Phase ....................................................................................... 12-7
Collective Gunnery Phase ................................................................................ 12-8
Cross-Training Strategy ................................................................................... 12-9
Integrated Training Strategy ............................................................................. 12-9
Section III Commanders Guidance ......................................................... 12-17
Training Goals ................................................................................................ 12-17
Training Requirements ................................................................................... 12-17
Section IV Training Plans ......................................................................... 12-18
Gunnery Training ............................................................................................ 12-18
Long-Range Training Plans............................................................................ 12-20
Short-Range Training Plans ........................................................................... 12-21
Near-Term Training Plans .............................................................................. 12-22

Chapter 13

Range Operations........................................................................................... 13-1


Section I Planning Range Operations ....................................................... 13-1
Planning Gunnery Exercises ............................................................................ 13-1
Commanders Intent ......................................................................................... 13-2
Developing Scenarios for Collective Gunnery Tables .................................... 13-15
Planning for Range Operations ...................................................................... 13-20
Section II Conducting Range Operations ............................................... 13-24

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

Contents

Opening the Range and Occupying the Training Site .................................... 13-24
During the Exercise ......................................................................................... 13-25
Closing the Range .......................................................................................... 13-25
Administration and Emergency Directions ...................................................... 13-26
Section III Digital Range Set Up................................................................ 13-27
Data Sets ........................................................................................................ 13-27
Range Overlay ................................................................................................ 13-27
Digital Base Station ......................................................................................... 13-28
Rehearsal ........................................................................................................ 13-28
Icon Management ........................................................................................... 13-28
Chapter 14

Individual and Crew Live-Fire Prerequisite Training ................................... 14-1


Section I Gunnery Skills Test ..................................................................... 14-1
Requirements .................................................................................................... 14-1
Safety Precautions ............................................................................................ 14-2
Evaluation Procedures ...................................................................................... 14-2
Planning Considerations ................................................................................... 14-3
Conduct of the Gunnery Skills Test .................................................................. 14-5
Test Stations ..................................................................................................... 14-6
Section II Gunnery Table I Crew Critical Skills Test ............................ 14-10
Requirements .................................................................................................. 14-10
Safety Precautions .......................................................................................... 14-10
Evaluation Procedures .................................................................................... 14-10
Planning Considerations ................................................................................. 14-12
Conduct of Gunnery Table I ............................................................................ 14-13
Test Stations ................................................................................................... 14-13

Chapter 15

Crew Evaluation .............................................................................................. 15-1


Section I Vehicle Crew Evaluators ............................................................. 15-2
Evaluator Team Composition............................................................................ 15-2
Evaluator Roles and Prerequisites ................................................................... 15-3
Duties ................................................................................................................ 15-4
Vehicle Crew Evaluators Certification............................................................... 15-5
Section II Engagement Task, Conditions, and Standards ....................... 15-6
Evaluation Terms and Concepts ....................................................................... 15-6
Section III Firing Occasion and Timing Events....................................... 15-10
Target Exposure Time .................................................................................... 15-10
Vehicle Exposure Time ................................................................................... 15-11
Offensive, Short Halt, or Retrograde Engagements ....................................... 15-11
Defensive Engagements ................................................................................. 15-12
Exposure Break Times.................................................................................... 15-14
Section IV Evaluating the Crews Duties ................................................. 15-19
Immediate DisqualificationExtremely Hazardous Conduct ......................... 15-19
Automatic Zero-Point PenaltyCritical Crew TasksNot Adhering to Task,
Conditions, and Standards.............................................................................. 15-19
30-Point PenaltySafety/Personnel Protection ............................................. 15-20
5-Point PenaltyLeader or Fundamental Crew Tasks .................................. 15-20

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3 September 2009

Contents

Section V Common Crew Scoresheet ..................................................... 15-22


Section VI Crew Qualification Standards................................................ 15-26
Individual Gunnery Phase .............................................................................. 15-26
Crew Gunnery Phase ..................................................................................... 15-26
Qualification Re-Fires ..................................................................................... 15-26
Section VII Call For Engagements ....................................................... 15-27
Section VIII After Action Reviews ............................................................ 15-27
Planning the AARs ......................................................................................... 15-27
Preparing for the AARs .................................................................................. 15-28
Conducting the AARs ..................................................................................... 15-28
Matrix Examples ............................................................................................. 15-29
Chapter 16

Stabilized Platform Gunnery ......................................................................... 16-1


Section I Requirements .............................................................................. 16-1
Gunnery Tables ................................................................................................ 16-1
Prerequisites..................................................................................................... 16-3
Engagement Tasks........................................................................................... 16-4
Minimum Proficiency Levels ............................................................................. 16-7
Digital Gunnery ................................................................................................. 16-9
Scenario Requirements .................................................................................... 16-9
Developing Scenarios for Crew Gunnery Tables ............................................. 16-9
Section II Gunnery Instruction and Live-Fire Prerequisites.................. 16-10
Common Instruction ....................................................................................... 16-10
Gunnery Table I .............................................................................................. 16-12
Gunnery Table II, Crew Practice Course ....................................................... 16-13
Section III Crew Gunnery .......................................................................... 16-15
Gunnery Table III, Basic Machine Gun .......................................................... 16-15
Gunnery Table IV, Basic Main Gun ................................................................ 16-17
Gunnery Table III/IV, Basic Machine Gun and Main Gun (GT 34)................. 16-19
Gunnery Table V, Crew Practice .................................................................... 16-21
Gunnery Table VI, Crew Qualification ............................................................ 16-23
Crew Ratings .................................................................................................. 16-23
Section IV Example Gunnery Table VI..................................................... 16-25

Chapter 17

Unstabilized Platform Gunnery ..................................................................... 17-1


Section I Gunnery Training Program......................................................... 17-2
Section II Requirements ............................................................................. 17-3
Prerequisites..................................................................................................... 17-3
Minimum Proficiency Levels ............................................................................. 17-3
Digital Gunnery ................................................................................................. 17-5
Scenario Requirements .................................................................................... 17-5
Developing Scenarios for Crew Gunnery Tables ............................................. 17-6
Section III Unstabilized Platform Gunnery ................................................ 17-9
Common Instruction ......................................................................................... 17-9
Gunnery Table I, Critical Crew Skills .............................................................. 17-11
Gunnery Table II, CPC ................................................................................... 17-13
Section IV Crew Gunnery ......................................................................... 17-15

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FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

vii

Contents

Gunnery Table III, Basic Machine Gun ........................................................... 17-15


Gunnery Table IV, Extended Range Machine Gun ........................................ 17-18
Gunnery Table V, Basic Crew Practice .......................................................... 17-21
Gunnery Table VI, Crew Qualification Course ................................................ 17-24
Chapter 18

Collective Gunnery ......................................................................................... 18-1


Section I Evaluation ..................................................................................... 18-1
Concept ............................................................................................................. 18-1
Collective Task Scoring Model ......................................................................... 18-2
Evaluation Team ............................................................................................... 18-6
General Requirements ...................................................................................... 18-6
Minimum Proficiency Levels ............................................................................. 18-9
Digital Requirements......................................................................................... 18-9
Call for Fire Requirements ................................................................................ 18-9
Prerequisites ................................................................................................... 18-10
Section II Section Gunnery ....................................................................... 18-11
Table VIISection Proficiency Exercise .......................................................... 18-11
Table VIIISection Practice............................................................................. 18-12
Table IXSection Qualification ........................................................................ 18-13
Section III Platoon Gunnery ...................................................................... 18-15
Table XPlatoon Proficiency Exercise ............................................................ 18-15
Table XIPlatoon Practice .............................................................................. 18-16
Table XIIPlatoon Qualification....................................................................... 18-17

Chapter 19

Combined Arms Live-Fire Exercise .............................................................. 19-1


Section I Conduct of the Combined Arms Live-Fire Exercise................. 19-1
Concept ............................................................................................................. 19-1
Prerequisites ..................................................................................................... 19-2
Training Philosophy .......................................................................................... 19-2
Section II Planning Guidelines ................................................................... 19-2
Weapon System Considerations ...................................................................... 19-3
Personnel Requirements ................................................................................ 19-11
Section III Training ..................................................................................... 19-12
Progressive Training ....................................................................................... 19-12
Key Personnel Training ................................................................................... 19-13
Observer/Controller and Evaluator Preparation ............................................. 19-13
Section IV Execution ................................................................................. 19-13
Phase One Pre-Live-Fire ............................................................................. 19-13
Phase Two Tactical Movement, Mission Execution .................................... 19-14
Phase Three Reorganization and Reconstitution ........................................ 19-14
Section V Evaluation ................................................................................. 19-15
Standards for Evaluation................................................................................. 19-15
Scoring ............................................................................................................ 19-17

Appendix A

Abrams Live-Fire Preparation......................................................................... A-1

Appendix B

Bradley Fighting Vehicle Live-Fire Preparation ............................................ B-1

Appendix C

Armed Truck Live-Fire Preparation ................................................................ C-1

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Contents

Appendix D

Rifle Squad Gunnery ........................................................................................ D-1

Appendix E

Engineer Squad Qualification Tables ............................................................. E-1

Appendix F

Safety ................................................................................................................. F-1

Appendix G

Guardian ASV Live-Fire Preparation ..............................................................G-1

Appendix H

120-mm Mortar Gunnery .................................................................................. H-1


GLOSSARY .......................................................................................... Glossary-1
REFERENCES .................................................................................. References-1
INDEX .......................................................................................................... Index-1

Figures
Figure 2-1. M1A1 .................................................................................................................... 2-2
Figure 2-2. Revised hull and turret network boxes................................................................. 2-2
Figure 2-3. Upgraded tank commanders panel ..................................................................... 2-3
Figure 2-4. Eyesafe laser range finder ................................................................................... 2-3
Figure 2-5. Drivers vision enhancement ................................................................................ 2-4
Figure 2-6. Drivers vision enhancement (front display) ......................................................... 2-5
Figure 2-7. Drivers vision enhancement (rear connections) ................................................. 2-5
Figure 2-8. M1A2 SEP............................................................................................................ 2-6
Figure 2-9. Commanders independent thermal viewer ......................................................... 2-6
Figure 2-10. M2A2/M3A2 ..................................................................................................... 2-10
Figure 2-11. M2A3/M3A3 ..................................................................................................... 2-12
Figure 2-12. M7 Bradley Fire Support Vehicle ..................................................................... 2-14
Figure 2-13. Armored Security Vehicle M1117 .................................................................... 2-15
Figure 2-14. M1025A2/M1026A1 ......................................................................................... 2-17
Figure 2-15. M1114 Up-Armored Armed HMMWV .............................................................. 2-17
Figure 2-16. M1151 Enhanced Up-Armored HMMWV ........................................................ 2-18
Figure 2-17. M1064A3 self-propelled 120-mm mortar carrier .............................................. 2-19
Figure 3-1. M231 5.56-mm firing port weapon ....................................................................... 3-2
Figure 3-2. M249 squad automatic weapon 5.56mm ............................................................. 3-3
Figure 3-3. M240 series 7.62-mm machine gun .................................................................... 3-4
Figure 3-4. M240B machine gun ............................................................................................ 3-5
Figure 3-5. M2 HB caliber .50 machine gun ........................................................................... 3-6
Figure 3-6. MK19 40mm grenade launcher ........................................................................... 3-7
Figure 3-7. M242 25-mm automatic gun ................................................................................ 3-8
Figure 3-8. M256 120-mm smoothbore cannon ..................................................................... 3-9
Figure 3-9. Chamber area .................................................................................................... 3-10
Figure 3-10. Forcing cone area ............................................................................................ 3-10
Figure 3-11. Bore.................................................................................................................. 3-11
Figure 3-12. The 120-mm mortar ......................................................................................... 3-13

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Figure 3-13. Smoke grenade launcher ................................................................................ 3-14


Figure 3-14. M257 smoke grenade launchers ..................................................................... 3-15
Figure 3-15. Tube-Launched, Optically Tracked, Wire-Guided Missile ............................... 3-16
Figure 4-1. Ammunition packaging and common markings example .................................... 4-2
Figure 4-2. Standard small arms ammunition markings ........................................................ 4-3
Figure 4-3. Lot number example ............................................................................................ 4-4
Figure 4-4. Tenth position codes ........................................................................................... 4-5
Figure 4-5. National stock number example .......................................................................... 4-7
Figure 4-6. Country of origin codes ....................................................................................... 4-7
Figure 4-7. Department of Defense Identification Code example ......................................... 4-8
Figure 4-8. Department of Defense Ammunition Code example ........................................... 4-8
Figure 4-9. Small arms color coding and packaging markings ............................................ 4-10
Figure 4-10. Bandoleer with 10 round clips, 5.56mm .......................................................... 4-11
Figure 4-11. Storage marking .............................................................................................. 4-11
Figure 4-12.Transportation marking .................................................................................... 4-11
Figure 4-13. M27 clip-type open link .................................................................................... 4-12
Figure 4-14. 5.56mm crew serve common ammunition types ............................................. 4-14
Figure 4-15. 7.62mm ammunition with M13 disintegrating link ........................................... 4-15
Figure 4-16. 7.62mm crew serve common ammunition types ............................................. 4-16
Figure 4-17. M2/M9 closed loop link .................................................................................... 4-17
Figure 4-18a. Characteristics of the most common caliber .50 ammunition types .............. 4-18
Figure 4-18b. Characteristics of the most common caliber .50 ammunition types
(continued) ........................................................................................................ 4-19
Figure 4-19. Kinetic energy formula ..................................................................................... 4-21
Figure 4-20. Comparison of service ammunition for 25-mm gun ........................................ 4-22
Figure 4-21. M791 armor-piercing discarding sabot with tracer .......................................... 4-23
Figure 4-22. M919 armor-piercing, fin-stabilized, discarding sabot, with tracer .................. 4-24
Figure 4-23. M792 high-explosive incendiary with tracer .................................................... 4-24
Figure 4-24. M758 high-explosive incendiary with tracer fuze ............................................ 4-25
Figure 4-25. M758 fuze hazard classification marker .......................................................... 4-25
Figure 4-26. M758 fuze in SAFE.......................................................................................... 4-26
Figure 4-27. M758 fuze setback function............................................................................. 4-26
Figure 4-28. M758 fuze initial arming function ..................................................................... 4-27
Figure 4-29. M758 fuze arming sequence complete ........................................................... 4-27
Figure 4-30. M758 fuze direct impact functioning ................................................................ 4-28
Figure 4-31. M758 fuze grazing impact functioning ............................................................. 4-28
Figure 4-32. M758 fuze self destruct functioning ................................................................. 4-29
Figure 4-33. Frontal and grazing projectile impact zones for the M792 .............................. 4-29
Figure 4-34. Comparison of training ammunition for 25-mm gun ........................................ 4-30
Figure 4-35. M910 TPDS-T.................................................................................................. 4-30
Figure 4-36. M793 TP-T ....................................................................................................... 4-31

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Figure 4-37. 25 mm sabot petal danger area ....................................................................... 4-31


Figure 4-38. Characteristics of 40-mm grenade................................................................... 4-33
Figure 4-39. M430A1 internal components .......................................................................... 4-34
Figure 4-40. M1001 HVCC projectile and flechettes ............................................................ 4-35
Figure 4-41. M385 TP internal components ......................................................................... 4-36
Figure 4-42. M918 internal components .............................................................................. 4-36
Figure 4-43. BA30 2:1 Link ................................................................................................... 4-37
Figure 4-44. MK 281 mod 0 target practice .......................................................................... 4-37
Figure 4-45. B472 dummy linked ......................................................................................... 4-38
Figure 4-46. 40mm ammunition color codes and markings ................................................. 4-38
Figure 4-47. Aft cap markings .............................................................................................. 4-40
Figure 4-48. Case base quick reference markings for service ammunition ......................... 4-40
Figure 4-49. Case base quick reference markings for training ammunition ........................ 4-41
Figure 4-50. Components of a 120mm main gun round ...................................................... 4-42
Figure 4-51. Tank service round technical data ................................................................... 4-43
Figure 4-52. Kinetic energy formula ..................................................................................... 4-44
Figure 4-53. M829A3 APFSDS-T (120mm) ......................................................................... 4-45
Figure 4-54. M829A1/M829A2 APFSDS-T (120mm) ........................................................... 4-46
Figure 4-55. M830 HEAT-MP-T (120mm) ............................................................................ 4-46
Figure 4-56. Chemical energy ammunition effects............................................................... 4-47
Figure 4-57. M830A1 HEAT-MP-T and M908 HE-OR-T ...................................................... 4-48
Figure 4-58. M1028 canister ................................................................................................ 4-49
Figure 4-59. M1028 canister lethal danger zone (not to scale)............................................ 4-50
Figure 4-60. 120 mm target practice round technical data .................................................. 4-51
Figure 4-61. M865 TPCSDS-T ............................................................................................. 4-52
Figure 4-62. M831A1 HEAT-TP-T ........................................................................................ 4-52
Figure 4-63. M1002 TPMP-T ................................................................................................ 4-53
Figure 4-64. Discarding Sabot danger area ......................................................................... 4-55
Figure 4-65. Man-Portable Chamber Gage, NSN 5220-01-477-5455 ................................. 4-56
Figure 4-66. 120-mm mortar round technical data ............................................................... 4-59
Figure 4-67. M933A1 HE, with fuze, PD: M783 (120 mm) ................................................... 4-60
Figure 4-68. M934 HE, with fuze, multi-optional: M734A1 (120 mm) .................................. 4-60
Figure 4-69. M929 WP, with fuze, multi-optional: M734A1 (120 mm) ................................. 4-61
Figure 4-70. M930 IL, with fuze, super-quick: M776 (120 mm) ........................................... 4-61
Figure 4-71. M983 IL, with fuze, super-quick: M776 (120 mm) ........................................... 4-62
Figure 4-72. M931 FRTR, with fuze, PD: M781 (120 mm) .................................................. 4-62
Figure 4-73. M776 MTSQ fuze ............................................................................................. 4-63
Figure 4-74. M776 MTSQ fuze ............................................................................................. 4-64
Figure 4-75. M935 PD fuze .................................................................................................. 4-64
Figure 4-76. Setting the M935 PD fuze ................................................................................ 4-65
Figure 4-77. M734 multioption fuze ...................................................................................... 4-65

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Figure 4-78. Setting the M734 multi-option fuze .................................................................. 4-66


Figure 4-79. M745 PD fuze .................................................................................................. 4-66
Figure 4-80. Salvo pattern for the M250 smoke grenade launcher system......................... 4-69
Figure 4-81. Salvo pattern for the M257 smoke grenade launcher system......................... 4-69
Figure 4-82. L8A1 and L8A3 smoke grenade ...................................................................... 4-70
Figure 4-83. M76 and M82 smoke grenades ....................................................................... 4-71
Figure 4-84. Smoke grenade composite hazard area ......................................................... 4-72
Figure 4-85. TOW missile sections, TOW-2A models with extended probe ....................... 4-73
Figure 4-86. TOW 2B missile sections, no extended probe ................................................ 4-73
Figure 4-87. TOW-BB sections ............................................................................................ 4-74
Figure 4-88. TOW launch container example (side, top and front views) ........................... 4-74
Figure 4-89. TOW warhead assembly with extended probe (TOW-2A) .............................. 4-75
Figure 4-90. TOW-2B warhead assembly ........................................................................... 4-76
Figure 4-91.TOW missile stencil markings .......................................................................... 4-77
Figure 4-92.TOW missile characteristics ............................................................................. 4-78
Figure 4-93. TOW-2A cut away diagram ............................................................................. 4-79
Figure 4-94. TOW missile striking ERA protected threat target........................................... 4-80
Figure 4-95. Initial detonation of precursor charge .............................................................. 4-81
Figure 4-96. Detonation of the primary warhead ................................................................. 4-81
Figure 4-97. TOW-2A, BGM-71E-4B ................................................................................... 4-82
Figure 4-98. TOW-2A characteristics and markings............................................................ 4-82
Figure 4-99. TOW-2A practice characteristics and markings .............................................. 4-83
Figure 4-100. TOW-2B Aero ................................................................................................ 4-83
Figure 4-101. TOW-2B cut away diagram ........................................................................... 4-84
Figure 4-102a. TOW-2B functioning sequence ................................................................... 4-85
Figure 4-102b. TOW-2B functioning sequence (continued) ................................................ 4-86
Figure 4-102c. TOW-2B functioning sequence (continued) ................................................ 4-86
Figure 4-103. TOW-2B characteristics and markings.......................................................... 4-87
Figure 4-104. TOW-2B Gen I characteristics and markings ................................................ 4-87
Figure 4-105. TOW-2B Aero characteristics and markings ................................................. 4-88
Figure 4-106.TOW-2B Aero RF characteristics and markings ............................................ 4-88
Figure 4-107.TOW-2B Aero Gen I characteristics and markings ........................................ 4-89
Figure 4-108. TOW-2B Aero Gen 2 characteristics and markings ...................................... 4-89
Figure 4-109. TOW-2B Aero Gen 2 RF characteristics and markings ................................ 4-90
Figure 4-110. TOW-BB basic sections ................................................................................ 4-91
Figure 4-111. TOW-BB characteristics and markings ......................................................... 4-91
Figure 4-112. TOW-BB RF characteristics and markings ................................................... 4-92
Figure 4-113. Backblast area danger zone.......................................................................... 4-93
Figure 4-114. Javelin missile ............................................................................................... 4-96
Figure 4-115. Javelin backblast safety zones ...................................................................... 4-97
Figure 4-116. Example of ammunition placards ................................................................ 4-100

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Figure 4-117. HBCT common vehicle cargo capacity ........................................................ 4-102


Figure 4-118. Ammunition lot restriction flow chart ............................................................ 4-104
Figure 5-1. Engagement process (detect).............................................................................. 5-2
Figure 5-2. Dead space considerations for closed hatch operations ..................................... 5-4
Figure 5-3. Abrams weapon dead space (flank) ................................................................... 5-4
Figure 5-4. Bradley weapon dead space (flank) .................................................................... 5-5
Figure 5-5. Rapid scans ......................................................................................................... 5-9
Figure 5-6. Slow (50-meter) scan ......................................................................................... 5-10
Figure 5-7. Ground-to-rooftop and horizontal slow-scan techniques ................................... 5-11
Figure 5-8. Detailed-search technique ................................................................................. 5-12
Figure 5-9. Horizontal search and scan ............................................................................... 5-13
Figure 5-10. Vertical search and scan ................................................................................. 5-14
Figure 5-11. Estimating 20 degrees ..................................................................................... 5-14
Figure 5-12. Sector overlapping ........................................................................................... 5-16
Figure 5-13. Sector divided .................................................................................................. 5-16
Figure 6-1. Engagement process (identify) ............................................................................ 6-2
Figure 6-2. Unsupported track (example one) ....................................................................... 6-3
Figure 6-3. Unsupported track (example two) ........................................................................ 6-3
Figure 6-4. Supported track .................................................................................................... 6-4
Figure 6-5. Boat shaped hull .................................................................................................. 6-4
Figure 6-6. Boxed shaped hull ............................................................................................... 6-5
Figure 6-7. Trim vane ............................................................................................................. 6-5
Figure 6-8. Hydrojets .............................................................................................................. 6-6
Figure 6-9. Bore evacuator ..................................................................................................... 6-7
Figure 6-10. Gun mantle......................................................................................................... 6-7
Figure 6-11. Fording kit .......................................................................................................... 6-8
Figure 6-12. Armored reactive tiles ........................................................................................ 6-8
Figure 6-13. Key recognition features (armored) ................................................................... 6-9
Figure 6-14. Engine mounting .............................................................................................. 6-10
Figure 6-15. Rotary wing external sensors .......................................................................... 6-10
Figure 6-16. Tail rotor ........................................................................................................... 6-11
Figure 6-17. Fenestron tail rotor ........................................................................................... 6-11
Figure 6-18. Rear horizontal stabilizer wings ....................................................................... 6-12
Figure 6-19. Key identification features (helicopter)............................................................. 6-12
Figure 6-20. Combat identification panel ............................................................................. 6-14
Figure 6-21. Abrams thermal identification panel placement ............................................... 6-14
Figure 6-22. Bradley thermal identification panel placement ............................................... 6-15
Figure 6-23. Thermal identification panel NSN listing .......................................................... 6-16
Figure 6-24. Phoenix Beacon ............................................................................................... 6-17
Figure 6-25. BRMS NSN listing ............................................................................................ 6-18
Figure 6-26. BRMS T-Back style .......................................................................................... 6-18

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Figure 6-27. VS-17 panel ..................................................................................................... 6-18


Figure 6-28. Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below ............................................. 6-19
Figure 7-1. Engagement process (decide) ............................................................................ 7-2
Figure 7-2. LRAS3 NFOV reticle............................................................................................ 7-6
Figure 7-3. LRAS3 WFOV reticle indicators .......................................................................... 7-6
Figure 7-4. Bradley Stadia reticle on flank target................................................................... 7-7
Figure 7-5. Bradley Stadia reticle on frontal target ................................................................ 7-8
Figure 7-6. Abrams Stadia reticle with full target .................................................................. 7-8
Figure 7-7. Abrams Stadia reticle, defilade target................................................................. 7-9
Figure 7-8. Integrated Sight Unit choke (full target) ............................................................. 7-10
Figure 7-9. Integrated Sight Unit choke (defilade target)..................................................... 7-10
Figure 7-10. Constant mil-angle relationship ....................................................................... 7-12
Figure 7-11. Frontal BMP-2 dimensions .............................................................................. 7-14
Figure 7-12. Flank BMP-2 dimensions ................................................................................ 7-14
Figure 7-13. Frontal Mi-24 Hind-D dimensions .................................................................... 7-14
Figure 7-14. Flank Mi-24 Hind-D dimensions ...................................................................... 7-15
Figure 7-15. Frontal T-72 dimensions .................................................................................. 7-15
Figure 7-16. Flank T-72 dimensions .................................................................................... 7-16
Figure 7-17. Measuring width with binoculars ..................................................................... 7-16
Figure 8-1. Engagement process (engage) ........................................................................... 8-2
Figure 8-2. Battlecarry command........................................................................................... 8-4
Figure 8-3. Concept of battlesight .......................................................................................... 8-5
Figure 8-4. Battlesight range examples, APFSDS, and AP rounds....................................... 8-6
Figure 8-5. Battlesight range examples, chemical energy rounds ........................................ 8-7
Figure 8-6. Elevation levels Alpha, Bravo, and Charlie example......................................... 8-14
Figure 8-7. Fire command concept ...................................................................................... 8-18
Figure 8-8. Standard fire command, single target example................................................. 8-20
Figure 8-9. Reduced fire command, single target ............................................................... 8-21
Figure 8-10. Rounds fired .................................................................................................... 8-24
Figure 8-11. Reduced multiple target fire command example ............................................. 8-31
Figure 8-12. Manually applied lead for a slow moving target .............................................. 8-34
Figure 8-13. Manually applied lead for a fast moving target................................................ 8-34
Figure 8-14. Aiming point for machine gun point target, stationary ..................................... 8-35
Figure 8-15. Z pattern fired from the front ............................................................................ 8-36
Figure 8-16. Z pattern .......................................................................................................... 8-37
Figure 8-17. Aiming points for engaging aircraft with vehicle machine guns ...................... 8-38
Figure 8-18. Paratrooper engagement technique ................................................................ 8-39
Figure 8-19. Sight picture for lasing on troops using last return logic ................................. 8-41
Figure 8-20. M1A1 caliber .50 aiming points ....................................................................... 8-43
Figure 8-21. Direct fire adjustment using the re-engage method ........................................ 8-44
Figure 8-22. Single target engagement example................................................................. 8-45

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Figure 8-23. Multiple target fire command example ............................................................. 8-46


Figure 8-24. Single target fire command using BATTLE SGT button example ................... 8-47
Figure 8-25. Single target fire command example without LRF/ELRF................................. 8-48
Figure 8-26. Single target fire command using the stadia reticle with adjustment
example............................................................................................................. 8-49
Figure 8-27. Multiple target fire command using the stadia reticle example ........................ 8-50
Figure 8-28. Multiple target fire command, GPS malfunction example................................ 8-51
Figure 8-29. Change of weapon system using GAS or auxiliary sight fire command
example............................................................................................................. 8-52
Figure 8-30. Fire command to dismounted squad example ................................................. 8-53
Figure 8-31. Smoke grenade fire command example .......................................................... 8-54
Figure 8-32. Simultaneous engagement fire command example ........................................ 8-55
Figure 8-33. Change of weapon system fire command example......................................... 8-56
Figure 8-34. Simultaneous targets, caliber .50 and main gun example ............................... 8-57
Figure 8-35. VC main gun fire command example............................................................... 8-58
Figure 8-36. Canister engagement using FIRE AND ADJUST ......................................... 8-59
Figure 8-37. Multiple weapon system (Bradley) fire command example ............................. 8-60
Figure 8-38. Multiple weapon system (Bradley), fire and adjust, fire command
example............................................................................................................. 8-61
Figure 8-39. Truck single target fire command example ...................................................... 8-62
Figure 8-40. Truck multiple target fire command example ................................................... 8-63
Figure 8-41. ASV change of weapon system fire command example ................................. 8-64
Figure 8-42. Standard sheaf ................................................................................................. 8-69
Figure 8-43. Converged sheaf.............................................................................................. 8-69
Figure 8-44. Open sheaf ...................................................................................................... 8-70
Figure 8-45. Special sheaf ................................................................................................... 8-70
Figure 8-46. Parallel sheaf ................................................................................................... 8-71
Figure 8-47a. Fire mission examples ................................................................................... 8-73
Figure 8-47b. Fire mission examples (continued) ................................................................ 8-74
Figure 8-48. Observer target factor calculation .................................................................... 8-75
Figure 8-49. Observer target factor ...................................................................................... 8-75
Figure 8-50. Range spotting for observer adjustments ........................................................ 8-76
Figure 8-51. Deviation spotting of 30 left.............................................................................. 8-77
Figure 8-52. Initial splash of adjustment fire ........................................................................ 8-79
Figure 8-53. First adjustment round, DROP 400 ............................................................... 8-79
Figure 8-54. Second adjustment, ADD 200 ....................................................................... 8-80
Figure 8-55. Final adjustment, DROP 100, FIRE FOR EFFECT ....................................... 8-80
Figure 8-56. Hasty bracketing, first round ............................................................................ 8-81
Figure 8-57. Hasty bracketing, second round ...................................................................... 8-82
Figure 9-1. Engagement process (engage) ........................................................................... 9-1
Figure 9-2. Examples of terrain-based quadrants .................................................................. 9-6
Figure 9-3. Example of friendly-based quadrants .................................................................. 9-6

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Figure 9-4. Examples of fire patterns ..................................................................................... 9-8


Figure 9-5. Examples of target array ..................................................................................... 9-9
Figure 9-6. Sample frontal fire command ............................................................................ 9-16
Figure 9-7. Sample cross-fire command.............................................................................. 9-17
Figure 9-8. Sample depth fire command ............................................................................. 9-18
Figure 9-9. Indirect fire team ................................................................................................ 9-19
Figure 9-10. Scheduled target (TRP type) ........................................................................... 9-24
Figure 9-11. Planned targets (linear type) ........................................................................... 9-24
Figure 9-12. Linear target symbol with FPF label ................................................................ 9-25
Figure 10-1. The engagement process (assess) ................................................................. 10-1
Figure 11-1. Sample ROC-V training screen ....................................................................... 11-4
Figure 11-2. Sample basic tracking board ........................................................................... 11-5
Figure 11-3. Sample advanced tracking board .................................................................... 11-6
Figure 11-4. Advanced with swithology ............................................................................... 11-6
Figure 11-5. Components of vehicular MILES 2000 ............................................................ 11-9
Figure 11-6. Call for Fire Trainer........................................................................................ 11-11
Figure 11-7. HMMWV Egress Assistance Trainer ............................................................. 11-12
Figure 11-8. EST 2000 Engagement Skills Trainer ........................................................... 11-13
Figure 11-9. Close Combat Tactical Trainer ...................................................................... 11-16
Figure 11-10. 7.62mm, caliber .50 and 120-mm dummy rounds ...................................... 11-17
Figure 11-11. Caliber .50 inbore device ............................................................................. 11-20
Figure 11-12. Abrams Full-Crew Interactive Simulator Trainer ......................................... 11-22
Figure 11-13. 7.62mm and 25mm dummy rounds ............................................................ 11-24
Figure 11-14. Precision Gunnery System .......................................................................... 11-26
Figure 11-15. Advanced Bradley Full-Crew Interactive Simulator Trainer ........................ 11-27
Figure 11-16. Tabletop Full-Fidelity Trainer....................................................................... 11-28
Figure 11-17. Dummy rounds ............................................................................................ 11-30
Figure 11-18. VCCT-R (configuration 1) ............................................................................ 11-32
Figure 11-19. VCCT-R (configuration 2) ............................................................................ 11-32
Figure 11-20. VCCT-L ........................................................................................................ 11-33
Figure 11-21. Virtual Convoy Operations Trainer .............................................................. 11-34
Figure 12-1. Sample six month gunnery training plan ......................................................... 12-7
Figure 12-2. Abrams training strategy ............................................................................... 12-10
Figure 12-3. Mechanized infantry training strategy ........................................................... 12-11
Figure 12-4. Reconnaissance integrated training strategy ................................................ 12-12
Figure 12-5. Combat engineer integrated training strategy ............................................... 12-13
Figure 12-6. Fire support team training strategy................................................................ 12-14
Figure 12-7. Mortar integrated training strategy ................................................................ 12-15
Figure 12-8. Sustainment training strategy ........................................................................ 12-16
Figure 12-9. Sample six month gunnery training timeline (Abrams) ................................. 12-23
Figure 13-1. Urban cluster ................................................................................................... 13-6

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Figure 13-2a. Example maneuver box on an offensive engagement .................................. 13-7


Figure 13-2b. Example maneuver box on an offensive engagement (continued) ............... 13-8
Figure 13-2c. Example maneuver box on an offensive engagement (continued) ............... 13-8
Figure 13-2d. Example maneuver box on an offensive engagement (continued) ............... 13-9
Figure 13-3. Sample SDZ diagram for 25-mm M792 ammunition ..................................... 13-11
Figure 13-4. Sample SDZ diagram for 7.62-mm M80 (A131) ammunition ........................ 13-12
Figure 14-1. Test station diagram ........................................................................................ 14-4
Figure 14-2. Example of DA Form 7558-R, HBCT Gunnery Skills Test (GST)
Individual Roll-Up .............................................................................................. 14-7
Figure 14-3. Example of DA Form 7662-R, HBCT Gunnery Skills Test (GST) Platoon
Roll-Up .............................................................................................................. 14-8
Figure 14-4. DA Form 7665-R, HBCT Gunnery Skills Test (GST) Company Roll-Up ......... 14-9
Figure 14-5. Example of DA Form 7664-R, HBCT Gunnery Table I Crew Critical
Skills Test Scoresheet .................................................................................... 14-14
Figure 14-6. Example of DA Form 7660-R, HBCT Gunnery Table I Crew Critical
Skills Test Platoon Roll-Up ............................................................................. 14-15
Figure 14-7. Example of DA Form 7661-R, HBCT Gunnery Table I Crew Critical
Skills Test Company Roll-Up .......................................................................... 14-16
Figure 15-1. Vehicle crew evaluator team example ............................................................. 15-2
Figure 15-2. Sample threat matrix ........................................................................................ 15-8
Figure 15-3. Targets not fully presented example.............................................................. 15-11
Figure 15-4. Targets fully presented and locked example ................................................. 15-12
Figure 15-5. Defense timing procedure example, turret down or defilade position ........... 15-13
Figure 15-6. Defense timing procedure example, hull down or enfilade position .............. 15-13
Figure 15-7. Obscuration example, defense ...................................................................... 15-16
Figure 15-8. Obscuration example, offense ....................................................................... 15-17
Figure 15-9. Alibi process ................................................................................................... 15-18
Figure 15-10. Engagement example .................................................................................. 15-22
Figure 15-11. Example of DA Form 7657-R, Crew Gunnery Scoresheet .......................... 15-23
Figure 15-12. Directions for completions of form ............................................................... 15-24
Figure 15-13. Example of DA Form 7663-R, Crew Gunnery Roll-Up Sheet ...................... 15-25
Figure 15-14. Abrams armored defense (example) ........................................................... 15-30
Figure 16-1. Abrams and Bradley capable gunnery table example ..................................... 16-6
Figure 16-2. Basic instruction example .............................................................................. 16-11
Figure 16-3. Target scenario development tool example ................................................... 16-25
Figure 16-4. Engagement 60 example ............................................................................... 16-26
Figure 16-5. Engagement 61 example ............................................................................... 16-27
Figure 16-6. Engagement 62 example ............................................................................... 16-28
Figure 16-7. Engagement 63 example ............................................................................... 16-29
Figure 16-8. Engagement 64 example ............................................................................... 16-30
Figure 16-9. Engagement 65 example ............................................................................... 16-31
Figure 16-10. Engagement 66 example ............................................................................. 16-32

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Figure 16-11. Engagement 67 example ............................................................................ 16-33


Figure 16-12. Engagement 68 example ............................................................................ 16-34
Figure 16-13. Engagement 69 example ............................................................................ 16-35
Figure 17-1. HMMWV in the defilade position example ...................................................... 17-5
Figure 17-2. HMMWV in the enfilade position example ...................................................... 17-6
Figure 17-3. LMTV in the defilade position example ........................................................... 17-6
Figure 17-4. LMTV in the enfilade position example ........................................................... 17-6
Figure 17-5. Common instruction crew training prior to gunnery ...................................... 17-10
Figure 17-6. Example of unstabilized platform gunnery table matrix ................................ 17-12
Figure 17-7. Example of Guardian ASV gunnery table matrix ........................................... 17-13
Figure 17-8. Example of Gunnery Table II, Crew Proficiency Course ............................... 17-14
Figure 17-9. Example of Guardian ASV Gunnery Table II, Crew Proficiency Course ...... 17-15
Figure 17-10. Example of Gunnery Table III, Basic Machine Gun .................................... 17-17
Figure 17-11. Example of Guardian ASV Gunnery Table III, Basic Machine Gun ............ 17-18
Figure 17-12. Example of Gunnery Table IV, Extended Range Machine Gun
(scout/recon only) ........................................................................................... 17-20
Figure 17-13. Example of Guardian ASV Gunnery Table IV, Extended Range
Machine Gun (scout/recon only) .................................................................... 17-21
Figure 17-14. Example of Gunnery Table V, Basic Crew Practice .................................... 17-23
Figure 17-15. Example of Guardian ASV Gunnery Table V, Basic Crew Practice ........... 17-24
Figure 17-16. Gunnery Table VI, Crew Qualification Course ............................................ 17-26
Figure 17-17. Guardian ASV Gunnery Table VI, Crew Qualification Course .................... 17-27
Figure 18-1. Example of DA Form 7659-R, Gunnery Tables VII, VIII, IX Scoresheet
(Section Qualification) ...................................................................................... 18-4
Figure 18-2. Example of Form DA 7658-R, Gunnery Table X, XI, XII Scoresheet
(Platoon Qualification) ...................................................................................... 18-5
Figure 18-3. Abrams and Bradley Crew Gunnery Tables II-VI ............................................ 18-8
Figure 18-4. Section pure (armor) ..................................................................................... 18-14
Figure 18-5. Section mixed (1 Abrams/2 Bradley with 1 rifle squad) ................................ 18-14
Figure 18-6. Combined arms section (1 Abrams/2 unstabilized weapon platforms/1
BFIST) ............................................................................................................ 18-15
Figure 18-7. Platoon pure (infantry) ................................................................................... 18-18
Figure 18-7. Platoon pure (infantry) (continued) ................................................................ 18-19
Figure 18-8. Platoon mixed (2 Abrams/2 Bradleys with 2 rifle squads)............................. 18-19
Figure 18-9. Combined Arms Platoon (2 Abrams/2 unstabilized weapon platforms/1
BFIST) ............................................................................................................ 18-20
Figure 19-1. CALFEX training strategy .............................................................................. 19-15
Figure 19-2. Example of direct-fire scoring ........................................................................ 19-18
Figure A-1. Step 1 - insert MBD ............................................................................................. A-2
Figure A-2. Step 2 - tighten MBD finger tight ......................................................................... A-3
Figure A-3. Step 3 - place a mark on the cone ...................................................................... A-3
Figure A-4. Step 4 - remove the MBD.................................................................................... A-3
Figure A-5. Step 5 - reinstall the MBD ................................................................................... A-4

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Figure A-6. Step 6 - tighten the MBD finger tight ...................................................................A-4


Figure A-7. Proper alignment of the MBD ..............................................................................A-4
Figure A-8. MBD flipped 180 degrees to the 9 oclock position .............................................A-5
Figure A-9. Target aiming point ..............................................................................................A-8
Figure A-10. Crew set up .................................................................................................... A-45
Figure A-11. Abrams combined solution board (see Table A-13 for dimensions for
the solution board) ........................................................................................... A-52
Figure A-12. Sample AAC data sheet for Checks 4 and 5 .................................................. A-56
Figure A-13. Sample M1A2 SEP data worksheet for the M1A2 SEP special input
check and M1A2 SEP ballistic solution check ................................................. A-67
Figure A-14a. M1A2 SEP ballistic solution chart for check 5 (4.0 version) ......................... A-69
Figure A-14b. M1A2 SEP ballistic solution chart for check 1 (4.2-4.3 version)
(continued) ....................................................................................................... A-70
Figure A-15. Checking position of recoil piston sleeve ....................................................... A-72
Figure A-16. Feeler gauge .................................................................................................. A-73
Figure A-17. Depiction of faulty piston sleeve ..................................................................... A-73
Figure A-18. Piston seating gauge, 120 mm ....................................................................... A-74
Figure A-19a. Starting position for anti-rotation key tolerance check ................................. A-75
Figure A-19b. Checking distance between the anti-rotation key and the side of the
keyway ............................................................................................................. A-75
Figure A-20. Checking the distance between the ramp and the breech ............................. A-76
Figure A-21a. Starting position for breech alignment block check ...................................... A-76
Figure A-21b. Position for breech alignment block check ................................................... A-77
Figure A-22a. Top view of main gun and elevation mechanism ......................................... A-78
Figure A-22b. Side view of rod end pin ............................................................................... A-78
Figure A-23. Lower elevation mechanism, yoke, and support bracket ............................... A-79
Figure A-24a. Rear elevation mechanism support strut ...................................................... A-79
Figure A-24b. Rear elevation mechanism support strut (continued) .................................. A-80
Figure A-25a. Cam bracket operating cable adjustment ..................................................... A-83
Figure A-25b. Cam bracket operating cable adjustment (continued) ................................. A-84
Figure A-25c. Cam bracket operating cable adjustment (continued) .................................. A-84
Figure A-25d. Cam bracket operating cable adjustment (continued) ................................. A-85
Figure A-26. Screening test target (ST-5) ........................................................................... A-86
Figure A-27. Flow chart for screening test procedures ....................................................... A-87
Figure A-28. Sample discrete CCF worksheet (DA Form 7556-R) ..................................... A-93
Figure A-29. Target ............................................................................................................. A-94
Figure A-30. Targetmark 1/2 way ...................................................................................... A-94
Figure A-31. Targetmark 1/3 way ...................................................................................... A-95
Figure A-32. Screening test target (ST-5) with dimension A ............................................... A-96
Figure A-33. Gunners quadrant (M1A1 shown) ................................................................. A-99
Figure A-34. Day refraction (exaggerated view) ............................................................... A-116
Figure A-35. Night refraction (exaggerated view) ............................................................. A-116

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Figure A-36. CITV stadia reticle ......................................................................................... A-119


Figure A-37. GAS stadia reticle ......................................................................................... A-119
Figure A-38a. GAS stadia reticle, displaying target ........................................................... A-120
Figure A-38b. GAS stadia reticle, displaying target (continued) ........................................ A-120
Figure A-39. Gunners primary sight (daylight reticle) ....................................................... A-121
Figure A-40. Abrams gunners auxiliary sight reticles (MPAT/HEAT) .............................. A-122
Figure A-41. Abrams gunners auxiliary sight reticles (MPAT/HEAT) lead pattern .......... A-122
Figure A-42. Abrams gunners auxiliary sight reticles (KE/STAFF) example ................... A-123
Figure A-43. Abrams gunners auxiliary sight reticles (KE/STAFF) ................................... A-123
Figure A-44. Commanders weapon station sight reticle ................................................... A-124
Figure A-45. Constant mil-angle relationship..................................................................... A-125
Figure A-46. Frontal BMP-2 dimensions ............................................................................ A-127
Figure A-47. Flank BMP-2 dimensions .............................................................................. A-127
Figure A-48. Frontal Hind-D dimensions ........................................................................... A-127
Figure A-49. Flank Hind-D dimensions .............................................................................. A-128
Figure A-50. Frontal T-72 dimensions ............................................................................... A-128
Figure A-51. Flank T-72 dimensions .................................................................................. A-128
Figure A-52. Measuring width with binoculars ................................................................... A-129
Figure A-53. Ammunition stowage plan, 16 and 18 round racks ....................................... A-132
Figure A-54. Ammunition stowage plan, 17 round rack..................................................... A-133
Figure A-55. Gun tube serial number ................................................................................ A-135
Figure A-56. Breech ring serial number ............................................................................. A-136
Figure A-57. DA Form 2408-4 with firing and maintenance data ...................................... A-137
Figure A-58. DA Form 2408-4 condemning gun tube........................................................ A-138
Figure A-59. DA Form 2408-4 transfer to new form .......................................................... A-139
Figure A-60. DA Form 2408-4 boresight and zero data .................................................... A-140
Figure B-1. Dual-feed system ................................................................................................ B-2
Figure B-2. The M242 25-mm guns eight cycles of function ................................................ B-4
Figure B-3. Reticle for boresight telescope NSN 4933-00-867-6607 .................................... B-5
Figure B-4. Boresight telescope NSN 4933-00-867-6607 ..................................................... B-6
Figure B-5. The 1-1000 boresight telescope ......................................................................... B-7
Figure B-6. Adapter for the 1-1000 boresight telescope........................................................ B-7
Figure B-7. Reticle for 1-1000 telescope ............................................................................... B-8
Figure B-8. Older 25-mm adapter, PN 12524010, fits 25-mm barrel on all BFVs
through A2 ODS ............................................................................................... B-10
Figure B-9. Newer 25-mm adapter, PN 12524144, fits 25-mm barrel on all BFVs ............. B-10
Figure B-10. Telescope reticle aimed at a corner of boresight panel .................................. B-11
Figure B-11. Telescope facing to the left ............................................................................. B-11
Figure B-12. Aiming point in the 2-mil circle ........................................................................ B-12
Figure B-13. Preparations before screening equipment ...................................................... B-13
Figure B-14. Example boresight test panel .......................................................................... B-13

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Figure B-15. Example of a completed DA Form 7523-R..................................................... B-15


Figure B-16. Reticle alignment ............................................................................................ B-16
Figure B-17. Sight picture and scoring grid ......................................................................... B-17
Figure B-18. Azimuth for right aim-point coordinates .......................................................... B-17
Figure B-19. Elevation for right aim-point coordinates ........................................................ B-18
Figure B-20. Plotted aiming point ........................................................................................ B-18
Figure B-21. Reticle aimed at center of panel ..................................................................... B-19
Figure B-22. Kit right aiming point ....................................................................................... B-20
Figure B-23. Kit left aiming point ......................................................................................... B-21
Figure B-24. Aiming point .................................................................................................... B-21
Figure B-25. Distance and direction from center................................................................. B-22
Figure B-26. Adjusted aim point .......................................................................................... B-22
Figure B-27. Adapter-marking template .............................................................................. B-23
Figure B-28. Marked adapter .............................................................................................. B-23
Figure B-29. Azimuth and elevation with adapter to the right, at mark "A" ......................... B-24
Figure B-30. Right aiming point as recorded on scoresheet ............................................... B-24
Figure B-31. Azimuth and elevation with adapter to the left, at mark "A" ........................... B-25
Figure B-32. Left aiming point as recorded on scoresheet ................................................. B-26
Figure B-33. Azimuth and elevation with adapter to the right, at mark "B" ......................... B-27
Figure B-34. Right aim point coordinates, Test 2 ................................................................ B-27
Figure B-35. Azimuth and elevation with adapter to the left, at mark "B" ........................... B-28
Figure B-36. Left aiming point, Test 2 ................................................................................. B-28
Figure B-37. Distance between aim points, Test 1 ............................................................. B-29
Figure B-38. Distance between aim points, Test 2 ............................................................. B-30
Figure B-39. Mark "A" facing up, telescope to the right ...................................................... B-31
Figure B-40. Mark facing up, telescope to the left ............................................................... B-32
Figure B-41. Example completed SF 368 (telescopes) ...................................................... B-34
Figure B-42. Example completed SF 368 (adapters) .......................................................... B-35
Figure B-43. Close-in panel ................................................................................................. B-36
Figure B-44. Panel placement ............................................................................................. B-37
Figure B-45. Correct distance alignment for boresighting................................................... B-37
Figure B-46. 10-mil circle aligned with the 25-mm cross .................................................... B-39
Figure B-47. Boresight reticle aligned with the 25-mm cross .............................................. B-39
Figure B-48. Reticle centered between left, right, and lower limits ..................................... B-40
Figure B-49. Locknut, crank, and thumbscrews .................................................................. B-41
Figure B-50. Horizontal adjustment lock screw and horizontal adjustment screw .............. B-41
Figure B-51. ISU reticle aligned with "T" ............................................................................. B-43
Figure B-52. Alignment of TOW cross and 2-mil circle ....................................................... B-43
Figure B-53. Position of ISU reticle below the 25-mm cross ............................................... B-44
Figure B-54. Distance between aiming points..................................................................... B-45
Figure B-55. Auxiliary sight reticle positioned below the AUX cross................................... B-45

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Figure B-56. Auxiliary sight reticle positioned above the AUX cross ................................... B-46
Figure B-57. Drift within 1-mil circle ..................................................................................... B-47
Figure B-58. Boresight retention met ................................................................................... B-48
Figure B-59. Position of TOW cross .................................................................................... B-51
Figure B-60. 25-mm sight reticle (M2/M3) ........................................................................... B-60
Figure B-61. 25-mm sight reticle (ODS) .............................................................................. B-60
Figure B-62. BFVA3 reticle selection ................................................................................... B-61
Figure B-63. Choking a hull-down vehicle ........................................................................... B-62
Figure B-64. Frontal and flank views of a BMP ................................................................... B-63
Figure B-65. Full frontal and full flank views of a BMP ........................................................ B-63
Figure B-66. Determine TOW maximum engagement range .............................................. B-64
Figure B-67. BFVA3 default reticle lead line and mil relation .............................................. B-65
Figure B-68. Determine ranges for a BMP at target 1 (1,400 meters) and target 2
(1,800 meters) .................................................................................................. B-66
Figure B-69. Determine TOW maximum engagement range for a BFVA3 default
reticle ................................................................................................................ B-67
Figure B-70. Determine range using the auxiliary sight ....................................................... B-68
Figure B-71. TOW back-blast area ...................................................................................... B-70
Figure C-1. Machine gun to night vision sight matrix ............................................................. C-2
Figure C-2. AN/PEQ-2A ......................................................................................................... C-2
Figure C-3. AN/PAQ-4C ......................................................................................................... C-3
Figure C-4. M145 machine gun optic (MGO)......................................................................... C-3
Figure C-5. M14 MGO reticle ................................................................................................. C-4
Figure C-6. M145 MGO illuminated reticle ............................................................................ C-4
Figure C-7. AN/PVS-4 ............................................................................................................ C-5
Figure C-8. AN/PVS-4 reticle ................................................................................................. C-5
Figure C-9. AN/TVS-5A ......................................................................................................... C-6
Figure C-10. AN/TVS-5A earlier reticle .................................................................................. C-6
Figure C-11. AN/TVS-5A newer reticle .................................................................................. C-7
Figure C-12. AN/PAS-13 (V) 2 MWTS ................................................................................... C-7
Figure C-13. AN/PAS-13 (V) 3 HWTS ................................................................................... C-8
Figure C-14. TWS common display ....................................................................................... C-8
Figure C-15. MWTS M249 WFOV aim points........................................................................ C-9
Figure C-16. MWTS M249 NFOV aim points ........................................................................ C-9
Figure C-17. MWTS M240 WFOV aim points...................................................................... C-10
Figure C-18. MWTS M240 NFOV aim points ...................................................................... C-10
Figure C-19. HWTS M2 HB WFOV aim points .................................................................... C-11
Figure C-20. HWTS M2 HB NFOV aim points ..................................................................... C-11
Figure C-21. HWTS MK19 aim points ................................................................................. C-12
Figure C-22. Available sights for M249 SAW ...................................................................... C-13
Figure C-23. Available sights for M240B ............................................................................. C-13
Figure C-24. Available sights for M2 HB machine gun ........................................................ C-14

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Figure C-25. Available sights for MK19 machine gun ......................................................... C-14
Figure C-26. M249 SAW rear sight ..................................................................................... C-16
Figure C-27. M240B rear sight ............................................................................................ C-18
Figure C-28. M2 HB rear sight ............................................................................................ C-20
Figure C-29. Zero group size .............................................................................................. C-21
Figure C-30. MK19 rear sight .............................................................................................. C-22
Figure C-31. Target board for dry-zeroing .......................................................................... C-28
Figure C-32. Example of DA Form 7476-R, 10-Meter Boresight Offset Target .................. C-29
Figure C-33. Common reticle .............................................................................................. C-33
Figure C-34. FLIR WFOV reticle (1X) ................................................................................. C-34
Figure C-35. FLIR WFOV reticle (2X) ................................................................................. C-34
Figure C-36. FLIR NFOV reticle (1X) .................................................................................. C-34
Figure C-37. FLIR NFOV reticle (4X) .................................................................................. C-34
Figure C-38. Day TV WFOV reticle ..................................................................................... C-35
Figure C-39. Day TV NFOV reticle ...................................................................................... C-35
Figure C-40. LRAS3 boresight main menu tree .................................................................. C-36
Figure D-1. Javelin backblast safety zones ......................................................................... D-12
Figure D-2. Javelin missile .................................................................................................. D-13
Figure D-3. Sector sketch .................................................................................................... D-19
Figure G-1. Boresight panel dimensions ............................................................................... G-2
Figure G-2. Mandrel and borelight assembly ........................................................................ G-3
Figure G-3. Angle gauge ....................................................................................................... G-3
Figure G-4. Reticle control adapter lever .............................................................................. G-4
Figure G-5. Night sight azimuth/elevation adjustment .......................................................... G-5
Figure G-6. Daylight sight azimuth/elevation adjustment ...................................................... G-7
Figure G-7. Reticle control adapter ....................................................................................... G-9
Figure G-8. Daylight reticle .................................................................................................. G-10
Figure G-9. Caliber .50 mount and AZ/EL adjust ................................................................ G-11
Figure G-10. Daylight reticle ................................................................................................ G-12
Figure G-11. Night sight reticle............................................................................................ G-13
Figure G-12. Constant mil-angle relationship ...................................................................... G-14
Figure G-13. Frontal BMP-2 dimensions ............................................................................. G-16
Figure G-14. Flank BMP-2 dimensions ............................................................................... G-16
Figure G-15. Frontal Hind-D dimensions ............................................................................ G-16
Figure G-16. Flank Hind-D dimensions ............................................................................... G-17
Figure G-17. Frontal T-72 dimensions ................................................................................ G-17
Figure G-18. Flank T-72 dimensions ................................................................................... G-17
Figure G-19. Measuring width with binoculars .................................................................... G-18
Figure H-1. Mortar table levels .............................................................................................. H-3

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Tables
Table 2-1. Fuel consumption chart ........................................................................................ 2-8
Table 2-2. Comparison of Abrams technical data by model .................................................. 2-9
Table 2-3. Comparison of BFV technical data by model ..................................................... 2-13
Table 2-4. Technical data of the M1117 - Guardian ASV .................................................... 2-16
Table 2-5. Comparison of armed HMMWV technical data by model .................................. 2-18
Table 2-6. Technical data of the M1064A3 self-propelled 120-mm mortar carrier ............. 2-19
Table 3-1. M231 characteristics ............................................................................................. 3-2
Table 3-2. M249 machine gun characteristics ....................................................................... 3-3
Table 3-3. M240 machine gun characteristics ....................................................................... 3-5
Table 3-4. M2 HB machine gun characteristics ..................................................................... 3-7
Table 3-5. MK19 machine gun characteristics ...................................................................... 3-8
Table 3-6. Technical data for the 120-mm mortar ............................................................... 3-13
Table 4-1. Month codes ......................................................................................................... 4-5
Table 4-2. Federal supply classification ................................................................................. 4-6
Table 4-3. Ammunition color coding, 20mm and larger ......................................................... 4-9
Table 4-4. 5.56 maximum effective ranges.......................................................................... 4-13
Table 4-5. 7.62mm maximum effective ranges.................................................................... 4-15
Table 4-6. Caliber .50 maximum effective range ................................................................. 4-17
Table 4-7. M1028 canister effects on various targets.......................................................... 4-50
Table 4-8.120mm German models for the M256 Cannon ................................................... 4-54
Table 4-9. Main gun ammunition codes............................................................................... 4-57
Table 4-10. TOW-2A model numbers .................................................................................. 4-80
Table 4-11. TOW-2B models ............................................................................................... 4-85
Table 4-12. Characteristics of the Javelin antitank guided missile ...................................... 4-95
Table 4-13. Common ammunition packing ........................................................................ 4-101
Table 6-1. Phoenix Beacon NSN listing ............................................................................... 6-17
Table 7-1. Ammunition/weapon selection .............................................................................. 7-3
Table 7-1. Ammunition/weapon selection (continued) ........................................................... 7-4
Table 7-2. Recognition method ............................................................................................ 7-11
Table 7-3. Effect of target conditions on range estimation .................................................. 7-11
Table 7-4. Mil relation for various targets ............................................................................ 7-13
Table 8-1. Range settings by weapon system ....................................................................... 8-5
Table 8-2. Battlesight range determination example ............................................................. 8-8
Table 8-3. Elements of a standard fire command .................................................................. 8-9
Table 8-4. Alert examples .................................................................................................... 8-10
Table 8-5. Weapon/ammunition element ............................................................................. 8-11
Table 8-6. Target descriptions ............................................................................................. 8-11
Table 8-7. Range element and sight selection .................................................................... 8-14
Table 8-8. Elements of the standard fire command ............................................................. 8-18

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Table 8-9. Deviation computations ....................................................................................... 8-78


Table 9-1. Common fire control measures ............................................................................. 9-4
Table 9-2. Weapons safety posture levels ........................................................................... 9-11
Table 10-1. Situation report .................................................................................................. 10-5
Table 11-1. Gunnery-related TADSS and systems supported............................................. 11-2
Table 11-2. ROC-V usage table ........................................................................................... 11-3
Table 11-3. Tracking board usage table .............................................................................. 11-5
Table 11-4. Vehicle-to-target distance ................................................................................. 11-7
Table 11-5. Usage Table ...................................................................................................... 11-7
Table 11-6. Laser Target Interface Device usage table ....................................................... 11-7
Table 11-7. Thru-sight video usage table ............................................................................. 11-8
Table 11-8. Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System usage table ............................ 11-8
Table 11-9. COFT usage table ............................................................................................. 11-9
Table 11-10. Call for fire trainer usage table ...................................................................... 11-10
Table 11-11. HMMWV Egress Assistance Trainer usage table ......................................... 11-11
Table 11-12. Engagement Skills Trainer 2000 usage table ............................................... 11-12
Table 11-13. Simulations Network usage table.................................................................. 11-14
Table 11-14. Close Combat Tactical Trainer usage table .................................................. 11-15
Table 11-15. Dummy rounds usage table .......................................................................... 11-16
Table 11-16. Requisition information.................................................................................. 11-18
Table 11-17. Caliber .50 inbore device usage table........................................................... 11-19
Table 11-18. Advanced Gunnery Training System usage table ........................................ 11-21
Table 11-19. Dummy rounds usage table .......................................................................... 11-23
Table 11-20. Requisition information.................................................................................. 11-24
Table 11-21. Precision Gunnery System usage table ........................................................ 11-25
Table 11-22. Bradley Advanced Training System usage table .......................................... 11-27
Table 11-23. Dummy rounds usage table .......................................................................... 11-29
Table 11-24. Requisition information.................................................................................. 11-31
Table 11-25. Virtual Convoy Combat Trainer ..................................................................... 11-32
Table 12-1. Gunnery tables .................................................................................................. 12-4
Table 12-2. Crew gunnery simulations prerequisites for live-fire ......................................... 12-6
Table 13-1. Formula for determining length of maneuver box ............................................. 13-9
Table 13-2. Dimensions for 25-mm M792 (HEI-T) ammunition ......................................... 13-11
Table 13-3. Dimensions for 7.62-mm M80 (A131) ammunition ......................................... 13-12
Table 13-4. Sample ballistic firing table for cartridge, APDS-T (muzzle velocity 1,345
mps) ................................................................................................................ 13-13
Table 13-5. Scaled ranges ................................................................................................. 13-14
Table 14-1. Gunnery skills test task list ................................................................................ 14-6
Table 14-2. Gunnery table I task list................................................................................... 14-11
Table 15-1. Vehicle target kill standards .............................................................................. 15-9
Table 16-1. Gunnery table structure..................................................................................... 16-2

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Table 16-2. Gunnery table ammunition allocation ............................................................... 16-3


Table 16-3. Standard task numbering system ..................................................................... 16-4
Table 16-4. Minimum proficiency levels for stabilized platforms ......................................... 16-7
Table 16-5. Minimum proficiency levels application by engagement .................................. 16-8
Table 16-6. Gunnery Table II, Crew Proficiency Course ................................................... 16-13
Table 16-7. Example of Gunnery Table II, Crew Proficiency Course (GT II-CPC) ........... 16-14
Table 16-8. Gunnery Table III, Basic Machine Gun .......................................................... 16-15
Table 16-9. Example of Gunnery Table III, Basic Machine Gun (GT III) ........................... 16-16
Table 16-10. Gunnery Table IV, Basic Main Gun .............................................................. 16-17
Table 16-11. Example of Gunnery Table IV, Basic Main Gun (GT IV) ............................. 16-18
Table 16-12. Gunnery Tables II and IV, Basic Machine Gun and Main Gun (GT 34) ....... 16-19
Table 16-13. Example of Gunnery Tables III and IV, Basic Machine Gun and Main
Gun (Table 34) ............................................................................................... 16-20
Table 16-14. Gunnery Table V, Crew Practice .................................................................. 16-21
Table 16-15. Example of Gunnery Table V, Crew Practice (GT V) ................................... 16-22
Table 16-16. Gunnery Table VI, Crew Qualification .......................................................... 16-23
Table 16-17. Crew Qualification rating criteria................................................................... 16-23
Table 16-18. Example of Gunnery Table VI, Crew Qualification (GT VI) .......................... 16-24
Table 17-1. Unstabilized platform gunnery tables ............................................................... 17-2
Table 17-2. Minimum proficiency levels, unstabilized platforms.......................................... 17-4
Table 17-3. Annual ammunition roll-up ................................................................................ 17-8
Table 17-4. Task numbering and MPL application matrix ................................................... 17-9
Table 17-5. Gunnery Table II, Crew Proficiency Course ................................................... 17-14
Table 17-6. Gunnery Table III, Basic Machine Gun .......................................................... 17-16
Table 17-7. Gunnery Table IV, Extended Range Machine Gun ........................................ 17-19
Table 17-8. Gunnery Table V, Basic Crew Practice .......................................................... 17-22
Table 17-9. Gunnery Table VI, Crew Qualification Course ............................................... 17-25
Table 17-10. Crew Qualification rating criteria................................................................... 17-25
Table 18-1. Tables VII, VIII, and IX minimum required targets per vehicle/squad ............ 18-10
Table 18-2. Tables X, XI, and XII minimum required targets per vehicle/squad ............... 18-10
Table 18-3. Table VIISection Proficiency Exercise .......................................................... 18-11
Table 18-4. Table VIIAmmunition allocations per vehicle ................................................ 18-11
Table 18-5. Table VIIISection Practice ............................................................................ 18-12
Table 18-6. Table VIIIAmmunition allocations per vehicle............................................... 18-12
Table 18-7. Table IXSection Qualification ....................................................................... 18-13
Table 18-8. Table IXAmmunition allocations per vehicle ................................................. 18-13
Table 18-9. Table XPlatoon Proficiency Exercise ........................................................... 18-15
Table 18-10. Table XAmmunition allocations per vehicle................................................ 18-16
Table 18-11. Table XIPlatoon Practice ............................................................................ 18-16
Table 18-12. Table XIAmmunition allocations per vehicle............................................... 18-17
Table 18-13. Table XIIPlatoon Qualification .................................................................... 18-17

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Table 18-14. Table XIIAmmunition allocations per vehicle .............................................. 18-18


Table 19-1. Ammunition allocation for armor/cavalry units (per vehicle) ............................. 19-9
Table 19-2. Ammunition allocation for mortar (per gun) ...................................................... 19-9
Table 19-3. Ammunition allocation for artillery units (per bn/btry)...................................... 19-10
Table 19-4. Ammunition allocation for infantry units (per gun) .......................................... 19-10
Table 19-5. Example of a direct-fire computation sheet..................................................... 19-19
Table 19-6. Example of Class V expenditure ..................................................................... 19-20
Table 19-6. Example of Class V expenditure (continued) .................................................. 19-21
Table 19-7. Example of a CALFEX summary sheet .......................................................... 19-22
Table A-1. Reticle adjustment guide ......................................................................................A-7
Table A-2. M1A1 computer correction factors..................................................................... A-10
Table A-3a. Example 1 ........................................................................................................ A-14
Table A-3b. Example 2 ........................................................................................................ A-14
Table A-3c. Example 3 ........................................................................................................ A-14
Table A-4. M1A1 sight correction factors ............................................................................ A-20
Table A-5. M1A2 SEP computer correction factors ............................................................ A-23
Table A-6. M1A2 SEP/V2 sight correction factors .............................................................. A-38
Table A-7. Nominal temperature values for M1A1 and M1A2 SEP/V2 fire control input .... A-40
Table A-8. Barometric pressure values for M1A1 and M1A2 SEP/V2 fire control input .... A-41
Table A-9. Abrams pre-fire checklist ................................................................................... A-43
Table A-10. Nitrogen gas temperature versus precharge pressure chart........................... A-46
Table A-11. Causes of fault indication in the GPS field of view .......................................... A-48
Table A-12. Causes of computer self-test failure ................................................................ A-49
Table A-13. Abrams combined solution board dimensions ................................................. A-51
Table A-14a. M1A1 (upgraded CEU chart) ballistic computer inputs for check 4 .............. A-55
Table A-14b. M1A1 ballistic computer inputs for check 4 ................................................... A-55
Table A-15a. M1A1 (upgraded CEU chart) ballistic computer inputs for check 5 .............. A-59
Table A-15b. M1A1 ballistic computer inputs for check 5 ................................................... A-60
Table A-16. Nitrogen gas temperature vs. pre-charge pressure chart ............................... A-62
Table A-17a. Temperature checks, old CEU ...................................................................... A-82
Table A-17b. Temperature checks, new CEU..................................................................... A-82
Table A-18a. Screening test actions checklist (M1A1) ....................................................... A-88
Table A-18b. Screening test actions checklist (M1A1) (continued) .................................... A-89
Table A-19a. Screening test actions checklist (M1A2 SEP) ............................................... A-90
Table A-19b. Screening test actions checklist (M1A2 SEP) (continued) ............................ A-91
Table A-20. Dimensions of screening targets under unusual conditions (120mm) ............ A-96
Table A-21. Mil relation for various targets ....................................................................... A-126
Table B-1. Inch-to-mil conversion chart .............................................................................. B-29
Table B-2. Distance (in inches) between crosses and lower left hand corner or closein boresight panel............................................................................................. B-48
Table B-3. Cross colors and line widths .............................................................................. B-49

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Table B-4. Length of lines on crosses ................................................................................. B-49


Table B-5. Example format for pre-fire checklist.................................................................. B-52
Table B-6. Example format for Bradley A3 gunners pre-fire checklist, part 1..................... B-53
Table B-7. Example format for Bradley A3 commanders pre-fire checklist, part 2 ............. B-54
Table C-1. Pre-fire checklist................................................................................................. C-15
Table C-2. Windage and elevation (peep sight) correction chart for the M249 SAW.......... C-17
Table C-3. Elevation correction chart for the M240B ........................................................... C-19
Table C-4. Windage correction chart for the M240B ........................................................... C-19
Table C-5. Machine gun sight offset data ............................................................................ C-30
Table C-5. Machine gun sight offset data (continued) ......................................................... C-31
Table C-5. Machine gun sight offset data (continued) ......................................................... C-32
Table D-1. M16A2/M4 carbine rifle technical data ................................................................. D-2
Table D-2. M4/M16-series weapons ammunition .................................................................. D-3
Table D-3. M203 40-mm grenade launcher technical data ................................................... D-4
Table D-4. M203 40-mm grenade launcher ammunition ....................................................... D-5
Table D-5. M249 SAW 5.56-mm machine gun technical data............................................... D-6
Table D-6. M249 SAW 5.56-mm machine gun ammunition .................................................. D-7
Table D-7. M240B 7.62-mm machine gun ammunition ......................................................... D-7
Table D-8. M240B 7.62-mm machine gun technical data ..................................................... D-8
Table D-9. M136AT4 lightweight anti-armor weapon technical data ..................................... D-9
Table D-10. M136 AT4 lightweight anti-armor weapon actions and effects .......................... D-9
Table D-11. Javelin antitank guided missile technical data ................................................. D-11
Table F-1. Examples of potential hazards ............................................................................. F-2
Table F-2. Risk levels and impact on mission execution ....................................................... F-3
Table F-3. Risk assessment matrix ....................................................................................... F-3
Table F-4. M1A1/M1A2 SEP ammunition fire exit procedures .............................................. F-9
Table F-5. Tank rollover procedures.................................................................................... F-11
Table F-6. Bradley rollover procedures ............................................................................... F-13
Table G-1. ASV pre-fire checklist...........................................................................................G-8
Table G-2. Mil relation for various targets ............................................................................G-15
Table H-1. Mortar Table frequency ........................................................................................ H-2
Table H-2. Mortar Table 1 FDC examination ......................................................................... H-9
Table H-3. Mortar Table 1 gunner's examination ................................................................ H-10
Table H-4. Mortar Table 2 FDC examination ....................................................................... H-10
Table H-5. Mortar Table 2 gunner's examination ................................................................ H-11
Table H-6. Mortar Table 3 FDC training .............................................................................. H-11
Table H-7. Mortar Table 3 squad training ............................................................................ H-12
Table H-8. Mortar Table 4 FDC qualification ....................................................................... H-13
Table H-9. Mortar Table 4 squad qualification ..................................................................... H-14
Table H-10. Mortar Table 5 machine gun crew training/qualification .................................. H-15
Table H-11. Mortar Table 6 section training - dry/conventional mode................................. H-16

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Table H-12. Mortar Table 7 section qualification - dry/conventional mode ......................... H-17
Table H-13. Mortar Table 8 section qualification - live/conventional mode ........................ H-18
Table H-14. Mortar Table 9 mortar section/platoon STX lanes - dry/live/digital mode ....... H-19
Table H-15. Mortar Table 10 section/platoon training - dry/digital mode ............................ H-20
Table H-16. Mortar Table 11 section/platoon qualification - dry/digital mode ..................... H-21
Table H-17. Mortar Table 12 section/platoon qualification - EXEVAL/LFX/digital mode .... H-22

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xxix

Preface
FM 3-20.21 describes how crews, sections, platoons, and companies organic to the Heavy Brigade Combat
Team (HBCT) and Armored Cavalry Regiment (ACR) train for combat weapon system proficiency. It provides
principles and techniques for the individual, crew, section, platoon, and company to engage and destroy enemy
targets efficiently in any given operational environment (OE).
FM 3-20.21 is designed for commanders, Master Gunners, and trainers of maneuver and sustainment units
within the HBCT and ACR.
FM 3-20.21 outlines Abrams tank, Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV), and armored High-Mobility Multipurpose
Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) gunnery tables (GT) designed for crew through company to attain and sustain
tactical gunnery proficiency. Some operations will, at times, require maneuver units to operate independently at
the section and platoon level, which may consist of a variety of task organizations that include but are not
limited to tank/Bradley/armed HMMWV-pure sections and platoons or tanks, Bradleys, and/or armed
HMMWVs combined, or tanks in support of infantry.
The tasks, conditions, and standards on the GTs are based on a thorough analysis of gunnery engagement
factors and are based on actual hit or kill probabilities of threat versus U.S. platform weapons systems. Most of
the tasks can be found in the related military occupational specialty (MOS) Soldiers manuals and mission
training plans. All HBCT and ACR units are encouraged to recommend ideas to upgrade the tasks, conditions,
and standards in this manual.
FM 3-20.21 applies to the Active Army, the Army National Guard/Army National Guard of the United States
(ARNGUS), and the United States Army Reserve (USAR) unless otherwise stated.
Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men.
The proponent of this publication is HQ, TRADOC. Submit changes for improving this publication on DA
Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) and forward it to Director, Directorate
of Training, Doctrine, Combat Development, and Experimentation (DTDCD-E), ATTN: ATZK-TDD-G, 204
1st Cavalry Regiment Road Ste 216, U.S. Army Armor Center, Fort Knox, KY 40121-5123. Additional
information is available at (502) 624-7323/2908 or DSN 464-7323/2908.
Other points of contact for information presented in this manual are (by category):
z
Abrams tanks:

TRADOC Capabilities Manager for HBCT, TCM-HBCT, DSN 464-7955 or Commercial


(Comm) (502) 624-7955.

DTDCD-E, ATZK-TDD-ORSA, DSN 464-3042 or Comm (502) 624-3042.


z
Abrams tank gun tubes (technical): TACOM-Rock Island, IL, AMSTA-LC-GAW, DSN
793-2189/2777 or Comm (309) 782-2189/2777.
z
Abrams tank gun tubes (safety engineering): TACOM-Rock Island, AMSTA-CS-CZR, DSN
793-2995 or Comm (309) 782-2995.
z
Ammunition-missile: Project Office, Close Combat Weapons Systems, Redstone Arsenal, AL
35898, Comm (256) 876-0728.
z
Ammunition-projectile: Project Manager, Maneuver Ammunition Systems, Picatinny, NJ, DSN
880-3405/4622 or Comm (973) 724-3405/4622.
z
BFVs: Stryker/Bradley Proponency Office, Fort Benning, GA, DSN 784-6491 or Comm (706)
544-6491.
z
Infantry doctrine: Commandant, United States Army Infantry School (USAIS), ATTN: ATSHATD, Fort Benning, GA 31905-5410.

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FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Preface

z
z
z

Reconnaissance gunnery doctrine: DTDCD-E, ATZK-TD, DSN 464-4453 or Comm (502)


624-4453.
Simulations: Advanced Gunnery Training Systems (AGTS) family: Gunnery Branch, DTDCDE, COFT SME, Fort Knox, KY 40121, DSN 464-5806/3633 or Comm (502) 624-5806/3633.
Simulations: Bradley Advanced Training System (BATS) and M2 Conduct-of-Fire Trainers
(COFT): Stryker/Bradley Proponency Office, Fort Benning, GA, DSN 784-6491 or Comm (706)
544-6491.
Simulations: Brigade Combat Team (BCT) COFT XXI, Abrams Full-Crew Interactive Simulator
Trainer (A-FIST) XXI, and M1A1 Tabletop Gunnery Trainer (TGT): National Guard
Representative Office of the Special Assistant to the Commanding General (CG), Fort Knox,
KY, DSN 464-3214 or Comm (502) 624-3214.
Simulations: COFT XXI, BCT COFT XXI, Advanced Bradley Full-Crew Interactive Simulator
Trainer (AB-FIST), and M2 TFT: Senior Bradley Master Gunner ARNG, SACG-ARNG,
USAIC, Fort Benning, GA 31905, DSN 835-5741 or Comm (706) 545-5741.
Training Device: Caliber .50 Inbore Device (Abrams): Chief, Systems Branch (Armor Training
Devices), DTDCD-E, Fort Knox, KY, DSN 464-5656 or Comm (502) 624-5656.

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Chapter 1

Introduction
To defeat the enemy force in todays operational environment (OE) while avoiding
fratricide and collateral damage, crews within the Heavy Brigade Combat Team
(HBCT) and Armored Cavalry Regiment (ACR) must have a thorough knowledge of
the functional capabilities of their platform weapon systems, the techniques of
combat identification (CID), and the effective use of all crew-served weapons. In
addition, HBCT and ACR crews must develop and sustain tactical skills that will
allow them to maneuver effectively and survive on the battlefield. This combination
of crew gunnery and tactical skills is essential for total weapon system proficiency.
Field Manual (FM) 3-20.21 provides a systematic way to train weapon system
proficiency for armor, mechanized infantry, reconnaissance, engineers, fire support
combat platform systems within the HBCT and ACR, as well as sustainment unit
vehicles armed with crew-served weapons. It includes an assessment of combined
gunnery skills in crew gunnery tables (GT) and application in collective tactical
tables. FM 3-20.21 provides basic guidance on platform system employment and
crew-, section-, and platoon-level tactics.
Marine Corps Warfighting Publication (MCWP) 3-12.2 (M1A1 Tank Gunnery only).
Marine Corps designation of this publication applies to M1A1 tank doctrine and
tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP) only. Its use is not intended for other
USMC gunnery.

SECTION I PURPOSE
Contents
Section I Purpose ................................... 1-1
Section II Scope ..................................... 1-2

Section III General Changes .................. 1-2


Chapters ............................................. 1-3
Appendices ......................................... 1-7

1-1. The purpose of FM 3-20.21 is to produce qualified sections and platoons within the HBCT and
ACR. With the paradigm shift from platform-centric to organization-centric, gunnery training and
integration strategies for all platforms within the HBCT and ACR are included in this manual. The direct
fire engagement process for all systems have been defined under the method detect, identify, decide,
engage, and assess (DIDEA). CID encompasses the detect-identify-decide portions of DIDEA. The
HBCTs fires battalion and the fire support personnel organic to the maneuver units use FM 3-09.8 to
conduct field artillery (FA) section indirect fire skill proficiency training and qualification.
1-2. The gunnery principles in this manual are designed to support HBCT and ACR units and the direct
fire engagement process. They allow the commander to have the flexibility to develop his gunnery program
tailored to the OE that coincides with the unit mission. Threat target arrays (target types and ranges) should
be developed based on the threat template for the unit mission. Urban clusters and friendly and

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

1-1

Chapter 1

noncombatant targetry allow the commander to develop more realistic scenarios that exercise the direct fire
engagement process using DIDEA.
1-3. FM 3-20.21 describes system features and ammunition characteristics, training
aids/devices/simulations and simulators (TADSS), engagement techniques, preliminary gunnery training,
gunnery skills tests (GST), GTs, and qualification standards for all direct fire crew weapons. When the
procedures in this manual conflict with the procedures in the technical manual (TM), the TM should be
followed.
1-4. FM 3-20.21 is intended to be a guide. Units may modify the gunnery program to meet local training
constraints, except for qualification tables. Units must evaluate training to make sure it adheres to sound
training policy and provides the unit commander with a viable assessment tool.

SECTION II SCOPE
1-5. FM 3-20.21 outlines HBCT and ACR platform weapon system GTs designed to attain and sustain
crew through platoon tactical gunnery proficiency. FM 3-20.21 describes how to
z
Develop a unit gunnery training program.
z
Conduct the direct fire engagement process.
z
Distribute and control fires as the leader of a squad, section, or platoon.
z
Employ the Abrams tank, Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV), and armed High-Mobility
Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV).
z
Integrate training devices into unit gunnery training.
z
Establish new training sites for combat training.
z
Boresight the weapon systems.
z
Conduct pre-fire checks.
z
Conduct a live-fire accuracy screening test (LFAST) and/or zeroing procedures.
z
Compensate for the loss of a crew member or a malfunction in the fire control system.
1-6. FM 3-20.21 also describes the
z
Characteristics, capabilities, and employment of ammunition used on the platform weapon
systems organic to the HBCT and ACR.
z
Tasks, conditions, standards, and administrative guides for GSTs on all HBCT and ACR combat
platform systems.
z
Procedures for developing tactical scenarios to support collective gunnery.
z
GTs and tactical tables used to determine individual, crew, and platoon gunnery proficiency.
Note. Critical procedural information contained in the operators manuals, which are listed in
the references section, may be repeated in this manual for emphasis.

SECTION III GENERAL CHANGES


1-7. This section provides a general overview of the chapters of the HBCT Gunnery Manual. FM 3-20.21
is a compilation of direct fire weapon systems information from a variety of FMs, technical bulletins (TB),
training circulars (TC), and other documents in order to provide a single source for direct fire gunnery
planning and execution for the HBCT.
1-8. The following manuals information has been incorporated herein to facilitate the gunnery planning
of the HBCT commander and staff:
z
FM 3-20.8.
z
FM 3-20.12.
z
FM 3-22.1.
z
FM 17-12-7.

1-2

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Introduction

1-9. Below is a synopsis of the chapters and their content.

CHAPTERS
CHAPTER 2, PLATFORM SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS
1-10. Chapter 2 describes the weapons platforms available within the HBCT. Chapter 2 does not include
small arms individual or crew-served weapons. Its purpose is to provide a general overview of the
platforms capabilities, limitations, restrictions, and performance data that will help the staff plan their
training.
1-11. Specific weapons of the platforms, including small arms crew-serve weapons are discussed in
Chapter 3.

CHAPTER 3, PLATFORM WEAPON SYSTEMS CAPABILITIES


1-12. Chapter 3 describes the common crew-served weapons that may be mounted on vehicles or are part
of a weapons platform. Chapter 3 details the common characteristics, capabilities, and limitations for the
weapons and their employment.

CHAPTER 4, AMMUNITION
1-13. Chapter 4 includes all the ammunition fired from crew-served weapons, including 5.56mm for squad
automatic weapon (SAW), 7.62 for the M240 series, caliber .50, 25mm, 40mm for MK19 Mod 3, 120mm
Abrams, 120mm mortar, missiles, and smoke grenades for the launchers.
1-14. In the most recent manuals incorporated into the HBCT Gunnery Manual, ammunition was part of
the characteristics and description chapter. The volume of information on the different ammunition in the
HBCT was so large that it required a logical approach to presenting the information in order to meet the
needs of commanders, staff, Master Gunners, planners, and crewmen.
1-15. The ammunition is listed in order by caliber, from smallest to largest, with special purpose munitions
and missiles located near the end of the chapter.
1-16. Added/corrected North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) symbols based on Standardized
Agreement (STANAG) 2316 and 2322.
1-17. Lot number definitions and descriptions have been added. Color coding system has been updated.
Small arms common packaging with appropriate case/carton/can markings has been added.
1-18. Ammunition descriptions for 25mm and above have been enhanced to provide better information to
staff and users of the munition types.
1-19. A new section titled planning considerations has been added to help the staff sections plan for
tactical and gunnery training events. This includes marking transportation vehicles correctly, max load
capabilities, standard pallet pack sizes and weights.
1-20. An overall general ammunition safety section deals primarily with safety-of-use messages (SOUM),
ammunition information notices (AIN), and verification of suspended lot instructions for the range officer
in charge (OIC), range safety officer (RSO), Master Gunner, and gunnery noncommissioned officer (NCO)
use. This information is provided to augment the safety practices of the ammunition supply point as
directed in DA Pamphlet 385-63.

CHAPTER 5, DETECT
1-21. Chapter 5 is based on the initial section of the DIDEA process, which is the framework for the direct
fire engagement. Chapter 5 describes the detection process and provides crew search techniques, detection
guidelines, and classification criteria of threat targets.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

1-3

Chapter 1

CHAPTER 6, IDENTIFY
1-22. Chapter 6 deals with the second section of the DIDEA process. Chapter 6 describes the methods to
accurately identify potential threats and classify them correctly. Chapter 6 also details identification of
friendly forces and marking systems that may be used on the battlefield to reduce the possibility of
fratricide.

CHAPTER 7, DECIDE
1-23. Chapter 7 develops crew decision-making procedures as part of the DIDEA process. Chapter 7
describes the methods used by crews to determine the appropriate means of engagement, using direct or
indirect fires.

CHAPTER 8, ENGAGE DIRECT AND INDIRECT FIRES (CREW)


1-24. Chapter 8 provides the methods and procedures for engaging hostile forces from a crew platform,
using direct and indirect commands. These procedures are detailed in five sections:
z
Section I Battlecarry. Section I defines the battlecarry procedures and its intended purpose.
Section I provides information on how to determine battlesight ranges based on ammunition
type and most probable threat targets.
z
Section II Fire Commands. Section II provides all the basic fire command elements and their
use. Section II details the appropriate standard commands and the crew duties and
responsibilities in relation to those commands.
z
Section III Engagement Techniques. Section III discusses the various techniques for
engaging targets with machine guns.
Note. The primary references for engagement techniques for a vehicles main armament are
located in the respective appendix. This is done to standardize the manual in common chapters
and provided vehicle specific information as appropriate in a stand-alone appendix.
z
z

Section IV Sample Fire Commands. Section IV provides examples of various fire


commands that crews must be proficient at issuing.
Section V Indirect Fire. Section V provides the crew members the minimum call for fire
(CFF) requirements, their definitions, purpose, and order. This goal of this section is to provide
a baseline CFF format for crews to build from during their gunnery training.

1-25. Precision versus degraded gunnery. These are still "methods of engagement," however; they do not
have the same impact on fire commands as standard and reduced fire commands. Precision fire
commands have been defined more clearly and are strictly relative to the firing vehicle.
1-26. Standard and reduced fire commands are defined in detail. All seven elements are the standard. Use
of less than seven elements is a reduced fire command. For example, if the fire control system of a firing
platform provides range, a crew would "reduce" the range element from the fire command. If the
commander can lay the firer's weapon for direction, he can "reduce" the direction element from the fire
command. The "reduced" fire command does not apply to reducing the alert and weapon/ammunition
elements of the fire command only, as in previous versions of various gunnery manuals. It applies to the
capabilities and limitations of the firing platforms fire control system.
1-27. For the Bradley community, this change directly affects your use of the reduced fire command. Full
and reduced fire commands are not mandated based on the firing vehicle posture (offense or defense),
rather, their use is based solely on the current operational functionality of the platform. This actually helps
when describing precision vs. degraded fire commands when dealing with the M2A2 without the laser
range finder (LRF) or kinematic lead.

1-4

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Introduction

1-28. Several changes within the fire commands section are a shift from previous versions of the
respective gunnery manuals; Abrams, Bradley, and Scout. The goal of FM 3-20.21 is to standardize, where
practical, common subject matter across all combat vehicle platforms.
1-29. These are only some of the highlights of this chapter. Crews must be thoroughly familiar and well
versed in the conduct of fire for their platforms and must have an in depth understanding of the contents of
this chapter to be the most effective on the range and in combat.

CHAPTER 9, ENGAGE COLLECTIVE


1-30. Chapter 9 describes the methodology behind engaging targets as section- and platoon-size elements.
Direct and indirect fire planning are discussed in detail. Direct fire engagement is the highlight of this
chapter and includes a couple of minor changes to current collective engagement techniques.
1-31. A WEAPON CONTROL STATUS has been added as a part of the fire command. This will give the
section or platoon leader the ability to control the fires of their element while still allowing the flexibility to
engage targets as they present themselves based on the weapon control status given.
1-32. ORIENTATION is no longer an optional element to the fire command.

CHAPTER 10, ASSESS


1-33. Chapter 10 is the final chapter that deals with the DIDEA process. Chapter 10 provides the methods
of accurately assessing the effects of fires (both direct and indirect) employed by the vehicle crewmen in
the HBCT.

CHAPTER 11, TRAINING DEVICES


1-34. Chapter 11 is a companion to TC 25-8. It provides the staff an overview of the primary training
devices that are available in the Army Training Support Center system, as well as some commercial offthe-shelf (COTS) products that enhance the gunnery training program for the unit.

CHAPTER 12, GUNNERY TRAINING PROGRAM


1-35. Chapter 12 describes the methodology and requirements for training vehicle crews to be successful
at gunnery. Chapter 12 covers preparatory training for all weapons platforms and is outlined so that units
lacking Master Gunners will have a sufficient basis of knowledge to train their vehicle crews effectively.

CHAPTER 13, RANGE OPERATIONS


1-36. Chapter 13 outlines the procedures for successfully planning, coordination, and execution of a
gunnery density through all phases. Sample training plans are included to assist units without Master
Gunner support.

CHAPTER 14, INDIVIDUAL AND CREW LIVE-FIRE PREREQUISITE TRAINING


1-37. Chapter 14 incorporates former prerequisite testing (Tank Crew Gunnery Skills Tests [TCGST],
Bradley Gunnery Skills Test [BGST]) under a consolidated prerequisite testing format. This testing
consists of two partsGST and GT I (GT I - Crew Critical Skills Test).
1-38. GST consolidates and replaces previous editions of prerequisite gunnery testing for Abrams and
Bradley crews in addition to adding truck crews. This testing focuses on the individual skills required of
vehicle crewmen to safely and successfully perform selected critical gunnery tasks. All GST testing
consists of six tasks for each weapons platform. Two of those six tasks are common to all weapons
platforms and will be conducted by all vehicle crewmen, the other four tasks are vehicle specific. Soldiers
will be tested on their assigned specific weapon platform.
1-39. GST is a requirement prior to conducting GT II, the Preliminary Crew Proficiency Course (PCPC).

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

1-5

Chapter 1

1-40. GT I, Crew Critical Skills Test, is an additional prerequisite test that focuses on critical tasks that are
performed by the vehicle crew. As with GST, GT I consists of weapons platform specific tasks and
common tasks that will be conducted by all crewmen prior to advancement to GT II.

CHAPTER 15, CREW EVALUATION


1-41. Chapter 15 details the entire crew gunnery training model and its evaluation. Chapter 15 thoroughly
describes the evaluation process, threat matrices for point calculation, sample scoresheets, and the
evaluator roles and responsibilities.
1-42. As the evaluation is a hybrid model of Abrams, Bradley, and truck gunnery models of previous
books, crews must master the evaluation process prior to any gunnery density. To augment their training, a
Master Gunner toolbox has been established with the Vehicle Crew Evaluator Exportable Package
(VCEEP) to facilitate certification of units evaluators. Visit https://www.us.army.mil/suite/kc/9773910 on
the Army Knowledge Online (AKO) website for tools and supporting products for the evaluation process,
classes, automated score sheets, and more. Users must have a valid AKO account for access to be granted.

CHAPTER 16, STABILIZED PLATFORM GUNNERY


1-43. Chapter 16 outlines the new design of the gunnery training tables for Abrams, Bradley, and Guardian
Armored Security Vehicle (ASV) crews. They contain all targetry requirements, minimum proficiency
levels (MPL), ammunition requirements, and task, conditions, and standards for all engagements in during
crew gunnery.
1-44. The Table numbering system for the crew tables has been adjusted, removing any tables that were
provided using simulators. The updated table names are listed in the following paragraphs for clarity.
1-45. GT II, Crew Proficiency Course, is the updated title for Bradley Crew Proficiency Course (BCPC)
and Tank Crew Proficiency Course (TCPC) from previous gunnery manuals. This remains a live fire
prerequisite for all crews.
1-46. GT III, Basic Machine Gun, is strictly used for machine gun training, but is designed to be fired as a
stand alone table with five engagements, or as a Table 34 including five engagements from GT IV, Basic
Main Gun Training.
1-47. GT IV, Basic Main Gun, may be fired as a stand alone table, or with GT III, Basic Machine Gun
Training, as listed above.
1-48. GT V, Crew Practice, is the updated title for previous gunnery manual editions Table VII, and
serves as the final practice live-fire event prior to crew qualification.
1-49. GT VI, Crew Qualification is the updated title for previous gunnery manual editions Table VIII, and
serves as the crew qualification requirement for Abrams and Bradley crews. Further, it is the live-fire
prerequisite for advancing to section gunnery.

CHAPTER 17, UNSTABILIZED PLATFORM GUNNERY


1-50. Chapter 17 outlines standardized truck gunnery for all vehicles with crew-served weapons within the
HBCT. This crew gunnery training methodology includes scouts, military police (MP), unstabilized ASV
variants, as well as sustainment unit vehicles.
1-51. The gunnery methodology listed in Chapter 17 uses the standardized scoring procedures as listed in
Chapter 15.
1-52. Units are encouraged to use this training model for all vehicles, whether wheeled or tracked, that do
not have a mounted maneuver gunnery model listed in a separate FM. For example, a units supply
sergeant that is assigned a Light Medium Tactical Vehicle (LMTV) with caliber .50 machine gun may fire
these tables as mounted qualification prior to a collective convoy live-fire exercise (LFX).

1-6

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Introduction

CHAPTER 18, COLLECTIVE GUNNERY


1-53. Chapter 18 outlines the execution of section and platoon gunnery qualification. Section gunnery
(Combat Tables VII, VIII and IX) is now a prerequisite to platoon gunnery qualification (Combat Tables
X, XI and XII).
1-54. Commanders are given the freedom to assemble and qualify their sections and platoons as either
vehicle type pure or combined arms mixed. Some examples of all combinations are included with this
chapter.
1-55. Targetry requirements in this chapter have been specifically linked to the ammunition resourced plus
any first round hit savings (a.k.a. harvested) ammunition available to the firing crews. Target
requirements based on ammunition availability allows the unit commander to tailor his force in a mixed
fashion that meets his desired end-state platoon composition. For example, if a commander wishes one of
his platoons to include one tank, one Bradley, and two armed HMMWVs, the ammunition is resourced by
vehicle, and determines the appropriate maximum number of targets for scenario development.
1-56. In-depth descriptions and sample scenarios are provided to assist units in their collective scenario
development process.

CHAPTER 19, COMBINED ARMS LIVE-FIRE EXERCISE


1-57. Chapter 19 is dedicated to the capabilities of the commander and staff to develop, plan, coordinate,
execute, and evaluate combined arms LFX from platoon (+) to task force level. It includes sample
scenarios for both single training area and simultaneous multiple range complex, training area, and firing
point use.

APPENDICES
1-58. The appendices are divided into packets for specific platforms. The purpose of these appendices is
for each crew to have a copy for gunnery as well as deployment. The chapters listed above are
predominantly used as a reference for planning purposes; the appendices to augment the crews technical
manuals to conduct common tasks.
z
Appendix A, Abrams Live-Fire Preparation.
z
Appendix B, Bradley Fighting Vehicle Live-Fire Preparation.
z
Appendix C, Armed Truck Live-Fire Preparation.
z
Appendix D, Rifle Squad Gunnery.
z
Appendix E, Engineer Squad Qualification Tables.
z
Appendix F, Safety.
z
Appendix G, Guardian ASV Live-Fire Preparation.
z
Appendix H, 120-mm Mortar Gunnery.
1-59. These appendices are specifically designed to reduce the printable requirements for the crew and
squad.

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FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

1-7

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Chapter 2

Platform Systems Characteristics


All weapons platform systems within the Heavy Brigade Combat Team (HBCT)
contribute to the combined arms effort. They provide the infantry, armor,
reconnaissance, engineer, and fire support elements with firepower, armor protection,
and battlefield agility.
To employ weapons platform systems within the HBCT effectively, Soldiers must
know the characteristics of their vehicle, fire control, weapon systems, and
ammunition. Chapter 2 specifically discusses the characteristics of the weapon
platforms found within the HBCT.

Contents
Section I Abrams Systems .................... 2-1
M1A1 Model ....................................... 2-2
M1A1 AIM Model ................................ 2-2
M1A1 AIM SA Model .......................... 2-4
M1A2 SEP Model ............................... 2-5
M1A2 SEP V2 (Version 2) Model ....... 2-7
Section II Bradley Fighting Vehicle
Systems ..................................................... 2-9
M2A2 and M3A2 Models .................. 2-10
M2A2 ODS and M3A2 ODS Models . 2-10
M2A3 and M3A3 Models .................. 2-11
M7 Bradley Fire Support Team ........ 2-14

Section III Guardian Armored


Security Vehicle (M1117) ........................ 2-14
Section IV Armed HMMWV Systems ... 2-16
M1025A2/M1026A1 Armed HMMWV
Model ................................................ 2-16
M1114 Up-Armored Armed HMMWV
Model ................................................ 2-17
M1151 Enhanced Up-Armored
Armed HMMWV Model ..................... 2-17
Section V M1064A3 Self-Propelled
120-mm Mortar Carrier ............................ 2-18

SECTION I ABRAMS SYSTEMS


2-1. The current fielded models of the Abrams main battle tank include the following:
z
M1A1 (Army National Guard of the United States [ARNGUS]).
z

M1A1 HA (heavy armor).

M1A1 AIM (Abrams integrated management) program.

M1A1 AIM ED (embedded diagnostics).

M1A1 AIM SA (situational awareness).

M1A2 SEP (system enhancement package) series.

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FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

2-1

Chapter 2

M1A1 MODEL
2-2. The M1A1/M1A1 HA has the following characteristic (see Figure 2-1):
z
The 120-mm smoothbore cannon.
z
Increased armor protection (HA).
z
A chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) overpressurization system.
z
Digital electronic control unit (DECU) HA Model.

Figure 2-1. M1A1

M1A1 AIM MODEL


2-3. The M1A1 AIM program was designed to upgrade and extend the life of the aging M1A1 fleet. The
AIM program rebuilds the M1A1 to zero hours and adds various upgrades. M1A1 AIM upgrades
include
z
Revised hull and turret network boxes (RHNB&TNB) (see Figure 2-2).

Figure 2-2. Revised hull and turret network boxes

2-2

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Platform Systems Characteristics

z
z

DECU for controlling and monitoring engine performance.


Upgraded tank commanders panel (UTCP) (see Figure 2-3).

Figure 2-3. Upgraded tank commanders panel


z

Eyesafe laser range finder (ELRF) (see Figure 2-4).

Figure 2-4. Eyesafe laser range finder


z

EDs are built-in diagnostics that ease fault isolation and minimize the amount of diagnostic test
equipment required to troubleshoot a fault.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

2-3

Chapter 2

z
z
z
z

Pulse jet-air system (PJS) that assists in maintaining the vehicles air induction system.
Battlefield override system that allows crews to override the tanks automotive protective
systems and operate the tank in emergency situations.
Drivers hatch interlock.
Increased armor protection.

M1A1 AIM SA MODEL


2-4. The M1A1 AIM SA adds the following upgrades to the M1A1 AIM upgrades:
z
Blue force tracker (BFT) Force XXI command and control system that allows the M1A1 AIM
SA crew to communicate digitally with a wider spectrum of Army vehicles.
z
The First Generation Forward Looking, Infrared (FLIR) (1st Gen FLIR) radiant thermal sighting
system, which gives the vehicle commander (VC) and gunner the ability to detect, identify, and
engage targets more accurately at a greater range. The 2d Gen FLIR has 3X, 6X, 13X, 25X, and
50X magnifications. The 25X and 50X are digital magnifications of the 13X picture. The 6X is
a digital magnification of the 3X picture.
z
A position navigation (POSNAV) system, which gives the crew the ability to use far-target
locate to calculate grids to targets for accurate digital calls for fire.
z
A drivers vision enhancement (DVE). The DVE is an uncooled, FLIR night-vision device. It has
a sensor module and a display module. The DVE is a real-time thermal-imaging system that
improves the drivers SA during limited visibility operations (see Figure 2-5 through Figure 2-7).

Figure 2-5. Drivers vision enhancement

2-4

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Platform Systems Characteristics

Figure 2-6. Drivers vision enhancement (front display)

Figure 2-7. Drivers vision enhancement (rear connections)

M1A2 SEP MODEL


2-5. The M1A2 SEP tank system is designed to accommodate new and upgraded components required
for the continually expanding performance requirements and to facilitate ease of maintenance (see Figure
2-8). This is accomplished within the same space as the M1A1 tank. Improvements to the M1A2 SEP
include the following:
z
The M1A2 VC can acquire targets more rapidly using the Commanders Independent Thermal
Viewer (CITV) (see Figure 2-9). The CITV decreases target hand-off time by integrating the
target designate function incorporated in the Commanders Control Handle Assembly (CCHA).
This allows the VC to acquire targets independently from the gunner and then designate the
gunner to those targets.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

2-5

Chapter 2

Figure 2-8. M1A2 SEP


z

Increased the accepted range parameters for ballistic solution calculation from 200 to 3990 +/-10
meters on the M1A1 series, to 200 to 4,990 +/- 10 meters on the M1A2 SEP series that has
enhanced engagement range.
A special ballistic range default parameter of 150 meters has been created for canister rounds. If
a range is input outside of the appropriate range band for canister, the computer defaults to 150
meters to calculate ballistic solution. Lased ranges of 200 to 1,100 meters will generate a
ballistic solution for canister. For manually inputted ranges or battlesight-toggled ranges ballistic
solutions are generated between 25 and 1,100 meters for canister. Ballistic solutions for the coax
are calculated between ranges of 25 and 2,000 meters.

Figure 2-9. Commanders independent thermal viewer

2-6

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Platform Systems Characteristics

z
z

z
z

z
z

The technological advancement of the POSNAV allows the fire control system to apply dynamic
cant to ballistic solutions for increased accuracy while on the move.
The built-in fault management system allows crews and maintenance teams to identify and
isolate malfunctions, in many cases with no external diagnostic test equipment. In a fraction of a
second, tripped circuit breakers are automatically reset by the fault management software. This
nonintrusive test leaves the crew unaware that this is even happening.
The 1st Gen FLIR radiant thermal sighting system gives the VC and gunner the ability to detect,
identify, and engage targets more accurately at a greater range. The 1st Gen FLIR has 3X, 6X,
13X, 25X, and 50X magnifications. The 25X and 50X are digital magnifications of the 13X
picture. The 6X is a digital magnification of the 3X picture.
Improved navigational capabilities with the Global Positioning System (GPS) built into the tank
provides a more accurate positional update than the initial navigation system of the M1A2.
Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below (FBCB2). The FBCB2 is a digital battlefield
command information system. The FBCB2 and integrated communications, command, and
control (IC3) give crews SA and real-time command and control.
A thermal management system (air cooling unit) cools the inside of the tank to protect the
electronics and provide crew comfort.
The DVE is an uncooled, FLIR night-vision device. It has a sensor module and a display module.
The DVE is a real-time thermal-imaging system that improves the drivers SA during limited
visibility operations.

M1A2 SEP V2 (VERSION 2) MODEL


2-6. The M1A2 SEP V2 adds the following upgrades to the M1A2 SEP upgrades:
z
Improved 2d Gen FLIR (Block I upgrade).
z
Improved hull system and turret system electronics with faster, more capable processors.
z
Six additional batteries for providing 8 to 10 hours of (engine off) turret operations.
z
Far-target-locate capability to calculate grids to targets for accurate digital calls for fire.
z
A DVE, which is a thermal periscope that replaces the AN/VVS-2 (infrared) IR drivers night
sight.
z
Improved turret armor packages.

M1 ABRAMS FUEL CONSUMPTION


2-7. The M1 Abrams series is powered by a 1500 hp Honeywell AGT1500, gas turbine engine. It has a
six speed (four forward, and two reverse) Allison X-1100-3B Hydro-Kinetic Automatic transmission,
giving the M1 a top speed of 42 mph (68 kmph) (governed) on paved roads, and 30 mph (48 kmph) crosscountry. The M1 Abrams series can be fueled with diesel fuel, kerosene, any grade of motor gasoline, JP-4
jet fuel, or JP-8 jet fuel.
2-8. The gas turbine propulsion system has high performance characteristics and high fuel consumption
(starting up the turbine alone consumes nearly 11 gallons). Because the M1 Abrams uses so much fuel, is
always a concern. Table 2-1 and Table 2-2 are charts to help planners decide how much fuel and
ammunition is needed for Abrams tanks based on tactical maneuver operations (operations requiring
movement with limited time spent with engines idling).

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

2-7

Chapter 2

Table 2-1. Fuel consumption chart


Number of Tanks in Element

Hours of Operation (Moving)

10

11

12

13

14

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

550

600

650

700

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

600

750

900

1050

1200

1350

1500

1650

1800

1950

2100

Transfe
r

620

775

930

1085

1240

1395

1550

1705

1860

2015

2170

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

2200

2400

2600

2800

RED

816

1020

1224

1488

1632

1836

2040

2244

2448

2652

2856

1000

1250

1500

1750

2000

2250

2500

2750

3000

3250

3500

1200

1500

1800

2100

2400

2700

3000

3300

3600

3900

4200

BLACK

1216

1520

1824

2128

2432

2736

3040

3344

3648

3952

4256

1400

1750

2100

2450

2800

3150

3500

3850

4200

4550

4900

1600

2000

2400

2800

3200

3600

4000

4400

4800

5200

5600

Transfer: When the units begin reporting transferring fuel from the front fuel cells to the rear.
Dark Gray: When the units begin reporting their fuel status as red (approximately fuel remaining).
Black: When the units begin reporting their fuel status as black (approximately fuel remaining).
Light Gray: Light gray shaded areas indicate two Heavy Expanded Mobility Tactical Trucks (HEMTT) are required to
refuel entire element (based on a nominal 2,200 gals per HEMTT to allow for hot weather fuel expansion.
Dark gray shaded areas indicate three HEMTTs are required to refuel entire element.

2-8

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Platform Systems Characteristics

Table 2-2. Comparison of Abrams technical data by model


Characteristics

M1A1 M1A1 AIM M1A1 AIM ED M1A1 AIM SA M1A2 SEP M1A2 SEP V2

Speed, Land

41.5 mph, 67 kph

Slope Climb

60%

Side Slope

40%

Trench Crossing (Inches)

108

Vertical Wall Climb (Inches)

49

Personnel Capacity (Crew


Members)

120mm Ammunition Ready

17

18

120mm Ammunition Bustle


Stowage

34 or 36

36

120mm Ammunition Hull


Stowage

Caliber .50 Ammunition


Ready

100

Caliber .50 Ammunition


Stowed

900

M240 7.62-mm Coax


Ammunition Ready

2,800

M240 7.62-mm Loaders


Ammunition Stowed

200

M240 7.62-mm Ammo


Stowed

8,400

M16/M4 5.56-mm Ammo


Stowed

210

Reference: Operation under


Usual Conditions:

TM 9-2350-264-10-1

TM 9-2350-388-10-1

Reference: Operation under


Unusual Conditions:

TM 9-2350-264-10-2

TM 9-2350-388-10-2

LIN

T13168

T13305

NSN

2350-01-087-1095

2350-01-328-5964

Weight (Combat Loaded)

67.6 Tons

68.5 Tons

Fuel Available/Fuel Usable

504 Gallons/498 Gallons

504 Gallons/445.4
Gallons

42

SECTION II BRADLEY FIGHTING VEHICLE SYSTEMS


2-9. The original Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV) models are the M2 Infantry Fighting Vehicle (IFV)
and the M3 Cavalry Fighting Vehicle (CFV), both of which were fielded in 1983. The following are the
model numbers that represent upgrades or differences in system configurations and capabilities:
z
M2A2 and M3A2.
z

M2A2 ODS (Operation Desert Storm) and M3A2 ODS.

M2A2 ODS-E (engineer vehicle).

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

2-9

Chapter 2

M2A3 and M3A3.

M7 Bradley Fire Support Team (BFIST).

M2A2 AND M3A2 MODELS


2-10. The A2 model offers several improvements over its predecessors. These improvements included an
increase of 100 hp in the power train, 30-mm armor protection, armored-tile protection capability, and spall
liners (see Figure 2-10).

Figure 2-10. M2A2/M3A2

M2A2 ODS AND M3A2 ODS MODELS


2-11. Lessons learned during ODS inspired the development of new Bradley models, the M2A2 ODS and
M3A2 ODS. The ODS upgrades include the following:
z
ELRF. The ELRF is part of the vehicles Integrated Sight Unit (ISU). Using the ELRF, the crew
can determine target ranges from 200 to 9,995 meters, accurate within 10 meters. The ELRF
induces the weapon systems to superelevate for the determined range.
z

z
z
z
z
z
z

2-10

Tactical Navigation System (TACNAV). The TACNAV system comprises the precision
lightweight GPS receiver (PLGR) and the Digital Compass System (DCS). It reports the
vehicles position in three dimensionslongitude and latitude, grid location, and elevation. The
PLGR works with the DCS to provide the BFV hull and turret azimuths, location, directions,
distance to way points, and steer-to data. This information shows up on both the commanders
and drivers compass displays.
Improved vehicle stowage.
Bench seats.
A tenth-man seat.
Mounted water ration heater.
Electric lift for engine-access door.
Outside stowage for personal gear.

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Platform Systems Characteristics

z
z

Three 25-mm ammunition boxes. Each box contains 50 rounds of linked ammunition (a hot
box).
DVE. The DVE is an uncooled, FLIR night-vision device. It has a sensor module and a display
module. The DVE is a real-time thermal-imaging system that improves the drivers SA during
limited visibility operations.
FBCB2. The FBCB2 is a digital battlefield command information system. The FBCB2 and IC3
give A2 ODS and A3 crews SA and real-time command and control.

M2A3 AND M3A3 MODELS


2-12. Innovations on the digitized M2A3 and M3A3 BFV improve the BFVs ability to shoot, move, and
communicate (see Figure 2-11 and Table 2-3 on page 2-13):
z Target Acquisition. Each A3 model has a commanders independent viewer (CIV) and the
Improved Bradley Acquisition Subsystem (IBAS).

CIV. The CIV gives the A3 dual-sight capability. With the CIV, the commander can acquire
targets independently from the gunner.
While the gunner kills acquired targets, the commander can search for new ones. He
then designates the new targets and hands them over to the gunner. If for any reason
the gunner cannot fire, the commander can do so from his station by selecting IBAS on
the remote binocular display (RBD).
The CIV can traverse a full circle (360 degrees) in azimuth and can depress and elevate
from -22 to +60 degrees.
The CIV uses 2d Gen FLIR technology and day-TV video. The video image from the
CIV appears on the RBD. This allows the viewer to watch the image with both eyes at
the same time. The gunner and squad leader can also watch this video signal.

IBAS. On the A3, the gunners primary sight is the Target-Acquisition System (TAS),
which is part of the IBAS. Like the CIV, the TAS employs 2d Gen FLIR technology and
day-TV video. Like the A2 ODS, the TAS also has direct-view optics (DVO) and the
ELRF. The TAS provides limited sight travel without the disturbing turret motion
experienced in the earlier BFVs. The TAS periscopes head mirror assembly provides 5
degrees of travel left or right of center and 17 degrees of travel above and below center.
This extends the gunner sights elevation range from -22 to +60 degrees. This
independent travel accommodates the aided target tracker (ATT) that allows the gunner to
track two different targets within the same field of view (FOV) simultaneously. Using the
autopoint function allows the system to slew quickly to the closest tracked box nearest the
center of the reticle. As with the CIV, both the commander and the squad leader can see the
TAS video image. The TAS is capable of zooming 4x to 12x optically and 24x 48x digitally
to help identify the threat (digital zoom).

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

2-11

Chapter 2

Figure 2-11. M2A3/M3A3


z
z

z
z

z
z

2-12

Turret Drive System (TDS). The TDS moves the weapon and stabilizes the A3 weapon
systems. The TDS responds to fire control system and crew inputs from the handstation.
SA. Improvements to the sights and the commanders tactical display (CTD) give the A3
commander a level of SA never before possible. The squad leaders display (SLD), controlled by
video selection buttons on the monitor, also gives passengers SA of the battlefield. It gives more
information about the battlefield location of each vehicle in the company, team, or task force. It
also gives operational graphics, and it lets the leader send and receive orders and mission updates
and respond to an expanding area of operations.
Electrical Power Control. The A3 has segregated electrical power control. This means that
many of its components can keep working when others fail. Connection to a data bus provides
redundant communications. The A3 has a 400-ampere current-regulated generator. The generator
supplies power to six 24-volt hull batteries and one 24-volt emergency-backup turret battery.
Fire Control. The A3s fire control system allows the crew to independently search, track, and
conduct target hand-off. Like the other BFVs, it also allows the commander to override the
gunner and abort a fired missile.
IC3. The IC3 digital battle command information system provides SA. It also offers real-time
command and control information to A3 crews and squads.
Navigation. The A3s subsystem POSNAV provides the A3 with accurate positioning and
navigation data. It works by combining GPS data with data obtained from an inertial navigation
unit (INU) and a vehicle motion sensor (VMS). Using the CTDs digital map, the crew can
navigate by loading and selecting routes and overlays.
CBRN Protection. The A3s large gas particulate filter system has additional crew stations and
heaters to provide CBRN protection to the entire crew and squads.
Diagnostics. The A3s built-in-test (BIT) continually monitors the systems turret status. On the
CTD, the BIT shows warnings and cautions about potentially dangerous faults. It recommends
degraded modes of operation when needed. Using pre-mission and preventive maintenance
checks and services (PMCS) checklists simplifies system maintenance.

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Platform Systems Characteristics

Table 2-3. Comparison of BFV technical data by model


Characteristics

M2A2

Speed, Land

41 mph, 66 kph

Slope Climb

60%

Side Slope

40%

M3A2

M2A2 ODS, M3A2 ODS


ODS-E

M2A3

M3A3

M7

38 mph, 61 kph

Trench Crossing 84
Vertical Wall
Climb

36

Personnel
Capacity

3 crew 7 passengers 3 crew 2


(M2)
passengers
6 passengers (M2A2)

3 crew 7
passengers

3 crew 2
passengers

3 crew 7
passengers

3 crew 2
passengers

4 crew 1
passenger

Firing Ports

6 (M2), 2 (M2A2)

TOW Missile
Variant

All

NA

TOW Missile
Ready

NA

TOW Missile
Stowed

25-mm Ammo
Ready

300

25-mm Ammo
Stowed

600

10

1,200

600

10

1,200

600

M240C 7.62-mm 800


Coax Ready

800, 400

10

NA

1,200

300

800, 400

800

M240C 7.62-mm 1,400


Coax Ammo
Stowed

3,600

1,400

3,400

1,400

3,400

2,800

M240B 7.62-mm 2,200


Ammo Stowed

3,200

2,200

3,400

2,200

3,400

NA

M231 FPW
5.56-mm Ammo
Stowed

4,200

2,200

2,520

NA

M16/M4 5.56mm Ammo


Stowed

2,520

1,680

2,520

1,680

2,520

1,680

1,680

Notes.
1. Firing the TOW 2, TOW 2A, and TOW 2B missile from the basic TOW launcher is possible; however, the missile will have a
reduced probability of hit.
2. TOW missile storage is reduced if squad is equipped with Javelin. M2 series IFV can replace up to 2 TOW with Javelin
missiles.
3. The Bradley A3 command vehicle will have 400 7.62 rounds in the ready stowage.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

2-13

Chapter 2

M7 BRADLEY FIRE SUPPORT TEAM


2-13. Integrating fire support team (FIST) mission equipment lets the Bradley crew complete fire support
missions while the 25-mm automatic cannon provides the BFIST crew self-defense and the ability to locate
targets on the move. This model adds an inertial navigation system and a new targeting station control
panel. A mission processor unit automates the fire request system.
2-14. The M7 BFIST replaces the aging M981 "hammerhead" Fire Support Team-Vehicle (FIST-V) in
selected mechanized units (see Figure 2-12). The vehicle provides company FIST and battalion/brigade fire
support officers with a vehicle platform where they can locate, plan, coordinate, execute and direct timely,
accurate, indirect field artillery (FA) and mortar fires.

Figure 2-12. M7 Bradley Fire Support Vehicle


2-15. As the name implies, the M7 BFIST is a modified M2A2 ODS BFV that has been equipped with a
specialized fire support mission equipment package (MEP). In addition to providing the critical FIST with
the same mobility, survivability and battlefield signature as the A2 series Bradley, the M7 provides FIST
with a 25-mm cannon for self-defense. Most important, the M7 design provides, for the first time, the
ability to "target on the move."

SECTION III GUARDIAN ARMORED SECURITY VEHICLE (M1117)


2-16. The Guardian Armored Security Vehicle (ASV) (M1117) is a four-wheel drive vehicle with
exceptional maneuverability and versatility. It can negotiate barricades, climb up to a 60-percent grade,
travel cross-country over challenging terrain, and traverse deep mud, snow, or water with equal ease. The
ASV is lightweight and air-transportable by C-130 and larger aircraft. This section discusses the vehicles
characteristics and gives a brief overview of its capabilities (see Figure 2-13).
2-17. The lightly armored, four-wheel drive ASV is equipped with a powerful 8.3 liter Cummins diesel
engine and an Allison 6-speed automatic transmission. It provides power sufficient to climb 60-percent
slopes and maintain highway speeds up to 63 miles per hour. A propeller shaft couples the transmission
with the drive transfer unit. Output from the transfer unit drives the rear differential when in two-wheel
drive mode and the front and rear differentials when in four-wheel drive mode. Operators can engage four

2-14

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Platform Systems Characteristics

wheel drive on the fly by actuating a shift lever at the drivers station. The four-wheel independent
suspension allows smooth cross-country operation that easily negotiates 24-inch vertical obstacles and
enhances the ease of power steering and power braking. This modern design provides the mobility, agility,
and durability required for the wide range of missions encountered by military police (MP) Soldiers (see
Table 2-4 for more technical data).
2-18. The ASV fords hard bottom waterways up to 5 feet deep without any preparation. The ASV also
includes a central tire inflation system that enhances mobility by allowing tire pressure adjustment to
accommodate four different terrain typeshighways, secondary roads, off-road, and emergency conditions.
In addition to the central tire inflation system, the ASVs run-flat capability prevents vehicle
immobilization due to tire failure. The central tire inflation system may also provide additional operational
capabilities when tires are punctured by small arms fire or shrapnel and tire pressure is not reduced enough
to allow run-flat capability. The ASV also includes a winch capable of conducting retrieval operations at
15,000 pounds with a snatch block and cable for self-recovery operations.

Figure 2-13. Armored Security Vehicle M1117


2-19. The ASVs firepower consists of a one-person, turreted primary weapons station with a mounted 40millimeter automatic grenade launcher (MK19) and .50-caliber machine gun (M2/M48). The turret
traverses 360 degrees and allows for elevation of 45 degrees. The day/night target acquisition and fire
control system allows the gunner to engage targets at the maximum effective ranges of both weapon
systems. The ammunition ready racks hold 96 rounds of 40-millimeter ammunition and 200 rounds of .50caliber ammunition. The vehicle also includes a M249 squad automatic weapon mount and multi-salvo
smoke grenade system. The ASV teams weapons includes the following:
z
M249 machine guns.
z
M16/M4 rifles.
z
M203 grenade launchers.
z
AT-4 antitank weapon.
z
M9 pistol.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

2-15

Chapter 2

Table 2-4. Technical data of the M1117 - Guardian ASV


Feature

Data

Configuration Type

4X4

Operational Length

246 in

Operational Width

101 in

Operational Height

102 in

Minimum Ground Clearance

18 in

Maximum Speed

63 mph

Maximum Range

440 mi

Fording Depth

60 in

Gross Vehicle Weight

29,560 lbs

Vertical Wall

24 in

Maximum Climb Slope

60%

Maximum Side Slope

30%

SECTION IV ARMED HMMWV SYSTEMS


2-20. The armed High-Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) is the light-weight vehicle
used by the HBCT scouts and various sustainment elements. It provides the crew with increased mobility,
as well as firepower against threat light-armored vehicles and troops. To use the vehicle to its potential, the
crew must know the characteristics, capabilities, and differences of the various armed HMMWV platforms.
Table 2-5 on page 2-18 shows armed HMMWV technical data by model. Current fielded models include
the following:
z
M1025A2 armed HMMWV.
z
M1026A1 armed HMMWV.
z
M1114 up-armored HMMWV.
z
M1151 up-armored HMMWV.

M1025A2/M1026A1 ARMED HMMWV MODEL


2-21. The M1025A2 and M1026A1 HMMWVs are armed-carrier configurations of the HMMWV family
(see Figure 2-14). The vehicles are equipped with basic armor. The weapon mount, located on the roof of
the vehicle, is adaptable to mount either the M240B 7.62-mm machine gun, M2 caliber .50 machine gun,
or MK19 grenade launcher. The weapons platform can be traversed 360 degrees. The vehicles can climb
60-percent slopes and traverse a side slope of up to 40-percent when fully loaded. The vehicles can ford
hard-bottom water crossings up to 30 inches without a deep water fording kit and up to 60 inches with the
kit. The M1026 and M1026A1 are equipped with the self-recovery winch, which can also be used to
recover like systems. The M1025A2 and M1026A1 models have the latest modifications applied to the
vehicles.

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3 September 2009

Platform Systems Characteristics

Figure 2-14. M1025A2/M1026A1

M1114 UP-ARMORED ARMED HMMWV MODEL


2-22. The M1114 HMMWV is an up-armored configuration of the HMMWV family (see Figure 2-15).
The vehicle is equipped with additional armor both on the sides and underneath to protect the crew from
small arms ammunition and mines. All other vehicle characteristics and weapon systems are identical to the
M1025A2 model. The additional weight of the armor and the change to the center of mass of the vehicle
limits the M1114 HMMWVs slope climbing to 40-percent and side slope traversing limit to 30-percent
slopes.

Figure 2-15. M1114 Up-Armored Armed HMMWV

M1151 ENHANCED UP-ARMORED ARMED HMMWV MODEL


2-23. The M1151 HMMWV is an enhanced up-armored configuration of the HMMWV family (see Figure
2-16). The vehicle is equipped with a heavier chassis and an improved engine that enables the use of
removable add-on armor protection.

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FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

2-17

Chapter 2

Figure 2-16. M1151 Enhanced Up-Armored HMMWV


Table 2-5. Comparison of armed HMMWV technical data by model
Characteristics

M1025A2/M1026A1

M1114

M1151

Speed, Land

78 mph, 125 kph

Slope Climb

60%

40%

60%

Side Slope

40%

30%

40%

Water Fording Depth

60 with fording kit, 30 without fording kit

Vertical Wall Climb

18

Personnel Capacity

3 crew members, 1 passenger

Caliber .50 Ammunition


Ready

100

Caliber .50 Ammunition


Stowed

700

MK19 Ammunition Ready

48

MK19 Ammunition Stowed

240

55 mph, 88 kph

SECTION V M1064A3 SELF-PROPELLED 120-mm MORTAR CARRIER


2-24. This carrier is designed to carry the 4.7-inch (120-mm) mortar M121. The mortar can be fired from a
turntable in the carrier or removed and fired from a ground baseplate. The carrier has a crew of four,
including the driver (see Figure 2-17). (See Table 2-6 for technical data pertaining to the M1064A3 mortar
carrier.) The M1064A3s capabilities and features are
z
It travels easily over rough terrain.
z
It fords water up to 40 inches deep.
z
It can move at high speeds on improved roads and highways.
z
It is air transportable and can be dropped by parachute to troops in the field.
z
It has an enlarged three-piece firing hatch. This permits mortar to be fired through an arc of 90
degrees over the rear of the carrier.
z
It has a cupola with a caliber .50 machine gun.
z
It is propelled and steered on land and in water by tracks.

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3 September 2009

Platform Systems Characteristics

z
z
z

It has M17 periscopes around the drivers and commanders hatches for vision when buttoned
up.
It has an AN/VVS-2 drivers night-vision periscope stowed near the driver. The periscope can
be installed in the drivers hatch to provide night vision under blackout conditions.
It can be equipped to carry a CBRN (gas particulate filter) unit, a drivers windshield kit, an
engine coolant heater kit, and a personnel heater kit (for cold weather operation).

Figure 2-17. M1064A3 self-propelled 120-mm mortar carrier


Table 2-6. Technical data of the M1064A3 self-propelled
120-mm mortar carrier
Feature

Data

Speed Land

40 mph, 64 kph

Slope Climb

60%

Side Slope

30%

Trench Crossing

66

Vertical Wall Climb

24

Personnel Capacity

2 crew members 4 gun crew

Caliber .50 Ammunition Ready

100 rds

Caliber .50 Ammunition Stowed

1,900 rds

M121 Ammunition Horizontal

45 rds

M121 Ammunition Vertical

24 rds

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2-19

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Chapter 3

Platform Weapon Systems Capabilities


All weapons platform systems within the Heavy Brigade Combat Team (HBCT)
contribute to the combined arms effort. They provide the infantry, armor,
reconnaissance, engineer, and fire support elements with firepower, armor protection,
and battlefield agility.
To employ weapons platform systems within the HBCT effectively, Soldiers must
know the capabilities of their vehicle, fire control, weapon systems, and ammunition.
Chapter 3 details the crew-served weapons found on platforms within the HBCT.

Contents
Section I Automatic Machine Guns ...... 3-1
M231 5.56-mm Firing Port Weapon .... 3-1
M249 Squad Automatic Weapon ........ 3-2
M240 Machine Gun Series ................. 3-4
M2 HB Caliber .50 Machine Gun ........ 3-6
MK19 MOD3 40-mm Grenade
Machine Gun ...................................... 3-7
Section II M242 25-mm Automatic
Gun ............................................................. 3-8
M242 25-mm Automatic Gun .............. 3-8
Enhanced 25-mm Gun ........................ 3-9

Section III M256 120-mm Smoothbore


Cannon ....................................................... 3-9
Functional Components of the Gun
Tube and Breech .............................. 3-10
Components of the Recoil System .... 3-12
Section IV M121 120-mm Mortar .......... 3-12
Section V Smoke Grenade Launchers 3-14
M250 Smoke Grenade Launcher ...... 3-14
M257 Smoke Grenade Launcher ...... 3-14
Section VI TOW ..................................... 3-16

SECTION I AUTOMATIC MACHINE GUNS

M231 5.56-MM FIRING PORT WEAPON


3-1. The reference technical manual (TM) is TM 9-1005-309-10; National Stock Number (NSN) 100501-081-4582; Line Item Number (LIN) S56419. The Colt M231 Firing Port Weapon (FPW) is an adapted
version of the M16 assault rifle for firing from the ports on the M2/M3 Bradley (see Figure 3-1 and Table
3-1). The FPW was developed to provide a suitable weapon for use within a personnel carrier (PC) for
buttoned-up operations. The infantry rifle squad uses the M231 5.56-mm FPW to engage enemy personnel,
crew-served weapons and antitank guided missile (ATGM) teams, and to suppress suspected close-in
enemy positions. The FPW has a maximum effective range of 300 meters (tracer burnout). The firing rate
of the FPW is 1,100 to 1,200 rounds per minute. The basic Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV) M2 has six
firing-port mounts, two on each side and two in the ramp. The BFV M2A2, M2A2 ODS (Operation Desert
Storm)\\HQDADFS\DATA\AGENCIES\APD\HOFF1\APDDATA\Application
Data\Microsoft\Word\F2301GL.doc - ODS, and A3 have two firing port mounts in the ramp (none on the
sides).
3-2. The ammunition for the FPW is the M196 tracer. The M231s design includes a thicker barrel to
better absorb the heat from firing M196 tracer rounds. Its rapid rate of fire allows squad members to use
the tracer-on-target (TOT) method of adjusting fire to suppress the target. When training, the squad uses

3 September 2009

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3-1

Chapter 3

the M200 blank round and the M22 blank firing device. (TM 9-1005-309-10 provides more operator
information.)
Note. M193, M855 ball, and M856 ammunition types are not compatible with the FPW.
Crewmen must ensure these ammunition types are not used for safety reasons.

Figure 3-1. M231 5.56-mm firing port weapon


Table 3-1. M231 characteristics
Weight

7.34 lbs without a 30-round magazine

Weight with Ammo

8.34 lbs with a 30-round magazine

Overall Length

28.25 inches

Firing Rate (Full Automatic Only)


Sustained (Short Bursts)

50 to 60 rounds per minute

Minimum Cyclic

1,225 rounds per minute

Max Effective Range

328 yards (300 meters)

3-3. These weapons are only capable of fully automatic fire. The upper receiver on the FPW has been
modified to prevent any additional movement of the selector switch. This locks the weapon in automatic
fire mode with a special side plate that extends down to the lower receiver. These weapons retain a 65%
commonality with standard M16 rifles.

DANGER
Firing Port Weapon
Before using the FPW, make sure the exhaust fans work and the
exhaust hose is in good working conditionthey must be able to
remove poisonous gasses from the troop compartment.

M249 SQUAD AUTOMATIC WEAPON


3-4. The references are TM 9-1005-201-10; FM 3-22.68; NSN 1005-01-127-7510; and LIN M09009.
The M249 is a lightweight, gas-operated, air-cooled, belt or magazine fed, one-man portable fully

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3 September 2009

Platform Weapon Systems Capabilities

automatic weapon capable of delivering a large volume of effective fire at ranges up to 800 meters (see
Table 3-2). The M249 is loaded, fired, unloaded and cleared from the open bolt position (see Figure 3-2). It
can accept belts of linked 5.56x45 mm North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (.223 cal) ammunition
through the top-mounted feed tray or M-16 type magazines through the side-mounted port. Using M-16
type magazines should only be used in emergencies if Soldiers run out of belted ammunition, because this
often causes jams as the magazine spring cannot adequately keep up with the weapons high rate of fire.
The M249 squad automatic weapon (SAW) features a built-in bipod and a tripod-mounted lug for
supported fire, as well as a quick change barrel that helps prevent overheating during sustained fire. Barrels
are engaged and disengaged by rotating the built-in handle, and a spare is normally carried in the A-bag
by the gunner or his assistant. The forearm is designed to contain a small cleaning kit for field use, though
it may not be stored there in practice.

Figure 3-2. M249 squad automatic weapon 5.56mm


3-5. In addition to its traditional use as an infantry weapon, the M249 is also sometimes used as a
vehicle-mounted weapon, most often on High-Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicles (HMMWV). The
M249 may be mounted on a HMMWV using the machine gun mount, M197. Reference for the machine
gun mount is NSN 1005-01-413-4098; LIN M11071.
Table 3-2. M249 machine gun characteristics
Weight

16.41 lbs

Length

40.87 inches

Maximum Range

3,600 meters

Cyclic Rate of Fire

650 to 850 rpm (change barrel every min)

Rapid Rate of Fire

200 rpm (10 to 13 round bursts with 2 to 3 sec between


bursts) (change barrel every 2 min)

Sustained Rate of Fire

100 rpm (6 to 9 round bursts with 4 to 5 sec between bursts)


(no barrel changes)

Max Effective Range with


a Bipod to an Area Target

800 meters

Max Effective Range with


a Bipod to a Point Target

600 meters

Max Effective Range with


a Tripod to an Area
Target

1,000 meters

Max Effective Range with


a Tripod to a Point Target

800 meters

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3-3

Chapter 3

M240 MACHINE GUN SERIES


3-6. The references are
z
TM 9-1005-313-10 (M240 series).
z
FM 3-22.68 (M240B).
z
NSN 1005-01-025-8095; LIN L923521 (M240).
z
NSN 1005-01-412-3129; LIN M92841 (M240B).
z
NSN 1005-01-085-4758; LIN M92420 (M240C).
3-7. The M240 is a belt-fed, air-cooled, gas-operated, fully automatic machine gun that fires from the
open-bolt position (see Figure 3-3). The M240 has been used by the U.S. armed forces since the late 1970s.
It is used extensively by the infantry, ground vehicles, and aircraft. Despite not being the lightest medium
machine gun in service, the M240 is highly regarded for its reliability, and its standardization among
NATO members. All variants of the M240 series are fed from disintegrating metallic, split-link belts, and
are capable of firing most types of 7.62mm NATO ammunition. They all share the same basic internal
parts, which are also interchangeable, for the most part, with other members of the M240 family. The
maximum effective range of the M240 is 900 meters which is the tracer burnout of the 7.62mm. The M240
machine gun has three rates of fire-cyclic, sustained, and rapid (see Table 3-3).

Figure 3-3. M240 series 7.62-mm machine gun


3-8. The Abrams crews use the M240 7.62-mm coaxial machine gun to engage enemy personnel, infantry
crew-served weapons, ATGM teams, and unarmored vehicles. The coax machine gun mounts on the right
side of the breech assembly, to the left of the gunner, and in front of the commander on the Abrams, and is
integrated into the fire control system. The M240 7.62-mm machine gun is also used by the loader on the
Abrams main battle tank. It has the same characteristics as the M240 coaxial machine gun; however, the
loaders M240 is not integrated into the fire control system and requires the loader to fire the weapon
manually.
3-9. The M240B is the U.S. infantry version, equipped with a folding bipod, pintle mount, forestock, and
accessory rails to mount optics and target illuminators (see Table 3-2 and Appendix. C). The M240B is
equipped with an integrated optical rail feed cover and a hand guard with heat shield to provide thermal
protection to the operator (see Figure 3-4). The pintle mount allows tripod and vehicle mounting. The
M240B machine gun can be mounted on armed HMMWVs, as well many other armed platforms.
Ammunition is fed into the weapon from a 100-round bandoleer containing a disintegrating metallic splitlink belt. A spare barrel is issued with each M240B. Barrels can be changed quickly as the weapon has a
fixed head space; however, barrels from different weapons should not be interchanged. M240 barrels are
set by the manufacturer for head space and timing and are matched by serial number to a specific weapon.

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3 September 2009

Platform Weapon Systems Capabilities

Figure 3-4. M240B machine gun


3-10. The M240C is the right hand feed variant of the M240 currently used on the U.S. M2 and M3 BFVs.
The M240C is identical to the M240 except for the ammunition feed cover and feed tray. All weapons in
the M240 family can be converted to right hand feed using M240C feeder components. The BFV crews use
the M240C 7.62-mm coaxial machine gun to engage enemy personnel, infantry crew-served weapons,
ATGM teams, and unarmored vehicles. The coax machine gun mounts in the plenum chamber on the right
side of the turret, in front of the commanders position on the Bradley, and is integrated into the fire control
system.

DANGER
Seals on the Access Doors
Before firing the coax, inspect the seals on the access doors.
Check for serviceability and ensure access doors are closed to
keep poisonous gas from leaking into the turret. (Bradley)
Smoke-Box
Before firing the coax, ensure that the smoke box is properly
closed. Check for serviceability of the smoke-box to ensure
poisonous gases are not leaking into the turret. (Abrams)

Table 3-3. M240 machine gun characteristics


Weight

27.6 lbs

Length

49 inches

Maximum Range

3,725 meters

Cyclic Rate of Fire

650 to 950 rpm (firing at 950 rpm will cause damage to the
weapon) (change barrel every min)

Rapid Rate of Fire

200 rpm (10 to 13 round bursts with 2 to 3 sec between


bursts) (change barrel every 2 min)

Sustained Rate of Fire

100 rpm (6 to 9 round bursts with 4 to 5 sec between


bursts) (change barrel every 10 min)

Maximum Effective Range to


an Area Target

1,100 meters

Maximum Effective Range to


a Point Target

900 meters

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FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3-5

Chapter 3

M2 HB CALIBER .50 MACHINE GUN


3-11. The references are FM 3-22.65; TM 9-1005-213-10; NSN 1005-00-322-9715; and LIN L91975. The
M2 heavy barrel (HB) machine gun is a belt-fed, recoil-operated, air-cooled, crew-served machine gun (see
Figure 3-5). The gun is capable of single shot, as well as automatic fire, and operates on the short recoil
principle. In this action, the bolt and barrel are initially locked together, and recoil upon firing. After a
short distance, the bolt and barrel unlock, and the bolt continues to move rearwards relative to the barrel.
This action opens the bolt, and pulls the belt of ammunition through the weapon, readying it to fire again,
at a cyclic rate of 450 to 550 rounds per minute.
3-12. The M2 HB machine can be used to destroy varying targets including lightly armored vehicles,
massed troops, and aerial targets (such as helicopters and slow-flying aircraft). The M2 HB has excellent
long-range accuracy, external ballistics, performance, stopping power, and lethality. The M2 HB was
intentionally designed to be fit into many configurations. The M2 HB can be adapted to feed from the left
or right side of the weapon by exchanging the belt-holding pawls, the belt feed pawl, the front and rear
cartridge stops, and reversing the bolt switch. The conversion can be completed in under a minute with no
tools.

Figure 3-5. M2 HB caliber .50 machine gun


3-13. The M2 HB machine gun is the commanders weapon on the Abrams tank (see Table 3-4). The M2
HB is used to engage dismounted infantry, crew-served weapons, ATGM teams, light-armor vehicles, and
aircraft. The M2 HB is not integrated into the fire control system of the Abrams tank.
3-14. The M2 HB machine gun is also used as a vehicle-mounted weapon, most often on HMMWVs. The
M2 HB may be mounted on a HMMWV using the machine gun mount, MK 93 MOD1; NSN 1005-01383-2757; LIN M12647. The M2 HB is used to engage dismounted infantry, crew-served weapons,
ATGM teams, light-armor vehicles, and aircraft.
3-15. The M2 HB machine gun can be mounted on a M3 tripod mount, which is a lightweight, portable
mount that permits a high degree of accuracy and control of fire for dismounted squads. The M3 tripod
consists of a tripod, a pintle, and a traversing and elevating mechanism. The entire mount weighs 44
pounds. The references are TM 9-1005-245-13&P; NSN 1005-00-322-9716; and LIN M75577.

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FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Platform Weapon Systems Capabilities

Table 3-4. M2 HB machine gun characteristics


Weapon

M2 HB

Weight

84 lbs

Length

65.13 inches

Maximum Range

6,764 meters

Cyclic Rate of Fire

450 to 550 rounds per minute

Rapid Rate of Fire

>40 rpm (5 to 7 rounds per burst at 5 to 10 sec


intervals)

Sustained Rate of Fire

40 rounds per minute

Slow Rate of Fire

<40 rpm (5 to 7 rounds per burst at 10 to 15 sec


intervals)

Single Shot

One round every 2 to 3 seconds, as dictated by target.

Maximum Effective Range to an Area


Target

1,830 meters

Maximum Effective Range to a Point


Target

1,500 meters

MK19 MOD3 40-MM GRENADE MACHINE GUN


3-16. The references are TM 9-1010-230-10, FM 3-22.27; NSN 1010-01-126-9063, and LIN M92362.
The MK19 is a self-powered, air-cooled, belt-fed, blowback-operated weapon designed to deliver 40-mm
grenades against enemy personnel and lightly armored vehicles (see Figure 3-6). The MK19 can be
mounted on the HMMWV, M113 family of vehicles, 5-ton trucks, and selected M88A1 recovery vehicles.
The MK19 is designed to not overheat even after prolonged firing. The MK19 uses an open bolt principle.
The rounds are mechanically fed onto the bolt face with the pull of the charging handles. When the trigger
is pressed, the bolt closes, and the firing pin is released. The recoil blows back the bolt, dropping the empty
casing, and then feeds a new round onto the bolt face.

Figure 3-6. MK19 40mm grenade launcher


3-17. The MK19 can be mounted on a M3 tripod mount, a M4 pedestal, a M66 ring, a M113 PC
commanders cupola, and a MK93 MOD1 mount for a HMMWV (see Table 3-5). The MK93 MOD1 is

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3-7

Chapter 3

also used to mount the M2 HB. References for the MK93 Mount are TM 9-1010-230-23&P; LIN M12647;
and NSN 1005-01-383-2757.
Table 3-5. MK19 machine gun characteristics
Weapon

MK19

Weight

76 lbs

Length

43.1 inches

Maximum Range

2,212 meters

Arming Range

18 to 30 meters

Minimum Safe Range

310 meters

Cyclic Rate of Fire

325 to 375 rounds per minute

Rapid Rate of Fire

60 rounds per minute

Sustained Rate of Fire

40 rounds per minute

Maximum Effective Range to an Area


Target

2,212 meters

Maximum Effective Range to a Point


Target

1,500 meters

SECTION II M242 25-MM AUTOMATIC GUN

M242 25-MM AUTOMATIC GUN


3-18. The references are
z
TM 9-1005-200-23&P (M242 Automatic Gun).
z
TM 9-2350-284-10-2 (M2A2, M3A2).
z
TM 9-2350-284-20-2-1 (M2A2, M3A2).
z
TM 9-2350-294-10-2 (M2A3, M3A3).
z
TM 9-2350-294-20-2-1 (M2A3, M3A3).
3-19. The Bradleys main armament is the M242 25-mm chain gun. It is an externally powered, chaindriven, single-barrel weapon which may be fired in semi-automatic or automatic modes (see Figure 3-7). It
is fed by a metallic link belt and has dual-feed capability. The term chain gun derives from the use of a
roller chain that drives the bolt back and forth. It can destroy lightly armored vehicles and aerial targets
such as helicopters and slow-flying aircraft. It can also suppress enemy positions such as troops in the
open, dug-in positions, and built-up areas.

Figure 3-7. M242 25-mm automatic gun


3-20. Unlike most automatic firearms, the M242 does not depend on gas or recoil to actuate its firing
system. Instead, it uses a 1.0 hp, 24VDC motor, positioned in the receiver to drive the chain and dual-feed
system. This system uses sprockets and extractor grooves to feed, load, extract, and eject rounds. A system
of clutches provides for an alternate sprocket to engage and thus allows the gunner to switch between
armor piercing rounds and high-explosive rounds.

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FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Platform Weapon Systems Capabilities

DANGER
Before firing the 25-mm gun, the gunner must check the gun
cover for serviceability, zip it up, and ensure the turret ventilation
system is operational to prevent poisonous gas from leaking into
the turret. Firing rounds causes the gun powder to produce this
gas.

ENHANCED 25-MM GUN


3-21. Work on an upgraded weapon began in 1990. In doing so, three major systems and seven minor
systems were improved. The modifications began with introducing a chrome-lined barrel, an enhanced
feeder, and an enhanced receiver. The weapon system also received minor upgrades such as quickdetachable link covers, a larger breach assembly, a high efficiency muzzle brake, longer recoil, an integral
round counter, an extended life firing pin and spring, and a triple-spring drive clutch. It has a built-in test
(BIT) for the feed-select solenoid and gun-drive motor. The feed-select solenoid and the gun-drive motor
each contain a jumper wire that enables the on-vehicle BIT. It was first put to use on the M2A3/M3A3
Bradley, which is the third version of the M2 Infantry Fighting Vehicle (IFV).

SECTION III M256 120-mm SMOOTHBORE CANNON


3-22. The references are
z
TM 9-2350-264-10-1/2 (M1A1 Series).
z
TM 9-2350-388-10-1/2 (M1A2 Series).
z
TM 9-1000-202-14 (Evaluation of Cannon Tubes).
3-23. The Abrams main armament is the M256 120-mm smoothbore cannon (see Figure 3-8). It can fire a
variety of munitions to destroy heavily armored vehicles, lightly armored vehicles, massed troops, and
aerial targets (such as helicopters and slow-flying aircraft). The M256 cannon is capable of firing NATO
standard 120-mm combustible cartridge ammunition.

Figure 3-8. M256 120-mm smoothbore cannon


3-24. General characteristics for the M256 cannon are
z
Tube length is 17 ft 4 in.
z
Tube weight is 2,502 lbs.
z
Slinging point is 11ft 8in from the muzzle.
z
Bore evacuator is 28 lbs.
z
Bore diameter is 4.724 inches.
z
Breech ring is 1,506 lbs.
z
Breech block is 225 lbs.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3-9

Chapter 3

3-25. The M256 120-mm smoothbore cannon consists of the gun tube, breech, the recoil system, and the
bore evacuator.

FUNCTIONAL COMPONENTS OF THE GUN TUBE AND BREECH


3-26. The interior of the cannon is divided into the following three areas:
z
Chamber Area. The chamber area contains the entire cartridge and begins at the breech face of
the tube to a point 18-3/4 inches into the cannon (see Figure 3-9). At the rear of the chamber
region, rear obturation occurs.

Figure 3-9. Chamber area


z

Forcing Cone Area. The forcing cone area is the area starting at 18-3/4 inches and ending 22
inches into the cannon (see Figure 3-10). Forcing cone area is 3-1/4 inches long. The forcing
cone area is the transition between the chamber and the bore that guides the projectile into the
bore and compresses the obturator on the projectile, sealing in expanding propellant gasses
behind the projectile, resulting in forward obturation.

Figure 3-10. Forcing cone area

3-10

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Platform Weapon Systems Capabilities

Bore. The bore is the remainder of the interior of the cannon, starting at 22 inches from the
breech face to the muzzle end (see Figure 3-11).

Figure 3-11. Bore


3-27. Operation of the chamber and bore consists of
z
Initial detonation cartridge case combustion.
z
Rear obturation is provided by the cartridge stub base obturator seal expanding against the rear
portion of the chamber region.
z
Forward obturation by the projectile obturator seal.
z
Projectile forward movement.
z
Bore evacuator operation.
z
Shot exit.
z
Automatic breech opening.
z
Extraction and ejection begin.
z
Residual gases evacuated.
Note. Failure of the automatic breech opening system can increase firing times and contribute
to a flareback. Units must coordinate with unit maintenance shop to ensure proper clearance
between the operating crank and cam components are properly maintained.
3-28. The exterior of the gun tube is divided into the following three areas:
z
Breech Recess Area. The threaded end of the cannon that is inserted into the breechring. This
area contains the interrupted buttress threads.
z
External Machined Surfaces. This area contains the surfaces of the cannon that are machined
for fitting of external components such as the Muzzle Reference Sensor (MRS) and the bore
evacuator as well as the surfaces that interact with the recoil system.
z
Thermal Shrouds. These form fitting aluminum sleeves encase the exterior of the gun tube and
aid in the even distribution of heat around the gun tube due to firing. The thermal shrouds assist
in alleviating the effects of thermal bending.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3-11

Chapter 3

COMPONENTS OF THE RECOIL SYSTEM


3-29. The recoil system of the M1 series tanks serve the following four main purposes:
z
Absorb recoil energy.
z
Provide a fixed length of recoil through all angles of elevation.
z
Return the gun to battery through all angles of elevation.
z
Hold the gun in battery through all angles of elevation.
3-30. The recoil system is known as a Concentric Hydro-spring Constant Recoil System and consists of
the following:
z
Piston.
z
Gun cradle.
z
Recoil spring.
z
Replenisher.
3-31. The bore evacuator aids in removing spent propellant gases from the gun tube. The M256 gun tube
uses an eccentric pressure scavenging system. The bore evacuator is a chamber like device, located at
about the center of the gun tube. It is eccentric from the gun tube, meaning that the bore evacuator and the
gun tube do not share a common center. The center of the bore evacuator is offset higher than that of the
gun tube to allow the gun tube to be depressed lower over the rear (back) deck of the tank. Inside of the
bore evacuator are five bore evacuator holes equally spaced apart and drilled into the gun tube at a 30
degree angle towards the muzzle. When a projectile is fired down the gun tube and passes the bore
evacuator, propellant gasses fill the area inside the bore evacuator to a maximum of 150 psi. As the
projectile exits the gun tube, a vacuum is created. The pressure built up within the bore evacuator forces
propellant gasses out the muzzle and away from the turret interior, clearing the gun tube of any remaining
dangerous gas residue.
Note. If you see any evidence of gas leakage, powder streaks, or gas erosion, service the bore
evacuator in accordance with procedures found in the appropriate Operator's Manual.

SECTION IV M121 120-mm MORTAR


3-32. The references are
z
TM 9-1015-250-10.
z
FM 3-22.90.
z
FM 3-22.91.
3-33. This section contains the technical data and description of each component of the 120-mm mortar
(Figure 3-12 and Table 3-6). The mortar is a smoothbore, muzzle-loaded, crew-served, high angle-of-fire
weapon. It consists of a cannon assembly, bipod assembly, and baseplate. The 120-mm mortar is designed
to be employed in all phases and types of land warfare and in all weather conditions.

3-12

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Platform Weapon Systems Capabilities

Figure 3-12. The 120-mm mortar


Table 3-6. Technical data for the 120-mm mortar
Feature

Data

Cannon
Bipod

110.0 lbs
M190 (Ground Mounted)
M191 (Carrier Mounted)

Baseplate

70.0 lbs
68.0 lbs
136.0 lbs

M67 Sight Unit

2.9 lbs

Elevation

Ground Mounted
Carrier Mounted
For Each Turn of Elevation Crank

0710 to 1510 mils


0750 to 1510 mils
5 mils

Traverse

Right or Left from Center Using Traversing


Wheel
With Extension
One Turn of Traversing Wheel

136 mils

Range

Maximum
Minimum

7,200 meters
200 meters

Rate of Fire

Maximum (First Minute)


Sustained (Indefinitely)

16 rds per min


4 rds per min

Bursting Radius

316 mils
5 mils

75 meters
Mortar Capabilities Mounted on Turntable

Traversing Limits (with


Traverse Extension)

Right of Center
Left of Center

858 mils
808 mils

Total Traverse Capability


from Extreme Left to
Extreme Right

Without Traversing Extension


With Traversing Extension

1,486 mils
1,666 mils

Elevation Limits (Level)

Track Maximum
Track Minimum

1,510 mils
800 mils

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3-13

Chapter 3

SECTION V SMOKE GRENADE LAUNCHERS

M250 SMOKE GRENADE LAUNCHER


3-34. The references are
z
TM 9-1040-267-20&P (M250).
z
TM 9-2350-264-10-1/2 (M1A1 Series).
z
TM 9-2350-388-10-1/2 (M1A2 Series).
3-35. The majority of Abrams tanks have two, six-tube, electrically fired grenade launchers, one on each
side of the turret (see Figure 3-13). Each can fire 2, 3 grenade salvos, or all 12 at once. On activation, the
grenades create enough smoke to screen the vehicle in three seconds. To use the smoke grenade launcher
system effectively, crews must know the grenade dispersal patterns: Salvo 1, Salvo 2, and Salvo 1&2.
Refer to the appropriate TM or Chapter 4 of this manual for dispersion patterns for the M250 smoke
grenade launcher.

Figure 3-13. Smoke grenade launcher

M257 SMOKE GRENADE LAUNCHER


3-36. The references are
z
TM 9-1040-267-20&P (M257).
z
TM 9-2350-264-10-1/2 (M1A1 Series).
z
TM 9-2350-388-10-1/2 (M1A2 Series).
z
TM 9-2350-252-10-2 (M2/M2A1, M3/M3A1).
z
TM 9-2350-284-10-2 (M2A2/M3A2).
z
TM 9-2350-294-10-2 (M2A3/M3A3).
3-37. Selected Abrams tanks have two, eight-tube, electrically fired grenade launchers, (one on each side
of the turret. Each can fire two, four grenade salvos, or all sixteen at once. On activation, the grenades

3-14

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Platform Weapon Systems Capabilities

create enough smoke to screen the Abrams in three seconds. To use the smoke grenade launcher system
effectively, tank crews must know the grenade dispersal patterns: Salvo 1, Salvo 2, and Salvo 1&2. See the
appropriate TM or Chapter 4 for M257 Smoke Grenade Launcher dispersion patterns for Abrams, Bradley,
and truck mounted systems.
3-38. The Bradley has two, four-tube, electrically fired grenade launchers, one on each side of the 25-mm
gun (see Figure 3-14). Therefore, each can fire four grenades. On activation, the grenades create enough
smoke to screen the vehicle in three seconds. Using one switch inside the vehicle, the commander or
gunner fires the launchers. The launchers cannot fire independently. Both launchers (all eight grenades)
fire at once.

Figure 3-14. M257 smoke grenade launchers


3-39. Armed HMMWVs have up to four, four-tube, electrically fired grenade launchers. On activation, the
grenades create enough smoke to screen the vehicle in three seconds. Using one switch inside the vehicle,
16 grenadesfire at once. Some of the newer variants of the HMMWV, however, have the ability to fire
each launcher independently.

DANGER
The hatches should be closed when firing the smoke grenade
launchers to prevent red phosphorus being blown in on the crew,
as red phosphorus can cause serious burns.
All personnel outside the vehicle must stay at least 200 meters
from the vehicle during firing.
Electrical system malfunctions or surges can cause smoke
grenades to kill or injure Soldiers. Before loading any smoke
grenades, make sure the grenade launcher switches are in the
OFF position.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3-15

Chapter 3

SECTION VI TOW
3-40. The references are
z
TM 9-2350-252-10-2 (M2/M2A1, M3/M3A1).
z
TM 9-2350-284-10-2 (M2A2/M3A2).
z
TM 9-2350-294-10-2 (M2A3/M3A3).
z
FM 3-22.34.
3-41. The tube-launched, optically tracked, wire-guided missile (TOW) is a command-guided surface
attack weapon that can destroy tanks, other armored vehicles, and helicopters (see Figure 3-15). It can also
destroy fortified bunkers, gun emplacements, and other protected positions. The TOW system destroys
armored vehicles at ranges from 65 to 3,750 meters, depending on the type of missile used. The TOW Aero
has a maximum range of 4,750 meters, and is the newest of the TOW missile family. The BFV crew can
reload the TOW launcher without exposure to hostile fire.

Figure 3-15. Tube-Launched, Optically Tracked, Wire-Guided Missile


3-42. When the firer pulls the trigger, the TOW subsystem starts a 1.5-second self-balancing routine that
activates the gyro and stabilizes the missile. To avoid accidentally aborting the missile, the crew must
remember this delay when firing the TOW. At launch, the electronic Command Guidance Electronics
(CGE) (M2/3 A1/A2 variants) or Digital Command Guidance Electronics (DCGE) (M2/3A2 ODS) System
and the Missile Control Subsystem (MCS) (all M2/3 variants) sends a signal that triggers the missile launch
motor to ignite. This ignition propels the missile out of the launcher, where the flight motor then takes
over. When the missile enters the firers line of sight, the Bradley sight system receives infrared energy
from the missile. Components in the sight system then signal the guidance system to position the missile
with respect to the sight systems line of sight. This exchange continues until the missile impact(s) or
aborts.

DANGER
1.5-Second Delay
When firing the TOW, there is a 1.5-second delay between the
initial launch and the gyro stabilization. This will cause the
missile appear off target prior to the stabilization gyro activation.

3-16

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Platform Weapon Systems Capabilities

3-43. The last step in the firing sequence occurs when the TOW subsystem automatically cuts the guidance
wire and aborts 23 seconds after launch. When this occurs, the missile is programmed to dive into the
ground without detonating. The subsystem also cuts the wire when the
z
Vehicle commander (VC) or gunner presses the TOW ABORT switch.
z
VC or gunner selects another missile on the TOW control box.
z
Missile reaches the wires maximum range.
z
VC or gunner resets the weapons control box.
z
VC or gunner deselects the TOW weapon system.
z
VC or gunner changes magnification.
3-44. When firing a TOW, the firer must lay the crosshairs on the center mass of the target, fire the
missile, and keep the crosshairs on the target during the flight of the missile. This keeps the firer from
losing control of the missile.
3-45. Before firing any TOW missile on the Bradley, the firer ensures that both of the Integrated Sight
Unit (ISU) or Improved Bradley Acquisition Subsystem (IBAS) ballistic doors are open.
3-46. In order to fire the TOW, the vehicle must be level or on a slope of less than 10 degrees. The wings
and control surfaces extend as soon as the missile clears the launcher. To avoid damaging these surfaces,
the end of the launcher needs at least 36 inches of clearance.
3-47. Between 500 and 900 meters down range, the missile could fly below the gunners line of sight to
the target; therefore, the firer must allow at least 30 inches of clearance between the line of sight and any
obstruction. This reduces the chance of the missile striking the ground on its way to the target.
3-48. In the defense and fighting from a two-tiered fighting position, TOWs must be fired from the hull
down (enfilade) position in order to ensure its survivability while in flight to the target.

DANGER
Firing over Wires
When firing over electrical wires, there is a danger of the
command-link wires touching a live high-voltage power line. This
may cause injury or death, cause the firer to lose control of the
missile, and/or damage launcher electronics.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3-17

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Chapter 4

Ammunition
The success of U.S. forces depends on the effective use of the appropriate
ammunition against battlefield targets. Chapter 4 discusses the characteristics and
capabilities of the different ammunition available for vehicle-mounted crew-served
weapons used within the Heavy Brigade Combat Team (HBCT), including machine
guns, 25-mm main gun, 40-mm grenade machine gun, 120-mm main gun, mortar,
special purpose munitions and missiles. Chapter 4 also includes general ammunition
information such as packaging, standard and North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(NATO) marking conventions, common pallet packaging, load capabilities of lift
assets, placard marking requirements, ammunition planning considerations, and other
safety considerations for ammunition types available within the HBCT.

Contents
Section I Ammunition Terminology ...... 4-2
Markings and Symbols........................ 4-2
Ammunition Lot Numbers ................... 4-4
Department of Defense Codes ........... 4-6
Color Coding ....................................... 4-8
Section II Machine Gun Ammunition .. 4-10
Packaging ......................................... 4-10
M249 5.56-mm Machine Gun
Ammunition ....................................... 4-12
M240 7.62-mm Machine Gun
Ammunition ....................................... 4-15
M2 HB Caliber .50 Machine Gun
Ammunition ....................................... 4-17
Section III 25-mm Bradley Fighting
Vehicle Ammunition ................................ 4-20
Classification..................................... 4-20
Identification...................................... 4-20
Service Ammunition .......................... 4-21
Target Practice Ammunition ............. 4-29
Safety Information............................. 4-31
Section IV MK19 Mod 3, 40-mm
Grenade Machine Gun ............................ 4-32
Service Ammunition .......................... 4-34
Training Ammunition ......................... 4-35

3 September 2009

Section V 120-mm Abrams Tank


Ammunition .............................................. 4-38
Classification ..................................... 4-39
Identification ...................................... 4-39
Service Ammunition .......................... 4-42
Target Practice Ammunition .............. 4-51
Safety Information ............................. 4-53
Section VI Mortar Ammunition ............ 4-58
Classification ..................................... 4-58
Authorized Cartridges ....................... 4-58
Service Ammunition .......................... 4-59
Target Practice Ammunition .............. 4-62
Fuzes ................................................ 4-63
Mortar Safety Information.................. 4-67
Section VII Smoke Grenades ............... 4-68
Section VIII Missiles ............................. 4-72
TOW Missile Ammunition .................. 4-72
Javelin Antitank Guided Missile......... 4-93
Safety Information ............................. 4-97
Section IX Planning Considerations ... 4-98
Section X Safety ................................. 4-103

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

4-1

Chapter 4

SECTION I AMMUNITION TERMINOLOGY


4-1. Ammunition used for training and combat comes in a wide variety of calibers and projectile types,
are packaged in multiple ways, and have a variety of uses. Ammunition handlers, forecasters, planners, and
Master Gunners must have a solid working knowledge of the ammunition available for use within the
HBCT in order to plan, coordinate, execute, resupply, provide, and manage the training and combat stocks
allotted effectively and efficiently.
4-2. Ammunition is identified by markings and color-coding on the items themselves, the containers, and
the packing boxes (see Figure 4-1). The markings and standard nomenclature of each item, together with
the lot number, Federal Supply Classification (FSC) Code, National Stock Number (NSN), Department of
Defense Identification Code (DODIC), and Department of Defense Ammunition Code (DODAC), are
visual references that completely identify each item. This section gives a basic explanation of markings and
color-coding, in accordance with (IAW) Standardized Agreement (STANAG) and Military Standard (MILSTD) FM 4-30.13, MIL-STD 1168A, MIL-STD 709C, STANAG 2316, and STANAG 2322B.

Figure 4-1. Ammunition packaging and common markings example

MARKINGS AND SYMBOLS


4-3. Markings stenciled or stamped on munitions or their containers include all information needed for
complete identification.
4-4. Components in which all explosive, incendiary, or toxic materials have been simulated by
substitution of inert material are identified by impressed INERT markings. Components in which all
explosive, incendiary, or toxic materials have been omitted are identified by stamped EMPTY markings.

4-2

FM 3-20.2/MCWP 3-12.21

3 September 2009

Ammunition

4-5. Packaging and containers for small arms ammunition are clearly marked with standard NATO
Symbols identifying the contents of the package by type of ammunition, primary use, and packaging
information. The most common NATO symbols are described IAW STANAG 2322B (see Figure 4-2).

Figure 4-2. Standard small arms ammunition markings

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

4-3

Chapter 4

AMMUNITION LOT NUMBERS


4-6. Each item of ammunition is assigned a complete round or item lot number when it is manufactured
or when it is at the load, assemble, and packaging (LAP) plant. Figure 4-3 breaks down a typical
ammunition lot number system. See MIL-STD 1168A for a description of the current system.
4-7. The lot numbers are used by manufacturers for quality control. The lot numbers identify the
manufacturer, month and year of manufacture, and information specific to the design, development, or
production of the ammunition:
z
Manufacturers Identification Code (MIC). The MIC, also called the manufacturers
identification symbol, identifies the primary manufacturer of the round. It does not include
subcontractors who have been tasked to supply subcomponents of the ammunition. For a
complete listing of the MICs for all manufacturers symbols or codes, see MIL HDBK-1461A.
z
Year of Production. This is identified as a two-digit number representing the production year.

Figure 4-3. Lot number example


z

4-4

Month of Production. This single letter identifies the month of production at the manufacturing
facility. The letter I is not used in the coding system to reduce confusion with the number 1.
The letter codes used are shown in Table 4-1.

FM 3-20.2/MCWP 3-12.21

3 September 2009

Ammunition

Table 4-1. Month codes

Lot Interfix Number. The interfix number represents one of four indicationsmore than a 30
day break in production, a new contract for the ammunition has been issued, a change in design
of the round has occurred, or the sequence number has been exhausted.
Tenth Position. There may be a letter in the tenth position, located between the interfix and
sequence number (see Figure 4-4). Each letter has a specific meaning. The tenth position is an
indicator that the ammunition has special attributes. When no special attributes exist, the default
, or normal lot indicator, is applied.

Figure 4-4. Tenth position codes

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

4-5

Chapter 4

Sequence Number. The sequence number identifies the production run of rounds produced.
Typically, there are lots or batches of 5,000 to 25,000 rounds produced for large caliber
ammunition or 100,000 rounds (or more) for small and medium caliber rounds. The number of
rounds produced in each batch is established by the manufacturer. Each sequence number
identifies the batch of ammunition produced based on the previous conditions of the overall lot
number. When the sequence number reaches 999, the interfix number will increase, resetting the
sequence number to 001.
Ammunition Lot Suffix. An alpha character added to the sequence portion of the ammunition
lot number denotes a rework effecting a material change in the original lot or to identify
reprocessed propellant lots. Ammunition lot suffixes are always in capital letters and are applied
sequentially starting with A and continuing through Z.

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CODES


FEDERAL SUPPLY CLASSES
4-8. Conventional ammunition falls within FSC Code 13. The FSC Code identifies the type of supply as
ammunition, depicted by the first two digits of the four digit FSC Code; 13XX. Within this group,
ammunition is further broken down by two more numbers that identify the general type or family in which
the item falls. Table 4-2 lists the FSC Codes for all ammunition types typical to the HBCT. These numbers
are used frequently when ordering, reporting, stocking, forecasting, issuing, and turning in ammunition at
the brigade level and above.
Table 4-2. Federal supply classification
FSC Group 13

Ammunition and Explosive Type or


Family

DODIC (see paragraph 4-10)

1305
1310
1315
1320
1330
1340
1345
1365
1370
1375

Ammunition less than 30mm


Ammunition 30mm through 75mm
Ammunition 75mm through 125mm
Ammunition over 125mm
Grenades
Rockets and rocket ammunition
Land mines
Military chemical agents
Pyrotechnics
Demolition materials

A
B
C
D
G
H, PB, PV, WF
J and K
K
L
M, ML, MN

NATIONAL STOCK NUMBER


4-9. Each complete round or item of conventional ammunition or associated explosive component is
identified by its own NSN. The first four numbers of the NSN is the FSC Code. It is followed by the
national item identification number (NIIN) that consists of a two-number code identifying the country of
manufacture and seven number item identification. See Figure 4-5 for the NSN example and Figure 4-6
for the country of origin codes.

4-6

FM 3-20.2/MCWP 3-12.21

3 September 2009

Ammunition

Figure 4-5. National stock number example

Figure 4-6. Country of origin codes

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE IDENTIFICATION CODE


4-10. DODIC is a single letter and three numbers or, in the case of small guided missiles (tube-launched,
optically-tracked, wire-guided [TOW], Javelin, Stinger), civilian packages ammunition, and some
demolitions, two letters and two numbers are used (such as PV18 for TOW-2B). It is attached at the end of
all NSNs to denote interchangeability of the item. The battalion and subordinate units will use the DODIC
for ammunition resourcing, ordering, forecasting, and shipments. See Figure 4-7 for a conventional NSN
with DODIC added, demonstrating interchangeability between various model numbers and the designators
of an ammunition item.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

4-7

Chapter 4

Figure 4-7. Department of Defense Identification Code example

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AMMUNITION CODE


4-11. DODAC includes the FSC Code of the ammunition and the DODIC. The code is used on all using
unit DA Form 581s, DA Form 3151-Rs, and most ammunition reports. The DODAC is used instead of the
DODIC to reduce errors with ammunition transactions when ordering at brigade level and above. The FSC
Code determines the leading (prefix) lettering code for the DODIC as shown in Figure 4-7. See Figure 4-8
for the identification of the DODAC.

Figure 4-8. Department of Defense Ammunition Code example

COLOR CODING
4-12. Ammunition is primarily painted to protect it from rust or corrosion. However, the color of the
protective coating and markings also makes ammunition easy to identify by the user. Ammunition 20mm
and larger is color-coded IAW MIL-STD 709C to facilitate user identification as shown in Table 4-3.

4-8

FM 3-20.2/MCWP 3-12.21

3 September 2009

Ammunition

Table 4-3. Ammunition color coding, 20mm and larger


Basic Projectile Color Indicates Use

Black
Olive Drab
Light Green
Light Blue

Armor defeating
Antipersonnel/anti-materiel
Smoke
Target Practice (TP)

Colors Indicating Filler or Charge

White Letters
Yellow Letters
Red Letters or Red Band
Yellow Band
White Diamonds
Black Band
Blue Band
Brown

Inert (no filler or explosive charge)


High-explosive filler or charge
Incendiary
Small amount of high-explosive charge
Antipersonnel flechettes
Secondary armor defeating
Inert (explosive filler replaced with flaked lead or concrete)
Low-explosive charge

4-13. Small arms ammunition (less than 20mm) is not color-coded under MIL-STD 709C. Marking
standards for small arms ammunition are outlined in
z
TM 9-1305-201-20&P, small arms ammunition to 30mm inclusive.
z
TM 9-1300-200, ammunition, general.
z
STANAG 2316, NATO marking of ammunition (and its packaging) below 20mm.
4-14. These publications describe the color coding system for small arms projectiles. The bullet tips are
painted a distinctive color as a ready means of identification for the user.
4-15. Frangible, Blue Tip plastic munitions, and short range munitions do not have a specific color code,
although their packaging may be marked with the NATO Frangible symbol as shown in Figure 4-9. These
types of training ammunition are specifically used for
z
Training where maximum range for the ammunition must be reduced based on authorized
surface danger zones (SDZ).
z
Use on lead free ranges, or indoor ranges where there is a danger of ricochets injuring the
shooter.
4-16. Figure 4-9 describes the general color codes for all types of small arms ammunition up to and
including caliber .50. Each caliber of small arms ammunition described in this chapter will have specific
examples of ammunition tip color coding (see TM 9-1300-200 for more information).

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

4-9

Chapter 4

Ammunition Color Coding

Ammunition Type

No Color

Ball

Black Tip

Armor Piercing

Silver Tip

Armor Piercing Incendiary

Silver with Orange Tip

Armor Piercing Incendiary with


Tracer

Light Blue Tip

Incendiary

Light Blue Stripe with Dark Blue Tip

Incendiary

Orange Tip

Tracer

Maroon/Dark Red Tip

Tracer

Silver Cartridge
Black Cartridge and Tip
Perforated Cartridge
Crimped or Capped End

High Pressure Test


Dummy
Dummy
Blank

Package Marking

None
None
None

Figure 4-9. Small arms color coding and packaging markings

SECTION II MACHINE GUN AMMUNITION


4-17. Crews must be able to effectively engage threat dismounted personnel, crew-served weapons,
antitank guided missile (ATGM) teams, rocket propelled grenades (RPG) teams, trucks, lightly skinned
armored vehicles, lightly constructed covered positions and aircraft utilizing the crew-served machine
guns.
4-18. Crews must understand the capabilities and uses of ammunition to effectively engage threat targets
with the appropriate ammunition.
4-19. This section discusses the different ammunition associated with the crew-served machine guns and
their respective uses. The ammunition listed in this section is provided from smallest to largest caliber for
the crew-served machine guns for clarity.
4-20. Machine gun ammunition is identified by type, caliber, model, and lot number as described in the
previous section. Whenever possible, the appropriate symbol, marking, or color coding will be used in this
section for clarity.

PACKAGING
4-21. Small arms ammunition is packaged in different cartons, containers, and cases depending on the
specific DODIC. For example, the 5.56 ammunition for the M249 is packaged in either a 100 round drum
or 100 round belt in a Bandoleer (see Figure 4-10). The 7.62 mm ammunition is packaged in 2 belts of 100

4-10

FM 3-20.2/MCWP 3-12.21

3 September 2009

Ammunition

rounds each in one metal can. The majority of caliber .50 ammunition is packaged in a 100 round linked
belt in a single metal can.

10
Figure 4-10. Bandoleer with 10 round clips, 5.56mm
4-22. All 5.56mm ammunition has a hazard classification of 1.4. This allows units to store small quantities
of small arms ammunition in their unit arm room IAW local policies and storage instructions.
Figure 4-11 and Figure 4-12 shows the markings that are required on vehicles transporting 5.56mm
ammunition or when storing ammunition, respectively.

Figure 4-11. Storage marking

Figure 4-12.Transportation marking

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

4-11

Chapter 4

4-23. Crews should use caution when removing rounds from a belt of ammunition and later re-linking the
rounds. The belt of ammunition may get jammed in the ammunition chute, or cause a stoppage with the
weapon.
4-24. There are 11 types of machine gun ammunition available to use with the crew-served machine guns
within the HBCT (see Figure 4-13 through Figure 4-18):
z
Blank.
z
Frangible.
z
Ball.
z
Armor piercing (AP).
z
Incendiary.
z
Tracer (T).
z
Armor Piercing-Incendiary (API).
z
Armor Piercing-Incendiary with Tracer (API-T).
z
Saboted Light Armor Penetrator (SLAP).
z
Saboted Light Armor Penetrator with Tracer (SLAP-T).
z
Dummy.

M249 5.56-MM MACHINE GUN AMMUNITION


4-25. The M249 squad automatic weapon fires a NATO standard 5.56 round, contained in either a drum or
belt of ammunition. The M249 can fire 5.56 rounds from a 20/30round magazine in an emergency.
4-26. Ammunition for the M249 is issued in the M27 clip-type open link disintegrating, metallic, splitlinked belt (see Figure 4-13).

Figure 4-13. M27 clip-type open link

4-12

FM 3-20.2/MCWP 3-12.21

3 September 2009

Ammunition

4-27. The maximum effective range (MER) of the ammunition is the greatest distance a crewman can
accurately engage threat targets utilizing the weapon system. Table 4-4 describes the maximum effective
range of standard 5.56mm ammunition when used with crew-served weapons and using different support
systems or engagement techniques.
Table 4-4. 5.56 maximum effective ranges
Mount/Use

Point Target

Area Target

Tripod

800 meters

1,000 meters

Bipod

600 meters

800 meters

Suppression

1,000 meters

1,000 meters

4-28. Figure 4-14 shows the most common ammunition packaging compositions for the 5.56mm crewserved weapons. Figure 4-14 shows the most common nomenclature, DODIC, ammunition type, use,
color-coding and packing markings.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

4-13

Chapter 4

Figure 4-14. 5.56mm crew serve common ammunition types

4-14

FM 3-20.2/MCWP 3-12.21

3 September 2009

Ammunition

M240 7.62-MM MACHINE GUN AMMUNITION


4-29. The preferred ammunition mix for the M240 is four M80 ball and one M62 tracer (commonly
referred to as the 4:1 link). Other types of 7.62-mm ammunition are available; however, the four-and-one
mix allows the commander and gunner to use the tracer-on-target (TOT) method of adjusting fire to
achieve target kill or suppression.
4-30. Ammunition for the M240 is issued in the M13 clip-type open loop, split-linked, disintegrating link,
metallic, belt. It is supplied as a complete round with open loop metal links. Using these metal links, belts
of various lengths may be assembled (see Figure 4-15).

Figure 4-15. 7.62mm ammunition with M13 disintegrating link


4-31. The MER of the ammunition is the greatest distance a crewman can accurately engage threat targets
utilizing the weapon system. The MER of the 7.62mm depends on the mount and the use of the weapon.
Table 4-5 describes the maximum effective ranges of 7.62mm rounds for the M240 series of machine guns.
Table 4-5. 7.62mm maximum effective ranges
Mount/Use

Point Target

Area Target

Tripod

900 meters

1,800 meters

Bipod

600 meters

800 meters

Suppression

1800 meters

1,800 meters

Vehicle

900 meters

1,800 meters

Note. 7.62mm tracer rounds, DODIC - A131, are the only 7.62mm rounds authorized for
overhead firing (firing over the head of exposed friendly forces) during training.
4-32. The M240 machine gun series uses several types of standard 7.62mm ammunition. Figure 4-16
shows the types and their characteristics. Soldiers may only use authorized ammunition manufactured to

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

4-15

Chapter 4

US and NATO specifications. Figure 4-16 illustrates the most common rounds by nomenclature, DODIC,
type, primary use and color code.

Figure 4-16. 7.62mm crew serve common ammunition types

4-16

FM 3-20.2/MCWP 3-12.21

3 September 2009

Ammunition

M2 HB CALIBER .50 MACHINE GUN AMMUNITION


4-33. The preferred combat ammunition mix for the M2 HB machine gun is four (API-M8) and one (APIT-M20), commonly referred to as 4:1 link. Other types of caliber .50 ammunition are available; however,
the four-and-one mix allows the firer to use TOT method of adjusting fire to achieve target kill or
suppression.
4-34. Ammunition for the caliber .50 machine gun is issued as a complete round with a cartridge case,
primer, propellant, and bullet, in with either the M2 or M9 closed loop, disintegrating link (see Figure
4-17).

Figure 4-17. M2/M9 closed loop link


4-35. The M2 and M48 caliber .50 machine guns use several types of standard caliber .50 ammunition.
Figure 4-18 shows the most common types and their characteristics. Soldiers may only use authorized
ammunition manufactured to US and NATO specifications with the M2 and M48 machine guns.
4-36. The maximum effective range of the caliber 50 ammunition is the greatest distance a crewman can
accurately engage threat targets using the weapon system. Table 4-6 describes the MER of the 50 caliber
round with the M2 HB MG.
Table 4-6. Caliber .50 maximum effective range

3 September 2009

Mount/Use

Point Target

Area Target

Tripod

1,500 meters

1,830 meters

Truck/Flex

1,500 meters

1,830 meters

Tank/CWS/RWS

1,800 meters

1,830 meters

Suppression

1,500 meters

1,830 meters

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

4-17

Chapter 4

4-37. The U.S. caliber 50 machine guns use various ammunition types in training and combat. Figure 418a and Figure 14-18b illustrate the most common rounds by nomenclature, DODIC, type, primary use and
standard markings, for the caliber 50 machine guns.

Figure 4-18a. Characteristics of the most common caliber .50 ammunition types

4-18

FM 3-20.2/MCWP 3-12.21

3 September 2009

Ammunition

Figure 4-18b. Characteristics of the most common caliber .50 ammunition types (continued)

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

4-19

Chapter 4

WARNING
USE AUTHORIZED AMMUNITION ONLY FOR CALIBER .50
MACHINE GUN. USE OF UNAUTHORIZED AMMUNITION MAY
RESULT IN INJURY TO PERSONNEL.

Note. The ammunition containers have the lot numbers stenciled on the side of the box, not on
the individual rounds. Therefore, it is important to record the box lot numbers when belted
machine gun ammunition is removed from containers.

SECTION III 25-MM BRADLEY FIGHTING VEHICLE AMMUNITION


4-38. The Bradleys main armament is the M242 25-mm automatic gun. It can destroy lightly armored
vehicles and aerial targets such as helicopters and slow-flying aircraft. It can also suppress enemy positions
and troops in the open. The three service rounds used with the 25-mm gun are the M791, M919 and the
M792. The two training rounds used with the 25-mm gun are the M910 and M793.

CLASSIFICATION
4-39. Conventional 25-mm main gun ammunition is classified according to type and use.
z
Kinetic energy (KE) ammunitions (such as M791) are the primary rounds used against light
armored vehicles and slow moving aerial targets.
z
High-explosive (HE) ammunition. Chemical energy (CE) ammunition (such as M792 and M919)
are the primary rounds used against unarmored vehicles and helicopters. They can also be used
to suppress ATGM positions and enemy squads beyond coax range.
z
Training:

Target practice (TP) ammunition is used for gunnery training. These rounds have ballistic
characteristics similar to service ammunition, without the CE projectile, fuse or service
penetrator.

Dummy ammunition is used for practicing gunnery-related tasks; it has no propellant or


explosive charge.

IDENTIFICATION
4-40. The various 25mm main gun ammunition can be identified by shape, the projectile color code, and
markings on the projectile (see Table 4-3 for the standard marking convention).

COMPONENTS OF 25MM AMMUNITION


4-41. A complete round of 25mm main gun ammunition is usually composed of the following basic
components; however, not all types of rounds will have every part listed:
z
Booster Pellet part of the ignition sequence of the ammunition. The booster pellet is ignited
by the primer, which in turn ignites the propellant in the cartridge case.
z
Cartridge Case the steel casing that contains the propellant, booster pellet, flash tube and
primer.
z
Flash Tube part of the ignition sequence of the ammunition. The flash tube is ignited by the
primer, which in turn ignites the propellant in the cartridge case. For 25mm ammunition the

4-20

FM 3-20.2/MCWP 3-12.21

3 September 2009

Ammunition

z
z
z
z
z
z
z

z
z

flash tube is only used in the M919 armor-piercing, fin stabilized, discarding sabot with tracer
(APFSDS-T).
Fuze the part of the HE projectile that causes it to function upon impact with a target (not used
in KE rounds).
Obturator a rubber, nylon or copper ring that seals propellant gases behind the projectile
during firing.
Ogive the curved portion of the projectile assembly that provides the aerodynamic shape
which lowers drag.
Primer the cap in the base of the cartridge case which when struck by the firing pin, starts the
ignition sequence of the booster pellet or flashtube, which in turn ignites the propellant charge.
Projectile Assembly the part of the round that travels through the gun tube.
Propellant the composition that burns, producing gas pressure that forces the projectile
assembly from the cartridge case down the gun barrel toward the target.
Pusher Base this is only a part of the 25mm M910 target practice discarding sabot with tracer
(TPDS-T) round. It is the metal base of the projectile assembly that the propellant gasses push
against to drive the projectile assembly down the gun barrel. It is discarded from the projectile
assembly once it leaves the gun barrel.
Rotating Band an iron or nylon o-ring located on the projectile assembly which engages the
lands and grooves of the gun and provides forward obturation by sealing propellant gases
behind the projectile during firing.
Subprojectile typically for KE rounds the part of the projectile that travels to the target after it
has discarded its sabots.
Windscreen a pointed, curved surface mainly used to form the streamlined nose of the round.
Also known as the nose cap.

SERVICE AMMUNITION
4-42. The M791 and M919 Sabot rounds use KE (no explosives are needed) to penetrate the target using
the mass of the projectile and the velocity of the projectile striking the target (see Figure 4-19).

Figure 4-19. Kinetic energy formula


4-43. The M792 HE round depends on CE and not striking velocity, therefore its ability to penetrate light
armor is as effective at 3,000 meters as it is at 200 meters.
4-44. Figure 4-20 provides a quick reference for comparing the three types of 25mm service ammunition.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

4-21

Chapter 4

Nomenclature

M791 APDS-T

M919 APFSDS-T

M792 HEI-T

A974

A986

A975

SAY-BOW

SAY-BOW

AAACH- EEE

1,345 mps

1,385 mps

1,100 mps

1,000 meters

0.8 sec

0.8 sec

1.2 sec

1,500 meters

1.2 sec

1.2 sec

2.2 sec

2,000 meters

1.7 sec

1.6 sec

3.6 sec

2,500 meters

DODIC
Announced in fire command as:
Muzzle velocity +/- 20 meters

Hazard Classification

Time of flight in seconds at

2.2 sec

2.1 sec

5.3 sec

Cartridge weight

458g

454g

501g

Projectile weight

134g

96g

185g

Tracer burn time

>1.7 sec

>1.8 sec

>3.5 sec

Bursting radius/aiming distance


maximum range

NA

NA

5m/10 to
200 m

Maximum effective range (MER)

2,000m

2,500m

3,000m

Tracer burn range

2,000m

2,500m

2,000m

MER is the greatest distance a threat target can be accurately engaged utilizing the weapon
system.
Figure 4-20. Comparison of service ammunition for 25-mm gun

M791 APDS-T
4-45. The M791 Armor-Piercing Discarding Sabot with Tracer (APDS-T) round penetrates light-armor
vehicles, self-propelled artillery, and aerial targets such as helicopters and slow-moving, fixed-wing
aircraft (see Figure 4-21).

4-22

FM 3-20.2/MCWP 3-12.21

3 September 2009

Ammunition

DANGER
Before firing any discarding sabot ammunition, consider the
safety of Soldiers on the ground. The discarding sabot can cause
death or injury.
The discarding sabot travels down the gun-target line within a 30degree angle on either side of the gun-target line, for 200 meters.

Figure 4-21. M791 armor-piercing discarding sabot with tracer


4-46. The APDS-T round is a fixed-type, percussion, primed round. It consists of a sabot-encapsulated
projectile body crimped to a steel cartridge case. The projectile body consists of a solid tungsten alloy
penetrator, pressed-on aluminum windscreen, pressed-in tracer pellets, molded discarding-type nylon
sabot, staked aluminum base, and welded or pressed-on nylon nose cap. The projectile sabot and nose cap
are black with white markings.
4-47. Gases produced by the burning propellant will send the projectile from the gun at 1,345 meters per
second (plus or minus 20 meters per second) and ignite the tracer. Setback, centrifugal, and aerodynamic
forces cause both the sabot and nose cap to discard as soon as the round leaves the barrel. The tungsten
penetrator (core) is spin-stabilized and penetrates the target solely by KE.
4-48. The maximum effective range of the M791 APDS-T is 2,000 meters due to tracer burnout; however
the APDS-T ammunition is accurate out to 2,200. As the range increases, the APDS-T round penetration
decreases, especially when target vehicles have an added layer of armor.

M919 APFSDS-T
4-49. The APFSDS-T round penetrates light-armor vehicles, self-propelled artillery, and aerial targets,
which includes helicopters and slow-moving, fixed-wing aircraft (see Figure 4-22).

DANGER
Because of the depleted uranium (DU) penetrator, the M919 APFSDS-T
round will only be used in combat or on ranges approved for DU use. If
at any time it gets damaged, crews must follow handling and reporting
procedures in DA Message RUEADWD3453, DTG-17051ZMAY2001 and
also in the vehicular technical manuals (TM 9-2350-252-10-1 or TM
9-2350-284-10-1).

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

4-23

Chapter 4

Figure 4-22. M919 armor-piercing, fin-stabilized, discarding sabot, with tracer


4-50. The APFSDS-T round is a fixed-type, percussion-primed round that consists of a sabot-encapsulated
projectile crimped into a steel cartridge case. The projectile is made of slate gray, corrosion-protected,
depleted uranium. It has a screw-on steel fin with pressed-in trace pellets; a three-piece, segmented
aluminum sabot; and a snap-on plastic protective cap. The projectile sabot and protective nose cap are
black, and the slip-band nylon obturator is white. The round has a green rubber sealant between the sabot
segments, the sabot and penetrator, and the sabot and plastic cap.
4-51. This KE round is similar to the APDS-T (M791) round, but with a velocity of 1,385 meters per
second (plus or minus 20m/s). It also has greater effective range, penetration capabilities, and tracer burn
time.

M792 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE INCENDIARY WITH TRACER


4-52. The high-explosive incendiary with tracer (HEI-T) round can destroy unarmed vehicles and
helicopters, and suppress enemy ATGM positions. The M792 is also used to engage enemy squads beyond
coax range (900 meters) and out to a maximum effective range of 3,000 meters (see Figure 4-23).

Figure 4-23. M792 high-explosive incendiary with tracer


4-53. The HEI-T cartridge is a fixed-type, percussion-primed round. The one-piece projectile body is filled
with high-explosive incendiary (HEI) and crimped to a steel cartridge case. The hollowed steel projectile
has an M758 mechanical fuze, 32 grams of an HEI mix, and a pressed-in tracer. The projectile is yellow
with a red band, black markings, and a gold tip. On some rounds, the projectiles yellow color is slightly
orange near the red band.
4-54. Gases produced by the burning propellant send the projectile out of the gun at 1,100 meters per
second. On impact, the M758 fuze ignites and the HEI filler detonates (see Figure 4-24). This projects steel
fragments from the body, rotating band assembly, and incendiary filler over a 5-meter radius.

4-24

FM 3-20.2/MCWP 3-12.21

3 September 2009

Ammunition

Figure 4-24. M758 high-explosive incendiary with tracer fuze


4-55. The maximum effective range for HEI-T rounds is 3,000 meters. This is based on
z
A mechanical fuze (the M758 fuze) that detonates the round at approximately 3,000 meters.
z
The fact that tracers burn out at 2,000 meters, but the gunner can observe the impact of the round
beyond this range, up to 3,000 meters.
z
The 5-meter bursting radius and rate-of-fire that allow the firer to engage both point and area
targets out to 3,000 meters, though accuracy decreases beyond 1,600 meters.
4-56. The Hazard Classification for the M758 fuze is 1.1, which is different from the round itself (see
Figure 4-25). Support personnel must verify with the ammunition supply point or holding area for the
correct markings based on their vehicles overall cargo.

Figure 4-25. M758 fuze hazard classification marker


4-57. The M792 HEI-T projectile has a specific functioning sequence; safe, setback, armed, and
detonation. Figure 4-26 shows the M758 fuze and its components in the safe mode.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

4-25

Chapter 4

Figure 4-26. M758 fuze in SAFE


4-58. Once the M792 round is fired, the M758 round enters the setback function. This function prepares
the fuze to arm. Figure 4-27 shows the setback function.

Figure 4-27. M758 fuze setback function


4-59. Once the setback function is complete, the fuze is capable of arming. This is designed to occur
between 10 and 150 meters, but its typical arming distance is 50m from the end of the gun tube. Figure
4-28 and Figure 4-29 detail the steps of the arming function.

4-26

FM 3-20.2/MCWP 3-12.21

3 September 2009

Ammunition

Figure 4-28. M758 fuze initial arming function

Figure 4-29. M758 fuze arming sequence complete


4-60. Once the M792 has been fired and the M758 fuze completes the arming function, the round can
detonate in one of three waysdirect impact, grazing impact, or self-destruct (see Figure 4-30 through
Figure 4-32). Figure 4-33 describes the two types of impact, direct (frontal) and grazing and the respective
angle of attack for the projectile striking a threat target.
z
Direct Impact. Striking the target crushes the projectiles probe cap. This pushes the probe
rearward, which thrusts the firing pin into the detonator, which detonates the HEI mixture.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

4-27

Chapter 4

Figure 4-30. M758 fuze direct impact functioning


Grazing Impact. Sometimes, due to spin decay (loss of forward velocity), the projectile strikes
the target with insufficient force. Spin decay triggers the set-back spring to overcome centrifugal
force, pushing the body assembly forward, and thrusting the detonator into the firing pin.

Figure 4-31. M758 fuze grazing impact functioning


z

4-28

Self-Destruct. If the round does not hit a target, the projectile self-destructs at 3,000 meters.
Depending on their severity; however, head winds and tail winds can reduce the distance where
the round self-destructs.

FM 3-20.2/MCWP 3-12.21

3 September 2009

Ammunition

Figure 4-32. M758 fuze self destruct functioning

Figure 4-33. Frontal and grazing projectile impact zones for the M792

TARGET PRACTICE AMMUNITION


4-61. For more realistic training, the training ammunition for the 25-mm gun replicates service
ammunition. Figure 4-34 outlines the characteristics of the training ammunition for the 25-mm gun.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

4-29

Chapter 4

Nomenclature

M910 TPDS-T

M793 TP-T

DODIC

A940

A976

Announced in fire command as:

SAY-BOW

AAACH-EEE

Muzzle velocity +/- 20 meters

1,525 mps

1,100 mps

1,000 meters

0.8 sec

1.2 sec

1,500 meters

1.2 sec

2.2 sec

2,000 meters

1.8 sec

3.5 sec

2,500 meters

2.1 sec

5.2 sec

Cartridge weight

420g

501g

Projectile weight

95g

182g

Tracer burn time

>1.8 sec

>3.5 sec

Bursting radius/aiming distance


maximum range

NA

NA

Maximum effective range

2,000m

1,600m

>2,000m

>2,000m

Hazard Classification

Time of flight in seconds at

Tracer burn range

Figure 4-34. Comparison of training ammunition for 25-mm gun

M910 TARGET PRACTICE DISCARDING SABOT WITH TRACER


4-62. The TPDS-T round simulates the flight pattern of the M791 APDS-T round. The TPDS-T round
allows units to practice sabot engagements on limited-distance ranges (see Figure 4-35). The maximum
range of the TPDS-T round is 6,404 meters.
4-63. The TPDS-T cartridge is a fixed-type, percussion-primed round. It consists of a sabot projectile
assembly crimped to a steel cartridge case. The projectile assembly includes a discardable aluminum
pusher base. It also includes a sub-projectile encapsulated with a discarding nylon sabot and polyethylene
protective cap. The sub-projectile has a steel core with an aluminum or steel windscreen and pressed-in
tracer pellets. The projectile is blue with white markings.
4-64. The TPDS-T cartridge trajectory is ballistically matched to within 1 mil of the APDS-T to a range of
2,000 meters. The tracer burns out at 2,000 meters.

Figure 4-35. M910 TPDS-T

4-30

FM 3-20.2/MCWP 3-12.21

3 September 2009

Ammunition

M793 TARGET PRACTICE WITH TRACER


4-65. The target practice with tracer (TP-T) cartridge is a fixed-type, percussion-primed training round that
is ballistically similar to the HEI-T round out to 2,000 meters (see Figure 4-36). The projectile consists of a
hollow steel body with blue with white markings. The TP-T rounds maximum effective range is 1,600
meters because accuracy is greatly reduced beyond that range.

Figure 4-36. M793 TP-T

SAFETY INFORMATION
DANGER OF DISCARDING PROJECTILE COMPONENTS
4-66. Crew members must consider the safety of the soldiers on the ground prior to firing any
ammunition with discarding sabot projectiles. The sabot leaves the barrel at a 30 degree angle on both sides
of the gun-target line for 200 meters (see Figure 4-37).

Figure 4-37. 25 mm sabot petal danger area

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

4-31

Chapter 4

AMMUNITION HANDLING
4-67. There is a danger that an electric spark or radio frequency (RF) energy can cause the primer to ignite.
z
Always wear gloves (combat vehicle crewman type, MIL-G-44108) when handling ammunition.
The human body absorbs RF energy that could be transferred to the primer electrode.
z
Never attempt to clean the primer on the aft face of the cartridge by touching the primer with
any metal object or tool.
z
To clean ammunition, wipe it clean with a dry, clean, soft rag. Do not use abrasive material or
cleaning solvent. If this amount of cleaning is not sufficient, do not use the cartridge; return it to
the ammunition supply point/quality assurance specialist.
z
Personnel should ensure that the use of cellular phones and electronic devices within vicinity of
ammunition is limited. It is possible for the devices to cause an electric spark which may cause
the primer to ignite.

DUST STORMS
4-68. During dust storms, crews should consider installing a muzzle cover or tarpaulin to prevent sand and
other debris from entering the muzzle of the M242 gun. This might prevent ammunition from being lodged
inside the chamber due to debris and sand buildup.

MAINTENANCE
4-69. Vehicle crews should conduct periodic inspections of service ammunition using the appropriate
operators manual. Maintenance includes only basic tasks, such as cloth wipe downs by crews, and touchup painting performed by ammunition supply point/quality assurance specialist (ASP/QASAS) personnel.
4-70. Ammunition condition codes are single letters that classify ammunition. Each code identifies the
degree of serviceability, condition, and completeness (readiness for issue and use), as well as other actions.
See FM 4-30.13 for specific information on the condition codes of main gun ammunition.

SECTION IV MK19 MOD 3, 40-MM GRENADE MACHINE GUN


4-71. The MK19 Mod 3 40-mm Grenade Machine Gun (GMC) (MK19) is used to destroy lightly armored
vehicles, defensive positions, and dismounted threats. It is also used to suppress enemy positions and
troops in the open. The MK19 fires CE and anti-personnel rounds. This section will discuss the
characteristics of both service (combat) and training 40mm rounds specifically designed for the MK19.
4-72. The MK19 fires the following cartridges: M430/M430A1 high-explosive, dual-purpose (HEDP)
grenades, the M1001 high velocity canister cartridge (HVCC) grenade, the M385 and M918 training
practice rounds, the MK 281 Mod 0 training round, and the M922/M922A1 dummy rounds. Figure 4-38
describes the characteristics of the various 40mm rounds available for the MK19 Mod 3.

4-32

FM 3-20.2/MCWP 3-12.21

3 September 2009

Ammunition

Nomenclature

M430/M430A1
HEDP

M1001 HVCC

M385 TP

M918 TP

MK 281 Mod 0
TP

M922/M922A1
Dummy

B472

DODIC

B542

BA11

B576

B584

BA12

Type

HEDP

HVCC

TP

TP

TP

Dummy

Fuze

M549 PIBD

None

None

M550 FEA

None

None

Primary Use

Lightly armored
vehicles,
personnel

Antipersonnel

Target practice

Target practice

Target practice

Weapon
function and
Crew training

Arming
Distance

18m to 30m

NA

NA

18 to 30m

NA

NA

Filler

Composition B

107 each 2
steel flechettes

Solid inert
projectile

Flash charge
composition

Orange
marking dye

Solid inert
projectile

Casualty
Radius

5m

5m

NA

NA

NA

NA

Burst Radius

15m

15m

NA

NA

NA

NA

Muzzle Velocity

241 m/s

242 m/s

244 m/s

242 m/s

242 m/s

NA

MER

1,500m

100m

1,500m

1,500m

1,500m

NA

Max Range

2,200m

100m

2,200m

2,200m

2,200m

NA

Projectile Color
Code

Olive drab with


black markings
and gold tip

Olive drab with


brown band
with white
diamonds and
gold tip

Blue with black


markings

Blue with black


markings and
brown band

Blue with black


markings

Gold with black


markings

Hazard
Classification

None

Legend: FEA = fuze escapement assembly


PD = point detonating
HEDP = high-explosive dual-purpose
HVCC = high velocity canister cartridge

MER = maximum effective range


TP = target practice
PIBD = point initiating, base detonating

Figure 4-38. Characteristics of 40-mm grenade

WARNING
Use only prescribed ammunition. Mixing the MK19 and M203
types of ammunition could result in injury. 40mm rounds are not
interchangeable between the two weapons.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

4-33

Chapter 4

SERVICE AMMUNITION
M430/M430A1 HIGH-EXPLOSIVE DUAL PURPOSE
4-73. The impact-type round penetrates 2 inches of steel armor and inflicts personnel casualties in the
target area. This round uses a point initiating base detonating (PIBD) fuze (M549) and filler composition B
(marked by yellow letters). The arming distance is between 18 to 30 meters, with a kill radius of 5 meters
and a wound radius of approximately 15 meters.
4-74. Maximum effective range is 1,500 meters and maximum range is 2,200 meters. The M430/M430A1
cartridge, linked with the M16A2 links, is the standard round for the MK19 Mod 3. The rounds are packed
48 rounds to each M548 ammunition container. The color code for the rounds is olive drab with a yellow
ogive and yellow markings. Figure 4-39 shows the internal components of the M430A1.

Figure 4-39. M430A1 internal components

M1001 HIGH VELOCITY CANISTER CARTRIDGE


4-75. The M1001 HVCC is an antipersonnel and anti-materiel round for the MK19 Mod 3. This projectile
inflicts personnel causalities in the target area with ground burst effects. The M1001 cartridge is linked
with the M16A2 series of links. The rounds are packed 48 rounds to each ammunition container. The color
code for the rounds is olive drab with a brown band around the body.
4-76. The HVCC round has a standard muzzle velocity similar to the HEDP at 242 meters per second.
Projectile payload consists of approximately 107 two inch long steel flechettes, or darts, as seen in Figure
4-40.

4-34

FM 3-20.2/MCWP 3-12.21

3 September 2009

Ammunition

Figure 4-40. M1001 HVCC projectile and flechettes


4-77. The functioning of the projectile and dispersion of the approximately 107 flechettes require
sufficient momentum or velocity to remain lethal at the point of impact. The maximum effective range of
100 meters ensures the terminal velocity of the subprojectiles will be sufficient to penetrate the target.

TRAINING AMMUNITION
M385 TARGET PRACTICE
4-78. The M385 round is a target practice round that contains no filler or explosive charge. It is used for
gunnery training. The markings are a blue ogive with black lettering (see Figure 4-41). The M385 round
launches an inert projectile using an M2 propellant charge. The rounds are linked using either the M16A1
or M16A2 link, depending on production model and lot number. The maximum effective range is 1,500
meters and maximum range is 2,200 meters. The rounds are packaged in a 50 round belt in a wooden box.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

4-35

Chapter 4

Figure 4-41. M385 TP internal components

M918 TARGET PRACTICE


4-79. The M918 round is a target practice round that contains a small flash-bang charge that identifies the
impact to the firer and observer(s). Because of this, there may be some range restrictions concerning its
use. Verify with the local range SOP prior to firing. The markings are a blue ogive with black lettering.
4-80. The M918 round launches a flash bang projectile using an M2 propellant charge. The rounds are
linked using either the M16A1 or M16A2 link, depending on production model and lot number. Maximum
effective range is 1,500 meters and maximum range is 2,200 meters. The rounds are packaged in a 50
round belt in a wooden box. See Figure 4-42 for the internal components of the M918.

Figure 4-42. M918 internal components


4-81. During FY08, DODIC BA30 will become available to the force. This ammunition belt will consist of
two each M918 rounds and one each M385 round connected using an M16A2 standard link as shown in
Figure 4-43.

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FM 3-20.2/MCWP 3-12.21

3 September 2009

Ammunition

Figure 4-43. BA30 2:1 Link

MK 281 MOD 0 TARGET PRACTICE


4-82. The MK 281 Mod 0 is a target practice round used for gunnery proficiency. The MK281 Mod 0
contains marking dye instead of an explosive projectile. The dye is used to show point of impact during
gunnery training. Maximum effective range is 1,500 meters and maximum range is 2,200 meters (see
Figure 4-44). The markings are a blue ogive with black lettering. The rounds are linked using either the
M16A1 or M16A2 link, depending on production model and lot number. The rounds are packaged in a 50
round belt in a wooden box.

Figure 4-44. MK 281 mod 0 target practice

M922/M922A1 DUMMY
4-83. The M922/M922A1 dummy round is totally inert and is used to check gun functioning and to train
gun crews. The rounds themselves are only issued to the unit armorer and are not available from the
ammunition supply point (ASP) or ammunition holding area (AHA).

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

4-37

Chapter 4

4-84. The dummy cartridges are linked together using the M16A2 links (see Figure 4-45). Each MK19
Mod 3 grenade machine gun is authorized one 10 round belt (DODIC B472) for training purposes. This
belt of dummy grenades are packed in a M2A1 metal shipping container.

Figure 4-45. B472 dummy linked


4-85. Figure 4-46 shows the various rounds used in the MK19 Mod 3 including their identifying color
codes and markings.

Figure 4-46. 40mm ammunition color codes and markings

SECTION V 120-MM ABRAMS TANK AMMUNITION


4-86. The Abrams tank main armament is the M256, 120mm smoothbore cannon. It is used to destroy
armored vehicles, lightly armored vehicles, helicopters and defensive positions. It is also used to suppress
enemy positions and troops in the open. The 120mm rounds are also used to conduct wall breaching and

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FM 3-20.2/MCWP 3-12.21

3 September 2009

Ammunition

obstacle reduction. The Abrams fires KE, CE, special purpose and training rounds. This section will
discuss the characteristics of both service (combat) and training main gun rounds.

CLASSIFICATION
4-87. Conventional main gun ammunition is classified according to type and use.
z
Armor-defeating ammunition. KE ammunition (such as M829A3) is the primary round used
against tank and tank-like targets. In a secondary role, it is used against helicopters and lightly
armored vehicles.
z
Multipurpose ammunition:

CE ammunition (such as M830A1 [MPAT]/M830 high-explosive antitank [HEAT]) are the


primary round used against lightly armored targets and field fortifications. In a secondary
role it can be used against personnel and tank-like targets. When in AIR mode, M830A1 is
the primary round used against helicopters.

High-explosive obstacle reducing with tracer (HE-OR-T). The M908 is a HE, obstaclereducing round used primarily against concrete and stone obstacles. In a secondary role, it
can be used against light armor and side/rear of tanks.
z
Antipersonnel. The M1028 canister round is primarily used against massed troop formations. In a
secondary role, it may be used against technical vehicles (light commercial trucks) and to breach
non-reinforced walls and concertina wire.
z
Training:

Target practice (TP) ammunition is used for gunnery training. These rounds provide
characteristics similar to service ammunition, without the CE projectile or service
penetrator.

Dummy ammunition is used for practicing gunnery-related tasks; it has no propellant or


explosive charge.

IDENTIFICATION
4-88. Main gun ammunition can be identified by shape, the projectile color code, and markings on the
projectile. See Table 4-3 on page 4-9 for the standard marking convention. In addition to the standard
colors and markings found on the projectile, the cartridge case base (aftcap) includes additional
information about the ammunition such as nomenclature and quick reference markings.
4-89. Service rounds are black or olive drab with white or yellow lettering. The training rounds are light
blue with white lettering.

CASE BASE QUICK REFERENCE MARKING


4-90. The case base (commonly referred to as the aft cap) has specific markings that help identify each
120mm main gun tank round. On each case base the user will see the Quick Identification Marking; lot
number for the case base and seal assembly; cartridge nomenclature; cartridge lot number, and the primer
(see Figure 4-47).

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

4-39

Chapter 4

Figure 4-47. Aft cap markings


4-91. All current M829A2, M829A3, M830A1, M1028, and M908 tactical rounds have quick
identification markings on the case base to help the loader quickly identify the types of rounds loaded in
the ammunition racks (see Figure 4-48). Refurbished M830 rounds can be further identified by the painted
black aft cap with white markings in addition to the H Quick ID marking on the case base, these are
limited quantity rounds. The M829A1 and original M830 rounds do not have quick identification
markings.

Figure 4-48. Case base quick reference markings for service ammunition
4-92. The quick identification marking system has also been applied to the training ammunition to help the
loader and crews rapidly identify the type of round prior to loading. Not all training ammunition will have
these markings as stocks on hand were not upgraded with the new marking system. In these cases, the
loader should mark his aftcaps in a similar fashion with a grease pencil to aid in the identification process.
Figure 4-49 is an example of the training ammunition marking system.

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FM 3-20.2/MCWP 3-12.21

3 September 2009

Ammunition

Figure 4-49. Case base quick reference markings for training ammunition

COMPONENTS OF A MAIN GUN ROUND


4-93. A complete round of main gun ammunition is usually composed of the following basic parts;
however, not all types of rounds will have every part listed (see Figure 4-50):
z
Bourrelet raised metal portions on the front and aft areas of the projectile which center it in
the tube. The bourrelet may be made of metal or a composite material.
z
Cartridge Case combustible casing that contains the propellant, case base and primer. When
the round is fired, the combustible cartridge case is consumed and the gases expand the case
base and seal assembly to provide rear obturation.
z
Case Base the rear portion of the cartridge with the primer screwed into the case base. Upon
firing, the case base and seal assembly provide rear obturation. During counter-recoil, the case
base is ejected from the gun.
z
Fuze the part of the projectile that causes it to function upon impact or at a specific time (not
currently used in KE rounds).
z
Obturator a rubber, nylon or copper ring that seals propellant gases behind the projectile
during firing.
z
Ogive the forward portion of the projectile designed to reduce air resistance and assist in
providing aerodynamic stability.
z
Primer the component that is screwed into the case base, upon firing it ignites the propellant
charge.
z
Projectile the part of the round that travels through the gun tube.
z
Propellant upon firing, the primer ignites the propellant charge, producing gas pressure that
expands the rear seal, and forces the projectile from the gun tube toward the target.
z
Subprojectile generally refers to projectiles with discarding petals, the subprojectile (or
payload as in the M1028 canister round) impacts with the target.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

4-41

Chapter 4

Figure 4-50. Components of a 120mm main gun round

SERVICE AMMUNITION
4-94. Armor-defeating projectiles use either KE or CE to penetrate and destroy armored targets.
4-95. Figure 4-51 lists the characteristics of the main gun service ammunition available for the M1A1 and
M1A2 SEP.

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FM 3-20.2/MCWP 3-12.21

3 September 2009

Ammunition

Nomenclature

M829A1
APFSDS-T

M829A2
APFSDS-T

M829A3
APFSDS-T

M830
HEAT-MP-T

M830A1
HEAT-MP-T

M908
HE-OR-T

M1028
Canister

DODIC

C380

C792

CA26

C787

C791

CA05

CA38

Muzzle
Velocity

1,575m/s

1,675 m/s

1,555 m/s

1,140 m/s

1,410 m/s

1,410 m/s

1,410 m/s

Announced in
Fire Command
as:

SABOT or
SAY-BOW

SABOT or
SAY-BOW

SABOT or
SAY-BOW

HEAT

MPAT or
MPAT AIR

OR
(OH-ARE)

CANISTER
or CAN

Fuze *

None

None

None

PIBD

PIBD or
Proximity
(air mode)

PIBD

None

Fuze
Performance

NA

NA

NA

Armed
11-30m
50% by
~20m

Air Armed
400-1000
m, (~700 m)
Ground
armed 1160 m,
(~35m)

Armed
11-60m
(~35m)

NA

Employment
Primary

Primary
armor
defeating

Primary
armor
defeating

Primary
armor
defeating

Light armor,
buildings,
bunkers,
personnel

Light armor,
buildings,
bunkers,
personnel,
helicopters
(air mode)

Obstacle
reduction

Massed
personnel

Employment
Secondary

Helicopters

Helicopters

Helicopters

Tank and
tank-like

Tank and
tank-like

Light armor
and side/
rear of tanks

Anti-materiel
and very
light
armored

Projectile
Color Code

Black with
white letters

Black with
white letters

Black with
white letters

Black with
yellow
letters

Black with
yellow
letters

Black with
yellow
letters and
yellow steel
nose

Olive drab
with white
letters

Weight

46.2 lb

44.9 lb

49.12 lb

53.4 lb

50.1 lb

50.1 lb

50.7 lb

Hazard
Classification

Length

38.7 in

38.7 in

38.7 in

38.6 in

38.7 in

38.7 in

30.7 in

EFC

1.0

1.0

2.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Storage
Temperature
Limits

-50F to
145F

-50F to
145F

-50F to
145F

-50F to
145F

-50F to
145F

-50F to
145F

-50F to
145F

Safe-to-Fire
Temperature
Limits

-25F to
125F

-25F to
125F

-25F to
120F

-50F to
145F

-25F to
120F

-25F to
120F

-50F to
145F

Performance
Temperature
Limits

-25F to
125F

-25F to
125F

-25F to
120F

-25F to
125F

-25F to
120F

-25F to
120F

-25F to
145F

* Fuze abbreviations: PIBD=point initiating base detonating, FFI=full frontal impact switch.
EFC= Equivalent Full Charge

Figure 4-51. Tank service round technical data

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

4-43

Chapter 4

SAFE TEMPERATURE NOTE


It is imperative that crewmembers pay attention to the difference
between storage temperature limits and the safe to fire limits. The
rounds can be stored from -50 F to 145 F. However, prior to firing, many
round types must be allowed to return to the safe to fire temperature
limits of -25 F to 125 F. IAW the tank operators manual, when ammunition
is stored in an open field environment, it must be covered (such as with a
tarpaulin) to reduce high temperatures within the ammunition containers.

ARMOR DEFEATING AMMUNITION


M829 A1/A2/A3 APFSDS-T
4-96. Sabot rounds are the primary armor-defeating round for the 120-mm main gun and the most accurate
of all tank ammunition. Sabot rounds use KE (weight and speed of the penetrator) to defeat the target (see
Figure 4-52).

Figure 4-52. Kinetic energy formula


4-97. The effectiveness of sabot rounds depends on the density of the target surface; therefore, consider
target armor thickness when selecting the appropriate armor-defeating round for a specific target. Use
sabot ammunition when faced with penetrating the thickest part of the target. Also, when possible,
maneuver your element to engage armored targets from the flank or rear where the armor is less dense.
4-98. Three types of 120-mm sabot rounds currently available for the M1A1 and M1A2 SEP tanks are
M829A3 APFSDS-T, M829A2 APFSDS-T, and M829A1 APFSDS-T (see Figure 4-53 and Figure 4-54).

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FM 3-20.2/MCWP 3-12.21

3 September 2009

Ammunition

Figure 4-53. M829A3 APFSDS-T (120mm)

WARNINGS
In combat emergency conditions, when the lives of the crew are
in immediate jeopardy, the M829A3 may be fired at temperatures
as high as 135F although, there is a low, but real risk of gun tube
failure. If the M829A3s are fired at temperatures between 120F
and 135F, crews must examine the gun tube for unusual wear or
other abnormalities after firing 6 to 8 rounds, and must have
direct support maintenance personnel inspect the gun tube if 9 to
18 rounds are fired. Do NOT fire the M829A3 over 135F.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

4-45

Chapter 4

Figure 4-54. M829A1/M829A2 APFSDS-T (120mm)

MULTIPURPOSE AMMUNITION
M830 HEAT-MP-T
4-99. The HEAT round is used primarily against lightly armored targets and field fortifications (see Figure
4-55). In its secondary role it is used against personnel and armored vehicles. Each projectile consists of a
steel body with a stand off spike. Inside the projectile is a cone copper liner and wave shaper which forms
the explosives into a shaped charge for deeper penetration of the target. Finally, a crush switch in the nose
and a switch on the shoulder of the projectile comprise the Full Frontal Impact Switch Assembly. When
closed, any of these switches can activate the detonation sequencing.

Figure 4-55. M830 HEAT-MP-T (120mm)

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FM 3-20.2/MCWP 3-12.21

3 September 2009

Ammunition

4-100. Upon impact, one of the projectile switches is closed. The fuze then detonates the HE shaped
charge, which collapses the cone assembly, creating a high-velocity focused shock wave and a jet of metal
particles that penetrate the target (see Figure 4-56). This round depends on CE and not striking velocity,
therefore its ability to penetrate armor is as effective at 4,000 meters as it is at 200 meters.

Figure 4-56. Chemical energy ammunition effects


4-101. In addition to the M830 HEAT-MP-T (see Figure 4-55 on previous page), there are two other
HEAT rounds available, the M830A1 MPAT and M908 HE-OR-T (see Figure 4-57).

M830A1 HEAT-MP-T (MPAT)


4-102. The 120-mm M830A1 MPAT round is a fin-stabilized round that contains a HE warhead equipped
with a selectable proximity switch and fuze that allows it to be fired in either AIR or GROUND mode. Its
primary targets are light-armored ground targets, which are engaged with the fuze set to GROUND mode,
allowing the round to function either when it strikes a target with a direct or glancing blow. It may also be
used against bunkers, buildings, the flank and rear of enemy tanks, and enemy personnel.
4-103. With the switch set to AIR mode, this round can be used in a self-defense role against enemy
helicopters. The round will function either when it strikes a target or approaches the vicinity of a target that
is detected by the sensor; however, since the sensor is not active until 400 meters at the earliest, it will not
function in AIR mode at shorter ranges, but will detonate when striking a target.
4-104. The MPAT round case base will be marked as MPAT or MPAT-1. The primary difference
between the two rounds is a newer, stronger spring disk. The MPAT-1 spring disc is designed to prevent
separation of the case base from the combustible cartridge case when handling the round.

M908 HE-OR-T
4-105. The M908 is a HE-OR-T (see Figure 4-57). It is a full-service, 120-mm round fired from the
M256 cannon system. The M908 is an M830A1 round that has been reconfigured as follows:
z
A steel nose cap painted yellow replaces the proximity sensor.
z
Markings on the projectile or case base that identify the round as OR M908 or XM908.
4-106. The weight of the round and center of gravity are identical to the M830A1 MPAT round. The
M908 will be used primarily to reduce obstacles into rubble small enough to be cleared by either unit
organic equipment or external support, or to destroy concrete bridge pylons in order to create an obstacle
that would greatly restrict or impede enemy movement.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

4-47

Chapter 4

Figure 4-57. M830A1 HEAT-MP-T and M908 HE-OR-T

WARNING
The nose of the M830A1 contains the air/ground sensor. This
sensor can be damaged if it is struck on hard surfaces inside the
turret (turret roof, breech, etc.) with moderate force. Loaders
must take precaution to avoid striking the nose during the
loading process.

ANTIPERSONNEL AMMUNITION
M1028 Canister
4-107. The purpose of the M1028 round is to provide a short-range antipersonnel capability for the
Abrams tank. The projectile consists of a two-piece, forward and aft aluminum body that houses the
payload and prevents the deployment of the payload until shot exit. The aft body (commonly called the
pot) provides strength and stability for the forward body (see Figure 4-58). The forward body houses
approximately 1097 3/8" tungsten balls and is scored (grooved) so that upon muzzle exit, the sides (4
petals) peel away and permit the payload to disperse down range.
4-108. This round is most effective at 200 to 500 meters against a standard 10 man infantry squad in a
wedge formation. For enemy infantry squads less than 100 meters and greater than 500 meters crews
should use coax to engage the targets. At ranges less than 100 meters, the projectiles have not had enough
time to deploy adequately and the coax is more effective. At ranges beyond 500 meters, the lethality of the

4-48

FM 3-20.2/MCWP 3-12.21

3 September 2009

Ammunition

canister is severely reduced due to loss of projectile density and velocity. The coax is much more effective
and efficient at ranges greater than 500 meters.
4-109. Since this is designed as a short range round, the M1A1 and M1A2 SEP fire control systems have
been modified with a default range of 150 meters as well as the required ballistic solutions. Units acquiring
the M1028 may or may not have the required updates to the tank fire control system to accurately fire the
canister round. The fire control computers for all 120-mm tanks are scheduled to be upgraded with M1028
ballistic solutions. If M1028 rounds are provided before tanks are upgraded, crews should index MPAT
and manually enter a 1,200 meter ballistic solution. This provides an equivalent super elevation for the
M1028 of about 340 meters.
4-110. For additional information on the M1028 canister round, refer to ST 3-20.12-7, M1028 120-mm
Canister (available on the Reimer Digital Library, Command Publications, STs).
4-111. See Table 4-7 for information on the effects of the M1028 canister round against threat targets at
specific ranges. See Figure 4-59 for the lethal danger zone of the M1028 canister round.
Note. The M1028 creates a higher wear pattern around the bore evacuator holes compared to
other 120-mm rounds. When tubes that have fired the M1028 are borescoped, maintenance
teams should be instructed to pay particular attention to this area.

Figure 4-58. M1028 canister

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

4-49

Chapter 4

Table 4-7. M1028 canister effects on various targets


Target Type

Ranges

Troops

200-500 meters

Cinderblock walls

<100 meters

Cinderblock walls

100-200 meters

Adobe wall

<75 meters

Double reinforced concrete


walls

50-70 meters

3X concertina wire

50-60 meters

Small commercial vehicles

<200 meters

Rounds

Effects

1 Round per squad


2 Rounds per platoon
1 Round
1 Round
2 Round
1 Round
2 Rounds
3 Rounds

~40 %
incapacitation

1 round
1 round

Rubble
Some perforation
Rubble wall
Penetration
Perforation
Man size hole for
entry, remaining
rebar will need to
be removed
Single person
passageway
Vehicle damage
and personnel
incapacitation

Notes 1. Troops 5 meters apart in wedge formation.


2. When firing the canister round against hard targets, unprotected personnel must be at
least 200 meters from the target area to avoid danger from debris.

Figure 4-59. M1028 canister lethal danger zone (not to scale)

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FM 3-20.2/MCWP 3-12.21

3 September 2009

Ammunition

TARGET PRACTICE AMMUNITION


4-112. Target practice ammunition is used during gunnery training in place of service ammunition. The
fire control system on the M1A1 and M1A2 SEP tanks has the ballistics data for each training round. In the
fire command, target practice rounds are announced as the round they represent. Their color code is light
blue with white letters.
4-113. The training rounds available for the M256 cannon are the M865 Target Practice Cone Stabilized
Discarding Sabot-Tracer (TPCSDS-T), M831A1, M831A1-TP-T, and M1002 target practice multipurposetracer (TPMP-T). Additionally, the M1028 canister round has been approved to be used on training ranges,
(see Figure 4-51 on page 4-43).
4-114. Figure 4-60 contains the characteristics of the 120mm training main gun ammunition.
Nomenclature

M865 TPCSDS-T

M831A1 HEAT-TP-T

M1002 TPMP-T

DODIC

C785

C784

CA31

Muzzle Velocity

1,700 m/s

1,140 m/s

1,375 m/s

Announced in Fire
Command as:

SABOT

HEAT

MPAT or
MPAT-AIR

Fuze

None

None

Simulated Air/Ground
switch

Projectile Color
Code

Light blue with white


letters

Light blue with white


letters

Light blue with white


letters

Hazard
Classification

Weight

37.8 lbs

51.4 lbs

46.0 lbs

Length

34.7

38.6

38.7

Tracer Color

Yellow/Gold

Red

Red/Orange

EFC

1.0

1.0
o

1.0
o

Storage
Temperature Limits

-50 F to 145 F

-50 F to 145 F

-50oF to 145oF

Safe-to-Fire
Temperature Limits

-50oF to 145oF

-50oF to 145oF

-25oF to 145oF

Performance
Temperature Limits

-25oF to 125oF

-25oF to 125oF

-45oF to 145oF

Figure 4-60. 120 mm target practice round technical data

M865 TPCSDS-T
4-115. The purpose of the M865 TPCSDS-T is to simulate the M829 family service sabot round for
gunnery training (see Figure 4-61). This round has similar physical characteristics (weight, length, center
of gravity, external appearance) as the original M829 round. The M829A1/A2/A3 service rounds are much
longer and heavier than that of the M865.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

4-51

Chapter 4

Figure 4-61. M865 TPCSDS-T


Note. In the M1A2 SEP with 4.0 software, the current or T-S1 M865 is labeled M865A3. This
error will be corrected in future software upgrades.

M831A1 HEAT-TP-T
4-116. The purpose of the M831A1 M831A1-TP-T is to simulate the M830 service M831A1-TP-T for
gunnery training. The M831A1 is cone stabilized and provides ballistic performance to meet its training
requirement out to approximately 2,000 meters (see Figure 4-62).
Note. All U.S. and German TP-T training rounds have arrows stamped on the spike. All TP-T
training rounds that do not have arrows stamped on the spike should be treated as service HEAT
rounds.

Figure 4-62. M831A1 HEAT-TP-T

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FM 3-20.2/MCWP 3-12.21

3 September 2009

Ammunition

M1002 TPMP-T
4-117. The purpose of the M1002 TPMP-T cartridge is to serve as a ground-mode-only training round for
the 120-mm, high-explosive, antitank multipurpose tracer (HEAT-MP-T), M830A1 tactical cartridge. This
round has essentially the same physical characteristics (weight, length, center-of-gravity, external
appearance) as the M830A1. Additionally, the nose is a plastic ring which simulates the AIR/GROUND
proximity switch found on the M830A. This design allows crew members to select the ground or air mode
of operation by turning the plastic ring (see Figure 4-63).

Figure 4-63. M1002 TPMP-T

SAFETY INFORMATION

DANGER
M831A1, M865, and M1002 rounds will not be stored in the hull
ammunition compartment due to the vulnerability of the M14
propellant. Crews will load only enough training ammunition in
the bustle compartments to achieve immediate training
objectives. No training ammunition with M14 propellant should be
stored in vehicles that are in a hostile environment.

INTEROPERABILITY OF 120MM AMMUNITION


4-118. As part of its design, the M1A1 and M1A2 series of vehicles are capable of firing NATO standard
combustible cartridge case 120mm tank ammunition. Within the European Union, the Leopard 2A4 and
Leopard 2A5 are used in 10 countries, capable of using the same ammunition.
4-119. TM 9-2350-264-10-2 and TM 9-2350- 388-10-2, Chapter 5, page 5-8 lists all ammunition that can
be fired from the M256 cannon, both US Army and NATO 120mm cartridges.
4-120. All ammunition listed in the firing table (FT) 120-D-2 can be fired from the M256 cannon.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

4-53

Chapter 4

4-121. Ammunition must still be inspected prior to use, including verifying there are no restrictions or
suspensions for the ammunition by type or lot number according to TB 9-1300-385. This includes German
ammunition.
4-122. The current German 120mm model rounds that can be fired from the M256 Cannon are shown in
Table 4-8.
Table 4-8.120mm German models for the M256 Cannon
Model Number

Type

Purpose

DM 12 HEAT-MP-T

High Explosive, Anti-Tank, Multi-Purpose with


Tracer

DM 12A1 HEAT-MPT

High Explosive, Anti-Tank, Multi-Purpose with


Tracer

DM 13 APFSDS-T

Armor Piercing, Fin Stabilized, Discarding


Sabot with Tracer
Armor Piercing, Fin Stabilized, Discarding
Sabot with Tracer
Armor Piercing, Fin Stabilized, Discarding
Sabot with Tracer
Armor Piercing, Fin Stabilized, Discarding
Sabot with Tracer
Armor Piercing, Fin Stabilized, Discarding
Sabot with Tracer
Target Practice with Tracer
Target Practice, Fin Stabilized, Discarding
Sabot with Tracer
Target Practice, Cone Stabilized, Discarding
Sabot with Tracer

Light Armored
Vehicles, Secondary
Armor Defeating
Light Armored
Vehicles, Secondary
Armor Defeating
Armor Defeating

DM 23 APFSDS-T
DM 33 APFSDS-T
DM 43 APFSDS-T
DM 43A1 APFSDS-T
DM 18 TP-T
DM 28 TPFSDS-T
DM 38 TPCSDS-T

Armor Defeating
Armor Defeating
Armor Defeating
Armor Defeating
Target Practice (HEAT)
Target Practice (Sabot)
Target Practice (Sabot)

Note. German Model rounds ending with a 2 are Service HEAT, ending with a 3 are Service
Sabot, and ending with an 8 are Training Rounds. 18 are Training HEAT, 28 are Fin Stabilized
Sabot, and 38 are Cone Stabilized Sabot.

DANGER OF DISCARDING PROJECTILE COMPONENTS


4-123. All rounds that have discarding sabots, such as service KE rounds, M865, MPAT, HE-OR-T, and
canister roundswill not be fired over friendly troops unless those troops are protected by adequate cover
defined in DA Pamphlet 385-63. Troops may be struck by the discarded components. This information
should be included in the daily safety briefing for firing tank crews while conducting gunnery.
z
Discarding Sabot Rounds. The danger area for rounds that have discarding sabots, such as
service KE rounds, M865, MPAT, and HE-OR-T extends to 1,000 meters from the gun and 70
meters to either side of the gun-target line (see Figure 4-64).

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Ammunition

Figure 4-64. Discarding Sabot danger area


z

M1028 Canister Round. The danger area for the discarding components of the canister round
is similar to those of any KE sabot round as shown in Figure 4-64.

4-124. Unit Master Gunners must refer to DA Pamphlet 385-63 for accurate surface danger zone
dimensions for ammunition firing on any range.

AMMUNITION HANDLING
4-125. The 120-mm ammunition contains electric primers. There is a danger that an electric spark or RF
energy can cause the primer to ignite. Care should be taken not to touch the primer, since energy is
transferred if the center electrode of the primer is being touched. When handling or operating in the
vicinity of unpackaged ammunition, observe the following precautions:
z
Always wear gloves (combat vehicle crewman type, MIL-G-44108) when handling main gun
ammunition. The human body absorbs RF energy that could be transferred to the primer
electrode.
z
Never attempt to clean the primer or the primer electrode on the aft face of the cartridge by
touching the primer or electrode with any object or tool.
z
To clean ammunition, wipe it clean with a dry, clean, soft rag. Do not use abrasive material or
cleaning solvent. If this amount of cleaning is not sufficient, do not use the cartridge; return it to
the ASP/QASAS (ammunition surveillance).
z
Personnel should not carry any unauthorized wireless/electronic devices when performing
uploading, downloading and prepare to fire operations when involving tank ammunition. It is
possible for the devices to cause an electric spark which may cause the primer to ignite.
z
Maintain a safe separation distance (SSD) of at least 30 meters between any source capable of
transmitting UHF/FM signals during operations involving all types of unpackaged tank
ammunition outside of the turret. This distance will avoid risk of initiating the primer while
ammunition is being handled
Note. Crews must periodically inspect their ammunition stowage compartments to maintain a
dry condition. Use desiccant bags to prevent excessive moisture within these compartments.
Never store ammunition in a wet compartment.

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Chapter 4

DUST STORMS
4-126. During dust storms, crews must install the main gun muzzle cover to prevent sand and other debris
from entering the M256 gun. Debris which enters the system could prevent main gun ammunition from
properly chambering. Also, during live fire, obstructions within the gun tube may contribute to a major
malfunction of the system, cause a rupture or damage the muzzle end of the gun tube.

MAINTENANCE AND SERVICEABILITY


4-127. Tank crews must conduct periodic inspections of all ammunition using the appropriate tank
operators manual. These periodic inspections include a complete list of items to be inspected prior to
up/down loading of main gun ammunition or when removing an unfired round from the breech.
Maintenance includes only basic tasks, such as cloth wipe downs by crews, and touch-up painting
performed by ASP/QASAS personnel.
4-128. Table 5-2 of TM 9-2350-264-10-2, Chapter 5 and TM 9-2350-388-10-2, Chapter 5 contains a
complete inspection list of items to be inspected prior to handling and firing.
4-129. If units suspect that any 120-mm tank ammunition has been damaged and might not chamber
properly, request a man-portable chamber gage from the QASAS (see Figure 4-65). This gage can be used
to determine if rounds will fit inside the gun chamber.

Figure 4-65. Man-Portable Chamber Gage, NSN 5220-01-477-5455


4-130. During routine maintenance, care should be given to properly classify the ammunition by the
appropriate condition code. Ammunition condition codes are single letters that classify ammunition. Each
code identifies the degree of serviceability, condition, and completeness (readiness for issue and use), as
well as other actions. See FM 4-30.13 for specific information on the condition codes of main gun
ammunition (see Table 4-9).

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Ammunition

Table 4-9. Main gun ammunition codes

TANK AMMUNITION STOWAGE PLAN


4-131. The ammunition stowage plan for all tanks within the HBCT is part of the unit standing operating
procedures (SOP). The stowage plan should include the location of all ammunition authorized for the basic
load, by type and number of rounds. During darkness, when lights inside the turret will reduce the crews
night vision or give away the tanks position, a standardized stowage plan will help the loader rapidly

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Chapter 4

locate the ammunition announced in the initial fire command. The stowage plan also helps the crew keep
track of the number of rounds (by type) that have been fired.
4-132. See Appendix A, page A-134 and page A-135 for further information regarding the layout of the
ammunition stowage plan for 16/18 round racks and the 17 round racks.

SAFETY NOTICE
CREW MEMBERS MUST ENSURE THAT ONLY THE KINETIC
ENERGY OR CANISTER ROUNDS ARE STOWED IN THE UPPER
AND OUTER TUBES IN THE AMMUNITION RACKS. STOWAGE OF
CHEMICAL ENERGY ROUNDS IN THESE TUBES CAN RESULT IN
INJURY OR DEATH IF THE ROUNDS EXPLODE IN THE RACK.

SECTION VI MORTAR AMMUNITION


4-133. Mortars are suppressive indirect fire weapons. They are employed to neutralize or destroy area or
point targets, screen large areas with smoke, and provide illumination or coordinated highexplosive/illumination. The mortar platoons mission is to provide close and immediate indirect fire
support for maneuver battalions and companies.
4-134. A complete round of mortar ammunition contains all of the components needed to get the round
out of the tube and to burst at the desired place and time. All 120-mm mortar cartridges, except training
cartridges, are packaged as a complete round and have three major componentsa fuze, body, and tail fin
with propulsion system assembly. This section discusses the proper care and handling, color codes, and
field storage of ammunition.

CLASSIFICATION
4-135. Ammunition is classified according to use. HE is used against personnel (in the open or in
bunkers), light vehicles, and light bunkers. White phosphorus (WP) is used for screening and spotting.
Illumination is used for battlefield illumination and signaling. Full range training rounds are used for
gunnery related training.

AUTHORIZED CARTRIDGES
4-136. There are four types of ammunition authorized for firing from the M121 mortar carrierHE,
smoke, ILLUM, and training. M929 smoke, M930 Illumination, M934 HE, and M933 HE cartridges are
authorized to be fired from the M121 carrier-mounted 120-mm mortar in a combat environment. For
training purposes, the M931 full range training round (FRTR) may be fired from the M121 carrier-mounted
120-mm mortar.
4-137. When firing the 900 series mortar ammunition, the bursting radius is 75 meters. A minimum range
of 200 meters at charge 0 (charge may vary in firing table and whiz wheel) applies to all rounds and fuzes.
4-138. Figure 4-66 contains a list of the authorized mortar ammunition.

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Ammunition

Nomenclature

M933/M933A1
HE

M934/M934A1
HE

M929
Smoke (WP)

M930/M983
Illuminating

M931
FRTR

DODIC

C623/CA44

C379/CA04

C624/CA03

C625/CA07

CA09

Type

HE

HE

Smoke, WP

Illuminating

TP

Fuze

Point
Detonating
(PD)
M745/M783

Multi-Option
(MO)
M734/M734A
1

PD/ Multioption
M734A1

Mechanical
Time Super
Quick
(MTSQ) M776

PD
M781

Body Material

HF-1

HF-1

F&R carbon
steel

Wrought
carbon steel

HR-1 Steel

Filler

Comp B
6.59 lbs

Comp B
6.59 lbs

WP felt
wedges
5.28 lbs

VL Candle/IR
Candle

Center Vent
Tube

Ignition
Cartridge

M981

M981/M1020

M981/M1020

M981/M1020

M1020

Propellant
Charge

M230

M230/M234

M230/M234

M230/M234

M233

Weight

31.2 lbs

31.2 lbs

31.2 lbs

31.2 lbs

31.2 lbs

Length

27.99 in

27.99 in

27.85 in

27.85 in

27.99 in

Projectile
Color Code

Olive drab
with yellow
markings

Olive drab
with yellow
markings

Light green
with yellow
band and light
red markings

White with
black
markings

Light blue
with white
markings

Range of
effect

7,200 meters

7,200 meters

Weather
depending

60 seconds

7,200 meters

Hazard
Classification

Figure 4-66. 120-mm mortar round technical data

WARNING
Only fire the authorized cartridges from the M121 mortar carrier.
Firing the M57, M68, or M91 120-mm cartridges from the M121
carrier-mounted mortar may cause bodily injury and hearing loss.
These cartridges are not authorized to be fired from the carrier.

SERVICE AMMUNITION
4-139. The M933A1 and the M934 HE mortar rounds are used against enemy personnel and light
materiel targets. See Figure 4-67 and Figure 4-68 for the description of the rounds.

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Chapter 4

Figure 4-67. M933A1 HE, with fuze, PD: M783 (120 mm)

Figure 4-68. M934 HE, with fuze, multi-optional: M734A1 (120 mm)
4-140. The M929 WP round is used for screening and marking a target area. See Figure 4-69 for the
description of the round.

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Ammunition

Figure 4-69. M929 WP, with fuze, multi-optional: M734A1 (120 mm)
4-141. The M930 and the M983 Illumination rounds are used for battlefield illumination and signaling. See
Figure 4-70 and Figure 4-71 for the description of the rounds.

Figure 4-70. M930 IL, with fuze, super-quick: M776 (120 mm)

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Chapter 4

Figure 4-71. M983 IL, with fuze, super-quick: M776 (120 mm)

TARGET PRACTICE AMMUNITION


4-142. The M931 FRTR cartridge consists of a PD (practice) fuze, a hollow projectile body with vent
tube and base plug, a fin assembly, an obturating fuze ring, four propellant increments, and an ignition
cartridge (see Figure 4-72. The cartridge is similar in appearance to the M933 and M934 HE cartridges.
The cartridge is also ballistically similar to the HE cartridges and produces a similar signature (flash and/or
smoke and audible sound) upon impact.

Figure 4-72. M931 FRTR, with fuze, PD: M781 (120 mm)

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Ammunition

FUZES
4-143. The fuzes used with the 120-mm mortar founds are described in the following paragraphs. The
settings allow the mortar round to detonate at a predetermined point, either at proximity to the target, near
the surface, on impact or on a .05 second delay on impact.

M776 MTSQ FUZE


z
z
z

Functions: Air burst or impact.


Settings: Six to 52 seconds.
Remarks: The fuze has a mechanical arming and timing device, expulsion charge, and safety
wire or pin (see Figure 4-73).

Figure 4-73. M776 MTSQ fuze


4-144. The setting procedures for the M776 MTSQ fuze are
z
Rotate the head of the fuze to the left (counterclockwise) until the inverted triangle or index line
is aligned with the correct line and number of seconds of the time scale.
z
Use the fuze setter to rotate the head of the fuze.
z
See the firing table for the correct time setting.
z
Remove the fuze safety pin or wire before firing.
z
To reset the M776 MTSQ fuze, rotate the head of the fuze counterclockwise until the safe line
(S or inverted triangle of the time scale) is aligned with the index line of the fuze body. Replace
the safety wire (see Figure 4-74).

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Chapter 4

Figure 4-74. M776 MTSQ fuze

M935 PD FUZE
z
z
z

Functions: Impact.
Settings: Super quick (SQ) or 0.05-second delay action.
Remarks: The fuze has a safety wire (see Figure 4-75).

Figure 4-75. M935 PD fuze


4-145. The setting procedures for the M935 PD fuze are
z
Super quick setting:

These fuzes are shipped preset to function super quickly on impact.

Verify the setting before firing. The selector slot should be aligned with the SQ mark.
z
Delay setting:

Turn the selector slot in a clockwise direction until the slot is aligned with the delay (DLY)
mark.

Use a coin or a flat-tip screwdriver to change the settings.


z
To reset the M935 fuze, align the selector slot with the SQ mark (see Figure 4-76).

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Ammunition

Figure 4-76. Setting the M935 PD fuze

M734/M734A1 MULTIOPTION FUZE


z
z
z

Functions: Proximity or impact.


Settings: Proximity (PRX), near-surface burst (NSB), impact (IMP), or delay (DLY).
Remarks: The fuze can be set by hand (see Figure 4-77).

Figure 4-77. M734 multioption fuze


4-146. The fuze settings for the M734 and M734A1 fuze are
z
The fuze can be set by hand by rotating the fuze head clockwise until the correct marking (PRX,
NSB, IMP, or DLY) is over the index line.

PRXProximity. The fuze is set to PRX. Burst height is 3 to 13 feet (1 to 4 meters).

NSBNear-surface burst (nonjamming). Burst height is 0 to 3 feet (0 to 1 meter).

IMPImpact (super quick).

DLYDelay (0.050 seconds).


z
To reset the M734 Multi-option fuze rotate the fuze head counterclockwise until the PRX
marking is over the index line (see Figure 4-78).

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Chapter 4

Figure 4-78. Setting the M734 multi-option fuze

M745 PD FUZE
z
z
z
z

Functions: Impact.
Settings: None.
Remarks: The fuze functions on impact with super quick action only. Rotation of the fuze head
does not alter the function mode.
No setting is required. The fuze functions on impact with super quick action only. Disregard the
markings (PRX, NSB, IMP, and DLY) on the fuze head (see Figure 4-79).

Figure 4-79. M745 PD fuze

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Ammunition

MORTAR SAFETY INFORMATION


AMMUNITION CARE AND HANDLING
4-147. The key to proper ammunition functioning is protection. Rounds prepared but not fired should be
returned to their containers, fuse end first. Safety is always a matter of concern for all personnel and
requires special attention where ammunition is concerned. Supervision is criticalimproper care and
handling can cause serious accidentsas well as inaccurate fire. Some of the principles of proper
ammunition handling are
z
Never tumble, drag, throw, or drop individual cartridges or boxes of cartridges.
z
Do not allow smoking, open flames, or other fire hazards around ammunition storage areas.
z
Inspect each cartridge before it is loaded for firing. Dirty ammunition can damage the weapon or
affect the accuracy of the round.
z
Keep the ammunition dry and cool.
z
Never make unauthorized alterations or mix components of one lot with another.
z
Each projectile must be inspected to ensure that there is no leakage of the contents and that the
projectile is correctly assembled.
4-148. Personnel should ensure that the use of cellular phones and electronic devices within vicinity of
ammunition is limited. It is possible for the devices to cause an electric spark which may cause the primer
to ignite.
4-149. Store WP-loaded cartridges at temperatures below 111.4 degrees Fahrenheit (44.1 degrees
centigrade) to prevent melting of the WP filler. If this is not possible, WP-loaded cartridges must be stored
fuze-end up so that WP will resolidify with the void space in the nose end of the cartridge (after
temperature returns below 111.4 degrees Fahrenheit [44.1 degrees centigrade]). Failure to observe this
precaution could result in rounds with erratic flight.

SEGREGATION OF AMMUNITION LOTS


4-150. Different lots of propellant burn at different rates and give slightly different effects in the target
area; therefore, the registration corrections derived from one lot do not always apply to another.
Ammunition MUST be segregated by lot and weight zone. In the field storage area, on vehicles, or in a
temporary storage area, ammunition lots should be roped off with communications wire or twine and
conspicuously marked with a cardboard sign or other marker.

BURNING OF UNUSED PROPELLANT CHARGES


4-151. Mortar increments and propelling charges are highly flammable, consequently they must be
handled with extreme care to prevent exposure to heat, flame, or any spark-producing source, such as the
hot residue from burning increments or propelling charges that float downward after a cartridge leaves the
cannon. Like other types of ammunition, increments and propelling charges must be kept cool and dry.
Storing these items inside metal ammunition boxes until needed is an effective way to prevent premature
combustion.
4-152. Unused charges must not be saved, but should be removed to a storage area until they can be
burned or otherwise disposed of in accordance with local range or installation regulations or SOP. Burning
increments create a large flash and lots of smoke. In a tactical environment, the platoon leader must ensure
that burning increments do not compromise camouflage and concealment.

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Chapter 4

OVERHEAD CLEARANCE
4-153. If obstructions are found at any point in the full range of traverse or elevation, the mortar is not
safe to fire. In a combat situation, however, it may be necessary to fire the mortar from that position. If this
is the situation, traverse and/or elevate the mortar until it clears the obstruction and level the sight by using
the elevation micrometer knob. Record the deflection and elevation where the mortar clears the obstruction
and report this information to the fire direction center (FDC).

SECTION VII SMOKE GRENADES


4-154. This section discusses the characteristics of vehicle employed smoke grenades. Smoke grenades
are primarily utilized to provide concealment for combat vehicles and personnel on the ground. They can
also be used to provide signaling for events and other follow on elements.
4-155. There are two types of vehicle employed smoke grenade launchers, the M250 and the M257. The
M250 smoke grenade launcher contains six smoke grenades in each launcher that when fired can cover a
110-degree arc in front of the turret. The M257 Smoke Grenade Launcher contains eight smoke grenades
in each launcher set that when fired can cover an arc of 104-degrees in front of the turret.
4-156. The M257 smoke grenade launchers are installed on several vehicles and are configured in
different arrays. The dispersion pattern for this launcher is similar for all launcher arrays; however,
additional salvos may not be available. The patterns shown in Figure 4-80 and Figure 4-81 display the most
common configuration for the smoke grenade launchers. Additional launchers placed below or adjacent
will cover the same dispersion area.

DANGER
The hatches should be closed when firing the smoke grenade
launchers to prevent red phosphorus being blown in on the crew,
as red phosphorus can cause serious burns.
All personnel outside the vehicle must stay at least 150 meters
from the vehicle during firing.

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3 September 2009

Ammunition

Figure 4-80. Salvo pattern for the M250 smoke grenade launcher system

Figure 4-81. Salvo pattern for the M257 smoke grenade launcher system

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Chapter 4

4-157. L8A1 and L8A3 red phosphorus screening smoke grenades are identified by the markings at the
base of the casing (see Figure 4-82). The grenade is propelled from the discharger by pressure build-up in
the metal base when electrical current at the electrical firing clip ignites the squib-type electric fuze and
propellant charge. The propellant charge simultaneously ignites the delay composition within the delay
holder. During flight, the delay composition burns through and ignites the black powder bursting charge.
The bursting charge ignites the red phosphorus and butyl rubber composition and bursts the rubber body,
dispensing the burning red phosphorus and butyl rubber pellets to produce a smoke cloud.

Figure 4-82. L8A1 and L8A3 smoke grenade


4-158. The M76 infrared (IR) screening smoke grenade is identified by the markings at the base of the
casing (see Figure 4-83). This grenade contains brass powder fill, which is used for screening in a tactical
environment. The grenade is propelled from the discharger when an electrical current at the firing contact
activates the electrical match. The electrical match ignites the propellant, which both launches the grenade
and ignites the pyrotechnic time-delay detonator. Launch acceleration causes the setback lock to displace
aft, out of engagement with the safe and arm slider/bore rider. When the slider/bore rider clears the launch
tube, it moves into the armed position, which aligns the transfer lead with the time-delay detonator and the
booster lead. When the time-delay detonator ignites the transfer lead, booster lead, and central burster, the
grenade bursts and creates an IR obscuring cloud.

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3 September 2009

Ammunition

Figure 4-83. M76 and M82 smoke grenades


4-159. The M82 smoke grenade is identified by the markings at the base of the casing (see Figure 4-84).
The M82 smoke grenade contains titanium dioxide fill which provides visible smoke for use during
training. The M82 is an electronically initiated, propellant-launched grenade that functions to disseminate a
screening cloud 30 meters forward of the firing vehicle. The grenades plastic body houses the launch
system, the safe and arming mechanism, the explosive booster and burster, and the smoke composition.
The M82 is designed to simulate the L8A3 and M76 smoke grenade and can be used during gunnery or
force-on-force training.
4-160. Each grenade has a specific functioning area once it is discharged from the launcher. Figure 4-84
illustrates the grenade functioning area based on the respective vehicle launcher array. Although each
grenade is designed to function at 30m from the launcher, each pyrotechnic requires an additional eight
meters to fully ignite and provide screening (IAW DA Pamphlet 385-63). The illustration below represents
the hazard dimensions for all platforms launching the L8 series, M76, or M82 smoke grenades from their
vehicle. It shows the worst case distances as crews may have multiple grenade types prepared:

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Chapter 4

Figure 4-84. Smoke grenade composite hazard area

SECTION VIII MISSILES


4-161. The following section will deal primarily with the missile category of weapons: the TOW family
of missiles for the Bradley Fighting Vehicle and the Javelin missile.

TOW MISSILE AMMUNITION


4-162. The following sub-section contains general descriptions of the TOW missiles and their shipping
containers. The data included covers weights, dimensions, identification markings, and differences among
models.
4-163. The TOW missile comes in four configurations with numerous types. These types mainly consist
of minor modification work orders (MWO) that are transparent to the operator and are continually added to
the missiles in inventory. All configurations use the same basic airframe, aerodynamic control system,
command-link wire, and missile electronics designs. Future TOW missile systems will only be guided by
RF and will not be wire guided.
4-164. The TOW missile is a solid propellant, command-guided, surface-attack, guided missile system
that can destroy tanks, other armored vehicles and helicopters. It can also destroy fortified bunkers, gun
emplacements and other protected positions.
4-165. It is tube-launched, optically tracked, and wire command-link guided. The missile is similar to a
conventional round of ammunition with respect to handling, storage, and loading characteristics. Although
the missile consists of three major sections, it is issued and handled as a complete round of ammunition.
The three major sections of the missile are warhead, center, and aft section. The center section contains the
electronic and flight motor sections, respectively. Figure 4-85 through Figure 4-87 show the sections of the
TOW-2A and TOW-2B missiles.

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Ammunition

Figure 4-85. TOW missile sections, TOW-2A models with extended probe

Figure 4-86. TOW 2B missile sections, no extended probe

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Chapter 4

Figure 4-87. TOW-BB sections

LAUNCH CONTAINERS
4-166. The launch container is a cylindrical housing constructed of rugged fiberglass, laminated with
epoxy resin. An electrical connector with associated wiring harness (umbilical cord) is built into the launch
container to provide electrical connections between the missile and the launcher. The container also houses
desiccant in the front to keep the missile dry. A humidity indicator is attached to the aft seal to provide
positive verification that the missile remains dry. The launch container provides protection for the missile
during handling operations. It also acts as an extension of the launch tube when the missile is loaded in the
launcher. Figure 4-88 shows the TOW missile launch container.

Figure 4-88. TOW launch container example (side, top and front views)

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3 September 2009

Ammunition

WARHEAD SECTION
4-167. The warhead section consists of the warhead assembly, an ogive assembly, and a safety and
arming device. The ogive assembly forms the front of the warhead section. The warhead assembly forms
the central portion of the warhead section itself. The safety and arming device is attached to the rear of the
warhead assembly and fits into the center of the electronics section assembly. The warhead assembly is a
shaped-charge device consisting of a welded outer case and mounting ring assembly, a liner cone, a
compression pad, a phenolic bushing, a HE, and a booster charge (see Figure 4-89).

Figure 4-89. TOW warhead assembly with extended probe (TOW-2A)


4-168. The ogive serves two functions. One function is to serve as an aerodynamic cover for the forward
end of the missile during flight. The other function is to detonate the fuze in the safety and arming device
upon contact with the target. In Figure 4-90, an additional ogive is present at the end of the extended probe
which houses a crush switch that detonates the fuze in the safety and arming device upon impact. As each
model has a different warhead assembly, refer to TM 9-1410-470-34 for the most accurate technical
information.

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Chapter 4

Figure 4-90. TOW-2B warhead assembly


4-169. The safety and arming device allows safe handling, transportation, storage, and operation of the
HE warhead to the point in missile flight where the round is designated to arm. The warhead for each
model of the missile is designed to defeat a specific target.

ELECTRONICS SECTION
4-170. The electronics section assembly (digital electronics unit [DEU]) contains all of the electronic
circuitry used in the missile. The electronics section assembly receives missile steering signals from the
attitude control gyro. The signals from the gyro are shaped and superimposed on the missile steering
signals to produce missile stabilization. The electronics section also applies driving voltages to the four
control-surface actuators. The most recent variants of the TOW missile have the DEU located in the aft
section.

FLIGHT MOTOR SECTION


4-171. The flight motor propels the missile towards the target. The flight motor case consists of two parts
and when conjoined, serves as part of the missile skin. The electronic section on early TOW-2A models
that have an analog electronics unit (AEU) is magneformed to the groove around the outside of the forward
portion of the flight motor case. The aft flight motor case is joined to the forward flight motor case by a
screw joint and has the four missile wings attached which provide stability for the missile in flight.

CENTER SECTION
4-172. The center section assembly consists of the center section case, the attitude control gyro, the
missile batteries, and the center section wiring harness. The aft end of the center section case is
magneformed to the groove around the outside of the aft case of the missile flight motor. The two flight
motor exhaust nozzles terminate at two ports in the center section.

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Ammunition

AFT SECTION
4-173. The missile aft section assembly is composed of the launch motor, the aft section case, two wire
dispensers, a xenon (IR) light source and modulator, and an actuator system. On TOW 2 missiles, a thermal
beacon and shutter is also contained in the aft section (see Figure 4-91). The launch motor propels the
missile out of the launch container to approximately 7 meters. The flight motor then ignites to continue the
flight. The wire dispensers are mounted in the extreme end of the aft section assembly. Each wire dispenser
is a small-diameter aluminum bobbin mounted parallel to the missile longitudinal axis. Each bobbin
contains enough wire to ensure the range requirements of the missile are met.
4-174. The missile actuator system occupies most of the missile aft section assembly. The actuator system
consists of the actuator subsystem and the control surface assembly. The control surface assembly consists
of the four control surfaces, their extending springs, and the bulkhead to which they are mounted. The light
source is mounted at the extreme aft end of the missile so that IR energy is emitted toward the launcher
when the missile is in flight. This IR energy is detected by the IR sensor in the TOW optical sight to
determine the missiles position in space. For the TOW 2 system, the night sight tracker detects the thermal
source to determine the missile position. The optical sight and night sight together provide dual tracking
mode for the TOW 2 system.

MISSILE TECHNICAL DATA AND MARKINGS


4-175. The developments and improvements to the TOW missile family follow the developments and
improvements of tank armor. The five missiles that followed the basic TOW each improved upon the
previous missile. Areas of improvement included penetration, maximum range, usefulness during adverse
firing conditions, resistance to jamming, and attack profiles.
4-176. With the increased number of TOW missile types and wide variations in their capabilities
(especially armor penetration), TOW crews and range safeties must be able to quickly and accurately
identify the specific type of missile they have.
4-177. The configuration of the missile can be readily identified by the various identification decals,
tapes, and stencils on the missile case. General stencil markings for the TOW missiles are shown in Figure
4-91.

Figure 4-91.TOW missile stencil markings

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4-178. Figure 4-92 shows an overview of the TOW missile characteristics.


4-179. Tactile markings are used to help crews identify the specific TOW missile in its launch container
using raised rib sections and notched edges on the seal retainer on specific missiles. Refer to each missiles
data card listed in each section for the respective tactile markings.
4-180. Each missile has its own set of unique features. General descriptions, color coding, markings,
tactile markings, and performance information are provided in the following sections by missile type;
TOW-2A, TOW-2B, and TOW-BB.
Missile and Nomenclature
TOW
(BGM71A/A1)

ITOW
(BGM71C)

TOW-2
(BGM71D)

TOW-2A
(BGM-7E)

TOW-2B
(BGM-71F)

TOW-2B
Aero
(BGM71F6)

TOW-BB
(Bunker
Buster) (BGM71H)

DODIC

PB91

PB92

PV01

PB82

PV18

WF37

WF82

Weight (out
of tube)

40.7 lbs

41.9 lbs

47.2 lbs

49.9 lbs

49.8 lbs

50.5 lbs

49.6 lbs

Weight (in
tube)

54.8 lbs

56.0 lbs

61.3 lbs

64.0 lbs

63.9 lbs

64.6 lbs

63.7 lbs

Length (out of
tube)

45.8

45.6

46.2

46.1

46.2

47.7

46.0

Tube
diameter

8.6

8.6

8.6

8.6

8.6

8.6

8.6

Maximum
ranges

3,000m
(BGM-71A)
3,750m
(BGM-71A1)

3,750m

3,750m

3,750m

3,750m

4,500m

3,000m (bunkers)
3,750m (vehicles)

Two 5
explosively
formed
penetrators

6 fragmenting
HE

Warhead size

5 HE

5 HE

6 HE

6 HE

Two 5
explosively
formed
penetrators

Arming
distances
(minimum)

30m

30m

30m

30m

110m

110m

43m

Arming
distances
(best)

NA

NA

NA

NA

150m

150m

NA

Arming
distances
(maximum)

65m

65m

65m

65m

200m

200m

65m

Reliability

95.4 percent

Operating
temperature

-25 F to +125 F

Hazard
Classification

Figure 4-92.TOW missile characteristics

TOW-2A SERIES MISSILES


4-181. The TOW-2A series of missiles have a full-caliber, 6 inch warhead that includes an extended
probe. It has two IR radiators to provide hardened system performance against battlefield obscurants and
countermeasures when firing. The first IR radiator is the xenon beacon that receives signals from the flight

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control unit. The second IR radiator is the thermal beacon and provides link compatibility with the electrooptical IR night sight, which is part of the TOW launcher system.
4-182. Figure 4-93 illustrates the cut-away drawing and shows the functional components of the TOW2A missile.

Figure 4-93. TOW-2A cut away diagram


4-183. There are two missiles types in the TOW-2A series that crews will see in training and combat;
surface attack and practice. Of these types of missiles, there are several models that crews will encounter.
Table 4-10 identifies these models, national stock numbers, nomenclatures, and DODICs, respectively.

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Table 4-10. TOW-2A model numbers


Model
Number

NSN

Nomenclature

DODIC

Remarks

BGM-71E

1410-01-2299948
1410-01-3000254
1410-01-3135367
1410-01-3702288
1410-01-3798253
1410-01-3438924

Guided Missile,
Surface Attack
Guided Missile,
Surface Attack
Guided Missile,
Surface Attack
Guided Missile,
Surface Attack
Guided Missile,
Surface Attack
Guided Missile,
Practice

PD62

TOW-2A

PE96

PD62 with coated launch motor

PV47

1410-01-3702292

Guided Missile,
Practice

PV84

Coated launch motor and


digital electronics unit (DEU)
Splice-less harness and digital
electronics unit (DEU)
HERO case (green) and digital
electronics unit (DEU)
Practice warhead with digital
electronics unit (DEU) and
coated launch motor
Splice-less harness and digital
electronics unit (DEU)

BGM-71E-1B
BGM-71E-3B
BGM-71E-4B
BGM-71E-6B
BTM-71E-2B

BTM-71E-3B

PV83
PU08
PU09

4-184. The TOW-2A series of missiles have a precursor charge on its extendible probe. The precursor
charge is designed to force a reactive armor package on an armored or light armored target to discharge
prematurely to allow the main charge of the TOW warhead to function against the least amount of armor
protection on the threat target (see Figure 4-94 through Figure 4-96).

Figure 4-94. TOW missile striking ERA protected threat target

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Figure 4-95. Initial detonation of precursor charge

Figure 4-96. Detonation of the primary warhead

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TOW-2A (BGM-71E Series)


4-185. This missiles primary purpose is to defeat armor targets using a series of CE warheads. This
provides the missile with the capability to defeat an armor threat target, even if it is protected by an
explosive reactive armor (ERA) package (see Figure 4-97).

Figure 4-97. TOW-2A, BGM-71E-4B


4-186. Figure 4-98 and Figure 4-99 are data cards as a reference to each model within the TOW-2A series
of missiles.

Figure 4-98. TOW-2A characteristics and markings

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Figure 4-99. TOW-2A practice characteristics and markings

TOW-2B
4-187. This missile series primary purpose is to defeat armor targets using a series of CE warheads. This
provides the missile with the capability to defeat an armor threat target, even if it is protected by an ERA
package (see Figure 4-100).

Figure 4-100. TOW-2B Aero

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4-188. The TOW-2B is a top-attack missile that utilizes a tandem warhead, explosively formed
penetrators (EFP) that strike the target from above, the weakest part of the armor protective package. The
TOW-2B flight guidance system and rocket propulsion system are similar to those of previous versions of
the TOW missile. Figure 4-101 shows the basic internal components of the TOW-2B series of missiles.

Figure 4-101. TOW-2B cut away diagram

AERO PACKAGES
4-189. The TOW 2B Aero is an improvement on the TOW 2B missile. TOW 2B Aero was designed to be
effective to a range of 4.5 km. The extended range of the TOW 2B Aero is accomplished with two minor
modifications to the TOW 2B. First, more wire is added to accommodate the command guidance to the
extended range. Second, an aerodynamic ogive or front end has been added to the TOW 2B target sensor to
decrease drag and increases range. The new aerodynamic feature ensures stable controllable flight to 4.5
km while using the current propulsion system.

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4-190. There are three models in the TOW-2B series that crews will see in training and combat. Table
4-11 identifies these models, national stock numbers, nomenclatures, and DODICs, respectively.
Table 4-11. TOW-2B models
Model
Number

NSN

Nomenclature

DODIC

Remarks

BGM-71F

1410-01-3225333
1410-01-3702289
1410-01-4730281

Guided Missile,
Surface Attack
Guided Missile,
Surface Attack
Guided Missile,
Surface Attack

PV18

TOW-2B with DEU

PV82

Splice-less harness and


digital electronics unit (DEU)
PV82 with Gen I mod and
digital electronics unit (DEU)

BGM-71F-1
BGM-71F-1A

WF37

4-191. The missile is programmed to fly approximately 2.25 meters above the gunners line of sight
(LOS), but the gunner aims center mass of the target. The missile detects the target by magnetic signature
and optical (laser) profile. The missiles sensors cannot distinguish between friendly and enemy, or
between destroyed and operational threats.
4-192. To prevent premature detonation of the TOW-2B warheads, crews must make sure their line of
sight is clear of friendly and destroyed vehicles 10 mils left and right of the gunners LOS. The TOW-2B
has two 5-inch warheads that, when detonated, explosively form two high-density tantalum penetrators.
4-193. Figure 4-102a through Figure 4-102c depict the TOW-2B functioning sequence.

Figure 4-102a. TOW-2B functioning sequence

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Figure 4-102b. TOW-2B functioning sequence (continued)

Figure 4-102c. TOW-2B functioning sequence (continued)


Note. Firing the TOW-2A and TOW-2B missiles from the basic TOW launcher is possible;
however, the missile will have a reduced probability of hit (PH).

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4-194. Figure 4-103 through Figure 4-109 shows the data cards as a reference to each model within the
TOW-2B series of missiles.

Figure 4-103. TOW-2B characteristics and markings

Figure 4-104. TOW-2B Gen I characteristics and markings

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Figure 4-105. TOW-2B Aero characteristics and markings

Figure 4-106.TOW-2B Aero RF characteristics and markings

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Figure 4-107.TOW-2B Aero Gen I characteristics and markings

Figure 4-108. TOW-2B Aero Gen 2 characteristics and markings

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Figure 4-109. TOW-2B Aero Gen 2 RF characteristics and markings

TOW BUNKER BUSTER (BGM-71H)


4-195. The TOW Bunker Buster (TOW BB) is an evolution of the TOW missile, designed to provide the
crew with a more versatile weapon against a wide variety of targets. The TOW BB employs a fragmenting
HE bulk warhead that can breach or destroy a multitude of target sets, particularly in complex urban
terrain. The TOW BBs warhead configuration enables it to breach 8-in thick (20.3 cm), double-reinforced
concrete walls and provides overmatch against earth and timber bunkers. Whereas traditional shapedcharge warheads can penetrate entire buildings, the TOW BB disperses its pressure at the point of
penetration. This enables greater precision in urban engagements and enhances lethality while minimizing
collateral damage outside of the target area. The TOW BB employs the TOW 2A guidance package. The
maximum effective range of the missile against bunkers is 3,000 meters due to their small profile and
resulting low aim point. Maximum effective range against other hardened targets is 3,750 meters (see
Figure 4-110).

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Figure 4-110. TOW-BB basic sections


4-196. Figure 4-111 and Figure 4-112 show data cards as a reference to each model within the TOW-BB
series of missiles.

Figure 4-111. TOW-BB characteristics and markings

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Figure 4-112. TOW-BB RF characteristics and markings

WARNINGS
When attacking a target, there is an associated debris field from
warhead fragments and destruction of the target. To avoid the
possibility of death or injury, exposed troops should be no closer
than 400 meters from the target.
There is a remote possibility of a TOW BB missile detonating 43
meters from the launch platform. As a result, all TOW BB Missiles
are labeled Under Armor Only.

BACKBLAST AREA
4-197. The TOW weapon system has a backblast area that extends 75 meters to the rear of the vehicle in a
90-degree cone (see Figure 4-113). This area comprises both a 50-meter danger zone and an additional 25meter caution zone. The Bradley must be positioned so that no personnel, unarmored vehicles, or
obstructions (such as walls, embankments, or large trees) remain in the backblast area for its missile.

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Figure 4-113. Backblast area danger zone

JAVELIN ANTITANK GUIDED MISSILE


4-198. The Javelin is a fire-and-forget, man-portable, medium, anti-armor, shoulder-fired weapon
designed with a reusable M98A1 command launch unit (CLU). The CLU houses the day sight, night-vision
sight (NVS), controls, and status indicators. The round consists of the missile, launch tube assembly
(LTA), and battery coolant unit (BCU). The missile contains the guidance section, mid-body section,
warhead section, propulsion section, and control actuator section. The LTA serves as the launch platform
and missile carrying container.

BASIC SKILLS TRAINER


4-199. The Basic Skills Trainer (BST) is an indoor training device that consists of a Student Station (SS)
and Instructor Station (IS). The Student Station consists of a Simulated Command Launch Unit (SCLU)
and a Missile Simulation Round (MSR). The IS incorporates a desktop computer, monitor, keyboard,
mouse, interconnect cable, and a surge suppressor. BST training exercises use real terrain models, actual
visible and IR, and matching three-dimensional target models for natural target movements. The gunner
sees a realistic, simulated, battlefield.

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FIELD TACTICAL TRAINER


4-200. The Field Tactical Trainer (FTT) is an outdoor force-on-force trainer used in conjunction with a
tactical CLU and simulated round (SR). The FTT includes an IS to monitor the student. The SR is
equipped with Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System (MILES).

MISSILE SIMULATION ROUND


4-201. The MSR, issued with a simulated launch tube, is a field-handling round used to train gunners
proper maintenance and handling of a Javelin round. Its replicated weight and balance are precise, so
simulated training is accurate for feel. FTT contains no MSR instruments to monitor this aspect of training.

CAPABILITIES AND FEATURES


4-202. The missile has two gunner-selectable attack modestop attack or direct attack. Each mode has its
own flight path or profile for reaching the target.

Top-Attack Mode
4-203. Top attack is the default mode when the missile seeker is first activated. In top-attack mode, the
missile approaches from above to impact and detonate on top of a target. This capacity allows the gunner to
attack a target from the front, rear, or side with increased kill probability. Armored vehicles usually have
less protective armor on top. The minimum engagement distance is 150 meters.
4-204. The exact profile of the missile flight path depends on the range to the target and is determined
automatically by the missiles on-board software. When firing at a 2,000-meters target, the missile reaches
a height of around 160 meters above the battlefield. If a target is under a protective structure, firing in topattack mode will cause the missile to detonate on the structure instead of on the target. The gunner can
select the direct-attack mode to counter targets hiding under protective cover.

Direct-Attack Mode
4-205. Direct-attack mode can be selected only after seeker cool-down, and before lock-on. The gunner
pushes the ATTACK SELECT (ATTK SEL) switch on the right handgrip to change attack modes. In
direct-attack mode, the missile flies along a more direct path to the target. The missile impacts and
detonates on the targets front, side, or rear. The minimum engagement distance is 65 meters.
4-206. The exact profile of the missile-flight path shown in a general configuration depends on the range
to the target, and is determined automatically by the missiles on-board software. With a 2,000-meter
target, the missile reaches a height of about 60 meters above the battlefield. This path allows the missile to
reach a target under a protective structure. See Table 4-12 for technical data for the Javelin.

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Table 4-12. Characteristics of the Javelin antitank guided missile


Javelin Missile System

Surface attack guided missile and M98A1 command launch unit

Type of System

Fire and forget

Crew

One- to three-Soldier teams based on TO&E

Missile modes

Top attack (default), direct attack

Ranges

Top-attack mode minimum effective engagement

150 meters

Maximum effective engagement range (directattack and top-attack modes)

2,500 meters

Direct-attack mode minimum effective


engagement range

65 meters

Flight Time

About 14 seconds at 2,000 meters

Backblast Area

Primary danger zone extends out 25 meters at a 60-degree (cone shaped)


angle

PropulsionTwo Stage Motor

Launch motor ejects the missile from the LTA

Caution zone extends the cone-shaped area out to 100 meters


Flight motor propels the missile to the target
Firing from Inside Enclosures

Complete Round
(Launch tube assembly with
missile and BCU)

Battery Coolant Unit

Minimum room length

15 feet

Minimum room width

12 feet

Minimum room height

7 feet

Weight

35.14 lb (15.97 kg)

Length

47.60 in (120.90 cm)

Diameter with end caps

11.75 in (29.85 cm)

Inside diameter

5.52 in (14.02 cm)

Weight

2.91 lb (1.32 kg)

Length

8.16 in (20.73 cm)

Width

4.63 in (11.75 cm)

Type

Lithium, non-rechargeable

Life

4 min of BCU time

Coolant gas

Argon

References: FM 3-22.37, TM 9-1425-687-12/TM 9-1425-688-12.

4-207. The Javelin missile uses a dual-charged warhead (see Figure 4-114). The warhead has a precursor
charge and main charge.
z
Precursor. The precursor charge is an HE antitank shaped charge. Its purpose is to cause
reactive armor on the target to detonate before the main charge reaches the armor. Once the
reactive armor is penetrated, the targets main hull is exposed to the warheads main charge. If
the target is not equipped with reactive armor, the precursor provides additional explosives to
penetrate the main armor.
z
Main. The main charge is the second charge of a dual-charge warhead and is also an HE
antitank shaped charge. The primary warhead charge is designed to penetrate the targets main
armor to achieve a target kill.

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Figure 4-114. Javelin missile


4-208. Soldiers must adhere the following precautions when employing the Javelin:
z
Backblast Area. The backblast of the Javelin comes from the firing of the launch motor and the
flight motor (see Figure 4-115). The Javelin has little recoil because the propellant gases escape
to the rear of the weapon. This backblast can damage equipment or seriously injure personnel
who are too close to the rear of the LTA at time of firing. The Javelin backblast area extends
100 meters to the rear and up to 25 meters to the sides of the launcher and forms a 60-degree
danger area. It is divided into a primary danger zone and two caution areas.

Primary Danger Area. The primary danger area is a 60-degree included sector, with the
apex of the sector at the aft end of the missile launch motor. The primary danger area radius
of curvature is 25 meters. Serious injury or fatality is possible for personnel in the primary
danger area during firing. A portion of the primary danger area has been extended forward
to the firing line. This portion is within the range of 1 to 5 meters left and right of launch
tube centerline.

Caution Area 1. Caution area 1 is an extension of the 25-meter primary danger zone arc
forward to the firing line on each side of the launcher. Serious hearing impairment or
damage from frequent exposure could occur to personnel in this area during firings.
Personnel should always wear the approved hearing and eye protection when positioned in
caution area 1.

Caution Area 2. Caution area 2 is identified as a 35-meter radius, aft of the launcher and
within the 60-degree sector. This area is affected by the activation of the FM pressure relief
system. Caution area 2 is an extension to the rear of the primary danger area. Hearing
impairment and eye damage could occur to personnel that are 10 meters beyond the primary
danger area during firing. Personnel should always wear the approved hearing and eye
protection when positioned in caution area 2.

Caution Area 3. Caution area 3 is an extension to the danger zone within the 60 degree
sector with a 100-meter radius. This area is affected by the activation of the flight motor
pressure relief system. Personnel located in this area will wear eye protection.

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Figure 4-115. Javelin backblast safety zones


DANGER
KEEP ALL PERSONNEL CLEAR OF THE BACKBLAST AREA.
FLYING DEBRIS PRODUCED BY FIRING A JAVELIN MISSILE
COULD INJURE OR KILL ANYONE REMAINING IN THE
BACKBLAST AREA.

SAFETY INFORMATION
FIRING OVER OBSTRUCTIONS
4-209. When firing the TOW missiles over electrical wires, gunners must take care to avoid letting the
command link wires touch a live high-voltage power line. Failure to observe this precaution can cause
injury or death. Also, it may cause the gunner to lose control of the missile and damage the launcher
electronics.

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4-210. The Javelin missile can be fired over water without major concern, however it is not recommended
for the TOW to be fired over water as the guide wires may fall into the water and cause a short in the
electrical current.

AMMUNITION HANDLING
4-211. Do not fire a damaged encased missile such as one with large dents or cracks in the launch
container. However, if the missile only has minor bending of the end rings, this is not serious, and you can
fire the missile without danger.
4-212. Do not move or handle duds or defective missiles, except when you remove a misfire from the
launcher and place it a safe distance (200 meters) from the vehicle.
4-213. When handling or operating in the vicinity of unpackaged ammunition, observe the following
precautions:
z
Always wear gloves (combat vehicle crewman type, MIL-G-44108) when handling ammunition.
The human body absorbs RF energy that could be transferred to the ammunition.
z
To clean ammunition, wipe it clean with a dry, clean, soft rag. Do not use abrasive material or
cleaning solvent. If this amount of cleaning is not sufficient, do not use the cartridge; return it to
the ASP/QASAS (ammunition surveillance).
z
Personnel should ensure that the use of cellular phones and electronic devices within vicinity of
ammunition is limited. It is possible for the devices to cause an electric spark which may cause
the primer to ignite.

FIRING IN WINDY CONDITIONS


4-214. Gusty, flanking, or quartering winds can move the TOW missile around during flight. As long as
the crosshairs remain on the center mass of the target, the weapon system will compensate for wind effects.
Gusty wind does not generally affect the flight of the Javelin missile.

MAINTENANCE
4-215. Vehicle crews should conduct periodic inspections of service ammunition using the appropriate
operators manual. Maintenance includes only basic tasks, such as cloth wipe downs by crews, and touchup painting performed by ASP/QASAS personnel.
4-216. See FM 4-30.13 for specific information on the condition codes of ammunition.

SECTION IX PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS


4-217. This section deals primarily with the special considerations of ammunition transportation to and
from a range, as well as transportation of ammunition to vehicles in a combat environment.
4-218. The unit Master Gunner must forecast the ammunition requirement for any upcoming ranges, and
in turn must coordinate for specific lift assets with the unit S-4. Each unit within the HBCT has different
procedures for requesting transportation of ammunition; however it is imperative to understand the rules of
ammunition transportation, as well as the lift and transportation capabilities of available assets.
4-219. The fire symbol that applies to the most hazardous material present will be posted on or near all
explosives locations. It will be visible from all approach roads. One symbol posted on or near the door end
of an earth-covered magazine is normally enough. One or more symbols may be needed on other buildings.
When all munitions within a storage area are covered by one fire symbol, it may be posted at the entry
control point. Backing material for fire symbol decals should be the shape of the decal and should be
noncombustible.

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4-220. Fire symbols will be placed on entrances to arms rooms containing ammunition. Where explosives
are stored in a locker or similar container, the container will also be marked with the appropriate fire
symbol.
4-221. Transportation of ammunition and explosives by military vehicles is governed by DA Pamphlet
385-64. Reference Chapter 7 of the DA Pam for specific transportation requirements of any ammunition.
Ammunition stored in building structures use the 24 placards and vehicles transporting the ammunition
will use the 12 placard as appropriate. All vehicles that are transporting ammunition and explosives must
also have specific hazardous placards emplaced in a conspicuous position. See Chapter 3 of the DA Pam
for the specific placement of the placards on ammunition storage containers.
z
Fire Division 1, Hazard Class 1.1. Large quantity explosive charges that when ignited, cause a
mass detonation of the adjoining ammunition. Items in this division are field artillery bags
propelling charges, demolitions charges, and TNT. There will be few secondary explosions that
will be much smaller than the initial detonation.
z
Fire Division 2, Hazard Class 1.2. Items configured for storage and transportation that do not
mass detonate when a single item or package in a stack is ignited fall within this division.
Explosions involving the items result in their burning and exploding progressively with no more
than a few at a time reacting. These reactions will project fragments, firebrands, and unexploded
items from the explosion site. Blast effects are limited to the immediate vicinity and are not the
primary hazard. Typically, main gun ammunition (25mm, 120mm), as well as 40mm with
explosive fillers (HEDP) are in this division.
z
Fire Division 3, Hazard Class 1.3. HD 1.3 includes items that burn vigorously and cannot
usually be extinguished in emergency situations. Explosions normally will be confined to
pressure ruptures of containers and will not produce propagating shock waves or damaging blast
overpressure beyond the magazine distance. The spreading about of burning container
materials, propellant, or other flaming debris may cause a severe hazard of spreading fire.
z
Fire Division 4, Hazard Class 1.4. Present a fire hazard with minimal blast, fragmentation, or
toxic hazards. Small arms ammunition with no incendiary devices fall within this division.
4-222. Figure 4-116 describes the ammunition placards based on Fire Division and Hazard Class, IAW
DoD 6055.9-STD. Included are the associated ordering (NSN) information based on location of the placard
(building, 24 or vehicle, 12, respectively). All placards are designed with orange backgrounds with black
lettering.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

4-99

Chapter 4

Fire Placard

Hazard Placard

Division and Class

Remarks

Fire Division 1
Hazard Class 1.1
24 NSN 7690-01-082-0290
12 NSN 7690-01-081-9581

Mass Detonation. The


ammunition during a fire in
storage or transport will
result in a mass
detonation.

Fire Division 2
Hazard Class 1.2
24 NSN 7690-01-082-0289
12 NSN 7690-01-087-7340

Explosion with Fragments.


The ammunition during a
fire in storage or transport
will result in an explosion
with projectile fragments.

Fire Division 3
Hazard Class 1.3
24 NSN 7690-01-081-9583
12 NSN 7690-01-081-9582

Fire Division 4
Hazard Class 1.4
24 NSN 7690-01-082-6709
12 NSN 7690-01-081-9584

Mass Fire. The


ammunition in storage or
transport will cause a
massive fire when ignited.

Moderate Fire. The


ammunition in storage or
transport will cause a
moderate fire when
ignited.

Figure 4-116. Example of ammunition placards


4-223. Blank ammunition cannot be transported or fired with live ammunition. Extreme injury or death
may occur as a result of mixing the two types of ammunition. See AR 386-63 for further safety guidance
regarding the use of blank and live ammunition.
4-224. All ammunition can be placed on pallets; all pallets are a standard size. However, care must be
taken to ensure that when loading a vehicle with ammunition pallets, do not exceed the safe load capacity
of the vehicle.
4-225. Table 4-13 provides the common packing of ammunition available to the HBCT. It also shows the
weight requirement of the ammunition.

4-100

FM 3-20.2/MCWP 3-12.21

3 September 2009

Ammunition

Table 4-13. Common ammunition packing


Ammunition

Packing Type

Rounds per
Pack

Pack per Case

Case per
Pallet

Pallet Weight

5.56 link

Metal Can

800

48

2790

7.62 mm link

Metal Can

200

48

3153

.50 cal

Metal Can

100

48

3790

40 mm
grenade

Metal Can

32

53

2100

120 mm Tank

Honeycomb

NA

30

2481

25 mm

Metal Can

30

30

1515

120mm Mortar
C623, C624,
CA03, CA07

Container,
Metal

24

2480

120mm (M)
C379, CA04

Container,
Metal

24

2455

120mm (M)
C625

Container,
Metal

15

1549

120mm (M)
CA09

Container,
Metal

21

1924

Grenade,
Illumination

Metal Can

36

36

2071

Grenade,
Smoke G826

Wood Box

96

2280

Grenade,
Smoke G815

Metal Can

99

1974

Grenade,
Smoke G978

Wood Box

384

96

1697

Tow missile

Box

NA

33

2100

Javelin missile

Container,
Metal

NA

864

4-226. Figure 4-117 shows the carrying capacity of the available transportation vehicles found in an
HBCT. Operators of the vehicles must be aware of the respective weight limitations of their vehicle.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

4-101

Chapter 4

Vehicle
Truck Cargo, 1 T,
4x4 M998

Truck Cargo, 1 T,
4x4 M1097

Truck, Cargo, 10T 8x8,


M977

Truck, Cargo, 10T 8x8,


M985

Cargo Weight

Number of Pallets

2,500 lbs

1 pallet (not to exceed cargo weight)

4,400 lbs

1 pallet

22,000 lbs

8 pallets

21,729 lbs

8 pallets

33,000 lbs (without trailer)


66,000 lbs (with trailer)

10 pallets (without trailer)


20 pallets (with trailer)

5,000 lbs

2 pallets

10,000 lbs

4 pallets

Truck, Tractor, 16.5 T,


10x10, PLS, M1074

Truck, Cargo, 2 T,
4x4, FMTV, M1078

Truck, Cargo, 5 T, 6x6,


FMTV, M1084

See Table 4-13 to identify maximum pallet weight by ammunition type. Pallet quantities listed above
represent the maximum number of standard pallets the vehicle can transport. Refer to specific vehicle
operators manual for appropriate lift and load capacity.

Figure 4-117. HBCT common vehicle cargo capacity

4-102

FM 3-20.2/MCWP 3-12.21

3 September 2009

Ammunition

SECTION X SAFETY
4-227. Periodically, the U.S. Army issues various warnings to units related to ammunition. These notices
are often good for only one year, but might be renewed until a problem is fixed or the information is
included in more permanent publications. These warnings can take several forms:
z
Ammunition Information Notices (AIN) and Notification of Ammunition Reclassification
(NAR) deal with all types of ammunition.
z
Safety-of-Use Messages (SOUM), Ground Precautionary Messages (GPM), and Maintenance
Advisory Messages (MAM) cover a wide range of topics, which may or may not cover
ammunition-specific issues.
z
Additional information can be found on Army Knowledge Online (AKO). In AKO, select
Knowledge Network, and then select Abrams Master Gunner Network.
4-228. If ammunition is stored in metal ammunition cans that are outside in hot, desert environments, the
top row of ammunition can heat to 190F, which easily exceeds the maximum safe firing temperatures of
all tank ammunition. Care should be taken to provide cover to ammunition that is stored outside in the
desert heat. Furthermore, if possible, crews should be cautious about immediately firing rounds that have
been stored in the top row of unprotected cans.

IDENTIFICATION OF SUSPENDED OR RESTRICTED LOTS OF AMMUNITION


Notes. It is the responsibility of the safety officer and ammunition noncommissioned officer
(NCO) to ensure that ammunition is checked for restrictions and suspensions. It is the officer in
charges (OIC) duty to abide by those, if any restrictions/suspensions are identified.
For further information regarding suspended or restricted ammunition, Soldiers may also
use the website http://www.jmc.army.mil/ib/ibq/SURV/gen/survinfo.htm. This page contains
current information, ARMY NAR messages with links for each message; an introduction link to
explain the TB and entries; and an automated look-up database that can be searched by DODIC,
Lot Number or NSN.
4-229. See Figure 4-118 for a flow chart for procedures for identifying suspended or restricted lots of
ammunitions.
4-230. When inspecting small arms ammunition (functional lots), the NSN and lot number can be found
on the plywood box.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

4-103

Chapter 4

Figure 4-118. Ammunition lot restriction flow chart

4-104

FM 3-20.2/MCWP 3-12.21

3 September 2009

Chapter 5

Detect
On future battlefields crews must be able to engage multiple targets rapidly while
operating within irregular battle lines. Depending on the tactical situation and the
area of operations, enemy targets may be intermingled with friendly, coalition, and
neutral vehicles and personnel. Survival will depend on the crews ability to detect,
locate, identify and, if necessary, engage and destroy the enemy rapidly. Crews must
be proficient in the techniques and procedures for detecting and identifying potential
targets; making engagement decisions; executing and assessing engagements against
hostile targets, and employing fire commands to orchestrate the engagement process.
Chapter 5 discusses the steps in the engagement process and their relationship to each
other and discusses the detailed steps of the detection process.
Note. The figures in Chapter 5 depict only one platform. All scanning techniques refer to every
platform unless otherwise stated.

Contents
Section I Engagement Process ............. 5-1
Section II Detect ..................................... 5-2
Crew Search ....................................... 5-2
Sectors of Responsibility..................... 5-3
Target Detection ................................. 5-5

Target Location ................................... 5-7


Search Techniques ............................. 5-9
Ground and Air Search Tips.............. 5-15

SECTION I ENGAGEMENT PROCESS


5-1. The engagement process is the process of detecting, identifying, engaging and assessing targets on
the battlefield to ensure their rapid destruction. The detect, identify, decide, engage, and assess (DIDEA)
process provides an iterative, standardized, and systematic approach to target engagement activities across
the surface-to-surface, surface-to-air, air-to-surface, and air-to-air mission areas. DIDEA applies across the
user spectrum, from the individual infantryman, to direct fire surface platforms, to aviation platforms, to
indirect fire controllers. The individual actions of the DIDEA process are summarized below:
z
Detect. Detect is the acquisition and location of an object in the operational environment (OE).
z
Identify. Identify is a systematic process supporting the characterization of detected objects as
friend, enemy, or neutral.
z
Decide. Decide is the determination of appropriate application of military options and weapons
resources on identified objects.
z
Engage. Engage is the specific application of military options/weapons resources.
z
Assess. Assess did the applied weapons resources bring about the desired effect.
5-2. The engagement process is facilitated for direct fire weapons systems by employing fire commands
to organize and execute the process (see Figure 5-1).

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

5-1

Chapter 5

Figure 5-1. Engagement process (detect)

SECTION II DETECT
5-3. Combat identification (CID) is the process of attaining an accurate characterization of detected
objects in the OE sufficient to support an engagement decision (see JP 3-0). The CID process has the
following three key purposes:
z
Identify and classify targets in the OE.
z
Allow for the timely processing of engagement decisions on targets classified as enemy.
z
The mitigation of fratricide and collateral damage to noncombatants.
5-4. The CID process is a series of progressive and interdependent steps (or actions)target search,
detection, location, and identification that lead to the decision process to engage or not engage. Effective
CID for a crew requires a constant combined effort from each crew member.

CREW SEARCH
5-5. Crew search (observation) is the act of carefully watching designated areas. Sectors of observation
are assigned by the vehicle commander (VC) or as outlined in the unit standing operating procedures
(SOP) to each crew member for target acquisition. If the vehicle is in a hide position, the VC may chooses
to position an observer (or two) forward of the vehicle to continue the crew search process while the
platform remains hidden. As Future Combat Systems Spin-Out technology becomes available, platoons
will have the option of employing Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS) and Class I Unmanned Aircraft
Systems (UAS) to assist in target detection in their sector.
5-6. Terrain, visibility conditions, vehicle positioning, and fire distribution planning dictate the distance
(depth and width) a crew, section, or platoon must cover. Each vehicles sector of fire and observation
must overlap with the sectors of adjacent vehicles. Based on these factors, the VC and gunner must
coordinate how they will cover the vehicles assigned sector, for both the offense and defense.

5-2

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Detect

SECTORS OF RESPONSIBILITY
5-7. Sectors of responsibility are areas assigned to each crew member for search and target acquisition.
While on an Abrams or Bradley, standard sectors of observation depend on turret orientation for all crew
members except the driver. On the armored High-Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV)
however, all crew members have the same sectors of observation while mounted on the platform. Crew
members must know their assigned sectors of observation to ensure 360-degree coverage of the battlefield.
When operating within a section or platoon, each platforms 360-degree coverage will create overlapping
fields of observation.
5-8. For tanks, sectors are normally assigned as follows:
z
During opened hatch operations

The VCs sector of responsibility is 360 degrees. However, when the loader observes from
the hatch, the VC observes from the left front of the gun mantle, clockwise, to the left rear
of the turret.

The gunners sector is along the axis of the main gun, within the limits of the gunners sight
in low magnification.

The loaders sector is from the right front of the gun mantle, counterclockwise, to the right
rear of the turret. The loader should be designated as primary air guard when he is not
inside the turret.

The drivers sector is forward, with the limits of his periscope.


z
During closed hatch operations

The VC must observe 360 degrees using his vision blocks. On tanks when the loader is able
to scan to the rear, the VC must be able to view from the back of the loaders sponson box.
This should slightly overlap the loaders viewing area. He also assumes duties as primary
air guard on M1A1 tanks.

The gunners sector remains the same.

The loader (tanks) orients to the rear of the turret, using his periscope.

The drivers sector remains the same.


5-9. For Bradleys, sectors are normally assigned as follows:
z
During opened hatch operations

The VCs sector of responsibility is 360 degrees.

The gunners sector is from fender to fender within the limits of his sights in low
magnification.

The drivers sector is forward and left, with the limits of his periscope.
z
During closed hatch operations

The VC must observe 360 degrees using his vision blocks.

The gunners sector remains the same.

The drivers sector remains the same.


5-10. During closed hatch operations, the crews ability to acquire targets is reduced by at least 50 percent.
The crew must make sure all vision blocks and sights are clear and free of obstruction.
5-11. Acquisition responsibilities for the M2A3/M3A3 and M1A2 SEP (System Enhancement Package)
crew must be altered as follows:
z
VC and Gunner. Remains the same with changes in responsibility depending on the situation.
(For example: The individual tank is allotted a sector of fire; the VC determines where most
main gun engagements are likely to occur. Usually, the gunner covers this area with the
Gunners Primary Sight (GPS). Depending on the width of the sector, the VC may scan the
same sector with the gunner [opposite directions], or assign the commanders independent
thermal viewer (CITV)/commanders independent viewer (CIV) its own sector. If the CITV/CIV
is assigned its own sector, the CITV/CIV and GPS sectors must overlap. In some situations, the
tanks sector may require the VC and gunner to scan different sectors simultaneously; the VC

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

5-3

Chapter 5

z
z

and gunner need to know the limits of both sectors and ensure that these sectors overlap.
Depending on the size of the sector to be scanned, the crew may decide to scan the sector in
different fields of view. The CITV/CIV would be set to scan in the wide field of view (WFOV),
AUTO-SCAN. This allows the VC to monitor the CITV/CIV, improved commanders weapon
station (ICWS), and the TACTICAL DISPLAY, simultaneously; while the gunner employs
detailed search techniques with the GPS in high magnification.)
Loader (Tanks). Orients to the rear of the turret, using his periscope.
Driver. Remains the same.

5-12. Due to the close range and the three-dimensional aspect for potential engagements urban operations
require tight teamwork to ensure no dead space is left uncovered and that 360 security is maintained. When
operating in a closed hatch posture in an urban environment it is particularly important that teams work to
cover dead space imposed by the mechanical limits of various systems to elevate their weapons systems
(see Figure 5-2 through Figure 5-4).

Figure 5-2. Dead space considerations for closed hatch operations

Figure 5-3. Abrams weapon dead space (flank)

5-4

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Detect

Figure 5-4. Bradley weapon dead space (flank)

TARGET DETECTION
5-13. Target detection is the discovery of any object in the OE such as personnel, vehicles, equipment, or
objects of potential military significance. Target detection occurs during target search as a direct result of
observation. Crews must also be well trained in identifying the potential threats such as surface- or
subsurface-laid mines, obstacles, booby traps, and unexploded ordnances (UXO) and improvised explosive
devices (IED). This requires complete attention to detail, identifying threats beyond the obvious or known
enemy systems.

TARGET SIGNATURES
5-14. Target signatures are indicators or clues that aid an observer in detecting potential targets. Most
weapons and vehicles have identifiable signatures. These signatures may be the result of the design or the
environment in which the equipment is operating; for example, firing a vehicles main weapon system will
produce blast, flash, noise, smoke, and dust. The movement of vehicles through a built-up area causes
more noise than the movement of the same vehicle in an open field. Different types of aircraft have
different signatures; for example, the signature of a hovering helicopter is not the same as that of a fixedwing aircraft. Other factors that affect target signatures are visibility, temperature, and weather conditions.
5-15. Wheeled or tracked vehicle signatures are most likely to be detected in open areas and rolling terrain.
Threat antitank positions visually cover primary avenues of approach where tanks and personnel carriers
are likely to be used. Helicopters are most likely on the backside of wood lines, ridgelines, and significant
folds in the terrain. Sight, hearing, and smell can all assist in detecting signatures that will lead to target
location and identification. Examples of target signatures are
z
Soldier

Foxholes.

Broken vegetation.

Footprints (weather conditions permitting).

Trash.

Small-arms weapons noise and flash.

Sounds (voices, equipment noises).

Dismounted movement (visual or audible).

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

5-5

Chapter 5

Tracked Vehicle

Vehicle tracks on the ground (weather conditions permitting).

Hot spots from road wheels, engine compartments, tracks, or weapon barrels (if using
thermal sights).

Engine noise.

Exhaust plume and smoke.

Dust clouds from movement.

Disturbed areas of vegetation.

Weapons firings report and smoke from weapon.

A bright flash at night.

Open hatch silhouettes.

Reflections off of glass surfaces and optics.


Antitank

Sharp crack of the antitank guided missile (ATGM) being fired.

Missile launch swish sound.

Fast traveling hot spot with a vapor trail (during thermal operations).

Long, thin wires from fired ATGMs.

Recently destroyed armored vehicles.


Artillery

Loud, dull sound.

Grayish-white smoke cloud.

Bright orange flash and black smoke from airbursts.

Rushing noise several seconds before round impacts.

Self-propelled artillery has the same thermal infrared signatures as tracked vehicles.

Towed artillery signatures vary according to the towing vehicle.


Aircraft

Glare of the sun reflecting off aircraft canopies, wings, fuselages of fixed-wing aircraft,
windows, and rotor blades of helicopters.

Aircraft engine noise.

Vapor trails from engine exhaust and fired missiles.

Dust and movement of foliage from hovering helicopters.


Obstacles and Mine

Loose or disturbed dirt in a regular pattern.

A destroyed or disabled vehicle that appears to have struck a mine.

Dead animal carcasses along side of roads.

Piles of dirt or trash along side of improved roads.

DETECTION CHALLENGES
5-16. Some targets are more difficult to detect than others. Soldiers must be well trained to detect and
locate targets. Some examples of these more difficult targets and challenges are
z
Peripheral targets (targets on the edge of the field of view).
z
Targets that are camouflaged or in shadows.
z
Targets that can be heard but not seen.
z
Targets under less than ideal indirect fire illumination. If the illumination is in front of the target,
the resulting shadow will be darker than the target. If the illumination is behind the target (and
not in position to wash out the crews optics), the target should stand out distinctly from the
background. Soldiers should always keep one eye closed during illumination search, and never
look directly into the illumination source to retain their own night vision.

5-6

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Detect

z
z
z
z
z

Mirage effects caused by high temperatures and heat waves near the ground.
Small single targets such as lone infantry ATGM or rocket-propelled grenade (RPG) positions.
Small targets in complex detection environments (such as urban or jungle environments).
Natural and manmade obstacles.
Behavioral or physical deficiencies of the observer (fatigue and eye reaction to gun flashes).

THERMAL SIGHTS
5-17. The enemy uses darkness to move their forces, dig in, or continue the attack. During the day, the
enemy uses every means possible to cover their intentions. Some camouflaged targets are difficult to
acquire with the day optics, but can be detected with a thermal sight. The crew should use the thermal
sight, when so equipped, to acquire targets during limited and good visibility. Thermal sights operate on
the principle of sensing heat radiation or temperature differences in the field of view. This heat is translated
as an electronic image. Use of thermal imaging systems provides U.S. forces with a definite advantage over
the enemy to conduct night operations. Night operations are to our advantage if crews can maneuver and
engage targets using a thermal sighting systems. During day operations, crews should use thermal sights to
increase their ability to detect targets behind foliage or in shadows. Crews should also switch between day
and thermal optics during the day to aid in target detection.
5-18. The following thermal signatures can be detected using the thermal sight:
z
Solar Heat. Objects absorb heat from the sun at different rates depending on the material.
Darker objects and targets tend to retain heat more than lighter objects. The amount of heat
absorbed by an object determines the duration the object can be seen using the thermal sight.
Target signatures vary if heated only by solar heat. As the sun begins to set, the gunner must
observe how the object forms changes.
z
Fuel Combustion. Vehicles have a plume of heat from the exhaust and another around the
engine compartment due to fuel combustion. The location of the engine and the direction of the
exhaust differ between vehicles. The strength of the signature produced from the engine or
exhaust being used varies with the following:

How recent the vehicle was used.

The size of the vehicles exhaust plume.

Where the muffler is located.

The vehicle compositions ability to retain heat.


z
Friction. Moving parts of a vehicle cause friction. The areas that appear as images in the sight
include tracks, road wheels, drive sprockets, and support rollers. Vehicles being driven through
mud or snow do not create as sharp an image. Vehicle track shrouding materials can hide the
signature of the road wheels and the track shoes. The longer a vehicle is operated, the more
intense the image is of the heated area. A vehicle looks much different after a 12-km road march
than it does in a defensive position.
z
Thermal Reflections. Glossy, smooth surfaces, such as windows in buildings or the windshield
of a vehicle, can reflect radiated heat.
z
Body Heat. Humans are warm-blooded and their body temperature is always constant. When
humans are around an area much cooler than their body, their silhouette appears very clear
through thermal optics.

TARGET LOCATION
5-19. Target location is the determination of where a target is in your OE. Locating a target occurs as a
result of observation and detection during crew search.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

5-7

Chapter 5

TARGET DIRECTION TECHNIQUE


5-20. Once a target is located, the target location must be communicated to the rest of the crew. Methods
used to announce a located target depend on the individuals specific position, unit SOP, and time
available. The six most common target location methods for the tank and Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV)
crews are clock, sector, traverse, reference point, grid, and target designate (M2/M3A3 and M1A2 SEP
crews only).

CLOCK
5-21. The clock method is commonly used to locate the targets for the crew. Twelve oclock is based on
the direction of vehicle movement while traveling or hull orientation (front of vehicle) when stationary
(example: TROOPS, NINE OCLOCK). On the BFV and the M1A2 SEP, the VC or gunner can use the
turret position indicator to assist in accurately announcing target location.

SECTOR
5-22. The sector method is similar to the clock method; it is quick and easy to use. It is best used to
indicate a direction from the direction of movement (moving) or hull orientation (stationary) using the
terms center, left, right, and rear. Center sector is always to the front (example: THREE TRUCKS, LEFT
REAR).

TRAVERSE (SHIFT)
5-23. The traverse method is also a relatively quick method, primarily used by another observer to locate
the target for the gunner. The traverse method can be used when the VCs power control handle is
inoperable to guide the gunner on target (example: TRAVERSE (Shift) LEFTSTEADYON).

REFERENCE POINT
5-24. The reference point method is used mainly in conjunction with the vehicle optics. The VC uses his
binoculars (or CIV/CITV/commanders weapon station [CWS] sight reticle) to determine the mil value
from a terrain feature, known position, or target reference point (TRP). He then announces the mil value to
the gunner. The gunner uses the mil reticle relationship to traverse onto the target. The key to this location
method is the VCs and gunners knowledge of the mil-sight relationship.
z
The quick TRP method is used by all personnel to identify targets near a TRP (example: TWO
PCs, TRP ONE FOUR).
z
The precise reference point method is used to locate targets accurately in relation to a known
TRP (example: ATGM, TRP ONE FOUR, RIGHT FIVE MILS).

GRID
5-25. The grid method is the least desired technique because of the length of times it takes to guide the
gunner on target. The VC receives the location of a target by map grid from either an observation post,
Blue Force Tracker, Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below (FBCB2), or by the internal
communications systems. The VC then uses his map to orient the turret to the target area for the gunner.

TARGET DESIGNATE
5-26. The M2/M3A3/M1A2 SEP commander uses the target designate capability to lay the gunner on a
target. When a target is located with the CIV/CITV, the commander squeezes the palm switch and presses
the TARGET DESIGNATE button to move the gunners line of sight to the target.

5-8

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Detect

SEARCH TECHNIQUES
GROUND SEARCH TECHNIQUES
5-27. Crew members scan their sectors at all times to detect targets or possible target locations. They can
quickly locate targets by using ground search techniques: rapid scan, slow (50-meter) scan, detailed search,
and the off-center vision method. Crew members can use the thermal optics, infrared (IR) night-vision
devices, machine gun optics, naked eye, and binoculars for ground searches during both good and limited
visibility conditions.

Rapid Scan
5-28. The rapid-scan method is used to quickly detect obvious signs of enemy activity (see Figure 5-5). It
is usually the first method used, whether moving or stationary.
z
The crew member starts scanning in the center of the sector and rapidly scans from the nearest
to the farthest point.
z
He then orients left or right and conducts a rapid scan, near to far. This sweep must overlap the
center of the previously scanned sector.
z
Once one side of center is completed, he scans the remaining side in the same manner.
z
If more than one crew member is scanning, the gunner should always scan from near to far
while the other crew member scans from far to near.
z
The crew places weapon systems on the nearest target first.

Figure 5-5. Rapid scans

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

5-9

Chapter 5

Slow (50-Meter) Scan


5-29. If no targets are detected in the rapid scan, crew members conduct a more deliberate scan of the
terrain by using vehicle optics (day or thermal mode) or hand-held vision enhancers (see Figure 5-6). The
slow scan is best used by the VC or gunner when in a defensive position or from a short halt.
z
The gunner pauses at short intervals to give his eyes time to focus, searches a strip of the target
area 50 meters deep from right to left.
z
The gunner then searches a strip farther out from left to right, overlapping the first area scanned.
z
If another crew member is also scanning, he uses the same technique starting from the opposite
side. They continue this method until the entire assigned sector has been searched.

Figure 5-6. Slow (50-meter) scan


z
z

5-10

For scanning larger buildings in an urban environment, it is recommended that gunners employ
horizontal slow scan and VCs ground-to-roof scanning techniques (see Figure 5-7).
When a suspicious area or possible target signature is detected, he stops and searches the
immediate area thoroughly, using the detailed search method.

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Detect

Figure 5-7. Ground-to-rooftop and horizontal slow-scan techniques


Notes. The M2/M3A3 Improved Bradley Acquisition Subsystem (IBAS) and CIV, the Abrams
1st Generation forward looking, infrared (FLIR) and CITV and the Long-Range Advanced
Scout Surveillance System (LRAS3) can be electronically zoomed for an intensive observation
of potential targets.
The thermal radiation reflects off glass and prevents crews from reliably seeing through
windows using the thermal imaging system (TIS); therefore, crews should alternate the daylight
and thermal sight while scanning.

Detailed Search
5-30. If no targets are detected using the rapid or slow scanning methods, crews should use the vehicle
optics (day and night) to make a careful, deliberate search, either while stationary or moving (see Figure
5-8). This method is also used to search small areas or suspected avenues of approach in detail and
z
The crew concentrates on one specific area or location and studies that area intensely.
z
The crews look for direct or indirect target signatures in a clockwise manner around the focal
point area. When using more than one optic (such as IBAS, CITV and CIV), one crew member
scans clockwise and the other scans counterclockwise.
z
Sample target signatures are

Dust created by vehicle movement.

Tracks or tire marks.

Reflections from glass or metal.

Angular objects that do not conform to the surrounding area.

Vegetation that appears out of place.

Flash or smoke from a weapon or missile.

Entrenchments or earthworks.
z
Magnify optics as needed to cover detailed search areas.

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5-11

Chapter 5

5-31. The M2/M3A3 commander and the M1A2 SEP commander can use the CIV/CITV for additional
search capability. Gunners can use all of their sighting systems to perform target search techniques. The
dismounted squad can use the squad leaders display (SLD) in the M2/M3A3 for the acquisition process to
aid the crew in the target detection and for situational awareness (prior to dismounted squad ground
operations).
5-32. The LRAS3 is used on the scout HMMWV and some variants of the Mine Resistant Ambush
Protected (MRAP). The gunner can use this sight in all visibility conditions to provide excellent target
detection. The only shortfall is that the sight is not slaved to a weapon system, requiring the gunner to
reacquire a target with the mounted weapon sight.

Figure 5-8. Detailed-search technique

OFF-CENTER VISION METHOD


5-33. Crew members use the off-center vision method at night without the use of optics. At each likely
target area, they pause a few seconds to detect a target or any movement. If they detect an object, they use
off-center vision to observe it. To prevent object fade-out, they move their eyes frequently in short, abrupt,
irregular movements. Crew members can cup their hands around their eyes to increase night vision.

AIR SEARCH TECHNIQUES


5-34. While scanning their assigned sector for ground targets, crew members must also be aware of air
targets. To aid in the detection of air targets, crews should use the horizontal search-and-scan technique or
vertical search-and-scan technique. Crew members should periodically check the air space above their
assigned sector using the rapid-scan technique. As each crew member completes a rapid scan across the
sector and his field of view meets the horizon, he should switch to a detailed search and make a careful,
deliberate search of tree lines, valleys, and possible air corridors silhouetted by distant background terrain.

5-12

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Detect

5-35. Attack helicopters try to engage at extremely long ranges; therefore, target identification is difficult.
Crews must make every effort to correctly identify the target. To prevent fratricide, leaders must keep
crews informed of friendly aircraft operating in their units sector.
5-36. Based on mission, enemy, terrain (weather), troops and support available, time available, and civil
considerations (METT-TC) (factors taken into account in situation awareness and in the mission analysis
process), the unit commander may establish one or more air guards in sections, platoons, or convoys.
Note. For tanks an air guard is a designated tank (or tanks) with multipurpose antitank (MPAT)
battlecarried in air mode. If Stinger teams are attached to the unit, they should assume the role as
primary air guard.
5-37. The air guard is primarily responsible for detecting and engaging aerial targets. An air guard crew
searches for aerial targets in the same manner as other crews. Gunners search their assigned sector using
the search and scan techniques; however
z
Sector limits established for the gunner must cover likely helicopter locations and avenues of
approach.
z
Gunners must make sure ground reference points are always within their field of view in order
to maintain directional control and situational awareness.

Horizontal Search and Scan


5-38. Search up to 20 degrees above the horizon by moving the eyes in short movements across the sky,
working your way up and across. Continue the scan pattern below the horizon to detect aircraft flying napof-the-earth (see Figure 5-9).

Figure 5-9. Horizontal search and scan

Vertical Search and Scan


5-39. Search the sky using the horizon as a starting point and prominent terrain features as points of
reference. Move the eyes in short movements into the sky, then back down, continuing this movement

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5-13

Chapter 5

across the terrain. Scan in the same pattern below the horizon to detect aircraft flying nap-of-the-earth (see
Figure 5-10).

Figure 5-10. Vertical search and scan

Estimation of Upper Search Limits


5-40. When scanning the sky for aircraft, crew members may miss high-flying aircraft if they limit their
search too near the horizon; yet, they are likely to miss low-flying aircraft if they expand the upper limits
of their search too high above the horizon. The correct upper limit of search is 20 degrees. Estimate 20
degrees using the technique illustrated (see Figure 5-11). With the fingers fully spread, the tip of the thumb
is the upper search limit.

Figure 5-11. Estimating 20 degrees


Note. Enemy aircraft typically operate in pairs. If a pair of aircraft is acquired, a second set of
aircraft should be expected. There may be one to four pairs of aircraft conducting an attack
mission.

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Detect

5-41. For flat terrain the horizontal search and scan technique is preferred. An alternate method of
conducting this scan is for the crew member to scan the horizon by moving their eyes from object to object.
They can see more detail this way than with a continuous scan of the horizon. For hilly terrain the vertical
search and scan technique is preferred.

GROUND AND AIR SEARCH TIPS


5-42. All of the optical devices available to a crew can be used to acquire targets.
z
Initial scanning can be done without optics. The members should scan different locations.
z
Target search is continuous. Any possible target(s) missed on the first or second scan may be
seen on the third or fourth scan.
z
The crew members must look for targets and target locations using proper scanning methods
within their assigned sectors.
z
Sector discipline is vital for both the crew member as well as the crew as a whole to ensure
constant coverage of their assigned sectors.
z
While on the move, the crew should use the rapid scan method, constantly scanning their entire
sector.
z
On optics with an adjustable reticle, the gunner should adjust the reticle brightness until the
reticle is barely visible. The vehicle dome lights should be off or in the filtered position, and the
panel light dimmer knob on the BFV should be adjusted to dim.
z
On the BFV, the commanders sight extension (CSE) should be covered when not utilized. It
enhances the gunners sight picture by reducing the amount of ambient light being reflected
through the integrated sight unit (ISU) optics from the CSE.
z
Operations during chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) conditions limit the
crew members abilities to acquire and locate targets. Whatever the platform, the crews fields of
view are greatly narrowed while wearing protective masks.
z
The crew members must search in areas where targets are most likely to appear, such as avenues
of approach, wood lines, and reverse-slope firing positions. This can be achieved by the VC
determining where he would be if he were the threat.
z
The crew should not use zoom when using rapid scans to detect targets.
z
On the M2A3 when the sight is unstowed and turned on and the commanders tactical display
(CTD) is on the map screen, the dismounts can use the SLD to help the M2/M3A3 crew in the
detection process by monitoring one of four videos (drivers vision enhancement [DVE], IBAS,
CTD, or CIV).
Note. Ground and air search techniques are used in conjunction with sector search techniques.

SECTOR SEARCH TECHNIQUES


5-43. Below are the following techniques that are used when more than one crewman is available for
searching.

Sector Overlapping
5-44. Crews must ensure the sectors they scan overlap those that have already been scanned or overlap
those of other crew members that are also scanning (see Figure 5-12).

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Chapter 5

Figure 5-12. Sector overlapping

Sector Divided
5-45. The vehicle crews divide the sector between them. One crew member scans one half of the sector,
and another scans the other half, ensuring the entire sector area is overlapped at the center of the sector (see
Figure 5-13).

Figure 5-13. Sector divided

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3 September 2009

Detect

Near-to-Far Sector Search


5-46. The commander searches far using CITV/CIV (M1A2, M2A3), binoculars, or night vision devices,
and the gunner searches near using the primary sights or other optics to detect enemy target for the same
sector.

ACQUISITION REPORTS
5-47. Targets acquired by a crew or dismount team member are immediately reported to the VC by an
acquisition report. This target handover technique must take place before the determination step of the
engagement decision. An acquisition report consists of three elements:
z
Alert (optional).
z
Target description.
z
Target location.
5-48. For example: DRIVER REPORT, TWO MOVING PCs, ELEVEN OCLOCK.).
5-49. The description element of the report usually serves as the alert element (for example: TWO
MOVING PCs, ELEVEN OCLOCK.).

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Chapter 6

Identify
Target identification is one of the most important steps in the detect, identify, decide,
engage, and assess (DIDEA) process. Identification is the process of attaining an
accurate characteristic and discriminatory aspect of detected objects on the
battlefield. With proper training, timely application of the identify step in the
DIDEA process can occur (see Figure 6-1). Timely application is important for crew
members so they can engage hostile forces on the battlefield before the enemy can
engage them. Although the identification process encompasses classification,
identification, and discrimination, depending on the situation and the tactical decision
made, identification will be, as a minimum, discriminated as friend, enemy, or
noncombatant. By knowing and understanding the identification process, crew
members can engage the enemy in a timely manner and reduce casualties and
fatalities due to fratricide.
Unknown objects should never be engaged, rather the identification process should
continue until positive identification has been achieved. For example, a crew detects
an object in their sector and classifies it as a personnel carrier (PC), but cannot
positively identify it by type, nor discriminate it as friend or foe. The potential target
could not be classified as a noncombatant because the crew has positively determined
it is a combat vehicle. The object would be characterized as an unidentified PC and
the crew would not engage the object. It would remain unidentified until the crew
could close on the target, let the target close on them, or employ other means to
positively identify the object as friend or foe. If the object engages you during the
identification process, the crew is still required to discriminate between friend, foe, or
noncombatant in order to prevent potential fratricide.

Contents
Section I Classification .......................... 6-1
Section II Identification .......................... 6-2
Ground Vehicle ................................... 6-2
Aircraft Vehicle Identification............... 6-9

Section III Discrimination ..................... 6-13


Discrimination Definitions .................. 6-13
Joint Combat Identification Marking
Systems ............................................ 6-13

SECTION I CLASSIFICATION
6-1. Classification is the first step toward identification. It is the process of categorizing targets by types
(such as truck, tank, and PC). Soldiers can quickly scan the targets key recognition features and then
categorize it accordingly. Key recognition features are features on a vehicle that clearly identify it as a
certain nomenclature. When using key recognition features to determine nomenclature, crew members
should identify as many key features as possible to accurately identify the vehicle. Using only one or two
key recognition features greatly increases the chance of fratricide due to the increased number of vehicle
variants worldwide.

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6-1

Chapter 6

Figure 6-1. Engagement process (identify)

SECTION II IDENTIFICATION

GROUND VEHICLE
6-2. Once a target has been classified, it must be accurately identified by nomenclature. Identification is
the positive determination of a target by nomenclature or series, such as T-80 or Scorpion series. Once the
target has been classified, the crew observes key recognition features to positively identify the target.
6-3. A helpful method to aid in the identification of armored and wheeled vehicles is by recognizing key
features of a vehicle and using the wheels, hull, armament, track (WHAT).
6-4. When identifying wheeled and armored vehicles using WHAT, some questions to consider are
z
Wheels/track

How many wheels or road wheels are there and what is their spacing?

What type of suspension does the track have? Is the track unsupported (see Figure 6-2 and
Figure 6-3) or supported (see Figure 6-4)?

How many support rollers does it have?

What is the size/width of the track?

6-2

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3 September 2009

Identify

Figure 6-2. Unsupported track (example one)

Figure 6-3. Unsupported track (example two)

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6-3

Chapter 6

Figure 6-4. Supported track


z

Hull:
Is the hull boat shaped (see Figure 6-5) or boxed shaped (see Figure 6-6)?

Figure 6-5. Boat shaped hull

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3 September 2009

Identify

Figure 6-6. Boxed shaped hull

Does it contain a trim vane (see Figure 6-7)?

Figure 6-7. Trim vane

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6-5

Chapter 6

Are there hydro-jets for amphibious uses (see Figure 6-8)?

Figure 6-8. Hydrojets

6-6

Are external fuel cells present?


What and how many track skirts does the vehicle have?
Where and what shape is the exhaust?
Where is the engine located?
Where is the drivers position?
Are there troop doors or hatches?
Are infantry firing ports visible?

Armament:

What type/size of main armament does it appear to have?

Are there secondary weapons?

Where is the bore evacuator (see Figure 6-9)?

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Identify

Figure 6-9. Bore evacuator

Is there a thermal shroud?


Is there a presence of a muzzle break/flash suppressor?
Is the main armament short or long?
What shape is the mantle (see Figure 6-10), if any?

Figure 6-10. Gun mantle

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Chapter 6

Turret:

What shape and size is the turret?

Where is the turret mounted on the hull?

How many and what shape are the hatches (if visible)?

Does the vehicle have a fording snorkel kit (see Figure 6-11)?

Figure 6-11. Fording kit

Are grenade launchers present?


Are there troop rails visible?
Are there reactive tiles (see Figure 6-12)?

Figure 6-12. Armored reactive tiles


6-5. Once the key recognition features on the target have been identified, the crew, through training,
should be able to identify the exact nomenclature and should move on to target discrimination. Crews
identifying vehicles should consider which key features should be used primarily. Certain aspects of
vehicles never change even with variants, such as roadwheel number spacing and position of the turret
mounted on the hull. Using key features similar to reactive armor tiles, external fuel cells or track skirts
should only be used to validate or reinforce positive identification.

6-8

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3 September 2009

Identify

6-6. For example, the gunner classifies a target as a tank because of the low silhouette, large gun tube,
and tracks. Using the WHAT method, he then looks at the targets wheels. From this he determines that the
suspension system has no support rollers and five road wheels. As he looks at the hull, he notes that it is
box-like and has a distinct splash guard. As he moves to the armament, he identifies the incomparable bore
evacuator at the end of the gun tube. Continuing on to the turret, it is smooth and rounded, and the troop
rails, one straight and one bowed are clearly visible. From his observations, he identifies the target as a
T-55 tank (see Figure 6-13).

Figure 6-13. Key recognition features (armored)


6-7. A crew member using the WHAT format and being familiar with key recognition features of
vehicles, will significantly increase the speed at which the threat vehicle can be identified and engaged
while reducing the probability of fratricide. Although using this format will aid crew members in
identifying vehicles, they should be aware that it does not complete the identification process. Crew
members may identify the vehicle as a T-72 however, with over 30 countries using it worldwide, it may be
operated by a coalition or allied force. Discrimination of the vehicle will be discussed later in this chapter.

AIRCRAFT VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION


6-8. Similar to the WHAT format used in the identification of ground vehicles, the fuselage, armament,
rotors, and tail (FART) format is used when identifying aerial vehicles.
6-9. While identifying helicopters consider the following:
z
Fuselage

What shape and size is the fuselage?

Are there any weapon sights visible?

Are there landing wheels or skids?

Where is the exhaust located?

What shape is the nose?

Are troop doors present?

Where are the engines mounted (see Figure 6-14)?

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6-9

Chapter 6

Figure 6-14. Engine mounting


Does the cockpit appear to be for one pilot or for a crew?
Is a large amount of the cockpit glass or other material?

Are there any windows visible?

Does it have any stub wings?

Are external fuel tanks visible?

Are there any other dominant features?


Armament

What type of main armament does it have?

Are there any secondary armaments?

Are the weapons attached to the wings or fuselage?

Is the weapon sighting system(s) visible?


Rotors

How many rotor blades are there?

Is there any type of equipment or sensors above the rotors (see Figure 6-15)?

Figure 6-15. Rotary wing external sensors

6-10

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3 September 2009

Identify

Tail

How long is the tail wing?

Is there a tail rotor? If so, which side is the tail rotor on?

Is it a normal (see Figure 6-16) or fenestron (see Figure 6-17) tail rotor?

Figure 6-16. Tail rotor

Figure 6-17. Fenestron tail rotor

3 September 2009

Does it have rear horizontal stabilizer wings (see Figure 6-18)?


Is there an exhaust on the tail?
Does it have a rear landing wheel or skid?

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

6-11

Chapter 6

Figure 6-18. Rear horizontal stabilizer wings


6-10. While observing the helicopter in Figure 6-19 and using the FART method, the gunner identifies five
rotor blades and no distinct navigational or radar equipment above them. He then moves to its armament.
There he notices an AT-6 Spiral and a medium caliber machine gun. As the gunner moves to the fuselage,
he notices dual air intakes located just above the cockpit and the exhaust located on the side. The windows
on the fuselage are distinct and square and the cockpit is bubble-like in shape and is for more than one
person. When moving to the tail of the helicopter he notices that the tail rotor is located on the left side of
the platform and that the rear portion of the landing gear is not a wheel but rather a skid. From the
identification features, the gunner can now identify this platform as a MI-24 Hind-F.

Figure 6-19. Key identification features (helicopter)

6-12

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3 September 2009

Identify

SECTION III DISCRIMINATION

DISCRIMINATION DEFINITIONS
6-11. Discrimination is the determination whether a target is friend, foe, or noncombatant. The following
list defines each:
z

Friend. Any force, US or allied, that is jointly engaged in combat operations with an enemy in a
theater of operation.

Foe (enemy combatant). Any individual who has engaged in antagonistic activities against a
friendly force and oppose the views and goals of friendly or allied forces.

Noncombatants. Personnel, organizations, or agencies that are not directly engaged in combat
operations. This includes individuals, such as medical personnel, chaplains, United Nations
(UN) observers, or media representatives. Organizations similar to the Red Cross or Red
Crescent can also be classified as noncombatants. In a theater of operation, most individuals will
fall into this category.

6-12. Although Russian equipment has been sold in large numbers worldwide, Soldiers could find
themselves facing British, French, and American-made equipment operating as a threat force. Further, it is
likely in any future conflict U.S. forces will deploy as part of a coalition of allied nations which may use a
wide variety of equipment. The discrimination process is also complicated by the increasing likelihood of
having to discriminate between friend/foe and combatant/noncombatant in urban settings. In order to
mitigate against fratricide and unnecessary collateral damage, Soldiers must use all of the situational
awareness (SA) tools available and develop tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP) for performing target
discrimination.

JOINT COMBAT IDENTIFICATION MARKING SYSTEMS


6-13. Joint Coalition Identification Marking System (JCIMS) is a system used by U.S. and allied forces for
quick discrimination of personnel and vehicles. JCIMS kits consist of thermal and infrared marking devices
that enable forces equipped with thermal and night-vision devices to identify friendly forces based on the
unique signatures of the JCIMS devices.
6-14. Currently there are three approved systems that make up JCIMSCombat Identification Panels (CIP),
Thermal Identification Panels (TIP), and Phoenix Beacons. The following techniques are provided to assist
crews in target discrimination:
z
CIPs. CIPs are primarily for ground-to-ground identification. CIPs (battle boards) allow a
Soldier looking through a thermal sight to identify a friendly vehicle up to 4,000 meters away.
CIPs are bolted onto combat vehicles and provide a square or rectangle cold image on a hot
background (see Figure 6-20).

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6-13

Chapter 6

Figure 6-20. Combat identification panel


z

TIPs. TIPs are primarily for air-to-ground identification. These are foldable/rollable thermal
panels that can be tied to the upper surfaces of ground vehicles to aid in recognition from the air
(see Figure 6-21 and Figure 6-22). The TIPs can be utilized with thermals that operate only in
the three to twelve micron (wavelength) range. TIPs can be ordered in either a two square foot
or four square foot sizes, along with a variety of colors. See Figure 6-23 for the national stock
numbers (NSN).

Figure 6-21. Abrams thermal identification panel placement

6-14

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Identify

Figure 6-22. Bradley thermal identification panel placement

3 September 2009

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6-15

Chapter 6

NSN

Model

Size

Color

Design

Use

Max range

2590-01-4474937

TIP-3

4x4

Olive
Drab/Orange

Abrams
Boresight

Sight System
Dependent

2590-01-4474934

TIP-4

4x4

Tan/Orange

Abrams
Boresight

Sight System
Dependent

2590-01-4478997

TIP-5

4x4

Olive Drab

Vehicular

Sight System
Dependent

2590-01-4484531

TIP-6

4x4

Tan

Vehicular

Sight System
Dependent

2590-01-4526352

TIP-7

4x4

Olive
Drab/Orange

Apache
Boresight

Sight System
Dependent

2590-01-4526353

TIP-8

4x4

Tan/Orange

Apache
Boresight

Sight System
Dependent

2590-01-5316337

TIP-9

4x4

Light Brown

Vehicular

Sight System
Dependent

2590-01-5020006

TIP-12

2x2

Olive Drab

Personnel

1,000m

2590-01-5020016

TIP-13

2x2

Olive
Drab/Orange

Personnel

1,000m

2590-01-5020020

TIP-14

2x2

Tan

Personnel

1,000m

2590-01-5020025

TIP-15

2x2

Tan/Orange

Personnel

1,000m

Figure 6-23. Thermal identification panel NSN listing


z

6-16

Phoenix Beacons. A flashing near infrared beacon that is clearly visibly through night vision
optics. The user encodes the beacon with unique Morse Code like flashes. The encoded flashes
provide positive combat identification of the user. The Phoenix Light is a 2-ounce infrared
beacon that operates for up to 100+ hours using a 9-volt battery. The infrared signal can be seen
out to a range of 4 kilometers and is mounted on the highest point of the vehicle. A smaller
version of the Phoenix Light is made for dismounted personnel. Phoenix lights are only
viewable through night vision goggles, NOT through thermal sights or forward looking, infrared
(FLIR). The light identifies the vehicle and the individual Soldier from both the ground and air
(see Figure 6-24). Phoenix Beacons have the potential to be viewed by enemy elements with
night vision goggles. Units should tailor use of the beacon based on mission, enemy, terrain
(weather), troops and support available, time available, civil considerations (METT-TC). See
Table 6-1 for the NSN for the Phoenix Beacons.

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Identify

Figure 6-24. Phoenix Beacon


Table 6-1. Phoenix Beacon NSN listing
Model

NSN

Use

Color

Range

IR-14

5855-01-438-4588

Tactical

Infrared

5 miles

IR-15 V

5855-01-396-8732

Trainer

Green

5 miles

IR-25

5855-01-451-9877

Tactical

Infrared

5 miles

MARKINGS
6-15. Units may also have other means of discriminating friendly vehicles from enemy. This may come
from unit markings based off of the Army Combat Vehicle Marking Systems and unit standing operating
procedures (SOP) and also from SA based equipment such as Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and
Below (FBCB2) or Blue Force Tracker.
z
Unit Markings. Unit markings are outlined by AR 746-2 and set based off of the unit SOP.
They must distinctly identify a vehicle as friendly, and Soldiers must be well trained to identify
those markings (see Figure 6-25). There are several items that units can use to mark vehicles.
Examples are

Battlefield Reference Marking System (BRMS). The BRMS marking system panels come
in many different patterns. Based off the unit SOP, vehicles can place the panels on their
vehicle to differentiate different companies within a battalion. Not only could the BRMS
panels be used for making vehicle systems, but they could also be used for boresighting
vehicles or making target reference points (TRP). See Figure 6-25 for a list of NSNs and
their respective design.

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6-17

Chapter 6

Model

NSN

Type A

6910-01-388-7699

Type B

6910-01-388-7660

Type C

6910-01-388-7624

Type D

6910-01-460-8098

Type E

6910-01-460-8103

Type F

6910-01-460-8107

Type G

6910-01-460-8111

Type I

NA

Design

Note. Only 4x4 panels are available in T-Back (see Figure 6-26). The
2x2 size is only available in Flatback.

Figure 6-25. BRMS NSN listing

Figure 6-26. BRMS T-Back style

VS-17 panels (NSN 8345-00-174-6865) provide a bright recognition feature that allows
crews to identify friendly vehicles through the daysight (see Figure 6-27).

Figure 6-27. VS-17 panel

6-18

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3 September 2009

Identify

Chemical lights provide a means of marking vehicles at night. However, chemical lights are
not visible through a thermal sight. An infrared (IR) variant is available for use with night
vision devices.
Unit symbols may also be used to mark friendly vehicles. An inverted V, for example,
painted on the flanks, rear, and fronts of a vehicle, aid in identifying a target as friendly.
This is typically limited to operations to enhance effectiveness.

SA. For digitally equipped units, the FBCB2 represent the best SA tool for assisting in the
discrimination of targets (see Figure 6-28). Known friendly and neutral locations can be
populated to the firing vehicles graphics as icons even if they are not FBCB2 equipped to
mitigate fratricide and collateral damage. The other primary source of SA comes from
operations order (OPORD)/fragmentary order (FRAGO) and combat reporting. Leaders are
responsible for keeping their subordinates aware of changes in the friendly and enemy situation,
to assist in the discrimination process.

Figure 6-28. Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below

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Chapter 7

Decide
Once the target has been identified, the decision is made to engage. The engagement
decision process is a series of progressive and interdependent steps (or actions)
making rules of engagement decisions, determining threat levels, selecting weapon
systems or ammunition, and making confirmation (see Figure 7-1). The vehicle
commander (VC) is ultimately responsible for the actions of his crew; however, when
the commander is unavailable the responsibility of target identification and
engagement is relinquished to the gunner. On systems other than the tank or the
Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV) if the VC cannot see the target, or when speed is
needed, the responsibility of target identification and engagement is relinquished to
the gunner.

Contents
Section I Target Determination ............. 7-1
Threat Levels ...................................... 7-2
Target Prioritization............................. 7-2
Weapon/Ammunition Selection ........... 7-3
Target Confirmation ............................ 7-4
Section II Immediate Range
Determination ............................................ 7-5
Immediate Determination .................... 7-5
Laser Range Finder ............................ 7-5

Section III Deliberate Range


Determination .......................................... 7-11
Mil Relationship Method .................... 7-11
Maps/Digital Maps Method................ 7-17

SECTION I TARGET DETERMINATION


7-1. There are three target threat levels to defeat multiple targets on the battlefield; the most dangerous
targets must be engaged first. Commanders determine target threat levels based on threat analysis of the
mission area. All soldiers must know the engagement priorities of their unit; however, the VC is
responsible for determining the immediate target threat level based on the threat posture when time is
available. When time is not available, however, the responsibility falls on the gunner.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

7-1

Chapter 7

Figure 7-1. Engagement process (decide)

THREAT LEVELS
7-2. The threat levels are most dangerous, dangerous, and least dangerous.
z
Most Dangerous. When the crew observes a target with armor-defeating capabilities that
appears to be preparing to engage them, the target threat level is most dangerous. This type of
target is the greatest threat and must be engaged immediately.
z
Dangerous. When the crew observes an armor-defeating target that is not preparing to engage
them, the target threat level is dangerous. This type of target should be engaged after all most
dangerous targets have been destroyed.
z
Least Dangerous. When the crew observes a target that does not have an armor-defeating
weapon system, the target threat level is least dangerous. Although these types of targets do not
have the means to destroy your vehicle, they may still have the capability to call in other
equipment that can. This type of target is engaged after all most dangerous and dangerous
targets have been destroyed, unless it has a high priority of engagement (command and control
vehicles).

TARGET PRIORITIZATION
7-3. When multiple targets of the same threat level are encountered, the targets must be prioritized
according to the threat they represent. The determining factors used to prioritize these targets are engage
z
Close-range targets before engaging long-range targets.
z
Stationary targets before engaging moving targets.
z
Frontal targets before engaging flank or rear targets.

7-2

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Decide

7-4. Crews must be well versed in the threats armament and maximum effective range in order to classify
targets accurately and engage in the most efficient manner. A dismount with a rocket-propelled grenade
(RPG) or a technical truck with antitank guided missiles (AGTM) are extremely dangerous targets for all
vehicle platforms within the Heavy Brigade Combat Team (HBCT), including the Abrams.

WEAPON/AMMUNITION SELECTION
Note. If the platform detecting a target is incapable of destroying it or rules of engagement
preclude using the only available effective weapon, crews must report the target immediately so
other military options/weapons systems can be brought to bear.
7-5. Weapon/ammunition selection is the logical selection of a weapon or ammunition that is appropriate
for a given target (see Table 7-1). In selecting weapon and ammunition type to utilize against targets, the
crew must determine the threat type and range. When selecting weapons a key consideration is choosing
the weapon that will achieve target effect with minimal collateral damage in urban environments. Crews
must also consider their proximity to other friendly forces.
Table 7-1. Ammunition/weapon selection
Weapon

Range (meters)

Target Type

M249 (5.56mm)

0 to 900

Troop

0 to 600

Unarmored

0 to 900

Troop

0 to 900

Light Armored

0 to 900

Unarmored

0 to 1,800

Troop

0 to 1,500

Unarmored

M240 (7.62mm)

M2 (.50 cal)

MK19 (40mm)

25mm

120mm

AT-4

3 September 2009

Arming Range(s)

0 to 1,500

Light Armored

0 to 800

Aerial

40 to 2,212

Troop

18 to 36 (HE)

40 to 1,500

Unarmored

18 to 30 (HEDP)

40 to 1,500

Light Armored

0 to 3,000

Troop

0 to 3,000

Unarmored

0 to 2,000

Light Armored

0 to 1,200

Aerial (HE)

1,200 to 2,000

Aerial (AP)

150 to 500

Troop

11 to 30 (HEAT)

200 to 5,000

Troop

15 to 60 (OR)

200 to 5,000

Unarmored

15 to 60 (MPAT)

200 to 5,000

Light Armored

200 to 5,000

Aerial (MPAT)

200 to 5,000

Armored (SABOT)

0 to 300

Unarmored

10 to 300

Light Armored

10 to 300

Armored

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

10 to 200 (HEI-T)

7-3

Chapter 7

Table 7-1. Ammunition/weapon selection (continued)


Weapon
Javelin
TOW

Range (meters)

Target Type

Arming Range(s)

65 to 2,000

Light Armored

65

65 to 2,000

Armored

65 to 3,000

Light Armored

30 to 65 (TOW)

65 to 3,000

Armored

110 to 200 (TOW-2B)

2000 to 3,000

Aerial

43 to 65 (TOW-BB)

65 to 3,750

Light Armored (TOW-2)

65 to 3,750

Armored (TOW-2)

2000 to 3,750

Aerial (TOW-2)

110 to 4,500

Light Armored (TOW-2B Aero)

200 to 4,500

Armored (TOW-2B Aero)

2000 to 4,500

Aerial (TOW-2B Aero)

Notes.
1. Should only be used for light armored vehicles when using antipersonnel (AP), armor-piercing incendiary
(API), or saboted light armor penetrator (SLAP) ammunition.
2. AP should be used while engaging light armored vehicles with 25-mm ammunition.
3. When engaging troops with M1028.

TARGET CONFIRMATION
7-6. Target confirmation is the rapid verification of the initial identification and discrimination of the
target, and is usually done by the VC. Confirmation takes place after the fire command, but before the
command of execution element and simultaneously as the gunner is completing his initial lay. Gunners also
go through a confirmation step. As the gunner makes his final, precise lay, he ensures that the target is
hostile before announcing IDENTIFIED.
7-7. If the gunner confirms that the target is hostile, he completes his final lay and engages the target on
order. If the gunner determines that the target is friendly or neutral, he announces his confirmation to the
VC (FRIENDLY or NEUTRAL). If he cannot determine the nature of the target, he announces
UNKNOWN. The VC then confirms the target is in the gunners field of view and conducts the combat
identification process again. If the commander cannot establish positive identification, he must either close
on the target, let the target close on him, or use other methods to establish positive identification of the
target, before beginning engagement execution.

WARNING
To prevent fratricide a crew should never engage a potential
target unless it is positively identified to be a threat target.

7-8. The VC must be informed of the tactical situation to assist in target confirmation. This can be
achieved through battlefield situation awareness from subordinates and higher elements or by other
technological elements such as Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below (FBCB2) or Blue Force
Tracker). The M2/M3A2 Operation Desert Storm (ODS) appliques and the M2/M3A3s Squad Leaders
Display (SLD) provide battlefield awareness for the crew.

7-4

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Decide

SECTION II IMMEDIATE RANGE DETERMINATION

IMMEDIATE DETERMINATION
7-9. Range determination significantly affects target engagement. Errors in range determination cause
more first round misses than errors in deflection. Range errors that cause the first round to go over the
target are particularly serious because observing and adjusting from that round is difficult. Range
determination can be broken down into two broad categories: immediate range determination and
deliberate range determination.
7-10. Immediate methods of range determination afford the combat crew the most reliable means of the
range to a given target. The preferred method of immediate determination is the laser range finder (LRF) or
Bradley eye safe laser range finder (BELRF) on those vehicles so equipped. The other methods of
immediate range determination all rely on crew members employing the properties of the sighting systems
of their vehicles, and are preferred to other methods of range determination/estimation. Below are the
immediate range determination methods.

LASER RANGE FINDER


7-11. With the Abrams, the preferred method of range determination is the LRF/ELRF. The LRF can
range to targets located 200 to 7,990 meters from its location. If the range to the target is between 200
meters and 3,990 +/- 10 meters (4,990 +/- 10 meters on the M1A2 System Enhancement Program [SEP])
the range is automatically induced into the fire control system to calculate a ballistic solution and the range
will appear in the gunners primary sight (GPS) symbology.
7-12. In a Bradley, the LRF/BELRF can range to targets located from 200 to 9,990 meters in five meter
increments to an accuracy of +/- 10 meters. If the range to the target is between 190 to 3,000 meters, the
range is automatically induced into the fire control system for a ballistic solution.
7-13. The Long-Range Advanced Scout Surveillance System (LRAS3) is a long-range multi-sensor system
for the scout High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) platform. It is normally vehicle
mounted but is capable of operating dismounted on a tripod. The LRAS3 provides precise target location
through incorporation of advanced second generation forward-looking infrared (FLIR), a global
positioning interferometer, an ELRF and a television camera. The system is capable of spotting targets up
to 15 km away and can calculate ranges to within +/- 5 meters. As with the Bradleys reticle lead lines, the
LRAS3 can use its narrow field of view (NFOV) reticle to determine ranges to targets using the milrelation formula (see Figure 7-2). Remember, the targets dimensions must be known to estimate the range
(see Table 7-4). By using the reticle in the wide field of view (WFOV), operators can use the reticle
relationship method, to determine the range (see Figure 7-3).
7-14. Using an AN/GVS-5, the crew member can quickly and accurately determine the range for the
gunner. The AN/GVS-5 is organic to the scout platoon. It is a light weight, hand held, binocular-like LRF
capable of determining ranges between 200 and 9,990 meters (+/-10 meters).

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

7-5

Chapter 7

Figure 7-2. LRAS3 NFOV reticle

Figure 7-3. LRAS3 WFOV reticle indicators


7-15. The following various conditions can cause effective use of the LRF to be lost:
z
Internal LRF failure.
z
Vehicle failure.
z
Environmental conditions (fog, falling snow, heavy rain).
z
Man-made or battlefield obscurants (smoke).
z
Multiple returns from a target smaller than the LRF beam width and obstructions to the front
and/or rear of the target.
7-16. All gunners, VCs, and operators must be familiar with all of the range determination tools that their
system offers them to cope with loss of effective use of the LRF.

ABRAMS GUNNERS AUXILIARY SIGHT


7-17. The gunners auxiliary sight (GAS) is an articulated telescope, coaxially mounted to the main gun.
The M1A1 and M1A2 SEP include illuminated ballistic reticles for kinetic energy (KE)/STAFF and
multipurpose tank (MPAT)/high-explosive antitank (HEAT) ammunition. The GAS offers 8X
magnification with an 8-degree field of view. It is filtered to protect the gunners vision from laser
reflections.

7-6

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Decide

BRADLEY AUXILIARY SIGHT


7-18. For the Bradley, the backup sight, known as the auxiliary (or aux) sight, is used when the Integrated
Sight Unit (ISU)/Improved Bradley Acquisition Subsystem (IBAS) is not operational or turret power has
failed. The auxiliary sight has stadia lines for range determination and application of the correct
superelevation based on range. There are stadia lines for armor-piercing discarding sabot with tracer
(APDS-T) and high-explosive incendiary with tracer (HEI-T) ammunition. This system is used to
determine the range and to engage the frontal or flank view of a BMP.
z
The auxiliary sight has two range scales. The high-explosive (HE) scale is on the left side of the
reticle and is represented by broken lines that extend to 3,200 meters. The antipersonnel (AP)
scale is on the right side represented by a solid line that extends to 3,400 meters (see Figure 74). The numbers 4 and 6 represent 400 meters and 600 meters, respectively. The HE range scale
continues to 32 (not shown in figure).
z
The range to a flank target is determined by elevating the gun until both the front and rear of the
target appears to be touching the AP stadia lines, as shown in Figure 7-4. The range to a flank
HE target is choked in the same manner, using the HE lines.
z
To determine the range to a frontal target, the gunner uses the half stadia method of aligning the
center vertical ranging lines with one side of the target and aligns the appropriate ammunition
stadia line on either side of the target (see Figure 7-5). When using the coax, the gunner uses the
HE stadia lines.

Figure 7-4. Bradley Stadia reticle on flank target

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

7-7

Chapter 7

Figure 7-5. Bradley Stadia reticle on frontal target

ABRAMS GUNNERS AUXILIARY SIGHT STADIA RETICLE


7-19. On the M1A1 and M1A2 SEP, the stadia reticle pattern is included on both GAS reticles. If the LRF
is inoperative, the stadia reticle may be used to determine the range to a target. The pattern has a base line
and a series of range lines for full-height targets, and a series of dots for ranging at a target in hull defilade.
The GAS stadia reticle is designed to permit gunners to determine range to the target if other, more precise,
ranging methods are not available. The full-size portion of the reticle is designed for a 2.30-meter-high
target (see Figure 7-6), while the turret portion is for a 0.90-meter-high target (see Figure 7-7). With
practice, gunners using the stadia reticle can consistently determine the range to within 100 meters.

Figure 7-6. Abrams Stadia reticle with full target

7-8

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Decide

Figure 7-7. Abrams Stadia reticle, defilade target

BRADLEY ISU STADIA RETICLE


7-20. For the Bradley, the ISU Horizontal Ranging Stadia (Choke Sight) is used. This range determination
method should be used only when firing from a defensive position.
z
The reticle within the ISU has a choke sight used to estimate the range to BMP-type targets. The
choke sight is used for a 1.8-meter-high target. Since the hull of a BMP is a standard hull that is
used on various vehicles throughout the world, the ranging stadia can be used for accurately
ranging to these different vehicles (see Figure 7-8).
z
To use the choke sight, the gunner moves the turret until the ranging stadia line appear to touch
the vehicle in the following manner:

Align the horizontal line to the bottom (track) of the target vehicle.

Move the turret horizontally along the target until the top of the hull appears to touch the
stadia line. The range is read from the stadia line at the point where the top of the hull
touches. If this point is between the tick marks, estimation must be made, and the range is
then indexed into the ISU. Then, the gunner or commander should relay the reticle on the
target.
z
The choke sight can be used to range to targets in turret-down positions. A technique in ranging
to a hull down target is to choke the target. The gunner aligns the bottom horizontal line to the
bottom of the target and aligns the stadia line until the top of the target appears to touch the lines
(see Figure 7-9). The gunner reads this range and divides that number in half. This technique is
less accurate than ranging a fully exposed target.

Note. Choke only the hull, not the whole vehicle. Do not choke weapons or lights mounted on
top of the turret.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

7-9

Chapter 7

Figure 7-8. Integrated Sight Unit choke (full target)

Figure 7-9. Integrated Sight Unit choke (defilade target)

RECOGNITION METHOD
7-21. With practice, range determination by recognition is quick and accurate; however, this method will
not work with passive or thermal sights. The principle of the recognition method is simple. When the VC
sees a target, he can determine the range according to what he recognizes. For example, if a target can be
recognized as a tank with the unaided eye, it is within 1,500 meters; if a target can be recognized as a tank
through magnifying optics (such as GAS and binoculars), it is within 5,000 meters (see Table 7-2). Table
7-3 gives range estimations for targets as seen with the unaided eye and through magnifying optics
(binoculars).

7-10

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Decide

Table 7-2. Recognition method


Range Determination

Recognition Method

Target

Unaided Eye

Magnification 8 Power

Tank crew, troops, machine gun, mortar,


antitank gun, antitank missile launchers

500m

2,000m

Tank, personnel carrier, truck (by model)

1,000m

4,000m

Tank, howitzer, personnel carrier, truck

1,500m

5,000m

Armor vehicle, wheel vehicle

2,000m

6,000m

7-22. When using the recognition method, the size and clarity of the target in relation to its background
must be considered. Some light and terrain conditions make a target seem closer; other conditions make it
seem farther away. The conditions outlined in the following table may cause an error in estimating range
by the recognition method.
Table 7-3. Effect of target conditions on range estimation
Target Conditions
Seems Closer:

Seems Farther:

Bright, clear day


Large targets
At sea
Sun in front of target
Targets at higher elevations
Bright colors white, red, yellow

Fog, rain, haze, twilight


Camouflaged targets
Sun behind target
Small targets
Targets at lower elevations
Dark colors

Contrast
Desert
Looking across ravines, hollows, rivers, depressions

100-METER UNIT-OF-MEASURE METHOD


7-23. To use this method, the VC or gunner must be able to visualize a distance of 100 meters on the
ground. For ranges up to 500 meters, he estimates the number of 100-meter increments between the two
objects he wishes to measure. Beyond 500 meters, the VC or gunner must select a point halfway to the
object(s), determine the number of 100-meter increments to the halfway point, and then double it to find
the range to the object(s).

SECTION III DELIBERATE RANGE DETERMINATION

MIL RELATIONSHIP METHOD


7-24. The mil relationship method may be used in deliberate range determination. When using the mil
relation method the crew must use binoculars or a sight system with a calibrated mil-scale to measure the
target.
7-25. The basis of the mil relation method is that one mil or equals a width (or height) of 1 meter at a
range of 1,000 meters or in a unit of angular measurement, equal to 1/6,400 of a circle or about 17.79
(17.8) degrees. The relationship of the angle, the length of the sides of the angle (range), and the width
(height) between the sides remains constant. Figure 7-10 shows the constant relationship as the angle
increases from 1 to 2 mils and the range increases from 1,000 to 2,000 meters.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

7-11

Chapter 7

7-26. Standard Army measurements are completed and expressed in the metric system. Other units of
measurement (yards, feet, or inches) may be substituted to express the target size or range; however, all
information must be expressed in the same unit of measure.

Figure 7-10. Constant mil-angle relationship


7-27. To use this method, the crew member must know the width, height, and length of the target. He
determines the known dimension with the binoculars mil scale or a non-ballistic sight reticle, substitutes
the mil relation, and computes the range (see Table 7-4). When measuring the frontal width, he measures
only the vehicles front slope (from left front corner to right front corner). When measuring flank width, he
measures the entire vehicle (see Figure 7-11). Accuracy of this method depends on knowing the target
dimensions and the commanders ability to make precise measurements with binoculars or the sight reticle.
7-28. Using Table 7-4 and by achieving proper vehicle identification, a crew member can properly
determine the standard mil size of the vehicle. This can then be utilized into the calculation of the mil
relationship method of range determination. Figure 7-11 through Figure 7-16 show the frontal and flank
view of a BMP-2 and where the information in the table applies.

7-12

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Decide

Table 7-4. Mil relation for various targets


BMP-2
Target width (mils)

4.5

3.5

2.5

1.5

Flank 6.75 meters

140
0

1500

1700

1900

2300

2700

3400

4500

6800

Front 3.0 meters

600

700

800

900

1000

1200

1500

2000

3000

Height 2.3 meters

500

500

600

700

800

900

1200

1500

2300

4.5

3.5

2.5

1.5

Flank 5.5 meters

1100

1200

1400

1600

1800

2200

2800

3700

5500

Front 2.35 meters

500

500

600

700

800

1000

1200

1600

2400

Height 2.3 meters

500

500

600

700

800

900

1200

1500

2300

Target width (mils)

22.5

20

17.5

15

12.5

10

7.5

2.5

Flank 17.01 meters

800

900

1000

1100

1400

1700

2300

3400

6804

Target Width (mils)

4.5

3.5

2.5

1.5

Front 4.81 meters

1000

1100

1200

1400

1600

1900

2400

3200

4800

Height 3.82 meters

800

800

1000

1100

1300

1500

1900

2500

3800

BRDM-2
Target width (mils)

Mi-28 HAVOK

Mi-24 HIND-D
Target width (mils)

22.5

20

17.5

15

12.5

10

7.5

2.5

Flank 17.25 meters

800

900

1000

1200

1400

1700

2300

3500

6900

Target Width (mils)

4.5

3.5

2.5

1.5

Height 3.9 meters

800

900

1000

1100

1300

1600

2000

2600

3900

Front 6.9 meters

1400

1500

1700

2000

2300

2800

3500

4600

6900

T-72
Target width (mils)

4.5

3.5

2.5

1.5

Flank 6.7 meters

1300

1500

1700

1900

2200

2700

3400

4500

6700

Front 3.4 meters

700

800

900

1000

1100

1400

1700

2300

3400

Height 2.3 meters

500

500

600

700

800

900

1200

1500

2300

T-80
Target width (mils)

4.5

3.5

2.5

1.5

Flank 7.0 meters

1400

1600

1800

2000

2300

2800

3500

4700

7000

Front 3.6 meters

700

800

900

1000

1100

1400

1700

2300

3400

Height 2.2 meters

500

500

600

700

800

900

1200

1500

2300

4.5

3.5

2.5

1.5

Flank 6.9 meters

1400

1500

1700

2000

2300

2800

3500

4600

6900

Front 3.8 meters

800

900

1000

1100

1300

1500

1900

2500

3800

Height 2.2 meters

500

500

600

700

800

900

1200

1500

2300

T-90
Target width (mils)

Note. This table is a quick reference for determining the range of widely sold vehicles at
various ranges. The ranges have been rounded-off to the nearest hundredth.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

7-13

Chapter 7

Figure 7-11. Frontal BMP-2 dimensions

Figure 7-12. Flank BMP-2 dimensions

Figure 7-13. Frontal Mi-24 Hind-D dimensions

7-14

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Decide

Figure 7-14. Flank Mi-24 Hind-D dimensions

Figure 7-15. Frontal T-72 dimensions

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

7-15

Chapter 7

Figure 7-16. Flank T-72 dimensions


7-29. Since the relationship of the target width in mils ( and meters (W) is constant at varying distances,
accurate range determination is possible. The mil relation holds true whether the W factor is width, height,
or length. Therefore, the range can be determined provided the target dimensions are known. Target height
may be the most consistent measurement, because length and width are changing as targets move on the
battlefield.
7-30. There are two WORM formulas beneficial to crew members that can be used to determine
information about an object or target. The crew member determining range will be required to decide
which formula will be used based on known information gathered.
z
The first formula should be used to determine range. This formula will need both the width and
mil value of the vehicle (see Figure 7-17).

Figure 7-17. Measuring width with binoculars

7-16

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Decide

*Example: STEP 1: The BMP is 6.75 meters long (W). Using binoculars, the commander
determines that the BMP measures 10 mils in length.
STEP 2: The individual determining range substitutes known information into the
formula.

or
STEP 3: Since R is expressed in thousands of meters, multiply by 1,000; and round
off to the nearest tenth. For example: 0.675=0.7 so 0.7 x 1,000 = 700 meters, the
range to the BMP.
z

The second formula is used to determine the width (width, length, height) of an object. This is
important to determine the width of a bridge, for example, that has not been previously
identified. The formula carries the same basic concept as the first formula for determining range.
The operator will need to know the range to the target and the mil size.

Example: STEP 1: The gunner has determined that the range to a bridge is 1,200 meters. The VC,
looking through his binos, determined the mil value to be 2.5 mils.
STEP 2: The individual determining range substitutes known information into the formula.

or

MAPS/DIGITAL MAPS METHOD


7-31. The vehicle crew must have a map to navigate. They must constantly know where they are and
where they are going. (The ANPSN 11 precision lightweight GPS receiver [PLGR] or any other
navigational system will not eliminate the need for maps.) The vehicle crew can also use the map to
determine range. Besides computing distances on a traditional map, special features on the FBCB2 allow
the crew to plot points on the digital map and find the distance between them. A map also allows them to
determine the best battlecarry range setting for the terrain and enemy situation and to adjust the battlecarry
range when the situation changes.
z
Both in offense and defense, the vehicle crew must continually assess likely enemy locations,
engagement areas, and engagement ranges. This information gives the vehicle crew the
capability to rapidly determine range when contact is made.
z
Target reference points (TRP) are used as both direct and indirect fire control measures. These
are entered in the sector sketch for the VC to control his fires and ensure that his reports of
enemy sightings are accurate. Since the range to each TRP is known, this will assist in range
determination.

KNOWN RANGE (RANGE/SKETCH CARDS)


7-32. The primary use of the range or sketch card is to assist the crew in engaging targets during limited
visibility or when effective use of the LRF has been lost. The VC may also use the range or sketch card to
assist in determining range since range data is recorded on the card. The range to a previous target
engagement is also classified as a known range.

31 May 2010

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2, C1

7-17

Chapter 7

ADJACENT VEHICLE
7-33. Range information can be obtained from an adjacent vehicle that has an operable LRF. If the vehicle
providing the range data is relatively close (lateral distance) to the receiving vehicle, then it will be at the
same range from the target.

FLASH-TO-BANG
7-34. Sound travels through the air at a fairly constant speed, about 330 meters (approximately 1,100 feet)
per second. This makes it easy to estimate range if you can see and hear the action. For example, when you
see the flash or smoke of a weapon, or the dust it raises, immediately start counting at a rate of one count
per second. When you hear the report of the weapon, stop and multiply the number you were counting
when you heard the report by the constant 330. This will be the range to the weapon in meters. If you stop
on the number 3, the range is about 990 meters.
7-35. Practice timing the speed of your count. The best way to do this is to practice with pyrotechnics fired
at known distances. If this is not possible, have someone time you while you count; start over when the
count reaches a number higher than 10. Counting numbers such as 12 and 13 will throw your timing off.
With practice, you can estimate range more accurately with this method than by eye alone.

7-18

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2, C1

31 May 2010

Chapter 8

Engage Direct and Indirect Fires (Crew)


Crews must be able to engage multiple targets rapidly while operating within
irregular battle lines. Depending on the tactical situation and the area of operations,
enemy targets may be intermingled with friendly, coalition, and neutral vehicles and
personnel. Crews must be proficient in the techniques and procedures for detecting
and identifying potential targets; making engagement decisions; executing and
assessing engagements against hostile targets, and employing fire commands to
orchestrate the engagement process. Chapter 8 discusses the elements of the fire
command and how to use fire commands on Abrams, Bradley, and armed vehicles
during the engagement process (see Figure 8-1).
In Chapter 8, the use of the term main gun is used to describe the 120mm main gun
of the Abrams series of vehicles and the 25mm gun of the Bradley series,
respectively.
The fourth step in the engagement process is execution. Once a target has been
detected, identified, and the decision to engage has been made, the crew uses the
weapons on their platform or at their disposal to eliminate the threat rapidly and
decisively. The key processes in engagement execution are
z
Selecting a method of engagement.

Precision.

Degraded.
z
Initiating the engagement with a fire command.
z
Employing proper gunnery techniques.
In order for crews to take advantage of the various vehicles weapon systems to
quickly lay, engage, and destroy threat targets, crews must be proficient in the
methods and techniques of engagement execution. While some of these methods and
techniques will be common between platforms, most are heavily influenced by the
capabilities and limitations particular to each platform. The available weapon systems
to a crew also include indirect fire systems, so crews should be proficient in calling
for artillery and mortar fires. This section is divided into the following discussion
elements:
z
Common elements of crew fire commands.
z
The engagement process specific to the Abrams vehicle platforms.
z
The engagement process specific to the Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV)
platforms.
z
The engagement process specific to the armed High-Mobility Multipurpose
Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV).
z
Calling for indirect fires.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

8-1

Chapter 8

Contents
Section I Battlecarry ............................... 8-2
Prepare for Contact............................. 8-2
Section II Fire Commands ..................... 8-8
Fire Commands Categories .............. 8-17
Fire Command Terms ....................... 8-22
Subsequent Fire Commands ............ 8-26
Multiple Engagements ...................... 8-29

Section III Engagement Techniques ... 8-32


Employing Vehicle Machine Guns ..... 8-33
Engage Soft Targets ......................... 8-33
Section IV Sample Fire Commands..... 8-43
Section V Indirect Fire .......................... 8-65
Call for Fire........................................ 8-65
Adjusting Fires .................................. 8-74

Figure 8-1. Engagement process (engage)

SECTION I BATTLECARRY
8-1. Each platform, whether firing precision or degraded gunnery methods, moves into a hostile
environment prepared to engage threats immediately. Prior to movement, the vehicle commander (VC) will
place the weapon systems on his vehicle in a red status, herein called battlecarry. This section
discusses the battlecarry process and ways of determining an appropriate battlesight range.

PREPARE FOR CONTACT


8-2. Battlecarry is a posture in which a vehicle is prepared for an engagement at all times and ensures
z
The main gun or primary weapon system is loaded with the designated ammunition type.
z
The fire control system is set to fire the selected ammunition type (Abrams and Bradley).
z
A predetermined battlesight range has been applied to the system (Abrams and Bradley).

8-2

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Engage Direct and Indirect Fires (Crew)

8-3. The crew will place their vehicle in a battlecarry posture before moving into a tactical situation or
upon command from an approving authority. All engagements begin from this posture (see Figure 8-2).
The crew duties to place a vehicle into a battlecarry posture are
z
VC. Announces BATTLECARRY, followed by the type of ammunition he wants
battlecarried (for example, BATTLECARRY HEAT, or BATTLECARRY HE) and
Battlesight Range.
z
Gunner. Sets up the fire control system for the ammunition called for

Ensures weapon select is placed in electrical safe.

Abrams TRIGGER SAFE.

Bradley Rounds are loaded into the feeder, ghost rounds is cycled, mechanical Safe on
FIRE, and electrical Safe on SAFE.

Truck weapon on mechanical safe unless VC directs otherwise.

Indexes the ammunition type and announces that it is indexed and battlesight range (for
example, HEAT INDEXED, RANGE 900).

Ensures the correct battlesight range is entered in the computer for the ammunition
specified.

Selects the proper auxiliary sight reticle and applies the proper sight correction factor, if
applicable.

Ensures the laser range finder (LRF)/eyesafe laser range finder (ELRF) is set in FIRST or
LAST RETURN logic, based on the tactical situation.

Announces GUNNER READY to inform the VC that all actions have been completed.
z
Driver. Ensures his station is ready for operation and he is ready to scan his sector and

Checks the drivers instrument panel for caution/warning lights.

Ensures night vision devices are prepared or installed as necessary and a power source with
back-up is available.

Announces DRIVER READY, to inform the VC he is ready for operations.


z
Loader (Abrams). Loads the ammunition announced by the VC and

Ensures the SAFE/ARMED lever is in the SAFE position and the white SAFE light is
illuminated.

Loads the main gun round.

Checks ammunition ready rack for subsequent round availability.

Ensures the recoil path of the main gun is clear.

Ensures the ready ammunition door is closed.

Announces HEAT LOADED, MAIN GUN SAFE, LOADER READY, to inform the VC
that all actions have been completed.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

8-3

Chapter 8

Figure 8-2. Battlecarry command

BATTLESIGHT RANGE
8-4. Battlesight range is a range applied only to vehicles with a fire control system (see Figure 8-3). The
purpose of the battlesight range is to provide a standard range to target for the ballistic computer for
emergency situations that require firing without lasing.
8-5. Vehicles without a fire control system may use a traverse and elevation (T&E) mechanism to ensure
rounds do not fire beyond the engagement area. Use of the T&E mechanisms as a range control measure
should be limited to rural or desert environments only. Use of the T&E mechanism in urban environments
may limit the ability of gunners to engage targets on upper floors or rooftops of buildings in the
engagement area.

8-4

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Engage Direct and Indirect Fires (Crew)

Figure 8-3. Concept of battlesight

DETERMINING BATTLESIGHT RANGE


8-6. The unit commander may choose (based on mission, enemy, terrain (weather), troops and support
available, time available, and civil considerations [METT-TC]) from a variety of range and ammunition
combinations for his units battlesight range. The battlesight range is only used on vehicles with a fire
control system.
8-7. If the primary threat (most likely target to be engaged) is armored vehicles, Sabot/armor piercing
(AP) is the most appropriate ammunition; otherwise, high-explosive antitank (HEAT), multipurpose
antitank (MPAT) or high explosive (HE) is usually preferred, respectively. In counterinsurgent operations,
however, canister/HE may be the most appropriate ammunition to battlecarry.
8-8. The typical range settings by weapon system are shown in Table 8-1.
Table 8-1. Range settings by weapon system
Ammunition

Abrams

Bradley

Sabot/AP

1,200 meters

1,200 meters

HEAT/HE

900 meters

1,000 meters

MPAT

900 meters

Canister

300 meters

Coax(7.62 mm)

600 meters

Caliber .50

600 meters

ASV

600 meters

MK19

600 meters
600 meters

8-9. Factors for selecting another battlesight setting include weather, smoke, range, or other conditions
that reduce visibility. The battlesight range should be based on the commanders analysis of METT-TC.
Although these are the standard battlesight ranges, commanders should adjust them accordingly and issue
them in the operations order or warning order (see Figure 8-4 and Figure 8-5).

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

8-5

Chapter 8

Ammunition Battlesight
Range
Nomenclature
800
1000
M829A1
APFSDS-T

1200
1400
1600
1800
800
1000

M829A2
APFSDS-T

1200
1400
1600
1800
800
1000

M829A3
APFSDS-T

1200
1400
1600
1800
800
1000

M791
APDS-T

1200
1400
1600
1800
800
1000

M919
APFSDS-T

1200
1400
1600
1800

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

Kill Zone
1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400
0 to 1150 meters
0 to 1250 meters
0 to 1350 meters
0 to 1450 meters
850 to 1650 meters
1050 to 1950 meters
0 to 1200 meters
0 to 1300 meters
0 to 1400 meters
0 to 1500 meters
800 to 1600 meters
1000 to 1900 meters
0 to 1200 meters
0 to 1300 meters
0 to 1400 meters
0 to 1500 meters
800 to 1600 meters
1000 to 1900 meters
0 to 900 meters
0 to 1100 meters
0 to 1400 meters
1100 to 1600 meters
1350 to 1750 meters
1600 to 1950 meters
0 to 900 meters
0 to 1100 meters
0 to 1400 meters
1050 to 1600 meters
1350 to 1750 meters
1550 to 1950 meters

Figure 8-4. Battlesight range examples, APFSDS, and AP rounds

8-6

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Engage Direct and Indirect Fires (Crew)

Ammunition Battlesight
Range
Nomenclature

200

800

1400

700

800

900

Kill Zone
1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400

1200 to 1600 meters


1400 to 1600 meters
1600 to 2000 meters

800

0 to 1000 meters

1000

0 to 1100 meters

1200

0 to 1300 meters

1400

1200 to 1600 meters

1600

1400 to 1600 meters

1800

1600 to 2000 meters

800

0 to 900 meters

1000

0 to 1000 meters

1200

1000 to 1400 meters

1400

1200 to 1600 meters

1600

1400 to 1600 meters

1800

1600 to 2000 meters

800

0 to 950 meters

1000
M792
HEI-T

600

1000 to 1400 meters

1800

M908
HE-OR-T

500

0 to 1000 meters

1200

1600

M830A1
HEAT-MP-T

400

0 to 900 meters

1000
M830
HEAT-MP-T

300

850 to 1100 meters

1200

1100 to 1250 meters

1400

1350 to 1450 meters

1600

1550 to 1650 meters

1800

1750 to 1850 meters

Figure 8-5. Battlesight range examples, chemical energy rounds


8-10. Use the following method to determine battlesight range (see Table 8-2):
z
Step 1. Determine what the expected target is.
z
Step 2. Divide the expected known height of the target by two.
z
Step 3. Determine the ammunition to be fired.
z
Step 4. See firing table (FT) 120-D-2 or FT 25-A-2 and use the maximum ordinate of the
ammunition to be fired.
z
Step 5. Locate the answer to step 2 in the maximum ordinate column. The battlesight range will
be listed in column 1 or 11 (range).
Note. If the exact number cannot be found in the maximum ordinate column, round down to
ensure the projectile does not go over the target at the range to the maximum ordinate.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

8-7

Chapter 8

Table 8-2. Battlesight range determination example


Battlesight Range Determination Example
Step
1

Determine what the expected target is.

Step
2

Divide the expected known height of the target by two. This determines
the distance from the aiming point (center of visible mass) to the top of
the target. If the round flies above this number during its trajectory to the
target, it could miss the target.

Step
3

Determine the ammunition to be fired.

Step
4

Use appropriate firing tables (FT) to find the maximum ordinate of the
ammunition to be fired

FT 120-D-2 (Abrams)

Step
5

Locate the Answer to step 2 in the maximum ordinate (MAX ORD)


column. This ensures the round at the given range will not go over the
target when firing in an emergency.

900 meters

Battlesight Range = The battlesight range has the highest probability of hitting
and killing a targets between the firing vehicle and 200 meters beyond the
battlesight range.

BMP

2.3 Divided by 2 = 1.15m

M830 (Abrams)

900 meters

SECTION II FIRE COMMANDS


8-11. All direct-fire engagements begin with a fire command. The fire command coordinates the crews
effort, reduces confusion, and helps the crew engage targets faster. Initial fire commands alert the crew to
initiate actions. Subsequent fire commands direct the fires of the selected weapon when the desired effect
from the initial fire command has not been achieved. There are seven elements to a standard fire command.
Fire commands will vary in form, but must include those elements necessary to alert the crew; select the
weapon/ammunition; determine the target description, direction, and range/elevation; execution; and
termination.
8-12. The VC issues a fire command to his crew for each target engagement. Standard terminology and
logical sequence are used to achieve effectiveness and speed of engagement. Only those elements
necessary to load, aim, and fire the crews weapons accurately and effectively are given, as well as the
termination command for the engagement.
8-13. VCs may use as little as three or as many as seven elements of the fire command, depending on the
situation. Once a VC determines to eliminate the threat target with direct fire, the VC initiates the
engagement with a fire command. Each type of vehicle uses all of the standard fire command elements and
terms; however, on vehicles equipped with a fire control system, the operational components of that system
may allow the commander to omit certain elements. The VC may have to include certain elements of the
standard fire command in order to compensate for fire control system shortcomings or failure. Table 8-3
shows the sequence and terminology used in a fire command.

8-8

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Engage Direct and Indirect Fires (Crew)

Table 8-3. Elements of a standard fire command


Element

Example

Remarks

Alert

GUNNER

Alerts the entire crew that someone in the


crew will be firing an engagement using the
primary weapon, main gun or coax. Vehicles
with only one primary firer may omit this
element. It must be used when an alternate
firer is directed to engage (loader, rear bank).

Weapon or
Ammunition

SABOT

Identifies the ammunition to fire, requiring the


gunner to ensure the ammunition is properly
indexed, and the loader (Abrams) what to load
after the initial round is fired. Vehicles
mounting single weapons (caliber .50 only)
may omit this element.

Description

PC

A clear and concise target description for the


firer to identify. VCs must use modifiers when
multiple targets are presented.

Direction

TRAVERSE RIGHT STEADY


ON

This is required when the VC cannot lay the


gun for direction (such as VC does not have
the capability to move the turret to the targets
general direction).

Range
or Elevation

ONE-FOUR-HUNDRED

This is required when the firing platforms fire


control system does not provide the accurate
range to target.

Execution

FIRE

The VC is the ONLY crew member authorized


to issue the command of execution. This
cannot be delegated to the gunner.

Termination

CEASE FIRE

ANY member of the crew can terminate an


engagement.

ALERT
8-14. The first element of the fire command is the ALERT. All fire commands begin with an alert to the
crew. Although a contact report can be considered an alert, only the VC or Gunner can give the alert
element. Table 8-4 describes the proper alerts given to the crew.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

8-9

Chapter 8

Table 8-4. Alert examples


Alert

Description

CONTACT

Any member of the crew announces Contact when identifying a


threat to their own vehicle, crew, or squad by one or more of the
forms of contact that effect the rules of engagement (ROE); visual,
physical (direct fire), or aircraft. Only the VC and gunner may
announce CONTACT as part of the fire command, however.
Note. On the Abrams, the alert element of the fire command also
informs the loader to arm the main gun for a pending engagement.
VC alerts the crew that the gunner will be firing.
VC alerts the crew that the loader will be firing the M240 machine
gun (Abrams).
VC alerts the crew and squad that the squad will be engaging a
target (when working with a dismounted squad).
VC alerts the crew that the squad will be firing from the rear bank
using the port firing weapons (Bradley).
VC alerts the crew that he will be firing the caliber .50 machine gun.
VC alerts the crew that he will be firing the M240 machine gun.
VC alerts the crew that he will be firing the MK19 Mod 3.
VC alerts the crew that he will be firing the M249 automatic weapon.
VC alerts the crew that he will be engaging a target with the main
gun (Abrams). The ammunition type identifies the subsequent
ammunition to be loaded and indexed by the crew. On the Abrams,
the gunner may also use this alert when the VC has issued the Fire
and Adjust command of execution when he requires another round.
On vehicles where the commander has the ability to override the
gunners control handles, the VC may issue this alert when he
assumes control of the turret and intends to fire himself.
Although the sensings are technically a response term, they also act
as an alert to the crew. A sensing given by the gunner or VC acts as
the alert element when issuing a subsequent fire command or direct
fire adjustment.
Used rarely, if a target is hit but the desired effect is not achieved,
the VC announces TARGET REENGAGE. These two words
together act as the alert to the crew that the firer will be firing
another round or burst.

GUNNER
LOADER
SQUAD
REAR BANK
CALIBER FIFTY
TWO FORTY
MARK NINETEEN
TWO FOUR NINE
SABOT

FROM MY POSITION

DOUBTFUL, LOST,
OVER, SHORT

TARGET REENGAGE

Note. Although there are eight forms of contact, generally, the forms of contact that will initiate
an escalation of force for the crew are visual contact where friendly forces may or may not have
been identified by the threat, physical contact (direct fire or vehicle borne improvised explosive
device [VBIED]) with an enemy force, or indirect contact (improvised explosive device [IED])
with an enemy force. The current rules of engagement (ROE) will provide additional guidance
or restrictions depending upon the area of operations and unit mission.

8-10

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Engage Direct and Indirect Fires (Crew)

WEAPON/AMMUNITION
8-15. The second element of the fire command is the WEAPON/AMMUNITION. This identifies to the
crew which weapon or ammunition type will be fired at the threat during the engagement. Use the terms in
Table 8-5 to identify the weapon or ammunition to be fired during an engagement.
Table 8-5. Weapon/ammunition element
Weapon/Ammunition

Announced As

Armor Piercing rounds (25mm or above)

SABOT (pronounced SAY-BO)

HEAT or HE rounds

HEAT (Abrams)
HE (Bradley)

120-mm HEAT-MP-T and TPMT-T in ground mode

MPAT (pronounced EM-PAT)

120-mm HEAT-MP-T and TPMT-T in air mode

MPAT-AIR

120-mm HE-OR-T

OR (pronounced OH-ARE)

120-mm Canister

CANISTER or CAN

M2 Machine Gun

CALIBER-FIFTY

M240/M240C Coaxial Machine Gun

COAX

M240 Machine Gun

TWO-FORTY

M249 Machine Gun

TWO-FOUR-NINE

MK19 Mod 3

MARK-NINE-TEEN

TOW

MISSILE

Javelin

MISSILE

Stinger

MISSILE

DESCRIPTION (TARGET DESCRIPTION)


8-16. The third element of the fire command is DESCRIPTION. More appropriately, it is the target
description. It is a given in the fire command to identify which target the firer is to engage or in which
order (for multiple threats). Most targets can be described by one of the following terms in Table 8-6.
Table 8-6. Target descriptions
Target

Announced As

Tank or Tank-Like Target


Unarmored Vehicle
Personnel Carrier (PC)
Helicopter
Fixed-Wing Aircraft
Personnel
Sniper
RPG Team
Machine Gun Emplacement
Antitank Gun, Antitank Missile, or Towed Artillery
Bunker
Other Targets

TANK
TRUCK
PC
CHOPPER
PLANE
TROOPS
SNIPER
RPG TEAM or RPG
MACHINE GUN
ANTITANK
BUNKER
Use the briefest term possible to clearly describe
the target to the firer.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

8-11

Chapter 8

8-17. Combining terms (ANTITANK TRUCK) can identify combination targets, such as truck-mounted
antitank guided missile systems.
8-18. If multiple targets present themselves, the VC must identify which one to engage first. For example,
GUNNER HEAT STATIONARY AND MOVING TRUCKS STATIONARY FIRST.
8-19. For crews with only one weapon system and one possible firer (armed truck, HMMWV, Guardian),
the target description can take the place of the ALERT in the fire command when using a reduced fire
command.

DIRECTION
8-20. The fourth element of the fire command is given to guide the gunner when the commander cannot
lay the weapon for direction from his position (commanders override, control hand station, or
commanders handle). This element is mandatory for truck crews, on Abrams crews when directing the
loader to fire his machine gun, for Bradley crews when directing the rear bank to engage a target, or when
handing off a target from VC to gunner using a commanders independent sight (commanders independent
thermal viewer [CITV]/commanders independent viewer [CIV]).
8-21. There are six methods of directing the gunner onto the target:
z
Clock Method. The VC announces the direction as it relates to the targets location using the
hands of a clock. Twelve oclock is always the orientation of the hull/body of the vehicle. For
example, GUNNER TROOPS THREE OCLOCK.
z
Sector or Quadrant Method. The VC announces the quadrant the target is located in
respective to his vehicle. For example, GUNNER TROOPS LEFT FRONT.
z
Traverse Method. The VC tells the gunner TRAVERSE LEFT (RIGHT). The gunner
traverses the turret in the direction announced. As the gun tube nears the target, the VC
announces STEADY, and the gunner slows his traverse in the same direction. When the VC
thinks the target is in the gunners field of view, he announces ON. When the gunner sees the
target(s), he announces IDENTIFIED. The gunner should use the lowest magnification when
using this method to identify potential targets. For example, TRAVERSE LEFT TRAVERSE
LEFT STEADY ON. The crew may use SHIFT rather than TRAVERSE for clarity.
z
Reference Point Method. The reference point must be one that the gunner can see and
recognize easily, typically used in a deliberate defense. For example, the VCs command might
be REFERENCE POINT BRIDGE TRAVERSE RIGHT. The gunner identifies the
reference point and traverses right, looking for the target. The TC may have to further define the
target description and location. Once the gunner identifies the target, he announces
IDENTIFIED. Another example of this method is, TROOPS TRP 2.
z
Designate Method. On vehicles equipped with a commanders independent thermal viewer, the
VC designates the target, announces DESIGNATE and pushes the designate button on his
control handle, the gunner centers his control handles and look through his primary sight until
he identifies the target by announcing IDENTIFIED.
z
Marking Targets with Tracers. This is the least preferred method of directing the gunner onto
a target. It can be helpful, however, to suppress the target area with small arms fire while the
gunner lays on, identifies, and prepares to engage, depending on the situation. Using a weapon
loaded with tracer rounds, to include a ammo mix of 4 ball rounds to 1 tracer round, or 4:1 mix,
the VC announces WATCH MY TRACERS, and fires at the target area (for example,
GUNNER HEAT PC WATCH MY TRACERS CALIBER FIFTY.
Notes. For safety purposes on the M1A2 and M2/M3A3 the VC must announce
DESIGNATE when designating from target to target.
VC on the Abrams cannot use the clock method when directing the gunner onto target as
there is no internal gun tube orientation indicator in the gunners station.

8-12

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Engage Direct and Indirect Fires (Crew)

RANGE OR ELEVATION
8-22. The fifth element of the fire command tells the crew and gunner what range to set on the weapon
sight or in the fire control system and/or at what elevation the target is located at. If the vehicles LRF is
operational, then this element of the fire command is normally omitted. If no LRF is available or is not
operational, this element is required. When operating in an urban environment or restricted terrain, using
elevation commands will increase the gunners ability to rapidly identify targets to engage.
8-23. When the vehicle is equipped with a CITV or CIV, the VC can determine the range to a target
independently from the gunner using the CITV or CIV stadia reticle. When the VC designates a target he
has choked to the gunner, the choked range is automatically induced into the fire control system to
calculate a ballistic solution M1A2, M2A3, and Bradley Fire Support Team (BFIST) vehicles.
8-24. When an accurate range to target cannot be determined using an electronic device (CITV/CIV
[M1A2 and M2A3] or LRF), determine range using either the known-range method or the estimated-range
method depicted below, as deemed necessary (see range determination information). When the VC wants
the gunner to determine the range to the target using the stadia reticle, he will announce CHOKE as the
range element.
z
Known-Range Method. By knowing the range to probable target areas prior to engagements,
the crew can reduce engagement time and improve accuracy by indexing the known vehicle-totarget range into the computer control panel (CCP) or gunners computer display panel (GCDP)
on the Abrams series, and the range knob to input the range into the fire control system for
Bradley crews. The known range from a previous target engagement or established target
reference points (TRP) may also be used.
z
Estimated-Range Method. To engage targets when an accurate range cannot be determined
electronically or is unknown, the VC or gunner must estimate the range to the target. Range data
is announced in the fire command in even hundreds or thousands, otherwise digit by digit (see
Table 8-7). Examples, if the VC announces

CHOKED ONE SIX HUNDRED, the gunner uses the gunners primary sight (GPS)
and the range designated from the VC (M1A2 SEP only). In this example, the VC
determined the range using the CITV stadia reticle.

ONE EIGHT HUNDRED, the gunner shifts to the auxiliary sight and uses the appropriate
reticle and range line (Abrams and Bradley crews). For trucks, this estimated range allows
the gunner to focus his target acquisition in a certain area from his position.

INDEX ONE EIGHT HUNDRED, the gunner uses the GPS and enters the range into the
Future Combat System using the CCP/GCDP/Integrated Sight Unit (ISU)/Improved
Bradley Acquisition Subsystem (IBAS).

GUNNER SABOT TANK CHOKE, the gunner shifts to the gunners auxiliary
sight (GAS), selects the appropriate reticle, and uses the choke sight to estimate the range,
then repeats the range to the VC.
z

Elevation Method. When operating in an urban or restricted environment, targets will present
themselves in buildings or higher on terrain features. Their location will require VCs to provide
elevation information to the firer. Examples of the elevation method are

Floor. VCs state the floor of a building the target is located on. It can be followed by
additional information such as the window location of the threat. For example, GUNNER
COAX SNIPER RIGHT FRONT THIRD FLOOR SECOND WINDOW FROM
LEFT.

High low. The VC may use the terms HIGH or LOW for an elevation description in
urban, rural, and restricted terrains.

Terrain level. When fighting in restricted terrain with rugged, steep hills or mountains, VCs
should identify where on the terrain feature the target is located. Figure 8-6 shows these
sections that are divided.

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Chapter 8

Table 8-7. Range element and sight selection


Range

GPS/TIS/ISU/IBAS Announced As

Auxiliary Sight Announced As

840 meters

INDEX EIGHT HUNDRED

EIGHT HUNDRED

2,000 meters

INDEX TWO THOUSAND

TWO THOUSAND

1,200 meters

INDEX ONE TWO HUNDRED

ONE TWO HUNDRED

860 meters

INDEX NINE HUNDRED

NINE HUNDRED

3,040 meters

INDEX THREE THOUSAND

THREE THOUSAND

8-25. For example, the VC can announce TROOPS RIGHT FRONT THREE HUNDRED
CHARLIE, identifying a troop target to the right front at the crest of the hill.

Figure 8-6. Elevation levels Alpha, Bravo, and Charlie example

EXECUTION
8-26. All fire commands must be executed in order for the firer to commence the engagement. The list
below describes the authorized commands of execution. The VC is the only crewman authorized to
announce a command of execution. The list below describes the authorized commands of execution when
issuing a fire command:
z
FIRE. This is the standard command of execution for all weapon systems.
z
(FROM MY POSITION), ON THE WAY. Normally, the gunner will engage all main gun
and coax targets; however, if he is unable to identify the desired target or if there is no gunner
present, the VC will engage the target using the trigger on his power control handle. If the
gunner can identify the target while the VC is engaging from his position, the gunner announces
IDENTIFIED. The VC can return control of the gun to the gunner or complete the
engagement from his position. To maintain overall control and ensure continuous target
acquisition, the VC should return control to the gunner immediately after the gunner identifies
the target. To return control to the gunner, the VC announces FIRE. When the VC engages
from his position, he must announce ON THE WAY prior to squeezing the trigger just as any
other firer would. His announcement of FROM MY POSITION alerts the crew that he will be
firing the engagement. His announcement of ON THE WAY is the command of execution in
this instance only.

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FIRE AND ADJUST. If the commander cannot assist the gunner (or loader) in adjustment,
he announces FIRE AND ADJUST. This tells the gunner (or loader) that he will not receive a
subsequent fire command and must conduct the engagement on his own. Once this command is
given, the firer can continue to engage the target until it is destroyed. If additional threats
present themselves, the firer must alert the crew by announcing the weapon he plans to fire and
a target description.

When the gunner identifies additional targets to engage or requires subsequent rounds to
destroy the initial target, he announces his sensing and/or new target description. If the
same ammunition type is to be used, he announces ON THE WAY (after the loader arms
the main gun and announces UP for Abrams crews). If the target requires a change of
ammunition, the gunner announces SABOT, HEAT or COAX, respectively. For
example, the VC would initiate the fire command by announcing GUNNER HEAT
PC. The gunner would identify the target by announcing IDENTIFIED, (the loader
would arm the main gun and announce UP for Abrams crews). Then, the VC announces
FIRE AND ADJUST. The gunner would verify his range, aim center mass, track the
target, announce ON THE WAY, and squeeze the trigger. The gunner would state the
sensing of the round, TARGET. Then, if the gunner identifies another confirmed threat
target, for instance Troops, he announces COAX TROOPS, and prepares to engage.
If the VC does not cease fire the engagement, the gunner announces ON THE WAY prior
to engaging.

In the event the VC has directed FIRE AND ADJUST, to the gunner, particularly on a
canister engagement, the gunner may switch between weapon systems by announcing a
sensing of his round fired the intended ammunition or weapon, and a new target description.
For example, during a canister engagement, the gunner fires the canister round and must
engage remaining troop targets with coax. His response to the first round fired would be
TARGET (WEAPON OR AMMUNITION) TROOPS ON THE WAY. If the VC
disagrees with the firers actions or decides to regain control of the turret, he must announce
CEASE FIRE to the crew.

The gunner may continue to reengage or initiate engagement of new targets presented in
this manner until the VC takes control of the turret. The VC resumes control of the turret by
announcing CEASE FIRE.

When the gunner is completed engaging and no other targets have presented themselves, he
announces GUNNER COMPLETE. This allows the crew to know he has finished his
engagement, but is now actively seeking additional targets. If additional confirmed threat
targets are identified by the gunner, he will alert the crew by stating which ammunition type
he wants loaded and the target description (as stated earlier).

If the commander continues to designate the gunner or loader to each target, then continues
to scan his sector, he issues the command FIRE AND ADJUST.

In the event a crew member announces CEASE FIRE, control of the turret immediately
returns to the VC.
FIRE, FIRE (ammunition type or weapon). If the commander wants the next main gun
round for the loader to load (or indexed) to be a different type than is currently chambered, he
uses the command of execution FIRE, FIRE (ammunition type). In a multiple engagement, this
ensures that the proper ammunition for the threat is used. Example: GUNNER SABOT
TANK PC TANK FIRST FIRE, FIRE HEAT.
FIRE, FIRE (ammunition type or weapon) AND ADJUST. This is a combination of
FIRE, FIRE (AMMUNITION) and FIRE AND ADJUST. It can be used by a VC following
the guidelines established above. Its purpose is to provide the VC the ability to direct the gunner
on multiple targets using multiple ammunition or weapons, and also to allow the gunner to make
his own direct fire adjustments as necessary.

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Chapter 8

8-27. The term AT MY COMMAND is used to synchronize fires from a single or multiple vehicles. It is
not the command of execution, but is a preparatory command used just prior to the any command of
execution listed above.
Notes. ON THE WAY is the last verbal response announced by a firer. The firer will squeeze
the trigger on the Y of WAY. When firing machine guns or the platforms main gun, each
time the trigger is squeezed, butterfly is depressed, or an electrical trigger is depressed, the firer
must announce ON THE WAY. During a continuous engagement of the same target without
interruption, announcement of ON THE WAY is only required once. If there is a clear break
in firing for adjustment, corrections, or additional commands from the VC, ON THE WAY
must be announced again.
Abrams Note. When firing the caliber .50, the VC must announce to the crew
CALIBER FIFTY (or TWO FORTY if mounted in the commanders weapon station
[CWS]) to alert them as part of the fire command. He is only required to announce this once per
target that he engages. The purpose is to notify the crew that he will be firing the weapon
mounted in his weapon station. As this is the only required element of his fire command for his
weapon station, he does not need to announce it on each firing burst of the machine gun. The
VC is not required to announce ON THE WAY. Once he has completed firing, he will
announce VC COMPLETE. At the completion of the overall engagement, CEASE FIRE
must still be announced.
Vehicles Equipped with a Commanders Independent Sight. If the VC issues a fire
command and wishes to continue to scan using his independent sight, he must use FIRE AND
ADJUST.

TERMINATION
8-28. Every engagement must be terminated; the seventh element informs the all crew members to stop
firing and prepare for a subsequent fire command when engaging multiple targets or additional instructions
as they develop the situation. The VC announces CEASE FIRE to switch weapon systems during an
engagement (for those vehicles equipped with multiple weapon systems) unless he issues the Fire and
Adjust command, then fire and adjust rules apply to the firer (gunner/loader).
8-29. When a Bradley crew has fired its TOW-2B missile and the warhead has detonated, the VC will
announce CEASE TRACKING to terminate the engagement.
8-30. For multiple weapon systems engagements on the Abrams vehicle, when the gunner completes his
part of a multiple weapon systems engagement, he announces GUNNER COMPLETE. The gunner then
moves the GUN SELECT switch to the TRIGGER SAFE position, the MAGNIFICATION switch to the
3X position, and continues to scan his sector.
8-31. To terminate the loaders engagement, the VC announces CEASE FIRE or LOADER CEASE
FIRE during multiple weapon systems engagements. If the loader completes his part of a multiple weapon
systems engagement, he announces LOADER COMPLETE and moves the M240 machine gun
MECHANICAL SAFE switch to the SAFE position.
8-32. When the VC finishes an engagement with the commanders weapon, he announces VC
COMPLETE. The VC has overall responsibility of the turret and is still responsible for terminating the
engagement. When the VC fires his weapon from his position, he is still required to announce CEASE
FIRE to terminate the overall crew engagement.

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METHODS OF ENGAGEMENT
8-33. There are two methods of engagement, precision and degraded. Both methods use fire commands to
control the direct fire engagement and will contain all the elements of the standard fire command either
verbally, by the standing operating procedures (SOP) (the primary firer, for example), or by automatic
input from the vehicles fire control system.

Precision
8-34. Precision gunnery is the most accurate method of direct-fire engagement for all weapon platforms.
When the firing vehicle is fully mission capable and the fire control system relative to the vehicle is
functioning correctly, the precision method of engagement is used. This method uses the entire fire control
system organic to the vehicle to engage threat targets. Crews will use elements of the standard fire
command to initiate engagements.

Degraded
8-35. Vehicles are considered degraded when their fire control system or weapon system is not fully
functioning. This method of engagement will require the VC to issue elements of the fire command that
normally are optional, respective to his vehicle, in order to overcome the failure. The VC may decide to
fire using degraded methods before the engagement starts or when a malfunction of the fire control system
or an environmental condition during a precision fire command exist. In these cases, the element of the fire
command that corrects or compensates for the fire control system degradation is added to the fire
command.

FIRE COMMANDS CATEGORIES


8-36. There are two categories of fire commandsinitial and subsequent. The first fire command category,
the initial fire command, initiates hostilities toward a threat target or series of targets. The second category
of fire commands, subsequent fire commands, is used to reengage a target to achieve the desired target
affect.
8-37. There are two types of fire commands based strictly on the capabilities of the firing platform
standard and reduced.

STANDARD
8-38. The baseline for all fire commands and includes all seven basic elements of the fire command. All
platforms within the Heavy Brigade Combat Team (HBCT) can use the standard fire command at any time
to initiate an engagement. All VCs must be proficient at using the standard fire command prior to using
reduced fire commands.

REDUCED
8-39. A commander may elect to omit one or more elements from the standard fire command based on
tactical situation. Some vehicles within the HBCT require certain fire command elements based on the
capabilities or limitations of the firing platform. A degradation of a fire control system may also require the
VC to use additional elements in order to overcome the system failure. Table 8-8 shows the minimum
required elements based on the firing vehicles capabilities or limitations during the firing occasion.

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Chapter 8

Table 8-8. Elements of the standard fire command


Element

Condition

Remarks

Alert

Optional

Ammunition
or Weapon

Optional

Description
Direction

Mandatory
Optional

Can be omitted when the default firer (gunner) is clear to the


crew. If the VC wishes another crew member to fire a weapon
subsystem, the alert element cannot be omitted (such as loader,
rear bank, squad).
Vehicles mounting single weapons (such as caliber. 50 only)
may omit this element. If the VC wishes to fire the ammunition
that is currently battlecarried, this element may be omitted.
Under no circumstance can this element be omitted.
If the VC has the ability to lay the firing weapon for direction
himself, this element may be omitted. (Commanders control
handle or hand station.)

Range
or Elevation

Optional

If the firing crew has an operational LRF incorporated into the


firing weapon system this element may be omitted.

Execution

Mandatory

The VC is the only crew member authorized to issue the


command of execution. This cannot be delegated to the gunner.

Termination

Mandatory

All fire commands must be terminated.

8-40. The initial fire command is given when a target or targets are first detected by a crew and no other
engagement is ongoing (see Figure 8-7). The initial fire command initiates all hostilities against threat
targets and can be delivered in two waysstandard or reduced. All fire commands must contain the
elements that a fire control system DOES NOT provide to the crew.

Figure 8-7. Fire command concept

Note. If a firer is not identified during the alert (reduced fire command), the gunner is the default
firer on platforms with multiple crew members capable of firing (REAR BANK, LOADER).

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8-41. Reduced fire commands contain only those elements that are not provided by the fire control system.
Reduced initial fire commands typically do not contain an ALERT or AMMUNITION or WEAPON
description. This type of initial fire command can be given any time the crew clearly understands who is
firing, which weapon is to be fired, and what ammunition type will be fired. For example, armed HMMWV
crews with only one weapon system can always use reduced fire commandsthere is only one possible firer
(the gunner) and only one weapon to fire.
8-42. The VC, at his discretion, may choose to omit certain parts of the fire command (in accordance with
[IAW] unit SOP). The reduced fire command must not confuse the crew and must include sufficient
information to allow the crew to react properly to the situation. A reduced fire command must contain (as a
minimum) the target description, command of execution and termination(for example, TRUCK, FIRE,
CEASE FIRE). (If time permits, a full fire command should always be used.)
8-43. The following are examples of situations in which reduced fire commands may be used:
z
When a crew member acquires a target that is an immediate threat, he gives an acquisition or
contact report (CONTACT DIRECT FRONT). The VC or gunner lays the gun and the
gunner announces IDENTIFIED (RANGE); the VC confirms the target as hostile,
announces the target description TANK, PC, etc, waits for the loader to announce UP,
(Abrams) and announces FIRE.
z
During continuing contact, after a fire command has been issued, the VC elects to omit the alert
and ammunition elements of the fire command. In a target-rich environment, the fire command
may be extremely short. The VC may announce the target description, PC. The VC lays the
gun for direction as needed, and the gunner announces IDENTIFIED (RANGE). The
loaders response of UP must be given to assure the gunner and VC that he has armed the
main gun and is clear of the path of recoil (Abrams). After the VC confirms the target as hostile
and evaluates the range to target, he announces FIRE. Other than the omission of the alert and
ammunition elements, the fire command remains standard (see Figure 8-8 and Figure 8-9).

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Chapter 8

Figure 8-8. Standard fire command, single target example

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Figure 8-9. Reduced fire command, single target

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Chapter 8

FIRE COMMAND TERMS


8-44. In addition to the primary seven elements discussed above, a fire command will include terms used
to respond to, add to, repeat, or correct a fire command. These terms are classified into several types:
z
Crew Response. These terms are confirmations of the VCs fire command. They are stated in
order to ensure clarity of the initial or subsequent fire command.
z
Crew Action. These terms require the crew to perform a given function in order to direct fires
onto the target. They are stated upon completion of the implied task as directed by the fire
command.
z
Sensing. All rounds or bursts fired from a weapon system require the crew to sense, or identify
the strike of the round in relation to the target. They provide an indicator to the VC when he can
issue another initial fire command for additional targets on the battlefield. In the event that the
rounds do not have the desired effect on the target, sensings are uses as the alert element for
subsequent fire commands.
z
Engagement Technique. The VC can direct a specific engagement technique to the gunner to
facilitate the targets destruction or effective suppression.
z
Modifier. A description modifier is used to enhance the target description to clearly identify a
specific target to engage when operating in a target rich environment.
z
Clarification. Clarification term is a request by a crew member to either repeat or correct an
element of the fire command.
z
Driver Action. These terms are used to move the firing vehicle into a position that best supports
the engagement. Driver actions are also used to seek alternate positions, return to defilade
position, or move through battlefield obscurants during an engagement.

CREW RESPONSE TERMS


8-45. Additional response terms that must be used in fire commands are
z
IDENTIFIED (RANGE). The gunner uses this term to inform the VC that he has located the
target(s) stated in the fire command. If the gunner gave an acquisition or contact report for the
target, he does not have to say IDENTIFIED, but must announce the range to target he
determined. IDENTIFIED, RANGE stated by itself indicates to the VC that the gunner has
confirmed the target as stated in the description and that the gunner has the proper range induced
into the fire control system. If the gunner cannot confirm the target as hostile, the gunner will
announce IDENTIFIED, followed by FRIENDLY, NEUTRAL, or UNKNOWN. When
firing a subsequent round at the same target (not returning to a previously engaged target), the
gunner does not have to announce IDENTIFIED, only the (RANGE) induced (see page 8-26
subsequent fire commands for more information).
z
CANNOT IDENTIFY. This term informs the VC that the gunner cannot find the target. The
VC must redirect the gunner onto the target, re-lay the weapon, or engage the target. For
platforms equipped with a commanders override, commanders hand station, the VC may
override the gunners power control handles and lay the gun for direction as necessary. For
vehicles equipped with a CITV or CIV, the VC may designate the target and hand off the target
to the gunner once identified.
z
CANNOT ENGAGE. This term informs the VC that the gunner can identify the target but is
unable to conduct the engagement.
z
ON THE WAY. This term informs all crew members that a weapon is being fired, alerting them
to sense the round. The firer must announce this prior to firing. The gunner will state the range
to target that he is firing prior to announcing ON THE WAY, when equipped with a range
finder. This aids the VCs situational awareness (SA) during engagements and provides an
additional verification of the accurate range to target prior to firing.

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GUNNER/LOADER COMPLETE. This term informs the VC that individual crewmen are
finished with their portion of a multiple weapon system engagement (or when the VC is using
his CITV/CIV to scan for targets) and that their systems are free to engage other targets.
VC COMPLETE. This term informs the crew that the VC has completed firing his weapon
system and is prepared to resume control of the turret.

CREW ACTION TERMS


8-46. The following terms are used to inform the VC of actions taken as implied tasks from a fire
command:
z
(AMMUNITION TYPE) INDEXED. The gunner must use this response to indicate that he has
indexed the proper ammunition change directed in the fire command or battlecarry posture.
z
(AMMUNITION TYPE) LOADED. The loader on the Abrams must use this response to
indicate that he has loaded the proper ammunition change directed in the fire command or
battlecarry posture. When using this term, the main gun is not armed.
z
UP. This term is used by the loader to signify that the main gun is loaded with the ammunition
required in the fire command, the main gun is armed, and the recoil path of the main gun is
clear. The ammunition type must be announced before UP when the commander directs an
ammunition change in the fire command or directs a battlecarry posture.
z
(AMMUNITION TYPE) UP. This term is used by the loader to signify that the main gun is
loaded with the ammunition specified in a subsequent fire command, the main gun is armed, and
the path of recoil of the main gun is clear for firing.
z
DESIGNATE (M1A2 SEP/M2A3 ONLY). This term informs the gunner that the VC will hand
a target off to him. This term can be used before or during a fire command.

SENSING TERMS
8-47. For every round fired, the firer must announce a sensing to inform the VC of the outcome of the
engagement. Sensings are the verbal responses to a round or series of rounds (machine gun burst) of where
the round(s) strike or pass the target in relation to the target aiming point. If the first round or burst fails to
destroy the target, sensings will enable the crew to adjust fire for subsequent rounds.
8-48. The ability of the firer or VC to sense rounds will depend on local obscuration created from firing,
target area obscuration from smoke or dust created from the impact of rounds, and time of flight of the
round.
z
Obscuration. The flash, muzzle blast, heat shimmer, debris, and movement of the firing vehicle
(platform rock) may prevent the crew from sensing their fires.
z
Flight Time. When firing main gun ammunition, flight time is so short that the projectile may
reach the target before the vehicle has settled and local obscuration has cleared.
8-49. All crew members should attempt to sense every round fired. When firing service ammunition, a
bright flash or explosion will be visible if the target is hit. When firing the MPAT round in AIR mode, a
black cloud of smoke is produced when the round functions on the target (Abrams). If the point at which
the tracer strikes short, passes, or hits the target cannot be verified by the crew, the firer announces
LOST. When the gunner senses the strike of the round in relation to the target, he announces one of the
following sensings listed in Figure 8-10.

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Chapter 8

Figure 8-10. Rounds fired

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ENGAGEMENT TECHNIQUE TERMS


8-50. The following engagement technique terms are used to provide instruction to the firer of an
engagement and direct him to engage a target or series of targets in a specific manner:
z
SUPPRESS, is used to direct the firer to continue to engage in order to suppress the target.
This is typically given after the desired target effect has been achieved, but dismounts remain in
the target area, either dispersing or dismounting from vehicle targets.
z
Z-PATTERN, is used to direct the firer to use the standard Z pattern to engage threat
dismounts.
z
RELASE, directs the firer to relase to a target due to an actual or perceived inaccurate range
to target.
z
LEAD, directs the firer to add lead to his sight picture respective to the targets direction of
travel.
z
REENGAGE, can be used to alert the firer to continue engaging the same target with the same
weapon system. This is also a direct fire adjustment technique that is discussed later.

MODIFIER TERMS
8-51. When there are multiple targets, the commander must better identify the targets and accurately
describe the target to engage first. Some of these descriptions could be
z
NEAR, FAR.
z
LEFT, RIGHT, CENTER.
z
STATIONARY, MOVING, DEFILADE.
z
LEFT TO RIGHT, RIGHT TO LEFT, directs the gunner to engage the targets identified in
a certain order that may be different from most dangerous to least dangerous. This is most
commonly used when firing collectively with a section or platoon element. Typically, this term
is used with a section or platoon fire command to adhere to that higher elements instruction or
the standard operating procedures for the platoon.
z
NEAR TO FAR, FAR TO NEAR, directs the gunner to engage the targets identified in a
certain order that may be different from most dangerous to least dangerous. This is most
commonly used when firing collectively with a section or platoon element. Typically, this term
is used with a section or platoon fire command to adhere to that higher elements instruction or
the standard operating procedures for the platoon.
z
SHIFT, tells the firer to move to the next target or location to be announced by the
commander.
z
LIFT, tells the firer to prepare to move fires in a direction to be announced by the commander.
Typically, this command is given when friendly forces are moving toward the target area and is
used as a control measure to protect friendly forces.
z
LOW POWER (MAG), tells the gunner to switch to the lowest magnification in order to
identify or engage targets at extremely close ranges.
z
HIGH POWER (MAG), tells the gunner to switch to a higher magnification prior to receiving
the command of execution to facilitate positive target identification and classification.

CLARIFICATION TERMS
8-52. Repeating terms. When a crew member fails to hear or understand a part of the fire command, he
announces the element in question. For example, if the gunner says AMMO, the VC repeats only the
element in question from the fire command.
8-53. To correct an error in the initial fire command, the commander commands CORRECTION and
corrects only the element in error. For example, GUNNER, HEAT, TRUCK, ONE SIX HUNDRED,
CORRECTION, ONE EIGHT HUNDRED, FIRE.

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Chapter 8

8-54. If an error has been made in the initial fire command and the execution command has been given, the
commander must cease fire and issue a complete, new fire command.
8-55. To correct an error in a subsequent fire command, the commander announces CORRECTION and
repeats the entire subsequent fire command.

DRIVER ACTION TERMS


8-56. Other commands to the driver, used to facilitate vehicle movement before, during, and after an
engagement, include, but are not limited to
z
DRIVERMOVE UP.
z
DRIVERBACK.
z
DRIVERSTOP.
z
DRIVERSEEK ENFILADE.
z
DRIVERSEEK DEFILADE.
z
DRIVERMOVE OUT.

SUBSEQUENT FIRE COMMANDS


8-57. The second category of fire commands is the subsequent fire command. Subsequent fire commands
are specifically given to the crew in the event the initial round (main gun) or burst (machine gun) misses
the target or target area. The subsequent fire command is also used in the event the VC determines the
target effect from a hit requires additional servicing to reduce the threat (mobility kill, not catastrophic or
firepower achieved on threat target). The subsequent fire command contains corrections, techniques, or
modifications to the firers sight picture or point of aim to fire additional rounds at the target in order to
achieve a target hit. The command of execution and termination elements is always mandatory.
8-58. Many factors can cause a target miss. These factors depend on the direct-fire technique used and the
ammunition fired. The following factors could contribute to target misses:
z
Incorrect boresight or zero.
z
Battle damage to own vehicle or weapon.
z
Failure of the crew to perform correct before-operation checks or armament accuracy checks
(AAC) of the fire control system (Abrams) or built-in test (BIT) (Bradley).
z
Incorrect Target Acquisition System (TAS) alignment (M2A3).
z
Error in crew drill during the engagement, such as an incorrect lay of the sight (reticle) on the
target aiming point (poor sight picture).
z
Loss of boresight or zero.
z
Round-to-round dispersion (predominantly with large caliber ammunition).
z
Incorrect range.
z
Excessive cant of the firing platform (trunnion tilt).
z
Refraction (optical path bending).
8-59. A subsequent fire command may contain up to five elements: alert, deflection correction, range or
elevation correction, execution, and termination. The alert, execution, and termination elements are always
given. A deflection or range/elevation correction should be given when a crew does not have the ability to
electronically determine accurate range to target or compute automatic lead. If a full-up fire control system
with automatic lead and super-elevation is available, the reengage method should be used. A sensing of
LOST, OVER, SHORT, or DOUBTFUL acts as the alert of the subsequent fire command. This
will cue the crew that a subsequent fire command is being issued. (On Abrams vehicles, it also serves as
the alert element to the loader to arm the main gun, if appropriate.)
z
Alert. The sensing for the round fired alerts the gunner that a subsequent fire command is being
issued.
z
Deflection correction (only if necessary). A deflection correction is based on the VCs or
gunners sensing of where the round strikes in relation to the target. A deflection error in excess

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Engage Direct and Indirect Fires (Crew)

of one target form indicates a fire control malfunction (if so equipped), optical path bending, or
an error in the gunners lay. Deflection corrections will not be less than one-half target form and
should not be more than one target form. On vehicles equipped with a LRF, automatic superelevation, and automatic lead, deflection errors in excess of one form indicate an improper sight
picture, reticle aim, or incorrect range to target. The gunner should again aim center of visible
mass, track the target, re-lase, and evaluate his range. Once complete, the VC will provide the
command of execution.
Range correction (only if necessary). A range correction is based on the VCs or gunners
sensing of where the round strikes in relation to the target. Range corrections will not be less
than one-half target form or more than one target form. For range corrections in excess of one
target form, reengage. On vehicles equipped with a LRF, automatic super-elevation, and
automatic lead, deflection errors in excess of one form indicate an improper sight picture, reticle
aim, or incorrect range to target. The gunner should again aim center of visible mass, track the
target, re-lase, and evaluate his range. Once complete, the VC will provide the command of
execution.

Notes. Though not recommended, the VC may make larger corrections in both deflection and
elevation when using the GAS. See below for direct fire adjustment techniques.
Abrams Note. When adjusting by target form using the GPS or thermal imaging sight
(TIS) reticle, do not release the palm switches or re-lase to the targetthis will cause the
ballistic solution to change.
z
z

Execution. The VC announces FIRE, or another command of execution as listed on page 814.
Termination. The VC completes the subsequent fire command by announcing CEASE FIRE.

DIRECT-FIRE ADJUSTMENT METHODS


8-60. Closely following the before-operation checks, prep-to-fire checks, and direct-fire techniques
already discussed will increase the chances of achieving a first-round target destructive hit. In some
situations, however, direct-fire adjustment will be necessary. When a gunner or VC fires a round and
misses the target, the crew must take actions to obtain a rapid target hit with a subsequent round. The crew
must use a subsequent fire command to adjust fires onto a target.
8-61. There are two direct-fire adjustment methodsreengage and standard adjustment methods.

Reengage
8-62. Vehicles without a fire control system, an operational LRF, or a stabilization system failure will not
use the reengage method. If the firing vehicles fire control system is fully operational, the reengage
method is the preferred method for subsequent rounds after a first-round or first-burst miss. Reengage is a
rapid technique in which a new ballistic solution is entered in the fire control system. Example
z
Gunner. OVER.
z
Loader. UP.
z
VC. OVERREENGAGE.
z
Gunner. Dumps the lead solution in the fire control system by quickly releasing and re-grasping
the palm grips, then re-lays, re-lases to the target, and announces (RANGE). The VC then
issues the command of execution. Since the firer has already identified the target he will be
engaging, he does not have to announce IDENTIFIED again. He must announce the new
induced range prior to the command of execution.

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Notes. If the gunner has been given the FIRE AND ADJUST command, he announces his
sensing and any appropriate change to ammunition. The gunner dumps the lead solution in the
fire control system by quickly releasing and re-grasping the palm grips, then re-lases to the
target, waits for an UP, and announces, ON THE WAY.
If the crew has a sensing of TARGET, but the target has not been completely
destroyed (for example, it cannot move but can still fire), the gunner or VC will re-lay using the
same sight picture, announce TARGET (await UP from the loader) REENGAGE. The
firer will announce (RANGE), and once he is given the command of execution will fire the
subsequent round.

Standard Adjustment
8-63. The standard adjustment method is the primary means for weapon systems without a fire control
system, or those vehicles whose fire control systems are damaged, to direct main and machine gun fires on
to target accurately and effectively.
8-64. When firing and unable to hit the target using the reengage method (or when using degraded
methods of engagement using the GPS), the VC or crew member (if given the FIRE AND ADJUST
command) may choose to use the standard adjustment method. The standard adjustment for both elevation
and deflection will not be less than a one-half target form or more than one target form. When the crew
observes a round missing the target in both range and deflection, the deflection correction is given before
the range correction, similar to the order of the elements of a fire command. If the crew observes over,
short, lost, or doubtful, the VC or crew member will announce his sensing and the intended correction in
one of the following ways:
Note. The VC has the option of increasing the gunners adjustment beyond one target form
based on the situation.
z
z
z
z

Deflection correction. DOUBTFUL LEFT (RIGHT) RIGHT (LEFT) ONE-HALF FORM.


Range correction. SHORT (OVER) ADD (DROP) HALF FORM.
Combination of deflection and range correction. DOUBTFUL LEFT (RIGHT), OVER
(SHORT) RIGHT (LEFT) HALF FORM DROP (ADD) HALF FORM.
Lost. LOST DROP HALF FORM. Typically, if the round is lost, the round traveled over
the target to beyond the line of sight of the crew. In this instance, dropping one half or one form
is the preferred adjustment.

8-65. After making his sight correction, the gunner announces (DEFLECTION/RANGE
CORRECTION), awaits the command of execution, announces ON THE WAY, and fires. This informs
the VC that the gunner understands the intended correction and has applied it prior to firing. In the event
the gunner has incorrectly applied the correction, it provides the VC time to cease fire the engagement
rather than knowingly fire a round or burst ineffectively.

For Abrams and Bradley Crews


8-66. If, after firing two rounds (Abrams) or eight rounds (Bradley), respectively, with the GPS using
degraded methods of engagement, the gunner or the VC has not sensed some target effect, the decision
should be made to use the auxiliary sight to complete the engagement. As soon as the tactical situation
permits, the crew should perform a boresight check, and re-boresight if necessary. During combat, the VC
may have to make larger corrections than the standard corrections listed above in order to get target effect
as rapidly as possible.

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Note. Though not recommended, the VC may make larger corrections in both deflection and
elevation than the standard direct fire adjustments listed above.

CREW DUTIES IN RESPONSE TO A FIRE COMMAND


8-67. Each crew member has specific duties to perform in response to each element of a fire command.
The VC and gunner will apply the rules of lay for every round fired. The rules of lay are (EAR)
z
End lay in elevation.
z
Always aim at the center of visible mass.
z
Remember the sight picture at trigger squeeze.
8-68. The VC, gunner, (or loader) will squeeze the trigger as soon as he announces (RANGE), ON THE
WAY (on the Y of WAY). Vehicles not equipped with a laser rangefinder or means to electronically
determine the range will not include range as a prefix to ON THE WAY.

NOTES FOR ABRAMS, BRADLEY, AND LRAS3 EQUIPPED VEHICLES


8-69. With the enhancements of digital capabilities for information gathering and reporting, and the
CITV/CIV for increased observation, the M1A2 SEP and M2A3 can cover a larger sector of fire than
previous vehicle variants. This larger sector could have multiple avenues of approach. The gunner could be
required to engage multiple targets on his own, while the VC continues to scan and designate with the
CITV or CIV, which places increased responsibilities on the gunner to make his own decisions when given
the command, FIRE AND ADJUST. Also, this requires the VC and gunner to maintain a constant
communication flow.
8-70. Normally with Abrams and newer Bradley variants, the LRF is kept in the ARM LAST RTN logic
position. When the target is extremely small or at an extended range (the entire target appears within the
aiming circle), ARM 1ST RTN logic is the preferred position, as the laser beam may project beyond the
target and cause multiple returns. Before firing, the gunner checks through the GAS to ensure the path of
the main gun is clear. Prior to firing, the gunner on these vehicle types will announce the range to target
determined and displayed in his field of view followed by ON THE WAY.
8-71. Setting the AMMUNITION SELECT switch (M1A1), push button (M1A2 SEP), or selecting the
appropriate ammunition on the weapons control box (WCB) (Bradley), to a different ammunition with the
palm switches pressed updates the ballistic solution for the new ammunition. For the BFV, the crew must
re-lase the target before an updated ballistic solution is induced into the system.
8-72. For Abrams crews, when changing ammunition during a degraded engagement, the gunner indexes
the correct ammunition type, but does not release his palm switches, the VC does not have to press the
BATTLE SGT (battlesight) button again, and the range in the fire control system remains the same.
However, if the gunner releases the palm switches during the engagement, he must re-grasp the palm
switches and track the target smoothly. The VC presses the BATTLE SGT button and uses the
ADD/DROP toggle switch (or the four-way switch on the M1A2 SEP) to update the complete ballistic
solution (10 meters) for the new ammunition, and announces BATTLESIGHT.
8-73. For Abrams crews, to make sure the main gun can be loaded safely across all types of terrain, the
GUN/TURRET DRIVE switch in the loaders position should remain in the elevation uncouple (EL
UNCPL) position. This returns the main gun to a position standard for loading when the SAFE/ARM lever
is moved to the SAFE position by the loader.

MULTIPLE ENGAGEMENTS
8-74. In combat, vehicle crews may engage targets using multiple engagement techniques. These
engagements require speed and accuracy to suppress or destroy all targets. The types of target engagements
are single target engagements, multiple target engagements, and multiple weapon system engagements
(Abrams and Bradley crews). For single target engagements, crews respond with standard crew duties.

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Multiple target engagements and multiple weapon system engagements require additional fire command
elements and responses from the crew.

MULTIPLE MAIN GUN OR COAX MACHINE GUN ENGAGEMENTS


8-75. A multiple main gun or coax machine gun engagement is more than one target engaged with the
same weapon. These engagements, especially multiple vehicle engagements, require rapid and accurate
fire, target destruction, and quick shifts to new targets. The VC determines which target presents the
greatest threat (most dangerous) and issues a fire command to engage that target first. The VC determines
the next most dangerous target, directs fires to the second target and continues this process until all targets
are destroyed. On vehicles with automatic lead provided by the fire control system, when moving from one
target to another, the gunner must make sure he releases the palm switches momentarily (dumps lead
solution), then squeezes the palm switches again. This eliminates the floating reticle and makes laying on
the next target much faster. The gunner must now re-lase to the new target to establish an accurate ballistic
solution.
Note. On the M2A3, no kinematic lead is automatically induced when firing the coax machine
gun or when firing the tube-launched, optically tracked, wire-guided (TOW) missile system.
8-76. The VC must decide whether or not a target has been destroyed. Indications that a target has been
sufficiently damaged include secondary explosions or crew members abandoning the vehicle. Multiple
engagements require the VC to shift fires quickly from one target to the next as the classification of most
dangerous changes from moment to moment.
8-77. Multiple coax machine gun engagements are performed in the same manner. The most dangerous
target is engaged first; fires are then shifted to the next most dangerous or dangerous target (see Figure
8-11).

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Figure 8-11. Reduced multiple target fire command example

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MULTIPLE WEAPON SYSTEMS ENGAGEMENT (ABRAMS, BRADLEY, AND ASV)


8-78. There are two types of multiple weapon system engagementssequential and simultaneous.

Sequential
8-79. Sequential engagements are engagements which may require the use of two weapon systems against
multiple targets in a sequential manner. All platforms with multiple weapon systems have the ability to
execute these engagements. The second is one that requires the simultaneous use of multiple weapons
against multiple targets.
8-80. Sequential engagements use an initial fire command when initiating direct fires at each target, but
may involve a change of weapon system between the first and second target.

Simultaneous (Abrams only)


8-81. Simultaneous engagements are specific to Abrams platforms. It is an engagement where multiple
weapon systems are engaging one or more targets whether independently or simultaneously. A sample fire
command and the VCs and gunners responses to a multiple weapon systems engagement follows. The
VC announces GUNNER SABOT TANK. The gunner announces IDENTIFIED (RANGE) and
takes up the correct sight picture. The VC evaluates the range, and then announces FIRE AND ADJUST
CALIBER FIFTY. The gunner announces ON THE WAY and engages his target. He then announces
his sensing and intended correction and continues to engage the target. If a target destructive hit is sensed,
the gunner announces TARGET GUNNER COMPLETE. When the VC finishes his engagements, he
announces VC COMPLETE. The VC resumes control of the engagement at this time and announces
GUNNER CEASE FIRE LOADER 240, TROOPS 9 OCLOCK, THREE HUNDRED. The loader
announces IDENTIFIED, THREE HUNDRED and takes up the correct sight picture. The VC then
announces FIRE AND ADJUST. The loader announces ON THE WAY and engages his target. The
loader must sense his own rounds and make his own corrections using the tracer on target (ToT) technique.
If a target destructive hit is sensed, the loader announces TARGET LOADER COMPLETE. The VC
resumes control of the engagement at this time and announces LOADER CEASE FIRE.
8-82. During some multiple weapon systems engagements, the VC may need to stop firing his caliber .50
engagement temporarily, to assist the gunner. The two most common situations are
z
When the gunner cannot identify the target, the VC will lay the main gun on target.
z
When the gunner cannot sense the effect of the round, the VC will help sense rounds.
Notes. In the case of multiple machine gun engagements, the VC will use the FIRE AND
ADJUST command for the loader. The VC should only direct the loader to engage targets that
are to the left of the main gun or CITV (M1A2 SEP).
(M1A2, M2/M3A3) The fire and adjust command of execution used when the VC is
going to use the CITV/CIV to search for more targets does not take the responsibility for cease
firing the weapon system in use from the VC.

SECTION III ENGAGEMENT TECHNIQUES


8-83. For the wide variety of platforms in the HBCT, there are an equally wide variety of techniques to
employ those platforms weapon systems against threat targets. This section will discuss general
engagement techniques for machine gun and main gun targets. See your platforms respective appendix for
detailed information on techniques used during engagements using platform specific ammunition.

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8-84. There are a number of firing techniques that are common across all platforms. In order to best
describe the techniques, aim points will be defined as appropriate though your platforms reticle, iron sight,
or sight picture may vary.

EMPLOYING VEHICLE MACHINE GUNS


8-85. Vehicle crews must be able to effectively engage infantry, crew-served weapons, antitank guided
missiles (ATGM) teams, rocket-propelled grenades (RPG) teams, trucks, light armored vehicles, lightlyconstructed covered positions, and aircraft. This section discusses how vehicle machine guns are used and
their role in direct-fire engagements.
8-86. Machine guns are extremely effective weapons, but they also serve the vehicle crews in different
ways. The crew is limited only by their ingenuity in using these weapons. The following is a list of primary
uses for platform mounted machine guns:

ENGAGE SOFT TARGETS


8-87. Crews will primarily engage soft targets with machine guns. Soft targets are those that can be
penetrated or destroyed using 7.62mm or caliber .50 ammunition. These types of targets include
unprotected troops, snipers, RPG teams, trucks (unarmored), cars, aircraft, bunkers, or non-reinforced
buildings. These are the primary targets for machine guns out to their maximum effective range.

ENGAGE POINT TARGET


8-88. A point target requires a gunner to aim at a single point or location and fire controlled, accurately
aimed bursts to destroy a singular target. Although an RPG team is presented by as many as three targets, it
is still classified as a point target. In order to engage these targets:
z
Unstabilized Machine Guns Versus Stationary Point Targets. Gunners firing unstabilized or
pintle mounted machine guns should estimate the range to target, aim to the center of visible
mass near the base of the target, and fire an initial burst. Adjust the ToT in order to move the
strike of the round into the target area. Once complete, fire a killing burst of 20 to 30 rounds to
destroy the target. If dismounts abandon the soft target you are engaging, continue to engage the
dismounted threat as point targets or as area targets.
z
Unstabilized Machine Guns Versus Moving Point Targets. Gunners firing from unstabilized
or pintle mounted machine guns should estimate the range and speed of the target. Gunners must
lead the vehicle (target) based on the apparent rate the target is moving. Always lead targets in
the direction of their travel and include the super-elevation required for the determined range.
Once tracking the targets movement and range, fire an initial burst into the target area. The
strike of the rounds and visible tracers should intersect the path the threat target is traveling.
Adjust as necessary based on the strike of the rounds around the target area. Unless absolutely
necessary, do not make aggressive adjustments, keep your elbows locked to your sides, and
continue to engage smoothly with short bursts. Once the gunner achieves rounds in the target
area, he should immediately begin firing a killing burst, placing as many rounds into the target
and target area as possible (see Figure 8-12 and Figure 8-13).
z
Stabilized Machine Guns. Gunners must lay to the base of the target, lase, get an accurate
range, adjust the sight picture to the center of visible mass, and engage upon receiving the
command of execution. The initial burst should be 10 to 20 rounds and should be effective
enough to destroy the point target. If dismounted threats appear leaving the target or target area,
the gunner may engage those threats using point techniques or switch to area techniques as
necessary (see Figure 8-14).

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Chapter 8

Figure 8-12. Manually applied lead for a slow moving target

Figure 8-13. Manually applied lead for a fast moving target

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Figure 8-14. Aiming point for machine gun point target, stationary

ENGAGE AREA TARGET


8-89. Engaging area targets requires the gunner to begin the engagement at the base of the target, fire an
initial burst into the target area, adjust fire into the target area, fire a killing burst, and sweep through the
area with a follow-on suppressive burst of 10 to 15 rounds. The initial burst is the same as firing at a point
target. The suppressive burst for area targets includes the use of the Z pattern to destroy any remaining
threat targets that have not gone to ground. The Z pattern is fired from front (near) to back (far), crossing
back and forth across the target area as shown in Figure 8-15.

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Chapter 8

Figure 8-15. Z pattern fired from the front


8-90. When engaging area targets on the offense, slight movements of the turret/pintle mount can provide
an effective Z pattern without much effort. In the offense, continue to move when engaging targets.
Movement of the turret/gunner skate ring and vehicle carries the burst through the target when a narrow
frontal area target is presented (see Figure 8-16). Round dispersion will cover target width.

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Figure 8-16. Z pattern

ENGAGE AIRCRAFT TARGET


8-91. Engaging moving aircraft through your area of responsibility requires crews to be familiar with the
engagement techniques associated with fast fixed wing and slow rotary-wing aircraft engagements. Figure
8-17 defines the procedures for crews engaging these types of aircraft while the threat is approaching their
position and while the aircraft is traveling across their front (left to right, or right to left).

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Chapter 8

Figure 8-17. Aiming points for engaging aircraft with vehicle machine guns

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ENGAGE AIRBORNE TARGETS


8-92. The rapid rate of fall of paratroopers makes them hard to engage. To engage the paratrooper,
gunners
z
Fire a burst with a lead of two body lengths beneath the feet of the dropping paratrooper (see
Figure 8-18).
z
If a troop-carrying helicopter is sighted, the helicopter should be engaged first.
Notes. The Geneva Convention of 1949 and the Rules of War prohibit engaging crewmen
parachuting from disabled aircraft.
The MK19 should not be used against paratroopers because of time of flight of rounds.

Figure 8-18. Paratrooper engagement technique

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Chapter 8

SUPPRESSIVE FIRE ENGAGEMENTS


8-93. Vehicle suppressive fire is direct fire placed on known or likely enemy locations to degrade one or
more of the enemys basic combat functionsmoving, shooting, observing, or communicating. This takes
the threats current place in his own detect, identify, decide, engage, and assess (DIDEA) process and
makes him begin again, providing friendly forces time to develop a situation and destroy the threat.
Whenever possible, use machine guns for suppressive-fire engagements to conserve main gun ammunition
(120mm or 25mm). Suppressive fire is most effective when fired at a sustained rate of 20- to 30-round
bursts (4 to 6 tracers) every 10 seconds for the M240, and 10- to 15-round bursts (2 to 3 tracers) every 10
seconds for the caliber .50. No specific pattern or engagement technique is prescribed; however, each burst
should strike within 10 meters of the suspected target area. In dense terrain or areas of high enemy troop
activity, overwatching vehicles can cover maneuvering vehicles with suppressive machine gun fire.
Note (Abrams). To conserve the limited caliber .50 ammunition, use the loaders machine gun
along with the coax on targets within 900 meters. Use the caliber .50 machine gun to suppress
targets from 900 to 1,800 meters.

Reconnaissance by Fire
8-94. Reconnaissance by fire is used when other means of enemy detection have been unsuccessful or are
not available. It is best employed with another vehicle within the same section. One vehicle can fire on a
suspected enemy position or suspicious area to cause the enemy to react and compromise his position at the
time of our choosing, not his. The second vehicle can then engage and destroy the enemy from a different
location.
8-95. To conserve main gun ammunition, use vehicle-mounted machine guns in reconnaissance by fire to
cause a hidden enemy to react. Fire a single burst (20 to 30 rounds with the M240 or 10 to 15 rounds with
the caliber .50) while constantly observing for enemy movement, return fire, or the flash of rounds striking
metal.

Ranging
8-96. (M1A1 only) When the GAS and LRF are inoperative, the caliber .50 machine gun may be used as a
ranging gun out to 1,800 meters. The M240 (either coax or mounted in the CWS) may be used as a ranging
gun out to 900 meters. Limited use of this technique is recommended, because it reveals your position.

Designating Targets
8-97. Section and platoon leaders can use machine gun fire effectively to designate targets for other
vehicles, artillery forward observers (FO), or aerial fire support. Limited use of this technique is
recommended, because it reveals your position.

Firing Through Cover


8-98. Vehicle-mounted machine guns can be used effectively to penetrate most cover used by infantry,
such as small trees, hasty barricades, or lightly constructed buildings.

Incendiary Effects
8-99. Machine gun tracers or incendiary ammunition, particularly armor-piercing incendiary-tracer
(API-T), can be used to set fire to any readily combustible material such as dry grass, grain, dried brush, or
wood. Fire will deny a particular area to enemy use, and smoke from a burning field can be used to screen
movement.

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Coaxially Mounted Machine Gun Coax (Abrams and Bradley)


8-100. The coax machine gun can effectively engage area or point targets out to 900 meters, its maximum
effective range (tracer burnout). When using the coax, the VC or gunner should set the LRF LOGIC switch
based on the operational environment. To provide the most accurate range to troop type target, gunners
should lase the base of the target, then raise aim center of visible mass prior to firing (see Figure 8-19).

Figure 8-19. Sight picture for lasing on troops using last return logic
Note. Due to the rapid decrease in range to the target during offensive coax engagements, it may
be necessary to re-lase to the target during the engagement. The gunner must not forget to dump
lead after re-lasing. Armed trucks firing in the offense will want to fire at the base of targets
initially. As the vehicle progresses toward the target area, the rounds will close with and strike
within the target area.

MACHINE GUN ENGAGEMENT TECHNIQUE FOR THE GAS/AUXILIARY SIGHT


8-101. For Abrams, if the GPS or TIS is inoperative, use the HEAT reticle in the GAS. Due to the
ballistic mismatch of HEAT ammunition and the 7.62-mm coax round, the range must be doubled. (If the
target is at 800 meters, use the 1,600-meter range line.) Also, if lead is to be applied, use 7-1/2 mils
initially, and correct as necessary.
8-102. For Bradleys, if the IBAS/ISU is inoperative, use the AP side of the reticle in the AUX sight.
Gunners should fire a sensing burst into the target area and then adjust the reticle lay before firing a
suppressive burst.

LOADERS MACHINE GUN


8-103. The loaders M240 machine gun is used to engage area and point targets designated by the VC.
When using the M240 machine gun, the loader should
z
Lay the weapon for deflection.
z
Fire bursts of 20 to 30 rounds (4 to 6 tracers) to engage all targets except aircraft. Engage
aircraft using a continuous burst.
z
Use tracer impact to adjust rounds on target. These adjustments are given as
UP/DOWN/RIGHT/LEFT.

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Chapter 8

8-104. When the loader is directed to engage targets with the M240, both the VC and loader must
remember
z
The loaders main duty is to load the main gun.
z
The loaders machine gun does not have any sights; therefore, it should be used only for area or
aerial targets.
z
The VCs weapon and loaders machine gun can be fired simultaneously; however, caution must
be used to prevent injury to the loader or VC.
z
To avoid damaging the CITV, thermal shrouds, the bore evacuator, or the muzzle reference
system (MRS) collimator, the loaders machine gun should be fired at targets to the left of the
main gun only.
8-105. The loaders stand should be adjusted so the chest-hold technique can be used to steady the M240
while firing. The loader grasps the handles of the loaders M240 mount, holds them closely against his
chest for steadiness and control, and fires the weapon.

WARNING
When engaging targets, the VC and loader should not cross each
others fire. This could injure crew members and damage
equipment.

VEHICLE COMMANDERS WEAPON


8-106. The M2 HB caliber .50 machine gun is mounted in the CWS on the M1A1 Abrams vehicle. The
M2 HB flex caliber .50 machine gun is mounted in the Improved Commanders Weapon Station (ICWS)
on the M1A2 SEP vehicle. (The M240 7.62-mm machine gun can be mounted in the CWS and the ICWS
when necessary). The M2 machine gun can engage area and point targets out to 1,800 metersits maximum
effective range. If the M240 7.62-mm machine gun is mounted, it should only be used out to 900 meters
(tracer burnout). When using the commanders weapon
z
Lay the weapon for deflection and estimate the range. If the situation permits, the VC should
have the gunner lase to the target and announce range; then, the VC should place the appropriate
range line on target (M1A1 only).
z
Fire bursts of 10 to 15 rounds (2 to 3 tracers) for the M2 or 20 to 30 rounds (4 to 6 tracers) for
the M240 to adjust on target.
z
Use the short-halt technique to engage targets while on the move unless the vehicle is equipped
with a Commanders Remotely Operated Weapon Station (CROWS) variant that provides
stabilization.
8-107. On identification of an appropriate caliber .50 target, the VC announces CALIBER FIFTY and,
on the M1A1, lays the appropriate range line on the target center of mass. On hearing the VC announce
CALIBER FIFTY, the loader positions himself in the loaders hatch (if not in closed-hatch posture),
assumes the VCs responsibilities for primary target acquisition (ground and air), and assists in adjusting
the VCs machine gun fire. If the gunner is engaging targets with the main gun, the loader must remain
inside the turret. In all other situations, the loader should be out of the hatch, helping to sense rounds and
acquire targets (see Figure 8-20).
8-108. If the gunner or loader can see the caliber .50 tracers, he assists the VC in adjusting firethese
adjustments are given as UP/ DOWN/RIGHT/LEFT. On completion of the caliber .50 engagement, the
VC announces VC COMPLETE.

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Figure 8-20. M1A1 caliber .50 aiming points

SECTION IV SAMPLE FIRE COMMANDS


8-109. The following examples are generic in nature, but show common fire commands that Abrams,
Bradley, and truck crews will face (see Figure 8-21 through Figure 8-41). The fire command examples are
provided in the following order to reduce confusion:
z
Common fire commands among all platforms are

Use of REENGAGE.

Single target.

Multiple targets.

Degraded single target.

Degraded multiple targets.

Degraded change of weapon system.

Fire commands to squads.

Smoke grenade fire commands.


z
Abrams series

Canister rounds and the use of FIRE AND ADJUST.

Simultaneous engagements firing all machine guns.

Change of weapon system.

Caliber .50 and main gun using FIRE AND ADJUST.


z
M1A2 variant specificdesignating targets.
z
Bradley series

Precision, VC determines range.

Precision, gunner determines range.

Change of weapon system.

Missile fire command.

Missile to 25mm, change of weapon system.

Rear bank fire command.


z
M2A3 variant specificdesignating targets.
z
Armed truck (including change of weapon system for the Armored Security Vehicle [ASV])

Single target engagement.

Multiple target engagement.

Change of weapon system (ASV).

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Chapter 8

Figure 8-21. Direct fire adjustment using the re-engage method

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Figure 8-22. Single target engagement example

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8-45

Chapter 8

Figure 8-23. Multiple target fire command example

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Figure 8-24. Single target fire command using BATTLE SGT button example

3 September 2009

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8-47

Chapter 8

Figure 8-25. Single target fire command example without LRF/ELRF

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Engage Direct and Indirect Fires (Crew)

Figure 8-26. Single target fire command using the stadia reticle with adjustment example

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Chapter 8

Figure 8-27. Multiple target fire command using the stadia reticle example

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Engage Direct and Indirect Fires (Crew)

Figure 8-28. Multiple target fire command, GPS malfunction example

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Chapter 8

Figure 8-29. Change of weapon system using GAS or auxiliary sight fire command example

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Engage Direct and Indirect Fires (Crew)

Figure 8-30. Fire command to dismounted squad example

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8-53

Chapter 8

Figure 8-31. Smoke grenade fire command example

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Engage Direct and Indirect Fires (Crew)

Figure 8-32. Simultaneous engagement fire command example

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Chapter 8

Figure 8-33. Change of weapon system fire command example

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Engage Direct and Indirect Fires (Crew)

Figure 8-34. Simultaneous targets, caliber .50 and main gun example

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8-57

Chapter 8

Figure 8-35. VC main gun fire command example

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Engage Direct and Indirect Fires (Crew)

Figure 8-36. Canister engagement using FIRE AND ADJUST

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Chapter 8

Figure 8-37. Multiple weapon system (Bradley) fire command example

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Engage Direct and Indirect Fires (Crew)

Figure 8-38. Multiple weapon system (Bradley), fire and adjust, fire command example

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Chapter 8

Figure 8-39. Truck single target fire command example

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Figure 8-40. Truck multiple target fire command example

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Chapter 8

Figure 8-41. ASV change of weapon system fire command example

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SECTION V INDIRECT FIRE


8-110. When the decision to engage is made and the method of engagement selected is to employ indirect
fire, the engagement is initiated by the fire support team, or by other Soldiers in position to observe and
direct the fires. The observer initiates an indirect fire engagement with a call for fire. VCs must be fluent at
calling for indirect fires at their disposal in order to rapidly engage threat targets using all munition deliver
systems at their disposal. This section provides the crew the fundamentals of the call for fire process,
control measures, commands, and the standard call for fire format.

CALL FOR FIRE


8-111. A call for fire is a concise message prepared by the observer. It contains all of the information
needed by the fire direction center (FDC) to determine the method of target attack. It is a request for fire,
not an order.
8-112. A call for fire must be sent quickly but clearly enough that it can be understood, recorded, and
read back, without error, by the FDC recorder. The observer should tell the radio operator he has seen a
target so the radio operator can start the call for fire while the target location is being determined.
Information is sent as it is determined, rather than waiting until a complete call for fire has been prepared.
8-113. Regardless of the method of target location used, the normal call for fire is sent in three
transmissions consisting of six elements with a break and read back after each transmission. The
transmissions and elements are organized in the following sequence:
z
Observer identification and warning order.
z
Target location.
z
Target description, method of engagement, and method of fire and control.

OBSERVER IDENTIFICATION
8-114. This element tells the FDC who is calling for fire.

WARNING ORDER
8-115. The warning order clears the net for the fire mission. The warning order consists of the type of
mission, the size of the element to fire for effect (FFE), and the method of target location.

Type of Mission
8-116. There are four types of fire missions. They are
z
Adjust Fire. When the observer believes that an adjustment must be made (because of
questionable target location or lack of registration corrections), he announces ADJUST FIRE.
z
Fire for Effect. The observer should always strive for first-round FFE. The accuracy required to
FFE depends on the accuracy of target location and the ammunition being used. When the
observer is certain that the target location is accurate and that the first volley should have the
desired effect on the target so that little or no adjustment is required, he announces FIRE FOR
EFFECT.
z
Suppress. To quickly bring fire on a target that is not active, the observer announces
SUPPRESS (followed by the target identification). Suppression missions are normally fired on
preplanned targets, and a duration is associated with the call for fire.
z
Immediate Suppression and Immediate Smoke. When engaging a planned target or target of
opportunity that has taken friendly maneuver or elements under fire, the observer announces
IMMEDIATE SUPPRESSION or IMMEDIATE SMOKE (followed by the target location).

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Chapter 8

Size of Element to Fire for Effect


8-117. The observer may request the size of the unit to FFE, for example, BATTALION. Usually he
does this by announcing the last letter in the battalion FDC's call sign. For example, T6H24 is announced
H. If the observer does not specify a size of element to FFE, the FDC will make the decision based on the
attack guidance received and the Joint Munitions Effectiveness Manual (JMEM) solution.

Method of Target Location


8-118. There are five methods to identify target locations. They are
z
Grid. The word grid is not announced; such as ADJUST FIRE, OVER.
z
Laser Grid. The observer announces LASER GRID, for example FIRE FOR EFFECT, LASER
GRID, OVER.
z
Polar Plot. The observer announces POLAR, for example, ADJUST FIRE POLAR, OVER.
z
Laser Polar. The observer announces LASER POLAR, for example, ADJUST FIRE, LASER
POLAR, OVER.
z
Shift from a Known Point. The observer announces SHIFT, followed by the designation of the
known point or by the target number, for example, ADJUST FIRE, SHIFT KNOWN POINT 1,
OVER.

Target Location
8-119. The target locations are
z
Grid. In a grid mission, six-place grids normally are sent. Eight-place grids should be sent for
registration points or other points for which greater accuracy is required. The OT direction
normally will be sent after the entire initial call for fire, since it is not needed by the FDC to
locate the target.
z
Laser Grid. A laser grid mission is the same as a grid mission with the following exceptions:

Target grid is sent to a greater level of accuracy (8 or 10 digit grid depending on


observation post location accuracy).

In an adjust fire mission, corrections are sent in the form of a grid to the burst location.
z
Polar Plot. In a polar plot mission, the word polar in the warning order alerts the FDC that the
target will be located with respect to the observer's position. The observer's location must be
known to the FDC. The observer then sends the direction and distance. A vertical shift tells the
FDC how far, in meters, the target is located above or below the observer's location. Vertical
shift may also be described by a vertical angle in mils, relative to the observer's location.
z
Laser Polar. Laser data are sent to the nearest 1 mil for direction and vertical angle and the
nearest 10 meters for distance.
z
Shift. In a shift from a known point mission, the target will be located in relation to a
preexisting known point or recorded target. The point or target from which the shift is made is
sent in the warning order. (Both the observer and the FDC must know the location of the point
or recorded target.) The observer then sends the OT direction. Normally, it is sent in mils.
However, the FDC can accept degrees or cardinal directions, whichever is specified by the
observer. The corrections are sent next:

The lateral shift in meters (how far left or right the target is) from the known point.

The range shift (how much farther [ADD] or close [DROP] the target is in relation to the
known point, to the nearest 100 meters).

The vertical shift (how much the altitude of the target is above [UP] or below [DOWN] the
altitude of the known point, expressed to the nearest 5 meters). Vertical shift is usually only
significant if it is greater than or equal to 35 meters.

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Target Description
8-120. The observer must describe the target in enough detail that the FDC can determine the amount and
type of ammunition to use. The FDC selects different ammunition for different types of targets. The
observer should be brief but accurate. The description should contain the following:
z
What the target is (such as troops, equipment, supply depot, trucks).
z
What the target is doing (such as digging in, in an assembly area).
z
The number of elements in the target (such as squad, platoon, three trucks, six tanks).
z
The degree of protection (such as in the open, in foxholes, in bunkers with overhead protection).
8-121. The target size and shape if these are significant. If the target is rectangular, the length and width
(in meters) and the attitude (azimuth of the long axis, 0000-3199 mils) to the nearest 100 mils should be
given, for example, ATTITUDE 2800, LENGTH 400, WIDTH 300. If the target is circular, the radius
should be given, for example, RADIUS 200. Linear targets may be described by length, width, and
attitude.

METHOD OF ENGAGEMENT
8-122. The observer may indicate how he wants to attack the target. This element consists of the type of
adjustment, DANGER CLOSE, MARK, trajectory, ammunition, and distribution.

Type of Adjustment
8-123. Two types of adjustment may be employedarea and precision. Area fire is standard without
request.
z
Area. Area fire is used to attack an area target. Since many area targets are mobile, the
adjustment should be as quick as possible, consistent with accuracy, to keep the target from
escaping. A well-defined point at or near the center of the area to be attacked should be selected
and used as an aiming point. This point is called the adjusting point during adjust fire missions.
To achieve surprise, fire may be adjusted on an auxiliary point, and after adjustment is
completed, the FFE shifted to the target. Normally, adjustment on an area target is conducted
with one adjusting weapon.
z
Precision. Precision fire is conducted with one weapon on a point target. It is used to either
obtain registration corrections or to destroy a target. When the mission is a registration, it is
initiated by the FDC with a message to observer (MTO). If the target is to be destroyed, the
observer announces DESTRUCTION.
Danger Close
8-124. DANGER CLOSE is included in the method of engagement when the target is (rounds will
detonate) within 600 meters of any friendly troops for mortars and artillery, 750 meters for 5-inch naval
guns. See FM 3-09.32, for a listing of risk-estimate distances for surface-to-surface and air-delivered
munitions
Mark
8-125. MARK is included in the method of engagement to indicate that the observer is going to call for
rounds for either of the following reasons:
z
To orient himself in his zone of observation.
z
To indicate targets to ground troops, aircraft, or other observers.
z
Trajectory.
z
Low Angle. Standard without request.
z
High Angle. If high angle is desired, it is requested immediately after type of engagement. If the
firing unit determines that high angle must be used to attack a target, the FDC must inform the
observer in the MTO that high angle will be used. Mortars fire only high angle.

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Chapter 8

Ammunition
8-126. The observer may request any type of ammunition during the adjustment or the FFE phase of his
mission. Shell HE with fuze quick is normally used in adjustment. If that is what the observer desires, he
need not request it in his call for fire. If the observer does not request a shell-fuze in effect, the fire
direction officer (FDO) determines the shell-fuze combination. Unit SOP may designate a standard shellfuze combination.
Note. Ammunition standards may vary from unit to unit. The observer must learn these
standards upon assignment to a unit.
8-127. If the observer does desire other than standard shell/fuze combinations the shell/fuze "in adjust" is
announced first, then the shell/fuze "in effect". For FFE missions, it is not necessary to announce "in
effect" after the shell/fuze request.
z
Followed By. This is part of a term used to indicate a change in the rate of fire, in the type of
ammunition, or in another order for FFE, for example white phosphorous (WP) FOLLOWED
BY HE.
z
Projectile. Examples of requests for other than HE projectile are ILLUMINATION, dual
purpose improved conventional munitions (DPICM), and SMOKE.
z
Fuze. Most missions are fired with fuze quick during the adjustment phase. If fuze quick is
desired or if a projectile that has only one fuze is requested, fuze is not indicated. Illuminating,
improvised conventional munitions (ICM) and smoke projectiles are fuzed with time fuzes;
therefore, when the observer requests ILLUMINATION, ICM, or SMOKE, he does not
announce TIME.
z
Volume of Fire. The volume of fire desired in FFE is stated in rounds per weapon system.
Distribution
8-128. The observer may control the pattern of bursts in the target area. This pattern of bursts is called a
sheaf. Unless otherwise requested, a standard sheaf is a circular target with a 100 meter radius. The
ballistic computer system for the weapon system used determines individual weapon aiming points to
distribute the bursts for best coverage of this type of target (see Figure 8-42).

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Figure 8-42. Standard sheaf


8-129. A converged sheaf places all rounds on a specific point and is used for small, hard targets (see
Figure 8-43).

Figure 8-43. Converged sheaf

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Chapter 8

8-130. An open sheaf separates the bursts by the maximum effective burst width of the shell fired (see
Figure 8-44).

Figure 8-44. Open sheaf


8-131. Special sheafs (linear, rectangular, circular, or irregular) of any length and width may be
requested. If target length, or length and width are given, attitude also must be given. If target length is
greater than or equal to five times the target width, the ballistic computer system assumes a linear target.
The mortar ballistic computer always assumes the target is linear and fires a parallel sheaf unless a special
sheaf is requested (see Figure 8-45).

Figure 8-45. Special sheaf

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8-132. The parallel sheaf distributes the bursts of all pieces similar to the distribution of weapons on the
gun line due to firing the same data with each piece (see Figure 8-46).

Figure 8-46. Parallel sheaf

METHOD OF FIRE AND CONTROL


8-133. The method of fire and control element indicates the desired manner of attacking the target,
whether the observer wants to control the time or delivery of fire, and whether he can observe the target.
The observer announces methods of fire and control as discussed below.

Method of Fire
8-134. In area fire, the adjustment normally is conducted with one howitzer or with the center gun of a
mortar platoon or section. If the observer determines that more than one gun is necessary for adjustment,
he can request 2 GUNS IN ADJUST or PLATOON/BATTERY RIGHT (LEFT). (Adjusting at extreme
distances may be easier with two guns firing.) The normal interval fired by a platoon or battery right (left)
is 5 seconds. If the observer wants some other interval, he may so specify.

Method of Control
8-135. The methods of control are
z
Fire When Ready. This method is standard without request.
z
At My Command. If the observer wishes to control the time of delivery of fire, he includes AT
MY COMMAND in the method of control. When the pieces are ready to fire, the FDC
announces PLATOON (or BATTERY or BATTALION) IS READY, OVER. (Call signs are
used.) The observer announces FIRE when he is ready for the pieces to fire. This only applies
to adjusting rounds and the first volley of a FFE. AT MY COMMAND remains in effect
throughout the mission until the observer announces CANCEL AT MY COMMAND, OVER.
At my command can be further specified. BY ROUND AT MY COMMAND controls every
round in adjustment and every volley in the FFE phase.

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8-71

Chapter 8

8-72

Cannot Observe. CANNOT OBSERVE indicates the observer cannot see the target (because
of vegetation, terrain, weather, or smoke); however, he has reason to believe a target exists at
the given location and that it is important enough to justify firing on it without adjustment.
Time on Target (TOT). The observer may tell the FDC when he wants the rounds to impact by
requesting TIME ON TARGET, 0859, OVER. The observer must ensure his time and the
FDC's time are synchronized prior to the mission.
Time to Target (TTT). The observer may tell the FDC when he wants the rounds to impact by
requesting TIME TO TARGET (so many) MINUTES AND SECONDS, OVER,
STANDBY, HACK, OVER. Time to target is the time in minutes and seconds after the "hack"
statement is delivered when rounds are expected to hit the target.
Continuous Illumination. In this method of control, illumination projectiles are fired at
specified time intervals to provide uninterrupted lighting on the target or specified area. The
observer may specify the time interval (in seconds). If the observer does not provide a time
interval, the FDC determines the interval by the burning time of the illumination ammunition in
use. If any other interval is required, it is indicated in seconds.
Coordinated Illumination. The observer may order the interval between illumination and HE
projectiles, in seconds, to achieve a time of impact of the HE coincident with optimum
illumination; or he may use normal AT MY COMMAND procedures. The command
ILLUMINATION MARK is used to tell the FDC when the illumination round is providing
optimal visibility on the target.
Cease Loading. The command CEASE LOADING is used during the firing of two or more
rounds to indicate the suspension of loading rounds into the gun(s). The gun sections may fire
any rounds that have already been loaded.
Check Firing. CHECK FIRING is used to cause an immediate halt in firing. Use this
command only when necessary to immediately stop firing (such as for safety reasons) as it
may result in cannons being out of action until any rammed/loaded rounds can be fired or
cleared from the tubes.
Continuous Fire. In field artillery (FA), mortars and naval gunfire (NGF), continuous fire
means loading and firing as rapidly as possible, consistent with accuracy, within the prescribed
rate of fire for the equipment. Firing will continue until suspended by the command CEASE
LOADING or CHECK FIRING.
Repeat. REPEAT can be given during adjustment or FFE missions. During Adjustment
REPEAT means firing another round(s) with the last data and adjust for any change in
ammunition if necessary. REPEAT is not sent in the initial call for fire.
During FFE, REPEAT means fire the same number of rounds using the same method of FFE as
last fired. Changes in the number of guns, the previous corrections, the interval, or the
ammunition may be requested.
Request Splash. SPLASH can be sent at the observer's request. The FDC announces SPLASH
to the observer 5 seconds prior to round impact. SPLASH must be sent to aerial observers and
during high-angle fire missions.
Do Not Load. DO NOT LOAD allows the section to prepare ammunition and lay on the target
without loading a projectile. When the command CANCEL DO NOT LOAD is given the
section automatically loads and fires the weapon (except for an at my command mission).
Duration. DURATION is usually used for suppression missions. DURATION will tell the
FDC the total time a target needs to be engaged.

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Engage Direct and Indirect Fires (Crew)

SAMPLE MISSIONS
8-136. See Figure 8-47a and Figure 8-47b for sample calls for fire for various type missions.

EXAMPLES
FIRE
MISSION
Initial Fire Request
Observer
Z57 THIS IS Z71, ADJUST FIRE, OVER.

FD
THIS IS Z57, ADJUST FIRE OUT.

GRID NK180513, OVER.


GRID NK180513, OUT.
INFANTRY PLATOON IN THE OPEN, ICM IN
EFFECT,
INFANTRY PLATOON IN THE OPEN, ICM IN
EFFECT, OUT.

Message to Observer
Z, 2 ROUNDS, TARGET AF1027,
Z, 2 ROUNDS, TARGET AF1027, BREAK,
DIRECTION 1680, OVER.
DIRECTION 1680, OUT.
Note. Direction is sent before or with the first subsequent correction.
FIRE MISSION (SHIFT)
Initial Fire Request
Observer
H66 THIS IS H44, ADJUST FIRE SHIFT
AA7733, OVER.

FDC

THIS IS H66, ADJUST FIRE SHIFT AA7733,


OUT.
DIRECTION, 5210, LEFT 380, ADD 400,
DOWN 35, OVER.
DIRECTION, 5210, LEFT 380, ADD 400,
DOWN 35, OUT.
COMBAT OP IN OPEN, ICM IN EFFECT,
OVER
COMBAT OP IN OPEN, ICM IN EFFECT, OUT.
Message to Observer
H, 1 ROUND, TARGET AA7742, OVER.
H, 1 ROUND, TARGET AA7742, OUT.

Figure 8-47a. Fire mission examples

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Chapter 8

EXAMPLES (Continued)
FIRE MISSION (POLAR)
Initial Fire Request
Observer
Z56 THIS IS Z31, FIRE FOR EFFECT, POLAR,
OVER.

FDC

THIS IS Z56, FIRE FOR EFFECT, POLAR,


OUT.
DIRECTION 4520, DISTANCE 2300, DOWN
35, OVER.
DIRECTION 4520, DISTANCE 2300, DOWN
35, OUT.
INFANTRY COMPANY IN OPEN, ICM, OVER.
INFANTRY COMPANY IN OPEN, ICM, OUT.
Message to Observer
Y, VT, 3 ROUNDS, TARGET AF2036, OVER.
Y, VT, 3 ROUNDS, TARGET AF2036, OUT.
FIRE MISSION (SUPPRESSION)
Observer
H18 THIS IS H24, SUPPRESS AB3104, OVER.

FDC
THIS IS H18, SUPPRESS AB3104, OUT.

FIRE MISSION (IMMEDIATE SUPPRESSION)


Observer
H18 THIS IS H24, IMMEDIATE
SUPPRESSION, GRID 211432, OVER.

FDC
THIS IS H18, IMMEDIATE SUPPRESSION,
GRID 211432, OUT.

Note. A two gun section using two rounds of HE or VT normally fires immediate suppression missions.
However, the -type of ammunition, units to fire, and volume may vary based on unit SOP.

Figure 8-47b. Fire mission examples (continued)

ADJUSTING FIRES
8-137. An observer's prime concern is the placement of timely and accurate fires on targets. If an
observer can locate the target accurately, he will request FIRE FOR EFFECT in his call for fire. Failure
to locate the target accurately may result from poor visibility, deceptive terrain, poor maps, or the
observer's difficulty in pinpointing the target. If the observer cannot locate the target accurately enough to
warrant FFE, he may conduct an adjustment. Even with an accurate target location, if current firing data
corrections are not available, the FDO (FA), or mortar platoon leader may direct that an adjustment be
conducted. Normally, one gun is used in adjustment. Special situations in which more than one gun is used
are so noted throughout this discussion.

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8-138. When it is necessary for the observer to adjust fire, he must select an adjusting point. In area
missions, he must select a well-defined point near the center of the target area on which to adjust the fire.
The point selected is called an adjusting point. The location of this point is the target location element of
the call for fire in an area fire mission
8-139. Prior to commencing area fire adjustments, the first thing to be determined is the observer-target
(OT) direction followed by determining the OT factor. To determine the OT factor when the OT range is
greater than 1,000 meters, the range from the observer to the target (OT distance) is expressed to the
nearest thousand and then expressed in thousands (see Figure 8-48).

EXAMPLE
OT range = 4,200 meters
OT distance (expressed to nearest thousand) = 4,000
OT factor (expressed in thousands) = 4
Figure 8-48. Observer target factor calculation
8-140. For an OT range less than 1,000 meters, the distance is expressed to the nearest 100 meters and
expressed in thousands (see Figure 8-49).

EXAMPLE
OT range = 800 meters
OT factor = 0.8
Figure 8-49. Observer target factor

SPOTTINGS
8-141. A spotting is the observer's determination of the location of the burst (or the mean point of impact
[MPI] of a group of bursts) with respect to the adjusting point as observed along the OT line. Spottings are
made for the following:
z
Deviation (the number of mils right or left of the OT line).
z
Distance (whether the burst occurred beyond or short of the target).
z
When fuze time is fired, the height of burst (HOB) (the number of mils the burst is above the
target).
8-142. Spottings must be made by the observer the instant the bursts occur except when the spottings are
delayed deliberately to take advantage of drifting smoke or dust. The observer is usually required to
announce his spottings during his early training; experienced observers make spottings mentally. The
observer should consider the most difficult spottings first. The sequence of spottings is HOB (air or graze),
range (over or short), and deviation (left or right). For the purpose of this manual we will only discuss
deviation and range spottings for an in-depth discussion on adjustment of fire (see FM 6-30).

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Chapter 8

Range Spotting
8-143. Definite range spottiness is required to make a proper range adjustment. Any range spotting other
than DOUBTFUL, LOST, or UNOBSERVED is definite. Normally, a round which impacts on or near
the OT line results in a definite range spotting. Figure 8-50 shows the approximate areas for various range
spottiness. An observer may make a definite range spotting when the burst is not on or near the OT line by
using his knowledge of the terrain, drifting smoke, shadows, and wind. However, even experienced
observers must use caution and good judgment when making such spottiness. Possible range spottiness are
as follows:
z
OVER. A round that impacts beyond the adjusting point.
z
SHORT. A round that impacts between the observer and the adjusting point.
z
TARGET. A round that impacts on the target. This spotting is used only in precision fire
(registration or destruction missions).
z
RANGE CORRECT. A round that impacts at the correct range.
z
DOUBTFUL. A round that can be observed but cannot be spotted as OVER, SHORT,
TARGET, or RANGE CORRECT.
z
LOST. A round whose location cannot be determined by sight or sound.
z
UNOBSERVED. A round not observed but known to have impacted (usually heard).
z
UNOBSERVED OVER or SHORT. A round not observed but known to have impacted over
or short.

Figure 8-50. Range spotting for observer adjustments

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Deviation Spotting
8-144. A deviation spotting is the angular measurement from the adjusting point to the burst as seen from
the observer's position. During a fire mission, the observer measures the deviation, in mils, with his
binoculars (or another angle-measuring instrument). Deviation spottings are measured to the nearest 5 mils
for area fires and 1 mil for precision fires (see Figure 8-51). Possible deviation spottings are as follows:
z
LINE. A round that impacts on line (LN) with the adjusting point as seen by the observer (on
the OT line).
z
LEFT. A round that impacts left (L) of the adjusting point in relation to the OT line.
z
RIGHT. A round that impacts right (R) of the point in relation to the OT line.

Figure 8-51. Deviation spotting of 30 left

TYPES OF CORRECTIONS
8-145. After a spotting has been made, the observer must send corrections to the FDC to move the burst
onto the adjusting point. The corrections are sent, in meters, in reverse of the order used in making
spottings; that is, deviation, range, and HOB.

Deviation Corrections
8-146. The distance in meters that the burst is to be moved (right or left) is determined by multiplying the
observer's deviation spotting in mils by the OT distance in thousands of meters (the OT factor). Table 8-9
depicts some deviation corrections. Deviation corrections are expressed to the nearest 10 meters. A
deviation correction less than 30 meters is a minor deviation correction. It should not be sent to the FDC
except as refinement data or in conduct of a destruction mission.

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Chapter 8

Table 8-9. Deviation computations


OT Range

OT Factor

Spotting Example

Deviation Correction

4,000 meters
2,500 meters
3,400 meters
1,500 meters
700 meters

4
2
3
2
0.7

45R
100L
55L
20R
45L

LEFT 180
RIGHT 200
RIGHT 160
LEFT 40
RIGHT 30

Range Correction
8-147. When making a range correction, the observer attempts to "add" or "drop" the adjusting round,
along the OT line, from the previous burst to the target. If his spotting was SHORT, he will add; if his
spotting was OVER, he will drop. The observer must be aggressive in the adjustment phase of an adjust
fire mission. He must use every opportunity to shorten that phase. He should make every effort to correct
the initial round onto the target and enter FFE as soon as possible. Successive bracketing procedures
should be used only when time is not critical. When conducting an adjustment onto a target, the observer
may choose to establish a range bracket.

ADJUSTMENT TECHNIQUES
8-148. There are four techniques that can be used to conduct area adjustment fires. Successive
bracketing is best when observers are inexperienced or when precise adjustment is required, such as
precision registrations and destruction missions. It mathematically ensures that FFE rounds will be within
50 meters of the target. Hasty bracketing is best when responsive fires are required and the observer is
experienced in the adjustment of fire. One-round adjustment provides the most responsive fires but
generally requires either an experienced observer or an observer equipped with a LRF. Creeping fire is used
in danger close missions. Upon completion of each mission, refinement data and surveillance are required.
From this surveillance the FDC can determine the effectiveness of the fires.

Successive Bracketing
8-149. After the first definite range spotting is determined, the observer should send a range correction to
the FDC to establish a range bracket of known distance (one round over and one round short). Once the
bracket has been established, the observer successively splits the bracket until he is assured the rounds will
be within 50 meters of the adjusting point when he fires for effect. Normally, range changes of 100, 200,
400, or 800 meters are used to make splitting the bracket easier. The observer enters FFE when he is sure
of rounds impacting within 50 meters of the adjusting point (see Figure 8-52 through Figure 8-57).

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Engage Direct and Indirect Fires (Crew)

EXAMPLE
The first round impacts over the adjusting point. The observer should
send a drop correction enough to place the next round short of
the adjusting point.

Figure 8-52. Initial splash of adjustment fire

EXAMPLE
The observer sends DROP 400 (-400) after observing his first round.
The next round impacted short of the adjusting point.

Figure 8-53. First adjustment round, DROP 400

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Chapter 8

EXAMPLE
The observer has now established a range bracket. He has had one round over
and one short of the adjusting point, separated by 400 meters. Using the
successive bracketing technique, the observer sends ADD 200 (+200).

Figure 8-54. Second adjustment, ADD 200

EXAMPLE
The third round impacts over the adjusting point. The observer has a 200-meter
bracket because round 2 impacted short of the adjusting point and the distance
between the two rounds was 200 meters. Splitting the bracket, the observer
sends DROP 100 (-100), FIRE FOR EFFECT.

Figure 8-55. Final adjustment, DROP 100, FIRE FOR EFFECT

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Engage Direct and Indirect Fires (Crew)

Hasty Bracketing
8-150. Experience has shown that effectiveness on the target decreases as the number of rounds used in
adjustment increases. An alternative to successive bracketing is the hasty bracketing technique. Successive
bracketing mathematically ensures the observer that the FFE rounds will impact within 50 meters of the
adjusting point, however, it is a slow and unresponsive technique. Therefore, if the nature of the target
dictates that effective fires are required in less time than the successive bracketing technique would take,
the hasty bracketing technique should be used. The success of hasty bracketing adjustment depends on a
thorough terrain analysis that gives the observer an accurate initial target location. The observer gets a
bracket on his first correction much as in the successive bracketing technique. He uses this initial bracket
as a yardstick. to determine his subsequent correction. He then sends the FDC the correction to move the
rounds to the target and FIRE FOR EFFECT.
EXAMPLE
The first round impacts approximately 35 mils right and 100 meters short of
the adjusting point. The observer spots it as SHORT, 35 RIGHT. With an OT
factor of 4, the observer sends LEFT 140, ADD 200.

Figure 8-56. Hasty bracketing, first round

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Chapter 8

EXAMPLE
The next round impacts approximately 10 mils left and 50 meters over the adjusting
point. The observer spots it as OVER, 10 LEFT. He looks at the round and the
adjusting point and decides that he needs to go right 40 meters (10 x OT factor of 4)
and drop 50. He will then be on his adjusting point. Therefore, he sends
RIGHT 40, DROP 50, FIRE FOR EFFECT.

Figure 8-57. Hasty bracketing, second round

One-Round Adjustment
8-151. Unlike the preceding two adjustment techniques, this method does not require the establishment of
a bracket. The observer spots the location of the first round, calculates and transmits to the FDC the
corrections necessary to move the burst of the round to the adjusting point, and fires for effect. This
technique requires either an experienced observer or one with accurate distance-measuring equipment such
as a LRF. All missions conducted by using a ground/vehicular laser locator designator (G/VLLD) should
be FFE or one-round adjustments.

Creeping Fire (Danger Close)


8-152. The creeping method of adjustment is used during danger close missions. The observer should
make range changes by creeping the rounds to the target, using corrections of 100 meters or less, rather
than making large range corrections.

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Chapter 9

Engage Collective
Chapter 9 provides standardized methods for directing and controlling fires
applicable to the individual vehicle, the section, and the entire platoon. Chapter 9
covers the procedures used from the time targets are acquired, through the placement
of fires on those targets, to the reporting of the effects of those fires to the
company/troop commander. Also included are considerations for fire distribution and
control during offensive and defensive operations. Although the discussion focuses
on actions at the platoon and section level, these actions are always integrated into,
and become part of, the company or troop plan.

Contents
Section I Section, Platoon, and
Company Fire Control............................... 9-2
Principles of Fire Control .................... 9-2
Fire Control Measures ........................ 9-3
Section II Direct Fire Planning and
Execution ................................................. 9-13
Direct Fire Planning .......................... 9-13
Company/Platoon/Section Fire
Commands ....................................... 9-14

Section III Indirect Fire Planning and


Execution ................................................. 9-18
Indirect Fire Planning ........................ 9-18
Indirect Fire Team ............................. 9-19
Fire Planning ..................................... 9-19
Fire Support Planning for Offensive
Operations ........................................ 9-20
Fire Support Planning for Defensive
Operations ........................................ 9-21
Target Attack..................................... 9-26

Figure 9-1. Engagement process (engage)

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9-1

Chapter 9

SECTION I SECTION, PLATOON, AND COMPANY FIRE CONTROL

PRINCIPLES OF FIRE CONTROL


9-1. Effective fire control requires a unit to rapidly acquire the enemy and mass the effects of fires to
achieve decisive results in the close fight. When planning and executing direct fires, the commander and
subordinate leaders must know how to apply several fundamental principles. The purpose of these
principles of direct fire is not to restrict the actions of subordinates. Applied correctly, these principles help
the company team accomplish its primary goal in any direct fire engagementto both acquire first and
shoot first giving subordinates the freedom to act quickly upon acquisition of the enemy. This discussion
focuses on the following principles:
z
Mass the effects of fire.
z
Destroy the greatest threat first.
z
Avoid target overkill.
z
Employ the best weapon for the target.
z
Minimize friendly exposure.
z
Prevent fratricide.
z
Plan for limited visibility conditions.
z
Develop contingencies for diminished capabilities.

MASS THE EFFECTS OF FIRE


9-2. The company team must mass its fires to achieve decisive results. Massing entails focusing fires at
critical points and distributing the effects. Random application of fires is unlikely to have a decisive effect.
For example, concentrating the company teams fires at a single target may ensure its destruction or
suppression; however, that fire control technique will probably not achieve a decisive effect on the enemy
formation or position.

ASSESS AND DESTROY THE MOST DANGEROUS THREAT FIRST


9-3. The order in which the company team engages enemy forces is in direct relation to the danger they
present. The threat posed by the enemy depends on his weapons, range, and positioning. Presented with
multiple targets, a unit will, in almost all situations, initially concentrate fires to destroy the greatest threat,
and then distribute fires over the remainder of the enemy force.

AVOID TARGET OVERKILL


9-4. Use only the amount of fire required to achieve necessary effects. Target overkill wastes ammunition
and ties up weapons that are better employed acquiring and engaging other targets. The idea of having
every weapon engage a different target, however, must be tempered by the requirement to destroy the
greatest threats first.

EMPLOY THE BEST WEAPON FOR THE TARGET


9-5. Using the appropriate weapon for the target increases the probability of rapid enemy destruction or
suppression and saves ammunition. The company team has many weapons with which to engage the
enemy. Target type, range, exposure, weapons and ammunition availability, and desired target effects are
key factors in determining the weapon and ammunition that should be employed. Additionally, leaders
should consider individual crew capabilities when deciding on the employment of weapons. The
commander task organizes and arrays his forces based on the terrain, enemy, and desired effects of fires
(an example is when the commander expects an enemy infantry assault in restricted terrain, he would
employ his infantry squads, taking advantage of their ability to best engage numerous, fast-moving targets).

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MINIMIZE FRIENDLY EXPOSURE


9-6. Units increase their survivability by exposing themselves to the enemy only to the extent necessary
to engage them effectively. Natural or man-made defilade provides the best cover from kinetic energy (KE)
direct fire munitions. Crews and squads minimize their exposure by constantly seeking effective available
cover, attempting to engage the enemy from the flank, remaining dispersed, firing from multiple positions,
and limiting engagement times.

PREVENT FRATRICIDE
9-7. All personnel must be proactive in reducing the risk of fratricide and noncombatant casualties. There
are numerous tools to assist in this effort. They are identification training for combat vehicles and aircraft,
the units weapons safety posture, the weapons control status (WCS), recognition markings, and a common
operational picture (COP). Knowledge and employment of applicable rules of engagement (ROE) are the
primary means of preventing noncombatant casualties.

PLAN FOR EXTREME LIMITED VISIBILITY CONDITIONS


9-8. At night, limited visibility fire control equipment enables the company team to engage enemy forces
at nearly the same ranges that are applicable during the day. Obscurants such as dense fog, heavy smoke,
and blowing sand, however, can reduce the capabilities of thermal and infrared (IR) equipment. The unit
should, therefore, develop contingency plans for such extreme limited visibility conditions. Although
decreased acquisition capabilities have minimal effect on area fire, point target engagements will likely
occur at decreased ranges. Typically, firing positions, whether offensive or defensive, must be adjusted
closer to the area or point where the commander intends to focus fires. Another alternative is the use of
visual or IR illumination when there is insufficient ambient light for passive light intensification devices.

DEVELOP CONTINGENCIES FOR DIMINISHED CAPABILITIES


9-9. Leaders initially develop plans based on their units maximum capabilities; they make alternate plans
for implementation in the event of casualties or weapon damage or failure. While leaders cannot anticipate
or plan for every situation, they should develop plans for what they view as the most probable occurrences.
Building redundancy into these plans, such as having two systems observe the same sector, is an invaluable
asset when the situation (and the number of available systems) permits. Designating alternate sectors of fire
provides a means of shifting fires if adjacent elements are knocked out of action. Examples of
contingencies for diminished capabilities include
z
Designating certain vehicles to engage certain targets due to ammunition shortages or weapon
malfunctions.
z
Designating certain vehicles within the combined arms platoon to engage certain targets due to
inherent weapon range/firepower limitations.
z
Designating certain vehicles to engage certain targets due to vehicle fire control system
malfunctions.

FIRE CONTROL MEASURES


9-10. Fire control measures are the means by which the commander or subordinate leaders control fires.
Application of these concepts, procedures, and techniques assist the unit in acquiring the enemy, focusing
fires on him, distributing the effects of the fires, and preventing fratricide. At the same time, no single
measure is sufficient to effectively control fires. At the company team level, fire control measures will be
effective only if the entire unit has a common understanding of what they mean and how to employ them.
The following discussion focuses on the various fire control measures employed by the company team.
Table 9-1 lists the control measures; it is organized by whether they are terrain-based or threat-based.

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9-3

Chapter 9

Table 9-1. Common fire control measures


Terrain-Based Fire Control Measures

Threat-Based Fire Control Measures

Target reference point


Engagement area
Sector of fire
Direction of fire
Terrain-based quadrant
Friendly-based quadrant
Maximum engagement line
Restrictive fire line
Final protective line

Rules of engagement
Weapons ready posture
Weapons safety posture
Weapons control status
Engagement priorities
Engagement criteria
Engagement techniques
Fire patterns
Target array

TERRAIN-BASED FIRE CONTROL MEASURES


9-11. The company team commander uses terrain-based fire control measures to focus and control fires on
a particular point, line, or area rather than on a specific enemy element. The following paragraphs describe
the tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP) associated with this type of control measure.

Target Reference Point


9-12. A target reference point (TRP) is a recognizable point on the ground that leaders use to orient
friendly forces and focus and control direct fires. In addition, when TRPs are designated as indirect fire
targets, they can be used in calling for and adjusting indirect fires. Leaders designate TRPs at probable
enemy locations and along likely avenues of approach. These can be natural or man-made points. A TRP
can be an established site, such as a hill or a building, or an impromptu feature designated as a TRP on the
spot, like a burning enemy vehicle or smoke generated by an artillery round. Friendly units can also
construct markers to serve as TRPs. Ideally, TRPs should be visible in three observation modes (unaided,
passive-IR, and thermal) so they can be seen by all forces. Example of TRPs include the following features
and objects:
z
Prominent hill mass.
z
Distinctive building.
z
Observable enemy position.
z
Destroyed vehicle.
z
Ground-burst illumination.
z
Smoke round.

Engagement Area
9-13. This fire control measure is an area along an enemy avenue of approach where the commander
intends to mass the fires of available weapons to destroy an enemy force. The size and shape of the
engagement area (EA) is determined by the degree of relatively unobstructed intervisibility available to the
units weapon systems in their firing positions and by the maximum range of those weapons. Typically,
commanders delineate responsibility within the EA by assigning each platoon a sector of fire or direction
of fire; these fire control measures are covered in the following paragraphs.

Sector of Fire
9-14. A sector of fire is a defined area that must be covered by direct fire. Leaders assign sectors of fire to
subordinate elements, crew-served weapons, and individual Soldiers to ensure coverage of an area of
responsibility. Leaders may also limit the sector of fire of an element or weapon to prevent accidental
engagement of an adjacent unit. In assigning sectors of fire, commanders and subordinate leaders consider
the number and types of weapons available. In addition, they must consider acquisition system type and

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3 September 2009

Engage Collective

field of view in determining the width of a sector of fire (for example, while unaided vision has a wide
field of view, its ability to detect and identify targets at certain ranges and in limited visibility conditions is
restricted). Conversely, most fire control acquisition systems have greater detection and identification
ranges than the unaided eye, but their field of view is narrow. Means of designating sectors of fire
include
z
TRPs.
z
Clock direction.
z
Terrain-based quadrants.
z
Friendly-based quadrants.

Direction of Fire
9-15. A direction of fire is an orientation or point used to assign responsibility for a particular area on the
battlefield that must be covered by direct fire. Leaders designate directions of fire for the purpose of
acquisition or engagement by subordinate elements, crew-served weapons, or individual Soldiers.
Direction of fire is most commonly employed when assigning sectors of fire would be difficult or
impossible because of limited time or insufficient reference points. Means of designating a direction of fire
include
z
Closest TRP.
z
Clock direction.
z
Cardinal direction.
z
Tracer on target.
z
IR laser pointer.

Quadrants
9-16. Quadrants are subdivisions of an area created by superimposing an imaginary pair of perpendicular
axes over the terrain to create four separate areas or sectors. Quadrants can be based on the terrain, friendly
forces, or enemy formation.
9-17. The method of quadrant numbering is established in the unit standing operating procedures (SOP);
however, care must be taken to avoid confusion when quadrants based on terrain, friendly forces, and the
enemy formations are used simultaneously.
Terrain-Based Quadrant
9-18. A terrain-based quadrant entails use of a TRP, either existing or constructed, to designate the center
point of the axes that divide the area into four quadrants. This technique can be employed in both offensive
and defensive operations. In the offense, the commander designates the center of the quadrant using an
existing feature or by creating a reference point (for example, using a ground burst illumination round, a
smoke marking round, or a fire ignited by incendiary or tracer rounds). The axes delineating the quadrants
run parallel and perpendicular to the direction of movement. In the defense, the commander designates the
center of the quadrant using an existing or constructed TRP.
9-19. In the examples shown in Figure 9-2, quadrants are marked using the letter Q and a number (Q1 to
Q4); quadrant numbers are in the same relative positions as on military map sheets (from Q1, as the upper
left-hand quadrant, clockwise to Q4, as the lower left-hand quadrant).

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9-5

Chapter 9

Figure 9-2. Examples of terrain-based quadrants


Friendly-Based Quadrant
9-20. The friendly-based quadrant technique entails superimposing quadrants over the units formation.
The center point is based on the center of the formation, and the axes run parallel and perpendicular to the
general direction of travel. For rapid orientation, the friendly-quadrant technique may be better than the
clock-direction method; this is because different elements of a large formation are rarely oriented in the
same direction and because the relative dispersion of friendly forces causes parallax to the target. Figure
9-3 illustrates use of friendly-based quadrants.

Figure 9-3. Example of friendly-based quadrants

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Engage Collective

Maximum Engagement Line


9-21. A maximum engagement line (MEL) is the linear depiction of the farthest limit of effective fire for a
weapon or unit. This line is determined by the weapons or units maximum effective range and by the
effects of terrain. For example, slope, vegetation, structures, and other features provide cover and
concealment that may prevent the weapon from engaging out to the maximum effective range. An MEL
serves several purposes. The commander may use it to prevent crews from engaging beyond the maximum
effective range, to define criteria for the establishment of triggers, and to delineate the maximum extent of
battle space on the sector sketch.

Restrictive Fire Line


9-22. A restrictive fire line (RFL) is a linear fire control measure beyond which engagement is prohibited
without coordination. In the offense, the commander may designate an RFL to prevent a base of fire
element from firing into the area where an assaulting element is maneuvering. This technique is
particularly important when armored vehicles support the maneuver of infantry squads. In the defense, the
commander may establish an RFL to prevent the unit from engaging a friendly rifle squad positioned in
restricted terrain on the flank of an avenue of approach.

Final Protective Line


9-23. The final protective line (FPL) is a line of fire established where an enemy assault is to be checked
by the interlocking fires of all available weapons. The unit reinforces this line with protective obstacles and
with final protective fires (FPF) whenever possible. Initiation of the FPF is the signal for elements, crews,
and individual Soldiers to shift fires to their assigned portion of the FPL. They spare no ammunition in
repelling the enemy assault, a particular concern for machine guns and other automatic weapons.

THREAT-BASED FIRE CONTROL MEASURES


9-24. The company team commander uses threat-based fire control measures to focus and control fires by
directing the unit to engage a specific enemy element rather than to fire on a point or area. The following
paragraphs describe the TTPs associated with this type of control measure.

Fire Patterns
9-25. Fire patterns are a threat-based measure designed to distribute the fires of a unit simultaneously
among multiple, similar targets. They are most often used by platoons to distribute fires across an enemy
formation. Leaders designate and adjust fire patterns based on terrain and the anticipated enemy formation.
The basic fire patterns, illustrated in Figure 9-4, are the following:
z
Frontal.
z
Cross.
z
Depth.
Frontal
9-26. Leaders may initiate frontal fire when targets are arrayed in front of the unit in a lateral
configuration. Weapon systems engage targets to their respective fronts (for example, the left flank weapon
engages the left-most target; the right flank weapon engages the right-most target). As targets are
destroyed, weapons shift fires toward the center of the enemy formation and from near to far.
Cross
9-27. Leaders initiate cross fire when targets are arrayed laterally across the units front in a manner that
permits diagonal fires at the enemys flank or when obstructions prevent unit weapons from firing
frontally. Right flank weapons engage the left-most targets; left flank weapons engage the right-most
targets. Firing diagonally across an EA provides more flank shots, thus increasing the chance of kills. It

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9-7

Chapter 9

also reduces the possibility that friendly elements will be detected if the enemy continues to move forward.
As enemy targets are destroyed, weapons shift fires toward the center of the enemy formation.
Depth
9-28. Leaders initiate depth fire when targets are dispersed in depth, perpendicular to the unit. Center
weapons engage the closest targets; flank weapons engage deeper targets. As the unit destroys targets,
weapons shift fires toward the center of the enemy formation.

Figure 9-4. Examples of fire patterns

Target Array
9-29. Target array permits the commander to distribute fires when the enemy force is concentrated and
terrain-based controls are inadequate. This threat-based distribution measure is created by superimposing a
quadrant pattern over an enemy formation. The pattern is centered on the enemy formation, with the axes
running parallel and perpendicular to the enemys direction of travel. The target array fire control measure
is effective against an enemy with a well-structured organization and standardized doctrine; however, it
may prove less effective against an enemy that presents few organized formations or does not follow strict
prescribed tactics. Quadrants are described using their relative locations. The examples in Figure 9-5
illustrate the target array technique.

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Engage Collective

Figure 9-5. Examples of target array

Engagement Priorities
9-30. Engagement priorities, which entail the sequential ordering of targets to be engaged, can serve one or
more of the following critical fire control functions:
z
Prioritize high-priority targets (HPT). In concert with his concept of the operation, the
commander determines which target types provide the greatest payoff; he can then set these as a
unit engagement priority. (Example: The commander may decide that destroying enemy
engineer assets is the best way to prevent the enemy from breaching an obstacle.)
z
Employ the best weapons for the target. Establishing engagement priorities for specific
friendly systems increases the effectiveness with which the unit employs its weapons. (Example:
The engagement priority for the company teams tanks could be enemy tanks first, then enemy
personnel carriers (PC); this would decrease the chance that the teams lighter systems will have
to engage enemy armored vehicles.)
z
Distribute the units fires. Establishing different priorities for similar friendly systems helps to
prevent overkill and achieve effective distribution of fires. (Example: The commander may
designate the enemys tanks as the initial priority for one Bradley Fighting Vehicle [BFV]
platoon while making the enemys PCs the priority for another platoon. This would decrease the
chance of multiple tube-launched, optically-tracked, wire-guided [TOW] being launched against
two enemy tanks while the dangers posed by the PCs are ignored.)

Weapons Ready Posture


9-31. The weapons ready posture is a means by which leaders use their estimate of the situation to specify
the ammunition and range for the most probable anticipated engagement. The ammunition selection is
dependent on the target type, but the leader may adjust it based on engagement priorities, desired effects,
and effective range. Range selection is dependent on the anticipated engagement range; it is affected by
terrain intervisibility, weather, and light conditions. Within the company team, weapons ready posture
affects the types and quantities of ammunition loaded in ready boxes, stowed in ready racks, and carried by
rifle squads.
9-32. The following considerations apply:
z
For tanks, weapons ready posture is defined as the battlecarry.
z
For BFVs, weapons ready posture covers the selected ammunition and the indexed range.

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9-9

Chapter 9

For infantry squads, weapons ready posture is the selected ammunition and indexed range for
individual and crew-served weapons. (Example: An M203 grenadier whose most likely
engagement is to cover dead space at 200 meters from his position might load high-explosive
dual-purpose [HEDP] ammunition and set 200 meters on his quadrant sight. To prepare for an
engagement in a wooded area where engagement ranges are extremely short, an anti-armor
specialist might dismount with an AT4 instead of a Javelin.)

Engagement Criteria
9-33. Engagement criteria is a specific set of conditions that dictates initiation of fires. Engagement
criteria, specifies the circumstances in which subordinate elements are to engage. The circumstances can be
based on a friendly or enemy event. (Example: The engagement criteria for a friendly platoon to initiate
engagement could be three or more enemy combat vehicles passing or crossing a given point or trigger
line. This trigger line can be any natural or man-made linear feature, such as a road, ridgeline, or stream. It
may also be a line perpendicular to the units orientation, delineated by one or more references points.)

Rules of Engagement
9-34. ROEs specify the circumstances and limitations under which forces may engage; they include
definitions of combatant and noncombatant elements and prescribe the treatment of noncombatants.
Factors influencing ROE are national command policy, the mission and commanders intent, the
operational environment, and the law of war. ROE always recognize a Soldiers right of self-defense; at the
same time, they clearly define circumstances in which he may fire.

Weapons Safety Posture


9-35. Weapons safety posture is an ammunition handling instruction that allows the commander to
precisely control the safety of his units weapons. Leaders supervision of the weapons safety posture, as
well as Soldiers adherence to it, minimizes the risk of negligent discharge and fratricide. Table 9-2
outlines procedures and considerations for the company team in using the four weapons safety postures,
listed in ascending order of restrictiveness:
z
Red direct (ammunition loaded).
z
Red tight (ammunition locked).
z
Amber and clear (ammunition prepared).
z
Green and clear (weapons cleared).
9-36. In setting and adjusting the weapons safety posture, the commander must weigh the desire to prevent
negligent discharges against the requirement for immediate action based on the enemy threat. If the threat
of direct contact is high, for example, the commander may establish the weapons safety posture as
ammunition loaded. If the requirement for action is less immediate, he may lower the posture to
ammunition locked or ammunition prepared. Additionally, the commander may designate different
weapons safety postures for different elements of the unit. For example, in the attack position, tanks and
BFVs may switch to ammunition loaded while rifle squads riding in BFVs remain at ammunition locked.

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3 September 2009

Engage Collective

Table 9-2. Weapons safety posture levels


Element Safety
Posture

Tank Weapons and


Ammunition

BFV Weapons and


Ammunition

Crew-Served and Squad


Weapons and
Ammunition

Red Direct

Main gun ammunition


loaded.
Machine gun
ammunition on feed
tray, bolt locked to
rear.
Smoke grenades in
launchers.
Weapons on electrical
safe.

25-mm rounds cycled to


the bolt.
Coax rounds on feed
tray, bolt locked to rear.
TOW missiles in
launchers.
Smoke grenades in
launchers.
Weapons on electrical
safe.

Rifle rounds chambered.


Machine gun and SAW
ammunition on feed tray,
bolt locked to rear.
Grenade launcher
loaded.
Weapons on manual
safe.

Red Hold

Main gun ammunition


is loaded.
Machine gun
ammunition on feed
tray, bolt forward.
Smoke grenades in
launchers.
Weapons on electrical
and mechanical safe.

25-mm rounds loaded


in feeder but not cycled
to the bolt.
Coax rounds on feed
tray, bolt locked to rear.
TOW missiles in
launchers.
Smoke grenades in
launchers.
Weapons on electrical
safe.

Magazines locked into


rifles.
Machine gun and SAW
ammunition on feed tray,
bolt locked forward.
Grenade launcher
unloaded.

Amber and Clear

Main gun ready rack


filled.
Machine gun
ammunition boxes
filled.
Smoke grenades in
launchers. Weapons
on electrical and
mechanical safe.

25-mm ready boxes


filled. First round at the
forwarder.
Coax ammunition boxes
filled.
TOW missiles in
launchers.
Smoke grenades in
launchers.
Weapons on electrical
safe.

Magazines, ammunition
boxes, launcher
grenades, hand
grenades prepared but
stowed in pouches/vests.

Green and Clear

Main gun ready rack


filled.
Machine guns cleared
with bolts locked to
the rear. Weapons on
electrical and
mechanical safe.

25-mm feeder removed,


feeder and chamber
cleared.
Coax bolt group
removed and chamber
clear.

Magazines, ammunition
boxes and launcher
grenades removed,
weapons cleared.

Engagement Techniques
9-37. Engagement techniques are effects-oriented fire distribution measures. The following engagement
techniques, the most common in company team operations, are covered in this discussion:
z
Point fire.
z
Area fire.
z
Simultaneous fire.
z
Alternating fire.

3 September 2009

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9-11

Chapter 9

z
z
z
z

Observed fire.
Sequential fire.
Time of suppression.
Reconnaissance by fire.

Point Fire
9-38. Point fire entails concentrating the effects of a units fire against a specific, identified target such as a
vehicle, machine gun bunker, or antitank guided missile (ATGM) position. When leaders direct point fire,
all of the units weapons engage the target, firing until it is destroyed or the required time of suppression
has expired. Employing converging fires from dispersed positions makes point fire more effective because
the target is engaged from multiple directions. The unit may initiate an engagement using point fire against
the most dangerous threat, and then revert to area fire against other, less threatening point targets.
Area Fire
9-39. Area fire involves distributing the effects of a units fire over an area in which enemy positions are
numerous or are not obvious. If the area is large, leaders assign sectors of fire to subordinate elements
using a terrain-based distribution method such as the quadrant technique. Typically, the primary purpose of
the area fire is suppression; however, sustaining effective suppression requires judicious control of the rate
of fire.
Simultaneous Fire
9-40. Units employ simultaneous fire, to rapidly mass the effects of their fires or to gain fire superiority
(for example, a unit may initiate a support by fire operation with simultaneous fire, and then revert to
alternating or sequential fire to maintain suppression). Simultaneous fire is also employed to negate the low
probability of hit and kill of certain antiarmor weapons (for example, a rifle squad may employ
simultaneous fire with its AT4s to ensure rapid destruction of a BMP).
Alternating Fire
9-41. In alternating fire, pairs of elements continuously engage the same point or area target one at a time
(for example, a company team may alternate fires of two platoons; a tank platoon may alternate the fires of
its sections; or an infantry platoon may alternate the fires of a pair of machine guns). Alternating fire
permits the unit to maintain suppression for a longer duration than does volley fire; it also forces the enemy
to acquire and engage alternating points of fire.
Observed Fire
9-42. Observed fire is normally used when the company team is in protected defensive positions with
engagement ranges in excess of 2,500 meters. It can be employed between elements of the company team,
such as the tank platoon lasing and observing while the BFV platoon fires, or between sections of a
platoon. The commander or platoon leader directs one element or section to engage. The remaining
elements or section observes fires and prepares to engage on order in case the engaging element
consistently misses its targets, experiences a malfunction, or runs low on ammunition. Observed fire allows
for mutual observation and assistance while protecting the location of the observing elements.
Sequential Fire
9-43. Sequential fire entails the subordinate elements of a unit engaging the same point or area target one
after another in an arranged sequence (for example, a mechanized infantry platoon may sequence the fires
of its four BFVs to gain maximum time of suppression). Sequential fire can also help to prevent the waste
of ammunition, as when an infantry rifle platoon waits to see the effects of the first Javelin before firing
another. Additionally, sequential fire permits elements that have already fired to pass on information they
have learned from the engagement. An example would be an infantryman who missed a BMP with AT4
fires passing range and lead information to the next Soldier preparing to engage the BMP with an AT4.

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Engage Collective

Time of Suppression
9-44. Time of suppression is the period, specified by the commander, during which an enemy position or
force is required to be suppressed. Suppression time is typically dependent on the time it will take a
supported element to maneuver. Normally, a unit suppresses an enemy position using the sustained rate of
fire of its automatic weapons. In planning for sustained suppression, leaders must consider several factors:
the estimated time of suppression, the size of the area being suppressed, the type of enemy force to be
suppressed, range to the target, rates of fire, and available ammunition quantities. The following example
lists steps that a unit might take in calculating time of suppression capabilities:
z
The BFVs in a mechanized infantry platoon are given the task of suppressing an area to support
the assault of another element.
z
One BFV, firing 25-mm high-explosive incendiary with tracer (HEI-T) ammunition at a
sustained rate of 60 rounds per minute, expends 180 rounds (capacity of the large ready box,
minus sufficient rounds for easy reloading) in 3 minutes.
z
Given an adjusted basic load of 720 rounds of high-explosive (HE), a single BFV can sustain
fire for four periods of 3 minutes, requiring three reloads of 180 rounds into the large ready box.
z
A BFV crew, using a loader in the troop compartment, can reload the large ready box with 180
rounds in about 3 minutes if the ammunition is already prepared for loading.
z
Using an individual BFVs sustained rate of fire of 60 rounds per minute and alternating the fire
of sections to permit reloading (one section fires for 3 minutes while the other reloads), the
platoon can sustain 120 rounds per minute for 24 minutes.
Reconnaissance by Fire
9-45. Reconnaissance by fire is the process of engaging possible enemy locations to elicit a tactical
response, such as return fire or movement. This response permits the commander and subordinate leaders
to make accurate target acquisition and then mass fires against the enemy element. Typically, the
commander directs a subordinate element to conduct the reconnaissance by fire (for example, he may direct
an overwatching platoon to conduct the reconnaissance by fire against a probable enemy position before
initiating movement by a bounding element).

SECTION II DIRECT FIRE PLANNING AND EXECUTION

DIRECT FIRE PLANNING


9-46. Leaders plan direct fires to be able to distribute and control their fire. Determining where and how
the company team can mass fires is an essential step in this process. See FM 3-90.1 for a detailed
discussion of the process of the company team.
9-47. Based on where and how they want to focus and distribute fires, leaders can establish the weapons
ready postures for their elements, as well as engagement criteria for initiating fires. During mission
preparation, leaders plan and conduct rehearsals of direct and indirect fires (and of the fire control process)
based on the estimate of the situation.

DIRECT FIRE STANDING OPERATING PROCEDURES


9-48. A well-rehearsed direct fire SOP ensures quick, predictable actions by all members of the company
team. The commander bases the various elements of the SOP on the capabilities of his force and on
anticipated conditions and situations. SOP elements should include means for
z
Focusing fires.
z
Distributing their effects.
z
Orienting forces.
z
Preventing fratricide.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

9-13

Chapter 9

COMPANY/PLATOON/SECTION FIRE COMMANDS


9-49. Fire commands are oral orders issued by commanders and leaders to focus and distribute fires as
required and to achieve decisive effects against the enemy. They allow leaders to rapidly and concisely
articulate their firing instructions using a standard format. Unit fire commands include these elements,
which are discussed in detail in the following paragraphs:
z
Alert.
z
Weapon or ammunition (optional).
z
Target description.
z
Orientation.
z
Range (optional).
z
Control.
z
Execution.
z
WCS.

ALERT
9-50. The alert specifies the elements that are directed to fire. It does not require the leader initiating the
command to identify himself. Examples of the alert element (call signs and code words based on unit SOP)
include the following:
z
GUIDONS (all subordinate elements).
z
RED (1st Platoon only).
z
ALPHA (Alpha Section only).

WEAPON OR AMMUNITION (OPTIONAL)


9-51. This element identifies the weapon and/or ammunition to be employed by the alerted elements.
Leaders may designate the type and number of rounds to limit expenditure of ammunition. Examples of
this element include the following:
z
TOW.
z
TWO ROUNDS SABOT.

TARGET DESCRIPTION
9-52. Target description designates which enemy elements are to be engaged. Leaders may use the
description to focus fires or achieve distribution. Examples of target description include the following:
z
THREE PCs.
z
THREE TANKS AND TEN PCs.
z
TROOPS IN TRENCH.

ORIENTATION
9-53. This element identifies the location of the target. There are numerous ways to designate the location
of target, including
z
Closest TRP (example: TRP 13).
z
Clock direction (example: ONE OCLOCK).
z
Terrain quadrant (example: QUADRANT ONE).
z
Friendly quadrant (example: LEFT FRONT).
z
Target array (example: FRONT HALF).
z
Tracer on target (example: ON MY TRACER).
z
Laser pointer (example: ON MY POINTER).

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3 September 2009

Engage Collective

RANGE (OPTIONAL)
9-54. The range element identifies the distance to the target. Announcing range is not necessary for
systems that are range finder equipped or that employ command-guided or self-guided munitions. For
systems that require manual range settings, leaders have a variety of means for determining range,
including
z
Predetermined ranges to TRPs or phase lines (PL).
z
An M1A1/M1A2 tank crew announcing the range for a M2/M3 A2-equipped platoon.
z
Hand-held range finders.
z
Range stadia.
z
Mil reticle.

CONTROL
9-55. The commander may use this element to direct desired target effects, distribution methods, or
engagement techniques. Subordinate leaders may include the control element to supplement the
commanders instructions and achieve effective distribution. Examples of information specified in the
control element include
z
Target array (example: FRONT HALF).
z
Fire pattern (example: FRONTAL, DEPTH, CROSS).
z
Terrain quadrant (example: QUADRANT ONE).
z
Engagement priorities (example: TANKS ENGAGE TANKS; BFVs ENGAGE PCs).
z
Engagement technique (example: VOLLEY, AREA).

WEAPONS CONTROL STATUS


9-56. The final element is the WCS. The three levels of WCS outline the conditions, based on target
identification criteria, under which friendly elements may engage. The commander sets and adjusts the
WCS based on friendly and enemy disposition and the clarity of the situation. In general, the higher the
probability of fratricide, the more restrictive the WCS. The three levels, in descending order of
restrictiveness, are
z
WEAPONS HOLD. Engage only if engaged or ordered to engage.
z
WEAPONS TIGHT. Engage only targets that are positively identified as enemy.
z
WEAPONS FREE. Engage any targets that are not positively identified as friendly.
z
CEASE FIRE. All firing will immediately stop.
9-57. As an example, the commander may establish the WCS as WEAPONS HOLD when friendly forces
are conducting a passage of lines. By maintaining situational understanding (SU) of his own elements and
adjacent friendly forces; however, he may be able to lower the WCS. In such a case, the commander may
be able to set a WEAPONS FREE status when he knows there are no friendly elements in the vicinity of
the engagement. This permits his elements to engage targets at extended ranges even though it is difficult
to distinguish targets accurately at ranges beyond 2,000 meters under battlefield conditions. A further
consideration is that the WCS is extremely important for forces using combat identification systems;
establishing the WCS as WEAPONS FREE permits leaders to engage an unknown target when they fail to
get a friendly response.

EXECUTION
9-58. The execution element specifies when fires will be initiated. The commander may wish to engage
immediately, delay initiation, or delegate authority to engage. Examples of this element include
z
FIRE.
z
AT MY COMMAND...FIRE
z
AT PHASE LINE _____________.

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FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

9-15

Chapter 9

PLATOON MOVEMENT COMMAND (DEFENSIVE ENGAGEMENTS)


9-59. The platoon movement command is used while engaging from a defensive battle position. It allows
the platoon leader to coordinate the movement of the platoon from the defilade to an enfilade position and
back to the defilade at the end of the engagement. It ensures that the platoons firepower is maximized in
the EA and assists in promoting shock effect. The most commonly used example of this element
includes
z
TOP HAT, TOP HAT (Tells the platoon to move from their defilade position to the enfilade).
z
LOW SKY, LOW SKY (Tells the platoon to move from their enfilade position back down to
the defilade).

Sample Fire Commands

Figure 9-6. Sample frontal fire command

9-16

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Engage Collective

Figure 9-7. Sample cross-fire command

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

9-17

Chapter 9

Figure 9-8. Sample depth fire command

SECTION III INDIRECT FIRE PLANNING AND EXECUTION

INDIRECT FIRE PLANNING


9-60. Mortars are organic to the combined arms battalion or reconnaissance squadron. They are organized
as platoons in all combined arms battalions. They are organized as sections in cavalry troops. Regardless of
the organization to which they belong, mortars have the battlefield role of providing the maneuver
commander with immediate indirect fires. This section provides an overview for planning organic indirect
fires. See FM 3-90.1 and FM 3-22.91 for a detailed discussion.

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FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Engage Collective

9-61. For mortar fire to be effective, it must be dense enough to hit the target at the right time with the
right projectile and fuze. Some type of observation is desirable for every target to ensure that fire is placed
on the target.
9-62. Mortars are area fire weapons; however, units can employ them to neutralize or destroy area or point
targets, screen large areas with smoke for sustained periods, or provide illumination.

INDIRECT FIRE TEAM


9-63. Indirect fire procedures are a team effort (Figure 9-9). They include locating the target, designating
the correct asset to fire the mission, determining firing data, applying data to the mortar, and preparing the
ammunition. Fire support teams (FIST) are located in artillery units and, depending on the mission, are
attached to maneuver units. The team consists of a forward observer (FO), a fire direction center (FDC),
and mortar squads.
9-64. The FO, as part of the FIST, is normally provided by a direct support (DS) artillery battalion. One
four-man FO team supports each mechanized infantry/armor company.
9-65. The FDC has two computer personnel in each section who control the mortar firing. They convert
the data from the FO in a CFF into firing data that can be applied to the mortar and ammunition.

Figure 9-9. Indirect fire team

FIRE PLANNING
9-66. The ability of mortar platoons to engage targets with accurate and sustained fires depends on the
precision and detail of fire plans. Fire planning is concurrent and continuous at all levels of command. The
principles of fire planning used by field artillery (FA) also apply to mortars.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

9-19

Chapter 9

FIRE SUPPORT PLANNING FOR OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS


9-67. Fires planned to support an attack consist of a preparation, if ordered, and subsequent fires. The
preparation may be delivered before the advance of the assault elements from their line of departure (LD)
and may continue for a short time thereafter. Fires planned for the preparation are normally limited to
known targets and suspected areas. The delivery of fires on scheduled targets should be consistent with the
threat imposed, time available for coordination, and availability of ammunition.
9-68. Fires planned in support of the attack are shifted to conform to the movements of the supported unit.
They are planned in the form of targets, groups of targets, and series of targets. They may be fired on a
time schedule or on-call and may include targets from the LD to the objective, on the objective, and
beyond the objective.
9-69. Supporting fires have several specific objectives. They assist the advance of the supported unit by
neutralizing enemy forces, weapons, and observation short of the objective. They assist the supported unit
in gaining fire superiority on the objective so that the assaulting force can close to assault distance, and
they protect the supported unit during reorganization. On-call targets are planned on likely assembly areas
and routes for enemy counterattacks. Supporting fires prevent the enemy from reinforcing, supplying, or
disengaging his forces.
9-70. The following are some general offensive fire support (FS) planning considerations:
z
Synchronize targeting meetings with the air tasking order (ATO) cycle, and use them to refine
high-payoff target lists (HPTL) and confirm decide, detect, deliver, and assess (D3A)
methodology.
z
Post the most current maneuver graphics, fire support coordination measures (FSCM), FS unit
locations, ranges of FS systems and targets.
z
Check the target overlay periodically to ensure that the current enemy situation is reflected in
targeting.
z
Ensure that fire plans address the commanders FS guidance and allocation of resources. Fire
support elements (FSE) must allow enough time both to update FS computers for rehearsals and
convert them back for actual operations.
z
Check communications systems with all elements.
z
Determine the times that all FS systems must be ready based on the scheme of maneuver.
z
Determine how and when to shift the priority of fires. Also, determine what will be the trigger
for shifting the priorities of fire.
z
Consider developing an interdiction plan to disrupt enemy preparation of the objective.
z
Plan fires short of the LD/line of contact (LD/LC). Plan defensive fires (for example, FPFs) for
unit assembly areas and trains.
z
Plan fires en route to the LD/LC.
z
Plan fires to support a hasty defense if attack fails.
z
Plan fires to limit enemy efforts at counterreconnaissance.
z
Plan fires from the LD/LC to the objective.
z
Provide priority of fires to lead elements.
z
Consider using fires to suppress enemy direct fire weapons.
z
Consider using smoke to limit enemy observation of friendly maneuver elements.
z
Consider using smoke to screen friendly obstacle breaching operations.
z
Consider planning fires on exposed flanks to disrupt counterattacks.
z
Consider task organization of observers to ensure that all critical targets are observed.

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FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Engage Collective

Consider preparatory fires. Ensure that they are tied to maneuver events (that is, are not just
timed). Advantages must outweigh the loss of surprise. Fires must be accurate to be effective;
consider how successful reconnaissance efforts have beenand whether there will there be a
need to adjust preparation fires before executing the assault. Ensure that ammunition is available
to accomplish the commanders guidance. Consider whether the enemy will be able to recover
from the effects of the preparation prior to the assault.
Determine when and how to shift fires (particularly priority targets en route). Use: time (at a
predetermined time, fires will shift), location (fires shift when maneuver reaches a certain
location, such as a PL), on call (the maneuver commander directs when the fires shift), or event
(a predetermined event signals shifting of fires). Ensure that the method to be used is understood
by all FS assets, from observer to delivery means.
Plan fires on the objective

Consider fires to delay enemy reinforcements and resupply by ground or air.

Consider fires to suppress enemy direct fire weapons.

Consider obscurants to screen friendly forces or obscure hostile ground observation when
consolidating on the objective.

Designate a signal for lifting or shifting fires. Ensure that the signal is understood by
maneuver elements.

Plan fires in support of a hasty defense upon successful attack of the enemy objective.
Plan fires beyond the objective

To divert, delay, disrupt, or limit enemy reinforcements.

To block avenues of approach for counterattacking forces. Consider using FA-delivered


scatterable mine (SCATMINE) to assist in this effort.

To disrupt or delay enemy retreat.

Ensure that subordinate elements maintain communications and report unit location and
status hourly.

FIRE SUPPORT PLANNING FOR DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS


9-71. Fires in support of defensive operations include long-range fires, close defensive fires (CDF), FPFs,
and fires within the battle area.

Long-Range Fires
9-72. Long-range fires are designed to engage the enemy as early as possible to inflict casualties, delay his
advance, harass him, interdict him, and disrupt his organization. Long-range weapons engage the enemy as
soon as he comes within range. As a result, the volume of fire increases as the enemy continues to advance
and comes within range of additional weapons. A counterpreparation designed to disrupt the enemys
attack preparations before the attack can be fired as part of long-range fires.

Close Defensive Fires


9-73. CDFs are supporting fires employed to destroy the enemy attack formations before the assault.

Final Protective Fires


9-74. FPFs are planned to prohibit or break up the enemy assault on the forward defense area. They consist
of prearranged fires of supporting weapons to include machine gun FPLs and mortar and artillery FPF.
Only those weapons whose FPFs are in front of the threatened units will fire their assigned fires; all other
available weapons will use observed fire to supplement or reinforce the FPF in the threatened area. Direct
fire weapons will engage targets in front of the threatened area to reinforce FPF or to engage other targets.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

9-21

Chapter 9

9-75. The artillery and mortar FPF are integrated with the FPL of machine guns. Each artillery battery
normally fires one FPF. The mortar platoon of the battalion may fire one or two FPF; however, the
platoons fires are more effective in one FPF than in two.
9-76. The following are some general defensive FS planning considerations:
z
Synchronize targeting meetings with the ATO cycle, and use them to refine HPTL and confirm
D3A methodology.
z
Post the most current maneuver graphics, FSCMs, FS unit locations, and ranges of FS systems
and targets.
z
Check the target overlay periodically to ensure that the current enemy situation is reflected in
targeting.
z
Ensure that fire plans built at brigade and subordinate levels are based on the commanders FS
guidance and allocation of resources. Fire plans (to include special munitions, such as
SCATMINE) must be entered into the FS computer in time to conduct technical rehearsals and
prepare for firing.
z
Check communications systems with all elements.
z
Identify requirements for positioning observers forward of friendly maneuver forces. Ensure that
extraction guidelines are established and understood. Develop backup plans in case these FOs
are forced to withdraw prior to execution of key essential fire support tasks (EFST).
z
Determine what time is needed for all FS systems to be ready based on the scheme of maneuver,
and ensure that these times are met.
z
Determine how and when to shift the priority of fires. Determine what will be the trigger to
shift the priority of fires.
9-77. In addition, in planning FS for defensive operations, plan FS early and throughout the entire
defensive sector
z
Plan fires in support of the security area.
z
Plan counterreconnaissance fires. Consider augmenting forward elements with observers and the
use of laser-guided munitions, if available.
z
Plan fires to support delaying actions, to disrupt or limit the momentum of the enemys attack, to
reduce the enemys combat power, and to force the enemy commander to deploy his forces
early. When applicable, fires may also support efforts to divert an enemys attack.
z
Locate and destroy HPTs that must be eliminated to prevent enemy success and to support
friendly shaping and decisive operations.
z
Consider using fires to separate enemy formations.
z
Position observers on templated avenues of approach.
z
Plan fires on key choke points.
z
Employ combat observation and lasing team (COLT) and Knight teams in overwatch positions
to provide early warning, range-finding, and target designation.
z
Plan SCATMINE and smoke to separate lead elements from follow-on forces

Ensure that FS assets are identified and directed to support the counterfire battle.

Plan counter-preparation fires.

Coordinate common sensor boundaries to help in delineating radar responsibilities.


z
Plan fires in the main battle area (MBA)

Plan fires throughout the MBA.

Mass fires to limit, disrupt, delay, divert, and damage the enemy.

Plan fires to assist maneuver during retrograde operations.

Position secondary observers to back up those observers responsible for observing key
areas or executing critical FS triggers.

Plan fires on key obstacles and assign redundant observers to execute the fire plan.

Know the engineer obstacle plan and types of obstacles.

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Engage Collective

Consider the terrain when targeting obstacles. Fires placed incorrectly force the enemy to
take an alternate course of action.

Consider the use of smoke to support the obstacle plan.


Plan fires in support of EAs

Use FS to canalize the enemy.

Plan groups for simultaneous engagement within EAs.

Plan series to preclude enemy movement out of EAs.

Mass fires in EAs.

Plan coordinated attack in EAs with air assets.

Consider the use of illumination in the EA.


Plan defensive fires

Integrate FS into the direct fire defensive plan.

Suppress enemy indirect and direct fire weapons.

Assign priority targets and FPFs to battle positions, strong points, or perimeter defenses.

Plan for use of smoke during periods of limited visibility to degrade enemy night vision
capabilities.

Plan for contingencies to reallocate FS to strengthen vulnerabilities.


Plan to support hasty attack

Use quick fire planning techniques.

Place coordinated fire line (CFL) close to forward defensive positions to facilitate rapid
engagements.

TERMINOLOGY
9-78. Some of the common terms used in fire planning are defined as follows:
z
Target. A target is troops, weapons, equipment, vehicles, buildings, or terrain that warrants
engagement by fire and that may be numbered for future reference (see Figure 9-10). A solid
cross designates a target on overlays, with the center of the cross representing the center of the
target. The target number consists of two letters and four numbers allocated by higher
headquarters. This numbering system identifies the headquarters that planned the target,
distinguishes one target from another, and prevents duplication.
z
Targets of opportunity. Targets of opportunity are targets for which fires have not been
planned.
z
Planned targets. Planned targets are scheduled or on call.

Scheduled targets are fired at a specific time before or after H-hour, or upon completion of
a predetermined movement or task.

On-call targets are fired only upon request. They include targets for which firing data is
kept current, and targets for which firing data is not prepared in advance (for example, a
road junction (a prominent terrain feature) that the FO may use as a reference point).

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Chapter 9

Figure 9-10. Scheduled target (TRP type)

Figure 9-11. Planned targets (linear type)


z

9-24

FPF. FPF is an immediately available, prearranged barrier of fire designed to impede enemy
movement across defensive lines or areas (Figure 9-12). The FPF is represented on a map or
firing chart by a linear plot. The designation of the unit that will fire the FPF is placed above the
plot representing the FPF.

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Engage Collective

Figure 9-12. Linear target symbol with FPF label

TARGET CONSIDERATIONS
9-79. Planned targets include areas of known, suspected, and likely enemy locations and prominent terrain
features. These areas are determined through intelligence sources, knowledge of the situation, and map and
terrain study. They are planned without regard to boundaries or weapon abilities. Duplication of effort will
be resolved by the next higher headquarters.

FIRE SUPPORT COORDINATION MEASURES


9-80. The FIST and FS planners use FSCM to ensure that fires impacting in their zone will not jeopardize
troop safety, interfere with other FS means, or disrupt adjacent unit operations.

Boundaries
9-81. Boundaries determined by maneuver commanders establish the operational zone for a maneuver unit
and the area in which the commander fires and maneuvers freely. A unit may fire and maneuver against
clearly identified enemy targets near or over its boundary, as along as such action does not interfere with
adjacent units.

Coordination Measures
9-82. Coordination measures designate portions of the battlefield where actions may or may not be taken.
The fire support coordinator (FSCOORD) or FIST chief recommends coordination measures; the
commander establishes them. Coordination measures facilitate operations by establishing rules and
guidelines for selected areas for a given time. There are two categories: permissive and restrictive.
z
Permissive Measures. Permissive measures are drawn in black on overlays and maps. They are
titled and indicate the establishing headquarters and the effective date, time group (DTG).
Permissive measures allow fires into an area such as a free-fire area or across a line; an example
of such is a fire support coordination line (FSCL) that need not be further coordinated as long as
they remain within the zone of the established headquarters.

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Chapter 9

A coordinated fire line is a line beyond which conventional surface FS meansmortars, FA,
and naval gunfire (NGF)may fire any time within the zone of the establishing
headquarters without further coordination.

An FSCL is a line beyond which all targets may be attacked by any weapon system without
endangering troops or requiring further coordination with the establishing headquarters.
The effects of any weapon system may not fall short of this line.

A free-fire area is a designated area into which any weapon system may fire without further
coordination with the establishing headquarters.
Restrictive Measures. Restrictive measures are drawn in red. They are titled and indicate the
establishing headquarters and the effective DTG. Restrictive measures mean that fires into an
area or across a line must be coordinated with the establishing headquarters on a case-by-case
basis. Examples of restrictive measures include a restrictive fire area (RFA), a no-fire area, a
RFL, and an airspace coordination area (ACA).

A RFA is an area in which specific restrictions are imposed and into which fires that exceed
those restrictions will not be delivered without coordination with the establishing
headquarters.

A no-fire area is an area in which no fires or effects of fires are allowed. There are two
exceptions:

When the establishing headquarters approves fires temporarily within a no-fire area on
a mission basis.

When an enemy force within the no-fire area engages a friendly force and the
commander engages the enemy to defend his force.

A RFL is a line established between converging friendly forces (one or both may be
moving) that prohibits fires or effects from fires across the line without coordination with
the affected force.
An ACA is a block of airspace in the target area in which friendly aircraft are reasonably safe
from friendly surface fires. It may be a formal measure, but it is usually informal.

TARGET ATTACK
9-83. The FIST chief, when planning fires or deciding to engage a target, ensures that the fire conforms to
the scheme of maneuver of the supported unit. He must also be informed of the present enemy situation. In
determining the method of attack, the FDC chief considers target description, registration data, size of
attack area, and the maximum rate of fire.

METHOD OF ATTACK
9-84. The method of attacking a target depends largely on its description, which includes the type, size,
density, cover, mobility, and importance. Those factors are weighed against the guidelines established by
the commander. The FDC then decides the type of projectile, fuze, fuze setting, and ammunition to be
used.
z
Fortified targets must be destroyed by point-type fire using projectiles and fuzes appropriate for
penetration. Mortar fire does not usually destroy armor, but it can harass and disrupt armor
operations.
z
A target consisting of both men and materiel is normally attacked by area fire using air or impact
bursts to neutralize the area. Flammable targets are engaged with HE projectiles to inflict
fragmentation damage, and then with white phosphorous (WP) projectiles to ignite the material.

9-26

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Engage Collective

9-85. The method of attacking a target is governed by the results desired: suppression, neutralization, or
destruction.
z
Suppressive Fires. Suppressive fires limit the ability of enemy troops in the target area to be an
effective force. HE/PROX (proximity) creates apprehension or surprise and causes tanks to
button up. Smoke is used to blind or confuse, but the effect lasts only as long as fires are
continued.
z
Neutralization. Neutralization knocks the target out of the battle temporarily. Ten percent or
more casualties usually neutralize most units. The unit becomes effective again when casualties
are replaced and equipment repaired.
z
Destructive Fires. Destructive fires put the target out of action permanently. A unit with 30
percent or more casualties is usually rendered permanently ineffective, depending on the type
and discipline of the force. Direct hits are required on hard materiel targets.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

9-27

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Chapter 10

Assess
After the crew has engaged a hostile target with either direct or indirect fires, the
crew collectively must assess the effects of their fires. The accurate assessment of the
effects of fires will determine further courses of action to eliminate the target in the
event the fires were unsuccessful, or shift their fires to additional targets on the
battlefield. Accuracy in the assessment phase of the detect, identify, decide, engage,
and assess (DIDEA) process and systematic reporting of their fires effects to a higher
headquarters provides the maneuver commander critical information necessary to
make key decisions for the unit (see Figure 10-1). The vehicle commander (VC) will
have to understand kill standards (what amount of lethal force is required to destroy a
threat) and the classification of effects; mobility, firepower, catastrophic, or a
combination. He will also need to understand what the classifications of indirect fire
assessments are, and interpret those assessments into accurate reports. This chapter
details the engagement assessment process, methods to terminate direct and indirect
fires, and report the end results of those fires.

Contents
Section I Engagement Termination .... 10-2
Section II Engagement Assessment ... 10-2
Direct Fire Engagement Assessment 10-2
Indirect Fire Engagement
Assessment ...................................... 10-3

Section III Reports ................................ 10-4

Figure 10-1. The engagement process (assess)

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

10-1

Chapter 10

SECTION I ENGAGEMENT TERMINATION


10-1. The VC (or fire support officer [FSO] for indirect fire engagements) must determine when to cease
fire against a target, when to shift fire to another target when multiple targets are present, and when to
tactically move from one fighting position to another. Target effect may not always be clear to the crew,
depending on battlefield effects (fog of war), local and threat target obscurants, weather, and optics
capabilities. This requires leaders to make tactical decisions based on key indicators of munitions effects
against threat targets.

SECTION II ENGAGEMENT ASSESSMENT


10-2. When friendly forces have either directly or indirectly engaged the enemy, they must perform an
assessment of enemy battle damage and threat forces casualties. Leaders must understand the effects of
their fires and interpret their observations of those effects on enemy forces to their higher headquarters. By
providing this information, crews help build a consolidated picture for the maneuver commander who will
determine if the enemy is destroyed, neutralized, suppressed, or dispersed. The maneuver commander may
also decide to continue the engagement or bypass the enemy.

DIRECT FIRE ENGAGEMENT ASSESSMENT


KILL STANDARDS
10-3. Kill standards are classified as mobility, firepower, mobility and firepower, and catastrophic.
z
A mobility kill degrades a vehicles ability to move under its own power but still maintains the
ability to use its weapon systems.
z
A firepower kill prevents a vehicles ability to use its weapon systems.
z
A combined mobility and firepower kill will make the vehicle noncombat effective.
z
A catastrophic kill is a total loss of weapons systems, vehicle mobility, and all onboard
equipment.

ARMORED VEHICLES
Kill Standard
10-4. Based on the ammunition and time required to achieve destruction, the standard is achieving a
catastrophic kill. The minimum standard is to at least achieve a mobility or firepower kill. This renders the
vehicle and its systems ineffective against friendly forces.

Kill Indicators
10-5. During an engagement, the gunner or commander may cease or shift fire to a different target for
many reasons. Most of these reasons are based off of the observed actions of the threat vehicle. When
assessing target effects and determining if they should lift of shift fires to another target, crew should look
for some of the following signs:
z
The vehicle stops moving. If a vehicle stops moving, VCs may wish to reengage in the event the
vehicle maintains the ability to engage his vehicle with direct fires in a degraded capacity.
z
The vehicle stops firing.
z
The vehicle is smoking from what appears to be internal damage.
z
The vehicle explodes with immense smoke and flames or secondary explosions occur.
z
The crew abandons the vehicle.

10-2

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Assess

Note. When a 25-mm round (armor-piercing [AP] or high-explosive [HE]) or tube-launched,


optically-tracked, wire-guided (TOW) missile hits an armored vehicle, an observable explosion
with flash occurs. This is the effect of the round impacting on the target, not necessarily an
indication of damage to the target.

UNARMORED VEHICLES
Kill Standard
10-6. Threat unarmored vehicles are multiwheeled, which allows them to continue operating with one or
more tires punctured. The standard against an unarmored vehicle is the same as an armored target; to
achieve a catastrophic kill. At a minimum, the crew should cause a mobility kill or cause the driver and
crew to abandon the vehicle before lifting or shifting fires to another target.

Kill Indicators
10-7. One or more of the following indicators may cause the gunner or commander to cease fire or shift to
a different target:
z
The vehicle stops moving. If a vehicle stops moving, VCs may wish to reengage in the event the
vehicle maintains the ability to engage his vehicle with direct fires in a degraded capacity.
z
The vehicle stops firing.
z
The vehicle explodes.
z
The crew abandons the vehicle.

DISMOUNTED TROOPS AND ANTI-ARMOR SYSTEMS


Kill Standard
10-8. Destruction of dismounted troop point and area targets is difficult to measure. The goal is to
neutralize the dismounted troops and anti-armor firepower capability of the target through destruction,
damage, or suppression.

Kill Indicators
10-9. When engaging point or area dismounted troop or anti-armor targets, the following indicators may
lead the commander to cease or shift fire:
z
The dismounted troop threat stops maneuvering.
z
The dismounted troop threats anti-armor fire ceases or becomes noticeably ineffective.
z
Dismounted troop casualties are observed.
Note. When suppressing an area target, the duration of required suppression is based on the
mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available, time available, civil
considerations (METT-TC) requirements of the situation. Suppression should be maintained as
long as the unit gains a tactical advantage by doing so or until another element can close with
the target and destroy it.

INDIRECT FIRE ENGAGEMENT ASSESSMENT


10-10. Indirect fire assessment is based on the mission type and method of attack. For illumination and
smoke missions, assessment is based on whether the mission met the commanders intent. For attack
missions, the assessment of success is based on the desired result of the engagementsuppression,
neutralization, or destruction.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

10-3

Chapter 10

SUPPRESSION
10-11. The primary objective of suppressive fires is to get the enemy to keep their heads down, which
reduces shoot, move, or observation capability of their surroundings. Suppressive fire can be aimed at
direct target such as an enemy vehicle or at an area target such as a tree line where suspected enemy troops
are hiding. When suppressing an area target, the duration of the required suppression is based on the
METT-TC requirements of the situation. Suppression should be maintained as long as possible for the unit
to gain a tactical advantage or until another element can close with the target and destroy it. The other
elements should only close on the enemy once coordination has been conducted and fires have been lifted
or shifted.
10-12. The purpose of suppression fire has three purposes
z
To kill or destroy threat targets as quickly as possible.
z
To stop the threats engagement process.
z
To allow the maneuver force to close in on the threat position to provide more accurate fires.
10-13. The threat engagement process is similar to our process. In a continuous cycle, the threat elements
perform the following actions:
z
Detect you.
z
Identify you as a threat.
z
Decide to engage you with the type of armament or firepower they currently have or deliver to
you (indirect).
z
Engage you.
z
Assess the effectiveness of their fires.
10-14. If the enemys engagement cycle is interrupted, the target is suppressed. Once the threat target is
suppressed, they must return to the beginning of their engagement process. This will allow the vehicle
more time to reposition and provide more effective fires on the threat target. Suppressive fires may
continue depending on how rapidly the threat returns to the engage element of the engagement process or
until the threat has been neutralized or destroyed.

NEUTRALIZATION
10-15. A target is neutralized when it is temporarily taken out of the battle. Neutralizing a unit allows the
maneuver commander to decide whether to continue to engage with indirect fires, maneuver to the target
and engage with direct fires or bypass a target and proceed with other missions.

DESTRUCTION
10-16. Destructive fires render the vehicles or enemy units capabilities to shoot, move, communicate, and
observe ineffective. A unit with thirty percent or more casualties is usually considered destroyed,
depending on the type and discipline of the opposing force. Hard material targets require direct hits and
should be assessed by the same kill standards as for direct fire engagements by the FSO. Although the kill
indicators remain the same for direct and indirect fires, caution should still be taken when maneuvering
closer to the engaged threat. These threats, although appearing to be destroyed, may still have the
capability to engage with other means, such as infantry with antitank weapons that had survived the
indirect fires.

SECTION III REPORTS


10-17. When crews have finished an engagement and when time permits, they should provide their higher
headquarters an accurate report outlining their engagement, current situation and enemy battle damage
assessment (BDA). This can be done through two reportsBLUE-2 (situation report [SITREP]) or a BDA
report. Information in the report may be based on your unit standing operating procedures (SOP) but
should provide the following at a minimum:
z
Friendly action taken/situation.
z
Estimated location of destroyed enemy vehicle(s).

10-4

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Assess

z
z
z
z

Number of vehicles engaged or destroyed.


Time of situation.
Vehicular position/posture.
Tactical intentions.

10-18. Reports should be brief but accurate and detailed enough so the maneuver commander can assess
his overall units tactical situation. Although your vehicle may not be digitally equipped, when sending
enemy positions to your command, they should be as accurate as possible. This would allow the maneuver
commander or higher headquarters the ability to plot information on the Force XXI Battle Command
Brigade and Below (FBCB2), if digitally equipped, or to determine possible threat areas if the enemy
vehicles were not catastrophically killed. If vehicles were only suppressed or the VC is not sure the
vehicles were destroyed, it should be noted in the report.
10-19. When sending the report, crew members should make the report as brief as possible. Jamming the
communication line for lengthy periods of time may cause your unit to miss critical reports such as a spot
report (SPOTREP) or contact report from another vehicle.
10-20. Example: Your vehicle, A-13, has just engaged and destroyed two tanks and one set of troops
vicinity of TRP 3. You are currently set in battle position 2B. Table 10-1 shows an example report.
Table 10-1. Situation report
Description

Radio Transmission

Friendly Action Taken

Engaged and destroyed 2 tanks and 1 set of troops

Location of Enemy Vehicles

Vicinity TRP 3

Time of Situation

1635

Vehicular Position/Posture

I am set BP-2B

Tactical Intentions

Continuing to defend, out

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

10-5

This page intentionally left blank.

Chapter 11

Training Devices
Chapter 11 identifies training aids, devices, simulators, and simulations (TADSS) that
enhance a units ability to train, sustain, and evaluate gunnery and tactical training.
Chapter 11 is not intended to be a users guide but rather gives an overview of the
systems and how they relate to a gunnery training program. Because of the high cost
of ammunition and high operational tempo of training areas, the use of TADSS at
home station is becoming increasingly more important.
Note. TADSS undergo continuing development based on evolving doctrine and
technological improvements; therefore, the information in Chapter 11 may not represent
the most current training devices available for training.

Contents
Section I TADSS Overview .................. 11-1
Section II Common TADSS .................. 11-3
Training Aids ..................................... 11-3
Devices ............................................. 11-8
Simulators and Simulations .............. 11-9
Section III Abrams TADSS ................. 11-16
Training Aids ................................... 11-16
Devices ........................................... 11-19
Simulators and Simulations ............ 11-20

Section IV Bradley TADSS ................. 11-23


Training Aids ................................... 11-23
Devices ........................................... 11-25
Simulators and Simulations ............. 11-26
Section V Armed HMMWV TADSS ..... 11-29
Training Aids ................................... 11-29
Simulators and Simulations ............. 11-31

SECTION I TADSS OVERVIEW


11-1. Trainers must identify the specific resources that increase a units ability to train, sustain, and
evaluate gunnery and tactical training. Table 11-1 offers a quick reference of the TADSS that relate to
specific systems. See Chapter 12 for a more detailed discussion of the integration of virtual training
TADSS into the gunnery training program.
11-2. TADSS are defined as
z
Training Aids. Training aids are tools that provide assistance in conducting training.
z
Devices (Appended Equipment). Appended equipment includes three-dimensional training
products that mount on the actual platform and can be activated either mechanically or
electrically.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

11-1

Chapter 11

Simulators. Simulators are stand-alone trainers that replicate the functions of equipment or
systems. They use electronic or mechanical means to reproduce conditions necessary for an
individual or crew to practice operational tasks in accordance with (IAW) training objectives.
Simulations. Simulations replicate a combat environment for training from the individual to the
collective level using computers. Simulators, as used in this manual, refer either to networked
simulators or to appended devices that provide a combat system the ability to train as a simulator.
Table 11-1. Gunnery-related TADSS and systems supported

TADDS

System Supported
Training Aids

Tracking Boards

Common

Laser Target Interface Device (LTID)

Common

Scale Models

Common

Dummy Rounds

Common

Recognition of Combat Vehicle (ROC-V)

Common

Devices (Appended Equipment)


Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement Systems
(MILES)

Common

Thru-Sight Video (TSV) Systems

Abrams/BFV Common

AIMTEST Caliber .50 Inbore Device

Abrams-Specific

Precision Gunnery System (PGS)

BFV-Specific
Simulators and Simulations

Family of Conduct-of-Fire Trainers (COFT)

M1A1 Abrams and BFV ODS and Below

Bradley Advanced Training System (BATS)

BFVA3

Family of Advanced Gunnery Training Systems

Abrams-Specific

M1A1 Tabletop Gunnery Trainer (TGT)

Abrams-Specific

Abrams Full-Crew Interactive Simulator Trainer


(AFIST) XXI

Abrams-Specific (NG only)

Advanced Bradley Full-Crew Interactive Simulator


Trainer (AB-FIST)

BFV-Specific

M2 ODS Tabletop Full-Fidelity Trainer (TFT)

BFV ODS-Specific

Engagement Skills Trainer (EST) 2000

Individual and Crew Weapons through MK19

Family of Simulations Networks (SIMNET)

BFV/Abrams Common

Combined Arms Tactical Trainer (CATT) (Family of


Systems)

Common

Close-Combat Tactical Trainer (CCTT) (CATT


Subsystem)

BFV/Abrams Common

Close-Combat Tactical Trainer Reconfigurable


Vehicle Simulator (CCTT-RVS) (CATT Subsystem)

HMMWV/HEMTT-Specific

Virtual Warrior

Individual and Crew Weapons

Virtual Combat Convoy Trainer (VCCT)

HMMWV-Specific

Virtual Convoy Operations Trainer (VCOT)

HMMWV-Specific (Levels 1 and 2) and Common


(Level 3)

11-2

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Training Devices

SECTION II COMMON TADSS


11-3. This section describes TADSS that are common to most or all platform systems within the Heavy
Brigade Combat Team (HBCT). Devices that are designed for platforms with a fire control system will not
apply to armed High-Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicles (HMMWV).

TRAINING AIDS
DUMMY ROUNDS
11-4. Various dummy rounds are available to conduct training with the M256 120-mm tank cannon, the
M242 25-mm automatic gun, MK19 machine gun, M2 HB machine gun, M240 machine guns, and the
tube-launched, optically tracked, wire-guided (TOW) system. See the platform-specific TADSS sections of
this chapter for details of various dummy round types.
11-5. Recognition of Combat Vehicle (ROC-V) is a Windows-based day optic and thermal sight vehicle
identification training program developed in support of 2d Gen forward looking, infrared (FLIR) programs.
This computer-based, multimedia training program can be tailored to serve as an individual tutorial,
collective trainer, and standardized testing tool at individual, institutional and unit levels (see Table 11-2).
Table 11-2. ROC-V usage table
Individual

Crew

INDIVIDUAL
INSTRUCTION

GST

Collective

GATE
TO
LIVE
FIRE

GT
II

GT
III

GT
IV

GT
V

GT
VI

GT
VII

GT
VIII

GT
IX

GT
X

GT
XI

GT
XII

GT

T - Suitable for training for this event

E - Enhances training for this event

P - Suitable for individual training for this event

X - Not suitable for training for this event

Capabilities and Limitations


Capabilities
11-6. ROC-V capabilities include
z
Training Vehicle Identification. Training is organized by vehicle types and confusion sets.
ROC-V can train Soldiers on three different methods of visual recognition through 360 degrees
of vehicle aspect.

Visualunaided optics.

First generation thermal.

Second generation thermal.


z
Testing Vehicle Identification. Testing is progressive throughout the training modules.
Instructors can also use a pre-generated test within the system or generate their own tests.

Gunnery skills test (GST). Instructors have the capability of generating tailored exams for
their GSTs.

Common task test (CTT). A pre-generated CTT vehicle identification test is provided with
the software, or instructors can generate their own tests.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

11-3

Chapter 11

Limitations
11-7. ROC-V limitations include
z
Limited Vehicle Backdrops. There are a limited number of pictures of each vehicle, allowing
the Soldier to memorize terrain characteristics instead of vehicle recognition cues.
z
Limited Resolution of Pictures. Various targets, especially at longer ranges, lack the resolution
for positive identification through 360 degrees of rotation.

ROC-V Training Integration


11-8. ROC-V helps Soldiers learn to identify the thermal signatures of combat vehicles through the use of
an interactive curriculum that teaches the unique patterns and shapes of vehicle hotspots, and overall
vehicle shapes and characteristics. ROC-V also provides Soldiers with practical experience in the use of
their thermal sensor image controls. Through the use of virtual sight controls, Soldiers learn to adjust their
thermal image to find targets and bring out their thermal identification (ID) cues (see Figure 11-1).
11-9. ROC-V should be integrated to the individual gunnery training program to train vehicle
identification and for testing purposes on GST.

Figure 11-1. Sample ROC-V training screen


Tracking Boards
11-10. Tracking boards are training aids that provide a crew with manipulation training for their fire
control system. The boards require the gunner and vehicle commander (VC) to traverse and elevate their
sight reticles to track within a pair of lines as if they were tracking a vehicle moving cross-country. An
advanced tracking board that incorporates physically manipulating elements of the fire control system can
be manufactured to make training more challenging to crews. Table 11-3 gives the specifications for
designing tracking boards based on the distance from vehicle to tracking board.

11-4

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Training Devices

Table 11-3. Tracking board usage table


Individual

Crew

Collective

INDIVIDUAL
INSTRUCTION

GST

GT
I

GATE
TO
LIVE
FIRE

GT
II

GT
III

GT
IV

GT
V

GT
VI

GT
VII

GT
VIII

GT
IX

GT
X

GT
XI

GT
XII

T - Suitable for training for this event

E - Enhances training for this event

P - Suitable for individual training for this event

X - Not suitable for training for this event

Tracking Board Training Integration


11-11. Power and manual control tracking board exercises should be included in individual gunnery
training to build fundamental manipulation skills in the VC and gunner. Tracking board exercises are
practiced with the primary sight, the auxiliary sight, as well as Commanders Independent Thermal View
(CITV)/Commanders Independent Viewer (CIV) and the TOW reticles, both day and night (see Figure
11-2 through Figure 11-4 and Table 11-4 and Table 11-5).

Figure 11-2. Sample basic tracking board

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

11-5

Chapter 11

Figure 11-3. Sample advanced tracking board

Figure 11-4. Advanced with swithology

11-6

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Training Devices

Table 11-4. Vehicle-to-target distance


Vehicle-to-Tracking Line
Distance (Meters)

Length of Target Line


(Meters)

Width Between Parallel Lines


(Millimeters)

1.67

14.7

10

3.33

29.4

15

5.00

44.1

20

6.67

58.8

25

8.33

73.5

30

10.00

88.2

35

11.67

102.9

40

13.33

117.6

45

15.00

132.3

50

16.67

147.0

Table 11-5. Usage Table


Individual

Crew

Collective

INDIVIDUAL
INSTRUCTION

GST

GT
I

GATE
TO
LIVE
FIRE

GT
II

GT
III

GT
IV

GT
V

GT
VI

GT
VII

GT
VIII

GT
IX

GT
X

GT
XI

GT
XII

T - Suitable for training for this event

E - Enhances training for this event

P - Suitable for individual training for this event

X - Not suitable for training for this event

11-12. Armored vehicle scaled models can be used to train crews in target acquisition, range
determination, and vehicle identification. These models are three-dimensional and are made of a hard
plastic. Scaled models enhance individual gunnery training such as range determination, gun lay, and
combat vehicle identification. Scaled models are available in 1:10, 1:30, l:35, and 1:60 scale at the local
training support center (TSC).

LASER TARGET INTERFACE DEVICE


11-13. The Laser Target Interface Device (LTID) aids in gunnery training with Multiple Integrated Laser
Engagement System (MILES)/Precision Gunnery System (PGS) (see Table 11-6). LTID allows
MILES/PGS hits on a target to activate the targets hit sensor, knocking down the target. The LTID
receives a coded MILES/PGS message and converts it into electrical pulses. These pulses activate the
shock generator mechanism that activates a hit sensor, simulating a projectile striking the target. LTID can
be used on full-scale, half-scale, or one-tenth-scale (on M31A1 lifters).
Table 11-6. Laser Target Interface Device usage table
Individual

Crew

Collective

INDIVIDUAL
INSTRUCTION

GST

GT
I

GATE
TO
LIVE
FIRE

GT
II

GT
III

GT
IV

GT
V

GT
VI

GT
VII

GT
VIII

GT
IX

GT
X

GT
XI

GT
XII

T - Suitable for training for this event

E - Enhances training for this event

P - Suitable for individual training for this event

X - Not suitable for training for this event

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

11-7

Chapter 11

11-14. The system components are


z
Detection assembly.
z
Electronic assembly.
z
Shock generator mechanism.

Laser Target Interface Device Training Integration


11-15. Targets with LTIDs enhance training on device-based gunnery Tables II, VII, and X, and,
allowing for visible target effects when using MILES or PGS. See TM 9-1265-376-10 for more
information.

DEVICES
THRU-SIGHT VIDEO SYSTEMS (ABRAMS AND BRADLEY)
11-16. Thru-sight video (TSV) systems are vehicle-appended systems that provide a video and audio
recording of gunnery or tactical engagement exercises of vehicles with a fire control system. The TSV is
designed to support all proficiency levels during dry or live-firing engagements (see Table 11-7).
Table 11-7. Thru-sight video usage table
Individual
INDIVIDUAL
INSTRUCTION

Crew
GST

GT
I

GATE
TO
LIVE
FIRE

Collective

GT
II

GT
III

GT
IV

GT
V

GT
VI

GT
VII

GT
VIII

GT
IX

GT
X

GT
XI

GT
XII

T - Suitable for training for this event

E - Enhances training for this event

P - Suitable for individual training for this event

X - Not suitable for training for this event

11-17. TSV records the gunners sight picture in real time; makes a recording of crew intercom and radio
transmissions for critique of the live fire; records and displays fire control system information (time tags,
vehicle identification, and trigger pull time) during simulated engagements and during subcaliber
engagements in order to enhance the gunnery after action review (AAR).

FAMILY OF MULTIPLE INTEGRATED LASER ENGAGEMENT SYSTEMS


11-18. MILES is an integrated family of low-power, eye-safe, laser-based devices (see Table 11-8 and
Figure 11-5). It simulates the casualty-producing effects of direct fire weapons using laser beams. When
fired, an invisible laser beam is sent out from a transmitter. The laser beam transmits coded messages
(based on the weapon and ammunition selected) to the detector belt sensors on other MILES-equipped
vehicles. Various types of MILES have been fielded including
z
MILES.
z
MILES II.
z
MILES 2000.
Table 11-8. Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System usage table
Individual

Crew

Collective

INDIVIDUAL
INSTRUCTION

GST

GT
I

GATE
TO
LIVE
FIRE

GT
II

GT
III

GT
IV

GT
V

GT
VI

GT
VII

GT
VIII

GT
IX

GT
X

GT
XI

GT
XII

T - Suitable for training for this event

E - Enhances training for this event

P - Suitable for individual training for this event

X - Not suitable for training for this event

11-8

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Training Devices

Figure 11-5. Components of vehicular MILES 2000

Capabilities and Limitations


11-19. MILES enables the crew to use the vehicle in combat training exercises (force-on-force). It also
provides the commander an economical way to train and evaluate his crews proficiency in teamwork and
crew coordination during gunnery training exercises. Burst on target (BOT) and tracer on target (TOT)
cannot be trained using MILES because the crew cannot see hit signatures or tracers.

MILES Training integration


11-20. MILES is integrated into the device-based gunnery programs for the various systems in the
HBCT. It is an alternate training device for the Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV) (when PGS is unavailable)
and the tank (when the inbore subcaliber device is unavailable or impractical to use). It can be incorporated
into device-based gunnery tables to include Tables I, II, VII, VIII, X, and XI.

SIMULATORS AND SIMULATIONS


FAMILY OF CONDUCT-OF-FIRE TRAINERS
11-21. The Conduct-of-Fire Trainer (COFT) family is one of the primary simulators for training crew
gunnery skills without using ranges, ammunition, or vehicles (see Table 11-9). The various configurations
of the COFT simulate the controls and optics of the VCs and the gunners positions. It simulates the use of
the fire control systems against stationary and moving threats, single and multiple target arrays, during day,
night, and reduced visibility conditions in various different environments. The COFT allows training
without regard to time of day or climatic conditions. The current COFT configurations are the COFT,
Abrams Mobile Conduct-of-Fire Trainer (MCOFT) XXI, Bradley COFT XXI and the Mobile Brigade
Combat Team (BCT) BCT MCOFT XXI.
Table 11-9. COFT usage table
Individual
INDIVIDUAL
INSTRUCTION

Crew

Collective

GST

GT
I

GATE
TO
LIVE
FIRE

GT
II

GT
III

GT
IV

GT
V

GT
VI

GT
VII

GT
VIII

GT
IX

GT
X

GT
XI

GT
XII

T - Suitable for training for this event

E - Enhances training for this event

P - Suitable for individual training for this event

X - Not suitable for training for this event

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

11-9

Chapter 11

Capabilities and Limitations


11-22. The COFT, currently employed by the active component, simulates the BFV Operation Desert
Storm (ODS) and below and employs the same instructional subsystem and simulated environment as the
Bradley Advanced Training System (BATS) (see page 11-27).
11-23. The BCT COFT XXI and COFT XXI are used by the reserve component and are mobile
configurations of the COFT system. BCT COFT XXI is assigned to combined arms battalions in Army
National Guard (ARNG) HBCTs. COFT XXI is specific to the Armored Reconnaissance Squadron (ARS)
of the HBCT and includes only an M3A2 ODS and below simulator. Unique characteristics of the BCT
COFT XXI and COFT XXI are
z
No fixed power supply is requiredpowered by an integral generator.
z
Databases for Europe (summer and winter), desert, urban (Zussman urban site, and geo-specific
Baghdad).
z
Crew records are interchangeable between the COFT XXI, Advanced Bradley Full-Crew
Interactive Simulator Trainer (AB-FIST), and Tabletop Full-Fidelity Trainer (TFT).

COFT Training Integration


11-24. COFT represents the primary virtual training system for equipped units for individual gunnery
virtual training and gunnery skills sustainment training. It is also a useful tool for retraining crews that
require it in the crew gunnery phase. COFT training builds the foundation of VC/gunner coordination and
trains the crew on engagement techniques for precision and degraded modes of gunnery in offensive and
defensive postures in a variety of environments. It trains in all elements of the engagement process. Some
configurations of the COFT are capable of being networked to serve as collective virtual training
simulations. Completion of COFT matrix training is a prerequisite to live-fire training.

CALL FOR FIRE TRAINER


11-25. The Call for Fire Trainer (CFFT) is an individual and collective training system that provides a
simulated battlefield for training forward observer tasks at the institutional and unit level to accurately call
for indirect fire (see Table 11-10 and Figure 11-6). It replaces the target set forward observer (TSFO)
GUARDFIST II, and Field Artillery Training System (FATS).
Table 11-10. Call for fire trainer usage table
Individual

Crew

Collective

INDIVIDUAL
INSTRUCTION

GST

GT
I

GATE
TO
LIVE
FIRE

GT
II

GT
III

GT
IV

GT
V

GT
VI

GT
VII

GT
VIII

GT
IX

GT
X

GT
XI

GT
XII

T - Suitable for training for this event

E - Enhances training for this event

P - Suitable for individual training for this event

X - Not suitable for training for this event

11-10

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Training Devices

Figure 11-6. Call for Fire Trainer

Capabilities
11-26. The capabilities are
z
Trains all Soldiers how to call for and adjust fire without the use of live ammunition.
z
Trains leaders how to conduct fire support planning, coordination, and execution of all
supporting fires.
z
Multiple terrain databases (National Training Center [NTC], Fort Sill, Baghdad).
z
Deployable/transportable and will provide advanced distributed learning simulated military
equipment, virtual environments, and Computer Generated Forces (CGF).
z
Operates in a stand-alone mode to train from 1 to 30 students.

HMMWV EGRESS ASSISTANCE TRAINER


11-27. The HMMWV Egress Assistance Trainer is a training device designed to meet the Army specific
training needs of Soldiers, institutions and the operational environment (see Table 11-11 and Figure 11-7).
Hands-on training in a replicated tactical vehicle affords commanders the capability to immerse Soldiers in
a replicated operational environment (without risking the safety of Soldiers, damaging expensive
equipment, or potentially polluting/destroying the environment).
Table 11-11. HMMWV Egress Assistance Trainer usage table
Individual

Crew

Collective

INDIVIDUAL
INSTRUCTION

GST

GT
I

GATE
TO
LIVE
FIRE

GT
II

GT
III

GT
IV

GT
V

GT
VI

GT
VII

GT
VIII

GT
IX

GT
X

GT
XI

GT
XII

T - Suitable for training for this event

E - Enhances training for this event

P - Suitable for individual training for this event

X - Not suitable for training for this event

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

11-11

Chapter 11

Figure 11-7. HMMWV Egress Assistance Trainer

Capabilities and Limitations


11-28. The capabilities and limitations are
z
Realistic training on vehicle rollover response.
z
Training for Soldiers to achieve self-control and overcome the natural fear and panic following
the catastrophic event which led to the vehicle rollover event.
z
The device is designed to increase the situational awareness of vehicle rollover by permitting the
instructor to observe driver performance and reactions to emergency conditions without
requiring the use of an actual vehicle for initial driving and sustainment training.

ENGAGEMENT SKILLS TRAINER 2000/LASER MARKSMANSHIP TRAINING SYSTEM


11-29. The Engagement Skills Trainer (EST) 2000 simulates weapon training events that lead to live-fire
individual/crew weapon qualification and training events currently not resourced under Standards and
Training Commission (STRAC) (see Table 11-12 and Figure 11-8). The system saves ammunition
resources. The EST is used primarily as a unit/institutional, indoor, multipurpose, multilane, small-arms,
crew served, and individual antitank training simulator.
Table 11-12. Engagement Skills Trainer 2000 usage table
Individual

Crew

Collective

INDIVIDUAL
INSTRUCTION

GST

GT
I

GATE
TO
LIVE
FIRE

GT
II

GT
III

GT
IV

GT
V

GT
VI

GT
VII

GT
VIII

GT
IX

GT
X

GT
XI

GT
XII

T - Suitable for training for this event

E - Enhances training for this event

P - Suitable for individual training for this event

X - Not suitable for training for this event

11-12

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Training Devices

Figure 11-8. EST 2000 Engagement Skills Trainer

Capabilities and Limitations


11-30. The EST 2000 is capable of providing three modes of training
z
Marksmanship training mode (initial and sustainment training).
z
Collective gunnery training mode (5 to 10 firers).
z
Judgmental training mode (shoot/dont shoot training).
11-31. The EST 2000 System comes in packages that are designed to support 5, 10, or 15 lane training
areas.

EST 2000 Training Integration


11-32. The EST 2000 can be incorporated into various phases of the gunnery program for virtual training.
z
Marksmanship Training Mode.

Virtual pre-live-fire training for individual and crew-served weapons in rifle squads.

Virtual pre-live-fire training for armed HMWWVs gunners and VCs.

Virtual pre-live-fire training for tank loaders on Abrams tanks (and VCs on M1A2 System
Enhancement Program [SEP] tanks).
z
Collective Gunnery Training Mode.

Squad fire distribution training.

Virtual pre-live-fire training for armed HMWWV gunners and VCs.

Virtual pre-live-fire training for tank loaders on Abrams tanks (and VCs on M1A2 SEP
tanks).
z
Judgmental Training Mode. Engagement decision training.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

11-13

Chapter 11

11-33. The Simulations Network (SIMNET) is a system of combat vehicle simulators linked to each other
over a local area network (LAN) (see Table 11-13). They simulate the M1-series tank and the M2-/M3series BFV. The upgraded versions of the SIMNET (SIMNET XXI) features improved realism of the crew
stations, fire control system, and optics over the legacy version. The configurations can vary from tank or
infantry platoon to a battalion task force. SIMNET is primarily a maneuver training simulator system;
however, it can be used to train fire distribution for collective gunnery.
Table 11-13. Simulations Network usage table
Individual

Crew

Collective

INDIVIDUAL
INSTRUCTION

GST

GT
I

GATE
TO
LIVE
FIRE

GT
II

GT
III

GT
IV

GT
V

GT
VI

GT
VII

GT
VIII

GT
IX

GT
X

GT
XI

GT
XII

T - Suitable for training for this event

E - Enhances training for this event

P - Suitable for individual training for this event

X - Not suitable for training for this event

FAMILY OF SIMULATIONS NETWORKS


Capabilities and Limitations
11-34. A company commander may train one platoon at a time using a subset of a company- or battalionsize configuration. When used as a company- or battalion-level trainer, a tactical operation center and
combat trains command post are available to act as the administration, logistics and operations centers that
would normally be present during combat operations. Computer-generated imagery is used to create the
illusion of riding in tanks and BFVs, fighting force-on-force battles.
11-35. The system and its computers are simple to use. With few exceptions, four hours of practice will
support situational training exercise (STX) training on mounted tasks. As in any training, the leader must
plan and prepare his objectives in advance and make sure the entire chain of command knows the training
objectives.
11-36. The SIMNET has only limited capability of integrating any squad/dismounted scout team training
to the platform maneuver training. SIMNET has limited ability to integrate reconnaissance HMWWV
training with tank and BFV training.

SIMNET Training Integration


11-37. SIMNET is one of the primary virtual trainers that can be used to train entire crews in maneuver
for collective gunnery. It can be effectively used to prepare leaders in the fundamentals of fire planning and
distribution for heavy-platform systems prior to conducting the collective gunnery phase.

COMBINED ARMS TACTICAL TRAINER


11-38. The Combined Arms Tactical Trainer (CATT) is a family of combined arms simulation systems
designed to support the Armys simulation-based combined arms training strategy. The initial CATT
system is the Close Combat Tactical Trainer (CCTT), which provides the underlying baseline (architecture,
terrain databases, AAR, semi-automated forces [SAF], and models/algorithms) for future CATT
expansions, pre-planned product improvements, and system enhancements. The CATT systems are
primarily maneuver trainers, not gunnery trainers; however, they can be successfully integrated into a
gunnery training program. Current versions of the CATT include
z
CCTT. The CCTT primarily simulates heavy vehicle maneuver units (see Table 11-14 and
Figure 11-9). The CCTT is a system of computer-driven combat-vehicle simulators connected
by LAN. Simulators include the M1 Abrams tank, the BFV, the HMMWV, and the Fire Support
Team Vehicle (FIST-V). The simulators work interactively to control other vehicle models and

11-14

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Training Devices

z
z

functions similar to the vehicles and functions they simulate. The trainer trains mounted crews
through battalion task force Soldiers in selected collective tasks. An important feature of the
trainer is the CGF capability that can simulate both friendly and opposing forces with only
limited human intervention from crews up through regiment.
Aviation Combined Arms Tactical Trainer (AVCATT). The AVCATT is an aviation
simulation system networkable with the CCTT.
Virtual Warrior. The virtual warrior is a rifle squad centric collective virtual training system
designed to train dismounted soldiers, leaders, and units (platoon through battalion). It enables
more frequent, repetitive, standards-based training to build and sustain readiness at home
station. The virtual warrior combines immersive Soldier and leader simulators with personal
computer-based reconfigurable vehicle simulators, dismounted Soldier multifunctional
workstations, and high-fidelity convoy trainers to support training of leaders and Soldiers from
squad/crew to company with extensions to individual Soldier and battalion echelons. The virtual
warrior will enable training on the full-spectrum of operations required in urban and complex
terrain environments.
CCTT Reconfigurable Vehicle Simulator (CCTT-RVS). CCTT-RVS introduces multiple
configurations of wheeled vehicles and their various crew-served and small-arms capabilities
into the CCTT simulated environment. The CCTT-RVS complements the standard combined
arms CCTT family with the representation of a variety of wheeled vehicles, including multiple
variants of the HMMWV and Heavy Expanded Mobility Tactical Truck (HEMTT), all equipped
with small arms simulators. The CCTT-RVS allows the training of up to five crew members,
including the driver, commander, gunner, and riflemen. The system also features

A 360-degree field of view.

Full inventory of ballistically matched weapons with the option of tetherless performance.

Organic radios and Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below (FBCB2) interfaces.

Compatibility with all CCTT terrain databases.

Single instructor station for scenario generation, exercise control, and AAR.

CATT Training Integration


11-39. The CATT simulations are among the primary virtual trainers that can be used to train entire crews
in maneuver for collective gunnery. They can be effectively used to prepare leaders in the fundamentals of
fire planning and distribution for platform systems prior to conducting the collective gunnery phase.
Table 11-14. Close Combat Tactical Trainer usage table
Individual

Crew

Collective

INDIVIDUAL
INSTRUCTION

GST

GT
I

GATE
TO
LIVE
FIRE

GT
II

GT
III

GT
IV

GT
V

GT
VI

GT
VII

GT
VIII

GT
IX

GT
X

GT
XI

GT
XII

T - Suitable for training for this event

E - Enhances training for this event

P - Suitable for individual training for this event

X - Not suitable for training for this event

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

11-15

Chapter 11

Figure 11-9. Close Combat Tactical Trainer

SECTION III ABRAMS TADSS


11-40. This section describes TADSS that are specific to the M1-series Abrams.

TRAINING AIDS
DUMMY ROUNDS
11-41. Various dummy rounds are available to conduct training with the M256 120-mm tank cannon, the
M2 HB machine gun, and M240 machine guns (see Table 11-15 and Figure 11-10).
Table 11-15. Dummy rounds usage table
Individual

Crew

Collective

INDIVIDUAL
INSTRUCTION

GST

GT
I

GATE
TO
LIVE
FIRE

GT
II

GT
III

GT
IV

GT
V

GT
VI

GT
VII

GT
VIII

GT
IX

GT
X

GT
XI

GT
XII

T - Suitable for training for this event

E - Enhances training for this event

P - Suitable for individual training for this event

X - Not suitable for training for this event

11-16

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Training Devices

Figure 11-10. 7.62mm, caliber .50 and 120-mm dummy rounds

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

11-17

Chapter 11

120-mm Sabot, HEAT, Canister, and MPAT Dummy Rounds


11-42. The 120-mm dummy rounds are inert cartridges and are not Class V items. They can be obtained
from the installation TSC. The 120-mm dummy rounds have the same weight and shape of their
representative service rounds, but the projectile and cartridge case are made of a solid black plastic to
distinguish them as dummy rounds (see Figure 11-10).

M2 Dummy Round (Caliber .50)


11-43. The M2 dummy round is a caliber .50 cartridge, minus the gun powder and primer. It is used for
non-fire training with the M2 HB machine gun. It is made of brass with a metal tip. The cartridge case has
three holes drilled into it to further identify it as a dummy round. The links can become damaged or rusty
and should be changed as often as possible.
11-44. The M2 dummy round is a Class V item and can be requisitioned with DA Form 581, Request for
Issue and Turn-In of Ammunition. (Table 11-16 contains information required for requisitioning the M2
dummy round.)

M172 Dummy Round (7.62 mm)


11-45. The M172 dummy round is a 7.62-mm cartridge, minus the gun powder and primer. It is used for
non-fire training with the M240 machine gun. It is made of brass with a metal tip. It is recommended for
use over the plastic-tipped version. (The plastic tips can become bent and get jammed, either in the weapon
or the feed chute.)
11-46. The M172 dummy round is a Class V item that can be requisitioned using DA Form 581. (Table
11-16 contains information required for requisitioning this round.)
Table 11-16. Requisition information
Nomenclature

DODIC/TASC Item Number

Cartridge, 7.62-mm Dummy M172

A159

Cartridge, 7.62-mm Dummy M172 (Carton Packed)

A162

Cartridge, Caliber .50 Dummy M2

A560

Cartridge, 120-mm Dummy M865 TPCSDS-T

DVC-T-17-107

Cartridge, 120-mm Dummy M831A TP-T

DVC-T-17-108

Cartridge, 120-mm Dummy M1002 TP-T

DVC-T-17-111

Cartridge, 120-mm Dummy M1028 Canister

DVC-T-17-113

Cartridge, 120-mm Dummy M 829A2 APFSDS-T

DVC-T-17-112

DUMMY ROUND TRAINING INTEGRATION


11-47. Dummy rounds can be used to train several of the tasks that are part of the GST and Gunnery
Table I (GT I) (Chapter 14, Individual and Crew Live-Fire Prerequisite Testing, contains the GST and
GT I).
z
Load and clear the main gun on the Abrams tank.
z
Identify 120-mm main gun ammunition using the stub-base marking (Canister only) and
projectile end.
z
Load, fire, apply immediate action, unload, and clear the tank machine guns.

11-18

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Training Devices

CAUTION
Because the M172 dummy round is made of brass and can be
damaged during training, the rounds should be inspected periodically
and replaced as needed. Continued use of damaged rounds or links
can damage the feed chute or the weapon. The links should be
changed as often as possible.

DEVICES
11-48. The caliber .50 inbore device is an internally mounted, subcaliber gunnery training device that can
be used to enhance a units gunnery training.

CALIBER .50 INBORE DEVICE


Capabilities and Limitations
11-49. The caliber .50 inbore device is a subcaliber device that provides realistic ballistic engagement of
targets at a fraction of the cost of full-caliber main gun ammunition (see Table 11-17 and Figure 11-11).
Any caliber .50 ammunition can be used with this device; however, the M962 Sabot light armor penetratortracer (SLAP-T) round is the closest ballistically matched round that will simulate the 120-mm M830 highexplosive antitank (HEAT) round out to 2,000 meters. The device has the advantage over MILES that it
employs the full fire control system, training the gunner in proper engagement techniques. It allows
complete involvement of tank crew in the engagement process and provides the ability to observe direct
fires and provide sensings for other firing vehicles. However, the caliber .50 inbore device only partially
trains the loader. The caliber .50 inbore device also enables leaders to control and distribute fires.
11-50. The caliber .50 inbore device suffers the limitation of requiring a live-fire range facility to be used.
Additionally, due to the extended surface danger zone of the M962 SLAP-T round, conventional caliber
.50 capable ranges may not support firing this system.
Table 11-17. Caliber .50 inbore device usage table
Individual

Crew

Collective

INDIVIDUAL
INSTRUCTION

GST

GT
I

GATE
TO
LIVE
FIRE

GT
II

GT
III

GT
IV

GT
V

GT
VI

GT
VII

GT
VIII

GT
IX

GT
X

GT
XI

GT
XII

T - Suitable for training for this event

E - Enhances training for this event

P - Suitable for individual training for this event

X - Not suitable for training for this event

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

11-19

Chapter 11

Figure 11-11. Caliber .50 inbore device

WARNING
When using M962 SLAP-T ammunition with the caliber .50 inbore
device, Master Gunners (during scenario development) must
ensure the range they are using supports the extended surface
danger zone of that ammunition.

Caliber .50 Inbore Device Training Integration


11-51. Training with the caliber .50 inbore device can enhance gunnery training on certain tank tables
where main gun ammunition is limited. This system can be used most effectively on Tank Tables II, VIII,
and XI. It can also be used for retraining crews on Tank Table V.
11-52. When training for collective gunnery, the caliber .50 inbore device should never be used with
platform systems that employ PGS or MILES, to avoid damaging LTID systems on the targetry.

SIMULATORS AND SIMULATIONS


FAMILY OF ADVANCED GUNNERY TRAINING SYSTEMS
11-53. The Advanced Gunnery Training System (AGTS) is a family of tank gunnery training simulators
for VC/gunner teams (see Table 11-18). Its primary purpose is to train/sustain basic gunnery skills and
increase combat gunnery skills. The AGTS places the VC and gunner in a realistically simulated crew
station and presents them with a full range of computer-controlled engagement situations. The AGTS
produces full-color, computer-generated action scenes in which crew members interact with various target
situations. Programmed exercises vary in target type and number, range, vehicle and target motion,
visibility, and other complex conditions.

11-20

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Training Devices

Table 11-18. Advanced Gunnery Training System usage table


Individual

Crew

Collective

INDIVIDUAL
INSTRUCTION

GST

GT
I

GATE
TO
LIVE
FIRE

GT
II

GT
III

GT
IV

GT
V

GT
VI

GT
VII

GT
VIII

GT
IX

GT
X

GT
XI

GT
XII

T - Suitable for training for this event

E - Enhances training for this event

P - Suitable for individual training for this event

X - Not suitable for training for this event

11-54. The variants of the AGTS family replicate the M1A1 and M1A2 SEP tanks and come in fixed-site,
mobile, and relocatable configurations. These configurations are
z
AGTS. M1A2 SEP-variant of the simulator.
z
Mobile Advanced Gunnery Training System (MAGTS). Mobile configuration of the AGTS.
z
Relocatable Advanced Gunnery Training System (RAGTS). Relocatable-variant of the
AGTS.
z
Computerized Advanced Gunnery Training System (C-AGTS). M1A1-variant of the
simulator.
z
Mobile Configuration of Computerized Advanced Gunnery Training System (MC-AGTS).
Mobile configuration of the C-AGTS.

Capabilities and Limitations


System Capabilities
11-55. The AGTS provides initial, refresher, and sustainment training for VC/gunner teams to facilitate
the crawl/walk/run training methodology. The system uses computer-generated visual scenes, targetry, and
special effects to simulate the engagement of targets. The majority of the fire control system is replicated in
both physical and functional aspects. The system trains both fully operational and degraded-mode gunnery
techniques under a wide variety of conditions. The crew training program consists of crew gunnery,
collective gunnery, sustainment, and special-purpose exercises that are designed to train fully operational
precision gunnery and battlesight gunnery techniques.
11-56. For collective gunnery training, the AGTS systems are capable of being networked for section
and platoon training. A platoon after-action review (PAAR) shelter is provided for exercise management
and conducting AARs.
Limitations
11-57. Although the AGTS places the VC and gunner in a realistically simulated crew station and
presents them with a full range of computer-controlled engagement situations, some functions of the VC
and gunner stations are physically simulated and some are not. The AGTS also provides no training for the
loader or driver.

AGTS Training Integration


11-58. AGTS represents the primary virtual training system for equipped units for individual gunnery
virtual training and gunnery skills sustainment training. It is also a useful tool for retraining crews that
require it in the crew gunnery phase. AGTS training builds the foundation of VC/gunner coordination and
trains the crew on engagement techniques for precision and degraded modes of gunnery in offensive and
defensive postures in a variety of environments. It trains in all elements of the engagement process. The
crew training program consists of basic gunnery, gate-to-live-fire, combat gunnery, advanced combat
gunnery, sustainment gunnery, and special-purpose gunnery exercises designed to train the full range of
gunnery engagement techniques. For advanced gunnery virtual training, the AGTS is capable of being
networked for section and platoon gunnery training simulations.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

11-21

Chapter 11

ABRAMS FULL-CREW INTERACTIVE SIMULATOR TRAINER XXI


11-59. The Abrams Full-Crew Interactive Simulator Trainer (A-FIST) XXI is an appended, fully
deployable, full-crew training system capable of training precision, degraded, and battlesight gunnery,
driving, crew communications and coordination, and mission tactics for the M1A1 tank (see Figure 11-12).
With A-FIST XXI, M1A1 tank crews can conduct tank gunnery training using the actual controls and input
devices of the tank. A-FIST XXI crew records are interchangeable with BCT COFT XXI by use of a
floppy disc.

Figure 11-12. Abrams Full-Crew Interactive Simulator Trainer

A-FIST XXI Capabilities and Limitations


System Capabilities
11-60. The A-FIST XXI is capable of simulating the use of both primary and alternate fire controls and
sighting systems against stationary and moving threats, single and multiple target arrays, during day, night,
and reduced visibility conditions in various different environments. The A-FIST XXI provides gunnery
training using the majority of the fire control system of the actual vehicle combined with computergenerated graphics. The computational system of the A-FIST XXI determines the point of aim for the
weapon system in use and computes trajectory of the round in use and point of impact to simulate the
visual effects of tracer, BOT. It also simulates hostile fire signature and obscuration. The system supports
day/night unlimited visibility conditions, as well as degraded mode and manual mode engagements.
A-FIST XXI provides terrain databases for European, desert, and urban (Zussman urban site and geospecific Baghdad) environments.
Limitations
11-61. The A-FIST XXI can be operated in any facility in a 30 x 30 area. If that area is not available
and the muzzle reference system (MRS) update is to be performed outside of the building, 30 x 21 is the
required area. Power required to operate the system is 115 Vac, 60 Hz, on a 30-amp circuit with an L5-30R
receptacle within 50 feet of the instructor/operator station (IOS). It can also be powered by a single-phase

11-22

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Training Devices

generator 115 Vac, 60 Hz, 30-amp within 70 feet of the IOS. There are no other operating limitations,
except those environmental considerations that affect the facility.

A-FIST XXI Training Integration


11-62. A-FIST XXI training should be incorporated into the virtual gunnery training program of the unit.
It is designed to train or sustain gunnery proficiency of crews by successfully completing exercises that
require the performance of gunnery tasks under conditions similar to those encountered in combat. The
crew training program consists of individual gunnery, crew gunnery, gate-to-live-fire, combat gunnery,
advanced combat gunnery, sustainment gunnery, special-purpose gunnery exercises, and practice exercises
designed to train the full range of gunnery engagement techniques.

SECTION IV BRADLEY TADSS


11-63. This section describes TADSS that are specific to the M2-/M3-series and M7 BFVs.

TRAINING AIDS
DUMMY ROUNDS
11-64. Various dummy rounds are available to conduct training with the M242 25-mm automatic gun,
M240 machine gun, and the TOW system (see Table 11-19 and Figure 11-14).
Table 11-19. Dummy rounds usage table
Individual

Crew

Collective

INDIVIDUAL
INSTRUCTION

GST

GT
I

GATE
TO
LIVE
FIRE

GT
II

GT
III

GT
IV

GT
V

GT
VI

GT
VII

GT
VIII

GT
IX

GT
X

GT
XI

GT
XII

T - Suitable for training for this event

E - Enhances training for this event

P - Suitable for individual training for this event

X - Not suitable for training for this event

M794 Dummy Round (25-mm)


11-65. The M794 dummy round is a non-fire training round used to conduct training on various 25-mm
tasks. The M794 dummy round is a cast metal round that is non-corrosive and weighs about the same as
the M792 and M793 rounds. Previous dummy rounds were made from fired casings and had plastic or
wooden tips. Because the casing of a fired round is slightly expanded, such rounds could get stuck in the
breech of the 25-mm gun. The use of such rounds should be discontinued and the cast metal rounds
requisitioned. The links can become damaged or rusty and should be changed as often as possible.
11-66. The M794 dummy round is a Class V item and can be requisitioned with DA Form 581. Table
11-20 contains information required for requisitioning the M794 dummy round.)

M172 Dummy Round (7.62-mm)


11-67. The M172 is a 7.62-mm cartridge minus the gun powder and primer. It is used for non-fire
training with the M240 machine gun (see Figure 11-13). It is made of brass with a metal tip. It is
recommended for use over the plastic-tipped version. (The plastic tips can become bent and get jammed
either in the weapon or the feed chute.)
11-68. The M172 round is a Class V item that can be requisitioned using DA Form 581. (Table 11-20
contains information required for requisitioning this round.)

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

11-23

Chapter 11

Table 11-20. Requisition information


Nomenclature

DODIC

Cartridge, 7.62-mm Dummy M172

1305-A159

Cartridge, 7.62-mm Dummy M172 (Carton Packed)

1305-A162

Cartridge, 25-mm Dummy M794 (Carton Packed)

1305-A966

Cartridge, 25-mm Dummy M794 (Linked)

1303-A967

Missile Simulation Round (MSR)

Figure 11-13. 7.62mm and 25mm dummy rounds

CAUTION
Because the M172 dummy round is made of brass and can be
damaged during training, the rounds should be inspected periodically
and replaced as needed. Continued use of damaged rounds or links
can damage the feed chute or the weapon. The links should be
changed as often as possible.

Missile Simulation Round


11-69. The missile simulation round (MSR) is used to train crews in all non-fire TOW-related tasks. It is
a dummy TOW round casing. It comes in a crate the same as an actual round. The MSR simulates the
actual weight of a real TOW missile. Although the MSR does not have a diaphragm or humidity indicator,
it does have a front cover and a forward handling ring. It is a nonexpendable major-end item that can be
requisitioned through the supply system.
11-70. If the guide lugs or the electrical connector on the MSR are damaged, the round should not be
used. Continued use of a damaged round will cause damage to the launcher.

11-24

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Training Devices

DUMMY ROUND TRAINING INTEGRATION


11-71. Dummy rounds can be used to train several of the tasks that are part of the GST (Appendix B,
Bradley Fighting Vehicle Live-Fire Preparation, contains the Bradley crew GST).
z
Load and unload the high-explosive (HE) and antipersonnel (AP) ready boxes, load the 25-mm
feeder, apply immediate action on the 25mm, and unload and clear the 25-mm gun.
z
Load, fire, apply immediate action, unload, and clear the M240-series machine guns.
z
TOW trainingupload the BFV, upload the TOW launcher, apply immediate action on the TOW
subsystem, remove a misfire TOW, unload and stow a TOW to its storage configuration.

DEVICES
PRECISION GUNNERY SYSTEM
11-72. The PGS is an eye-safe laser simulation device that provides normal- and degraded-mode gunnery
on unit vehicles. The system allows crews to develop and sustain gunnery skills while training using their
own vehicles. All weapons and ammunition are duplicated in simulation by replicating tracer and missile
signatures in the commander and gunners sights. This allows crews to apply lead, BOT, and TOT
procedures during engagements. The PGS is fully compatible on MILES-equipped ranges, vehicles, and
targets on the MILES battlefield (see Table 11-21 and Figure 11-14).
Table 11-21. Precision Gunnery System usage table
Individual

Crew

Collective

INDIVIDUAL
INSTRUCTION

GST

GT
I

GATE
TO
LIVE
FIRE

GT
II

GT
III

GT
IV

GT
V

GT
VI

GT
VII

GT
VIII

GT
IX

GT
X

GT
XI

GT
XII

T - Suitable for training for this event

E - Enhances training for this event

P - Suitable for individual training for this event

X - Not suitable for training for this event

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

11-25

Chapter 11

Figure 11-14. Precision Gunnery System

Capabilities and Limitations


11-73. The system can send and receive hit, kill, and miss signals from other PGS- or MILES-equipped
vehicles. A mounting reconfiguration allows the TOW to be fired in simulation while the 25-mm and coax
are fired live. The PGS provides vehicle crew evaluator (VCE) the ability to review engagements during
the AAR process. It displays ballistic information for each round fired. This information identifies
placement of each simulated round in relation to the target, in mils, both in azimuth and elevation. (TM
9-6920-711-12&P and TM 9-6920-710-12&P provide additional information.)
11-74. The M2/M3A3 PGS is a vehicle-mounted training device that assists the BFV crew in gaining and
improving proficiency in gunnery skills without the expenditure of live ammunition. Gunnery and tactical
training can be conducted wherever an eye-safe laser is permitted. The BFVA3 PGS provides the crew
with the visual and sound effects that simulate real-world firing conditions. The BFVA3 PGS provides full
fire control interface by interfacing system controls into the vehicles Training Device Interface Panel
(TDIP).

PGS Training Integration


11-75. PGS is the preferred device for the BFV for use on device-based gunnery training in crew and
collective gunnery. It can be incorporated into device-based gunnery tables to include Tables I, II, VII,
VIII, X, and XI.

SIMULATORS AND SIMULATIONS


11-76. The BATS is the virtual gunnery trainer for the BFVA3. The purpose of the BATS is to train and
sustain a crews ability to perform fundamental gunnery techniques in simulated gunnery and combat
scenarios.

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FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Training Devices

BRADLEY ADVANCED TRAINING SYSTEM


BATS Capabilities and Limitations
11-77. BATS provides sustainment and cross-training programs to train crews in a simulated gunnery or
combat mode (see Table 11-22). The BATS provides battle-focused training in the gunnery mode through
the use of panel targets (IAW TC 25-8), range markers, ammunition allocation, and evaluation standards.
The BATS provides realistic training in the combat mode by presenting realistic target models. Target
destruction is accomplished by realistic probability of hit (PH)/probability of kill (PK), based on range and
type. Engagement parameters are input to support a specific units threat template and mission-essential
task list (METL).
Table 11-22. Bradley Advanced Training System usage table
Individual

Crew

Collective

INDIVIDUAL
INSTRUCTION

GST

GT
I

GATE
TO
LIVE
FIRE

GT
II

GT
III

GT
IV

GT
V

GT
VI

GT
VII

GT
VIII

GT
IX

GT
X

GT
XI

GT
XII

T - Suitable for training for this event

E - Enhances training for this event

P - Suitable for individual training for this event

X - Not suitable for training for this event

BATS Training Integration


11-78. BATS is the primary virtual trainer for crews of the BFVA3 for individual gunnery training and
gunnery skills sustainment training. It is also a useful tool for retraining crews that require it in the crew
gunnery phase. BATS training builds the foundation of VC/gunner coordination and trains the crew on
engagement techniques for precision and degraded modes of gunnery in offensive and defensive postures
in a variety of environments. It trains in all elements of the engagement process.

ADVANCED BRADLEY FULL-CREW INTERACTIVE SIMULATOR TRAINER


11-79. The AB-FIST is an appended Bradley gunnery training device for use on a powerless, stationary,
sheltered, BFV ODS and below. With the AB-FIST, BFV crews can conduct Bradley gunnery training
using the actual switches and controls of the BFV. The AB-FIST is a fully deployable, full-crew, highfidelity training system capable of training and sustaining precision and battlesight gunnery. The AB-FIST
incorporates the entire BFV crew that enhances crew coordination (see Figure 11-15).

Figure 11-15. Advanced Bradley Full-Crew Interactive Simulator Trainer

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

11-27

Chapter 11

AB-FIST Capabilities and Limitations


System Capabilities
11-80. The AB-FIST trains target acquisition, identification, driving, and engagement skills for the BFV
crew, section, and platoon. It has the capability of simulating use of both primary and alternate fire controls
and sighting systems against mobile and stationary threats, single and multiple target arrays, in a realistic
battlefield environment during day, night, and reduced visibility conditions in a European, desert or urban
environments. It is a network-capable system that can be linked together or with the systemsCOFT XXI,
TFT, A-FIST XXI, and Virtual Convoy Combat Trainer (VCCT), to conduct combined arms training and
mission rehearsal. The AB-FIST provides realistic training in the combat mode by presenting realistic
target models (vehicles IAW ROC-V 9.1). All ammunition characteristics are correct IAW the applicable
firing table (FT). The databases provided by the AB-FIST are European (summer and winter), desert,
urban (Zussman urban site and geo-specific Baghdad). The AB-FISTs crew records are transferable to the
TFT, and COFT XXI by either 3.5 floppy disk or writable compact disc.
Limitations
11-81. The AB-FIST can be operated in any facility in a 35 x 20 area with 16 feet of overhead
clearance. Power required to operate the system is 115 Vac, 60 Hz, on a 30-amp circuit with a L5-30R
receptacle within 50 of the IOS. It can also be powered by a single-phase generator 115 Vac, 60 Hz, 30amp within 70 feet of the IOS. There are no other operating limitations except those environmental
considerations that affect the facility.

AB-FIST Training Integration


11-82. AB-FIST training should be incorporated into the virtual gunnery training program of the unit. It
is designed to train or sustain gunnery proficiency of crews by successfully completing exercises that
require the performance of gunnery tasks under conditions similar to those encountered in combat.

M2 ODS TABLETOP FULL-FIDELITY TRAINER


11-83. The M2A2 ODS TFT is a fully deployable training system capable of training and sustaining
precision and battlesight gunnery (see Figure 11-16). The size of this system makes it ideal for deployment
to remote sites by units equipped with M2A2 ODS BFVs. The TFT simulates the vehicles primary fire
control and sighting equipment, which are used against aerial and mobile/stationary ground targets in a
realistic battlefield environment. The trainer evaluates commander/gunner performances and provides
feedback to the crew as the training progresses.

Figure 11-16. Tabletop Full-Fidelity Trainer

11-28

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Training Devices

Capabilities and Limitations


11-84. The TFT consists of tabletop components, including a commanders station, weapons station,
gunners station, and instructors station. Its key features are
z
Deploys inside five two-man carry containers.
z
Easily transports in a HMMWV, van, or pickup truck.
z
Uses standard 110V or 220V power.
z
Can operate in a small tent powered by a standard Army field generator.
z
Crew records are transferable to the AB-FIST and COFT XXI by 3.5 floppy disc or writeable
compact disc.
z
Realistic vehicle models (IAW ROC-V 9.1).
z
All ammunition flight characteristics are correct IAW the applicable FT.
11-85. The TFT has no means to conduct engagements using the manual hand wheels. Engagements that
would be conducted in the manual mode are defaulted to commanders engagements.

TFT Training Integration


11-86. The TFT is not the primary BFV virtual gunnery trainer; however, it provides sustainment and
cross-training programs to train crews in a simulated gunnery or combat mode. Because it is easily
transportable and deployable, it can be used to sustain critical gunnery skills while deployed.

SECTION V ARMED HMMWV TADSS


11-87. This section describes TADSS that are specific to the M1025-/1026-series, M1114 and M1151
armed HMMWVs. These TADSS are also applicable to a wide range of sustainment support units and
elements to supplement their gunnery training program.

TRAINING AIDS
DUMMY ROUNDS
11-88. Various dummy rounds are available to conduct training with the MK19 machine gun, M2 HB
machine gun, and M240 machine gun (see Table 11-23 and Figure 11-17).
Table 11-23. Dummy rounds usage table
Individual

Crew

Collective

INDIVIDUAL
INSTRUCTION

GST

GT
I

GATE
TO
LIVE
FIRE

GT
II

GT
III

GT
IV

GT
V

GT
VI

GT
VII

GT
VIII

GT
IX

GT
X

GT
XI

GT
XII

T - Suitable for training for this event

E - Enhances training for this event

P - Suitable for individual training for this event

X - Not suitable for training for this event

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

11-29

Chapter 11

Figure 11-17. Dummy rounds

VM922/M922A1 Dummy Round (40mm)


11-89. The M922/M922A1dummy round is a 40-mm inert cartridge, minus the gun powder and primer. It
is used for non-fire training with the MK19 machine gun. It is made of brass with a brass projectile (inert).
The links can become damaged or rusty and should be changed as often as possible.
11-90. The M922/M922A1 dummy round is a Class V item and can be requisitioned with DA Form 581.
(Table 11-24 contains information required for requisitioning the M2 dummy round.)

M2 Dummy Round (Caliber .50)


11-91. The M2 dummy round is a caliber .50 cartridge, minus the gun powder and primer. It is used for
non-fire training with the M2 HB machine gun. It is made of brass with a metal tip. The links can become
damaged or rusty and should be changed as often as possible.
11-92. The M2 dummy round is a Class V item and can be requisitioned with DA Form 581. (Table 1124 contains information required for requisitioning the M2 dummy round.)

11-30

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Training Devices

M172 Dummy Round (7.62mm)


11-93. The M172 dummy round is a 7.62-mm cartridge, minus the gun powder and primer. It is used for
non-fire training with the M240 machine gun. It is made of brass with a metal tip. It is recommended for
use over the plastic-tipped version. (The plastic tips can become bent and get jammed either in the weapon
or the feed chute.)
11-94. The M172 dummy round is a Class V item that can be requisitioned using DA Form 581. (Table
11-24 contains information required for requisitioning this round.)
Table 11-24. Requisition information
Nomenclature

DODIC

Cartridge, 7.62-mm Dummy M172

A159

Cartridge, 7.62-mm Dummy M172 (Carton Packed)

A162

Cartridge, Caliber .50 Dummy M2

A560

Cartridge, 40-mm Dummy M922/M922A1

B472

DUMMY ROUND TRAINING INTEGRATION


11-95. Dummy rounds can be used to train several of the tasks that are part of the GST (Appendix C,
Armed HMMWV Live-Fire Preparation, contains the armed HMMWV crew GST).
z
Load, fire, apply immediate action, unload, and clear the M2 machine gun.
z
Load, fire, apply immediate action, unload, and clear the MK19 grenade machine gun.
z
Load, fire, apply immediate action, unload, and clear the M240-series machine guns.

CAUTION
Because the M172 dummy round is made of brass and can be
damaged during training, the rounds should be inspected periodically
and replaced as needed. Continued use of damaged rounds or links
can damage the feed chute or the weapon. The links should be
changed as often as possible.

SIMULATORS AND SIMULATIONS


VIRTUAL CONVOY COMBAT TRAINER
11-96. The VCCT is a virtual training system used to train drivers and gunners of military vehicles how
to identify a potential ambush, identify improvised explosive devices (IED), avoid an ambush, return fire,
maneuver and react appropriately in the operating environment (OE). Recent combat operations have
demonstrated the need for convoy combat training. For the active component, the VCCT is an interim fix
until the CCTT-RVS is available in sufficient quantities to meet training requirements. The Army has
purchased two variants of the VCCT (the VCCT-L [Lockheed] and the VCCT-R [Raydon]) with slightly
different characteristics and capabilities (see Table 11-25 and Figure 11-18, Figure 11-19, and Figure
11-20).

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

11-31

Chapter 11

Table 11-25. Virtual Convoy Combat Trainer


Individual

Crew

Collective

INDIVIDUAL
INSTRUCTION

GST

GT
I

GATE
TO
LIVE
FIRE

GT
II

GT
III

GT
IV

GT
V

GT
VI

GT
VII

GT
VIII

GT
IX

GT
X

GT
XI

GT
XII

T - Suitable for training for this event

E - Enhances training for this event

P - Suitable for individual training for this event

X - Not suitable for training for this event

Figure 11-18. VCCT-R (configuration 1)

Figure 11-19. VCCT-R (configuration 2)

11-32

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Training Devices

Figure 11-20. VCCT-L

VCCT Capabilities and Limitations


VCCT-L Characteristics and Capabilities
11-97. The VCCT-L comes in either a fixed site or mobile configuration. The mobile configuration has
one vehicle simulator per trailer. The fixed sight configuration is designed around four vehicle simulators.
11-98. The VCCT variant L has the following characteristics and capabilities:
z
Trains soldiers in basic and advanced convoy skills using variable terrain and roads in a variety
of weather, visibility, and vehicle-operational conditions.
z
Incorporates small arms and crew-served weapons.
z
Provides mission-preview/mission-rehearsal capability.
z
Trains general and specific driving and engagement skills.
z
Provides a collective, immersive virtual environment with precision weapons engagement
system.
z
Leverages CCTT vehicular software, databases, and AAR.
z
Reacts to contact, call for fire, and close air support.
VCCT-R Characteristics and Capabilities
11-99. The VCCT variant R is contained in two 53-foot trailers. The top layout represents the CrewStation Trailer (CST) that houses three crew trainers. The bottom layout represents the AAR trailer that
houses one crew trainer and the two IOS/AAR stations, plus a group viewing area.
11-100. The VCCT-R has the following characteristics and capabilities:
z
Realistic Vehicle Simulation.

Wheeled vehicle dynamics.

Collision detection.

Engine and transmission simulation.

Vehicle sound effects.


z
Realistic Weapons Simulation.

Rifle M-4.

Caliber .50 machine gun.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

11-33

Chapter 11

Weapon sound effects (fire, impact).


Accurate ballistics calculations (Army Materiel Systems Analysis Activity [AMSAA]
tables).

VCCT Training Integration


11-101. The VCCT, while primarily a collective convoy engagement training tool, can be integrated into
the virtual training for all phases of gunnery for armed HMWWVs and sustainment units. The system
provides training for collective tasks and fire distribution and control.

VIRTUAL CONVOY OPERATIONS TRAINER


11-102. The Virtual Convoy Operations Trainer (VCOT) provides training for combat convoys under
realistic conditions. VCOT ensures that Soldiers are trained to anticipate ambushes and other enemy
actions from all possible directions by allowing the crew to observe, maneuver, and fire their weapons
through a full 360-degree circumference (see Figure 11-21).

Figure 11-21. Virtual Convoy Operations Trainer

Capabilities and Limitations


11-103. The VCOT system has the flexibility to allow users to choose a vehicle mix for their convoy, the
weapon system employed on each vehicle, the routes along which the convoy will travel, and the type and
strength of enemy activity along the convoy route. The VCOT may be operated either as a collective
training system where all crew stations operate together or as a gunnery trainer where crew stations operate
independently.
11-104. The VCOT is comprised of five VCOT crew stations networked with an IOS/AAR station. The
IOS/AAR station allows for management of a running exercise and review of a completed training mission.

11-34

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Training Devices

11-105. Three types of virtual crew stations are used:


z
Level 1, Crew Station. Comprised of an actual HMMWV vehicle, appended with training
equipment to provide high-fidelity training for a HMMWV gunner and driver.
z
Level 2, Crew Station. A higher fidelity device providing positions for the HMMWV gunner,
driver, and commander.
z
Level 3, Crew Station. Consists of tabletop-mounted equipment, and providing positions for
the gunner and driver for any of three simulated vehiclesAbrams tank, BFV, and HMMWV.
11-106. The VCOT is supplied with up to four different terrain databases:
z
Zussman, a small geo-specific urban area used for initial gunnery training.
z
Baghdad, which provides a large urban training environment.
z
A generic desert area.
z
A generic European area.

VCOT Training Integration


11-107. The VCOT can be used for training individual and collective gunnery skills for armed HMWWVs.
It can also be used for collective virtual training of heavy and light vehicles integrated into combined arms
platoons and sections.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

11-35

This page intentionally left blank.

Chapter 12

Gunnery Training Program


Chapter 12 provides guidelines for the development of a gunnery training program
that is designed to produce qualified crews, sections and platoons by training critical
skills that facilitate crew- through platoon-level teamwork. Further, it covers the
strategy and training plans derived from the gunnery training program development
process.
Gunnery training programs should be developed to follow a logical progression of
training, conducted in three phasesindividual, crew, and collective gunnery.
z
Individual. The individual gunnery phase trains individual crewman on crewlevel skills, using classroom and home-station training in conjunction with the
Gunnery Skills Test (GST).
z
Crew. The crew gunnery phase develops crew skills on Tables I, II, III, IV, and
V and culminates in crew qualification on Table VI.
z
Collective. The collective gunnery phase develops section and platoon
coordination and fire control and distribution on Tables VII, VIII, X and XI.
Culminating in section and platoon qualifications on Tables IX and XII. There
are also guidelines for executing a company-level combined arms live-fire
exercise (CALFEX) with organic indirect fire and sustainment unit support.
The success or lack of success of any training program will be the direct result of the
amount of time, effort, and emphasis placed into the development of the program.
Keep in mind that this chapter gives commanders and trainers a guide by which to
base a training program, but it does not limit the ability to create innovative
variations built upon this framework.

Contents
Section I Training Assessment ........... 12-2
Essential Warfighting Skills .............. 12-2
Battle Focus ..................................... 12-2
Mission-Essential Task List .............. 12-3
Commanders Assessment ............... 12-3
Section II Training Strategy................. 12-4
Gunnery Tables ................................ 12-4
Individual Gunnery Phase ................ 12-5
Crew Gunnery Phase ....................... 12-7
Collective Gunnery Phase ................ 12-8
Cross-Training Strategy.................... 12-9
Integrated Training Strategy ............. 12-9

3 September 2009

Section III Commanders Guidance .. 12-17


Training Goals ................................ 12-17
Training Requirements ................... 12-17
Section IV Training Plans .................. 12-18
Gunnery Training ............................ 12-18
Long-Range Training Plans ............ 12-20
Short-Range Training Plans............ 12-21
Near-Term Training Plans .............. 12-22

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

12-1

Chapter 12

SECTION I TRAINING ASSESSMENT

ESSENTIAL WARFIGHTING SKILLS


12-1. Crews must achieve proficiency in certain skills critical to maintaining their warfighting capabilities.
The first nine listed below apply to all platform systems. The rest apply to specific training requirements
based on variations in the vehicles capabilities and systems:
z
All platform systems:

Engaging stationary and moving targets from a stationary and moving combat vehicle.

Engaging targets in a chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) environment.

Engaging targets at night.

Engaging targets from a short halt.

Detecting, identifying, classifying, and discriminating targets as friendly, neutral, or threat.

Acquiring and engaging targets in an urban, woodland, or desert environment.

Calling for indirect fire.

Calling for medical evacuation (MEDEVAC).

Calling for support.

Engaging targets under digital conditions (applies to digitally equipped platforms only).

Engage targets using the appropriate technique for the target type (see Chapter 8).

Engaging multiple and successive targets.


z
Abrams and Bradley:

Engaging multiple targets using the auxiliary sight.

Engaging targets using manual controls.

Engaging multiple targets with multiple weapon systems from multiple stations.

Engaging multiple and successive targets requiring different ammunition types.

Engaging targets using hunter-killer techniques.

Conducting a fire mission task (applies to Bradley Fire Support Team [BFIST] and
reconnaissance only).
12-2. Sections and platoons must achieve proficiency in the following skills:
z
Executing collective tasks as a section or platoon.
z
Engaging multiple targets utilizing fire control and distribution.
z
Engaging targets while maneuvering as a section or platoon.
z
Using digital capabilities during a tactical scenario.
z
Maintaining situational awareness (SA) and ensuring personnel protection.

BATTLE FOCUS
12-3. Battle focus is a concept for deriving peace-time training requirements from war-time missions.
Battle focus guides the planning, execution, and assessment of each units training program. This is to
ensure that its members train as they fight. The battle-focus process is the same for active component (AC)
and reserve component (RC) units (both modified table of organization and equipment [MTOE] and table
of distribution and allowances [TDA]). FM 7-0 explains how to plan, resource, and execute training events.
This manual provides the gunnery principles and standards to evaluate crew, section and platoon training.

12-2

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Gunnery Training Program

MISSION-ESSENTIAL TASK LIST


12-4. A units training program must support the mission-essential task list (METL); therefore, time,
resources, and command emphasis must all focus on training tasks that support the METL. Platoon
sergeants and squad leaders should use the appropriate critical task list to identify the individual tasks that
support the collective tasks. To develop the METL, the commander must know and understand the war
plans and external directives handed down from the higher headquarters.
z
War Plans. The most critical parts of METL development are the units war-time operations
and contingency plans. The missions and related information in these plans provide the keys to
determining essential training tasks. From each war plan, the commander selects each mission
that his unit is expected to execute in combat.
z
External Directives. Additional training tasks relevant to the units war-time mission derive
from external directives. Such directives could include

Mobilization plans.

Installation war-time transition and development plans.

Force-integration plans.
z
Task List. Once the commander lists all possible tasks, the commander identifies those that are
most critical to success on the battlefield. This refined list becomes the METL.

COMMANDERS ASSESSMENT
12-5. Gunnery training must be well-designed and continuous for units to achieve, improve, and sustain
gunnery proficiency. Each commander must continually assess their units previous performance, current
level of training and state of weapon and weapon platform maintenance to determine its level of
proficiency in gunnery. Then, they must train their unit to produce skilled crewmen, crews, and platoons.
The Master Gunner should advise the commander and assess, plan, develop, implement, instruct, evaluate,
and reassess all phases of gunnery training. The commanders ongoing assessment is crucial to gunnery
program development and where the team effort should be demonstrated most.
12-6. The following factors must be considered during the assessment:
z
Level of maintenance within the unit.
z
Evaluate previous training. The commander assesses training with input from the executive
officer (XO), S-3, subordinate leaders, and Master Gunners (see FM 7-0). He can use individual
and crew training to determine the units proficiency.

Individual. Common task test results show basic individual training proficiency. The GST
evaluates specific platform-related individual proficiency. Individual weapons training and
qualification scores indicate proficiency levels with the various weapons organic to the
squads and platoon.

Crew. Crew training proficiency can be measured by reviewing simulations unit


summaries along with performance analyses. Crew gunnery results and evaluation sheets
from the last gunnery period provide additional field-oriented data, which also help the
commander to determine training requirements.

Collective. Collective training proficiency can be measured by reviewing past collective


gunnery, Combat Training Center (CTC), and field training exercises (FTX) results.
Tactical simulations (Close Combat Tactical Trainer [CCTT], Simulation Network
[SIMNET]) data may be used to support this assessment.
z
Crew turbulence.
z
Training days available.
z
Training dollars available.
z
Resources available.
z
The units specific METL.
z
Past strengths and weaknesses within the unit.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

12-3

Chapter 12

z
z
z

Availability of experienced and proficient crewmen, capable of peer training.


Who will be the primary trainer for the gunnery program?
Evaluation. The commander uses specific standards to measure the demonstrated abilities of
individuals and crews. Accurate evaluations are necessary to identify where to place training
emphasis. Leaders must make on-the-spot corrections and demand aggressive action to correct
training deficiencies. Crew-level simulations results are also good indicators of crew
proficiency.

Informal. Unit leaders evaluate performance informally during training.

Formal. The commander schedules a dedicated evaluator on either the long-range or shortrange training plan.

Internal. The evaluated unit plans, resources, and conducts their own evaluations.

External. Higher headquarters or another unit plans, resources, and conducts a unit
evaluation.

SECTION II TRAINING STRATEGY

GUNNERY TABLES
12-7. Table 12-1 lists the gunnery tables (GT) that support the Heavy Brigade Combat Team (HBCT)
gunnery training strategy by platform system and the gunnery phase in which they are conducted.
Table 12-1. Gunnery tables
Gunnery
Phase

CREW

COLLECTIVE

12-4

Tank/Bradley Tables

Armed Vehicle Tables

Rifle Squad Tables

GT I, Crew Critical Skills


Table

GT I, Crew Critical Skills


Table

GT I, Buddy-Team Fire
and Movement Exercise

GT II, Crew Proficiency


Course (CPC)

GT II, Crew Proficiency


Course (CPC)

GT II, Fire Team


Maneuver Exercise

GT III, Basic Machine


Gun

GT III, Basic Machine


Gun

GT III, Squad Battle Drill


Exercises

GT IV, Basic Main Gun

GT IV, Basic Extended


Range Machine Gun

GT IV, Squad Situational


Training Exercises (STX)

GT V, Basic Crew
Practice

GT V, Basic Crew
Practice

GT V, Squad Practice

GT VI, Basic Crew


Qualification

GT VI, Basic Crew


Qualification

GT VI, Squad
Qualification

GT VII, Section
Proficiency Exercise

GT VII, Section
Proficiency Exercise

GT VIII, Section Practice

GT VIII, Section Practice

GT IX, Section
Qualification

GT IX, Section
Qualification

GT X, Platoon Proficiency
Exercise

GT X, Convoy/Platoon
Proficiency Exercise

CT XI, Platoon Practice

GT XI, Convoy/Platoon
Practice

GT XII, Platoon
Qualification

GT XII, Convoy/Platoon
Qualification

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

Note. Collective gunnery


for the Rifle Squad is
conducted in conjunction
with their BFV crew on GT
VII through GT XII.

3 September 2009

Gunnery Training Program

INDIVIDUAL GUNNERY PHASE


12-8. The individual gunnery phase develops individual and crew skills needed to operate the vehicle and
turret weapon systems. Individual gunnery training focuses on the technical aspects of gun theory, turret
operations, gunnery techniques, virtual and crew simulations training, and device-based training. The
trainers use classroom instruction, hands-on training and crew gunnery simulators to provide each crew
member with knowledge of the capabilities, limitations, and characteristics of the vehicle, as well as
training.

VIRTUAL TRAINING
12-9. Crew members will conduct virtual gunnery training during the individual gunnery phase using crew
gunnery simulators to train the vehicle commander (VC) and gunner on individual and crew-coordination
skills. Training can also include other driver/loader tasks, such as announcing of vehicle and tubelaunched, optically tracked, wire-guided (TOW) launcher status (up and down).

Crew Simulation Training


12-10. Crew simulation training focuses on the VC and gunner. There are three training categories of
crews:
z
New. Either the VC, gunner, or both are new to their position.
z
Turbulent. Both the VC and gunner have previously held the position they are in, but have not
worked together as a crew.
z
Sustainment. The VC and gunner have previously qualified together as a crew.

New and Turbulent Crews


12-11. New and turbulent crews should be evaluated to determine their initial proficiency based on
gunnery parameters. Is the crew proficient engaging
z
Stationary targets from a stationary vehicle?
z
Moving targets from a stationary vehicle?
z
Stationary targets from a moving vehicle?
z
Moving targets from a moving vehicle?
z
Multiple targets?
12-12. Once a crews initial proficiency level is established, they should be placed in the simulators
instructional subsystem accordingly. These crews will execute training sessions throughout the individual
gunnery phase to prepare them for live-fire in the crew gunnery phase. The crew will execute the
prerequisite to live-fire exercise for their respective simulator system prior to the crew phase.

Sustainment Crews
12-13. After the crew has qualified Table VI on their weapon platform during a previous gunnery density,
they will be categorized as a sustainment crew. Sustainment crews already have a location in the
instructional subsystem from the last gunnery. These crews should continue from that location during the
individual gunnery phase, improving on their weaknesses and sustaining their strengths. These crews will
continue to utilize the simulator system a minimum of four hours per month (Abrams/Bradley) as directed
in AR 350-1, DA PAM 350-38, and local training regulations. The crew will execute the prerequisite-gateto-live-fire exercise for their simulator system again prior to the crew phase.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

12-5

Chapter 12

Gate to Live-Fire
12-14. Each simulator has a different instructional subsystem with a prescribed exercise that will be
passed as a prerequisite to firing live ammunition. These exercises are recommended minimum
requirements driven by the Combined Arms Training Strategies (CATS) for each proponent. The purpose
of these exercises is to ensure the crew possesses the skills and experience necessary to safely execute livefire gunnery. It is required that crews conduct four hours of simulation training per month to achieve this.
The prerequisite exercises are listed in Table 12-2 for each simulator system.
Table 12-2. Crew gunnery simulations prerequisites for live-fire
System

Gate-to-Live-Fire Exercise

EST 2000

*Commander determined*

C-AGTS/AGTS

Gate-to-Live-Fire

AFIST XXI

Gate-to-Live-Fire

BFV COFT

MPL

BATS

MPL

AB-FIST/COFT XXI

204

DEVICE-BASED TRAINING
12-15. Crew members will conduct constructive gunnery training during the individual phase using
training devices that allow crews to practice and refine their collective skills on their vehicles. Crews learn
fundamentals of turret manipulation, gun lay, and tracking for all platform systems. At this point,
individual crew duties and actions are integrated, and crews perform as a team. The crews abilities are
evaluated during the crew proficiency course for their platform weapon system.
12-16. Figure 12-1 is a flowchart that outlines the progressive training requirements conducted during the
individual gunnery phase.

12-6

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Gunnery Training Program

Figure 12-1. Sample six month gunnery training plan

CREW GUNNERY PHASE


12-17. The crew gunnery phase trains crew skills developed in individual gunnery and evaluates the
crews proficiency during crew qualification. Crew gunnery training focuses on crew coordination and the
direct fire engagement process. The crew gunnery phase is conducted primarily using the live training
method however, qualification tables must be conducted live using full-caliber ammunition for all weapon
systems platforms. The commander may choose to use device-based training to conduct practice tables;
Device-based gunnery includes Table II Crew Proficiency Course (CPC). This table is conducted in local
training areas or ranges using Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System (MILES) or Precision
Gunnery System (PGS). PGS is the primary device for Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV) gunnery training.
Thru-Sight Video (TSV) enhances this training with its ability to provide recorded feedback on target
acquisition, sight picture and engagement technique. See Chapter 11 for complete characteristics. The
commander may choose to use the live training method for the CPC firing subcaliber ammunition
providing crews conduct a dry run first to demonstrate mastery of the basic skills and safety principles.
This includes firing of subcaliber devices. Once Table II CPC has been completed and qualified dry, the
commander may refire Table II CPC with full caliber ammunition if the range and ammunition resourcing
permits.
12-18. Additional virtual and/or device-based training may be necessary for crews during this phase to
facilitate successful completion. Additional resourcing for retraining may not be available for all units.
When this occurs, subcaliber devices and simulations may be used for all tables except the qualification
table.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

12-7

Chapter 12

12-19. Abrams crews are encouraged to conduct individual (authorized tables only) gunnery utilizing the
caliber .50 inbore device. This will require the crew to exercise all components of the fire control system.

VIRTUAL TRAINING
12-20. Crews may continue to conduct virtual gunnery training during the crew gunnery phase using
crew gunnery simulators to train the VC and gunner on crew-coordination skills. Crew weaknesses
identified during the conduct of crew GTs may be addressed using crew simulators if time and resources
permit.

DEVICE-BASED TRAINING
12-21. Crews may conduct device-based gunnery training on practice tables during the crew phase using
training devices. It is recommended that crews use the live training method for all crew GTs and reserve
the device-based method for skills that require additional training. Device based training is not authorized
for any qualification table.

LIVE TRAINING
12-22. Crews will conduct crew qualification using the live training method with full-caliber ammunition
on a full-scale range. Practice tables are fully resourced and are fired using the live training method as well.

COLLECTIVE GUNNERY PHASE


12-23. The collective gunnery phase trains squad, section, and platoon leaders and company commanders
to fight their maneuver element and enhances the crews gunnery skills by applying them during tactical
scenarios as part of a section or platoon. Collective gunnery training focuses on accomplishing collective
tasks in support of a maneuver elements mission.
12-24. The collective gunnery phase is conducted using the device-based training method for proficiency
exercises and practice tables. The live training method is required for all qualification tables. Qualification
tables must be conducted live using full-caliber ammunition for all weapon systems platforms. Additional
virtual and/or device-based training may be necessary for sections and platoons during this phase to
facilitate successful completion.
12-25. Collective phase gunnery includes Table VII through Table XII for all platform systems.
Company-level CALFEXs may be executed if time and resources permit.

VIRTUAL TRAINING
12-26. Maneuver elements should conduct virtual gunnery training before and during the collective
gunnery phase using tactical training simulators to train the leaders on controlling their elements
maneuver and fires. Simulators allow training for both pure and combined arms maneuver. The trainers
have all crew member stations; however, squad leaders may only participate in a limited role.

DEVICE-BASED TRAINING
12-27. Maneuver elements may conduct device based gunnery training on practice tables during the
collective phase using training devices. It is recommended that maneuver elements conduct the proficiency
exercise prior to practice and qualification when executing the training as a mixed or combined arms
element.

LIVE TRAINING
12-28. Maneuver elements will conduct qualification using the live training method with full-caliber
ammunition on a full-scale range. Abrams elements are allocated subcaliber ammunition for practice tables
and may fire these tables live. A CALFEX is resourced for company-level training and should incorporate
indirect fire support, air/ground integration, sustainment unit support elements.
12-29. If commanders elect to fire combined arms platoons, each section must qualify GT IX prior to
conducting a GT X, XI or XII.

12-8

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Gunnery Training Program

CROSS-TRAINING STRATEGY
12-30. The commander, platoon leaders, first sergeant, and platoon sergeants manage training to ensure
every Soldier is trained on individual and collective tasks for both crew and squad skills, regardless of duty
position. The unit-training program must focus on developing tough, combat-ready platoons with a
balanced, simultaneous, integrated squad and crew plan.
12-31. During individual and crew gunnery training, cross training occurs often to counter inevitable
peacetime personnel changes or combat personnel losses. Cross training incorporates both the crew and
squad, sustaining basic crew skills and providing additional training for the squad in case they must
perform as a vehicle crewman. Cross training improves coordination between the crew and the squad. For
BFVs, alternate crews are required to train regularly in crew gunnery simulation, conduct crew device
gunnery, and take the GST. Additionally, the platoon leaders backup crew is resourced to fire crew
gunnery.

INTEGRATED TRAINING STRATEGY


12-32. Units must ensure collective training integrates all Soldiers in the platoon. The platoon sergeant,
squad leaders, and VCs, in coordination with the platoon leader, are the principle trainers for the collective
skills of integrated vehicle teams, squads, sections, and platoon. Primary references include this manual
and appropriate collective tasks.
12-33. Figure 12-2 through Figure 12-8 are flow charts that demonstrate gunnery training progression.
The grey dotted lines on each flow chart depict the approximate transition point to the next gunnery phase:
z
Individual to crew gunnery.
z
Crew to collective gunnery.
12-34. Although the flow chart sequences events, units may be required to conduct some events out of
sequence or simultaneously based on time and resource availability (for example, maneuver/range training
area).
12-35. Prerequisite training events must be conducted prior to the requisite event (for example, Table II
prior to Table VI); these are denoted in the training strategy flow charts with an asterisk beside the event.
12-36. It is important that the brigade commander and combined-arms battalion commanders, as well as
Master Gunners, within the HBCT understand each of the following training strategies so they may better
integrate the sections and platoons into their collective gunnery training.
z
Abrams training strategy.
z
Mechanized infantry training strategy.
z
Reconnaissance integrated training strategy.
z
Combat engineer integrated training strategy.
z
Fire support team training strategy.
z
Mortar integrated training strategy.
z
Sustainment unit training strategy.

ABRAMS TRAINING STRATEGY


12-37. Figure 12-2 outlines a logical progression of events that a tank platoon can adapt to their training
strategy. Individual and collective training must be evaluated against specific standards and discussed in
after action reviews (AAR). Objective evaluations provide readiness indicators and determine future
training requirements.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

12-9

Chapter 12

Figure 12-2. Abrams training strategy

BRADLEY AND RIFLE SQUAD INTEGRATED TRAINING STRATEGY


12-38. Figure 12-3 outlines a logical progression of events that a mechanized infantry platoon can adapt
to their training strategy. Rifle squads and Bradley crews are dual-tracked to focus on their specific training
needs. Both tracks must be integrated to develop a mechanized infantry platoon that fights as one unit.
Individual and collective training must be evaluated against specific standards and discussed in AARs.
Objective evaluations provide readiness indicators and determine future training requirements.

12-10

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Gunnery Training Program

Figure 12-3. Mechanized infantry training strategy

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

12-11

Chapter 12

RECONNAISSANCE INTEGRATED TRAINING STRATEGY


12-39. Figure 12-4 outlines a logical progression of events that a reconnaissance platoon can adapt to
their training strategy. Individual and collective training must be evaluated against specific standards
discussed in AARs. Objective evaluations provide readiness indicators and determine future training
requirements.

Figure 12-4. Reconnaissance integrated training strategy

12-12

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Gunnery Training Program

COMBAT ENGINEER INTEGRATED TRAINING STRATEGY


12-40. Figure 12-5 outlines a logical progression of events that an engineer platoon can adapt to their
training strategy. Engineer squads and the Bradley crews are dual-tracked to focus on their specific training
needs. Both tracks must be integrated to develop an engineer platoon that fights as one unit. Individual and
collective training must be evaluated against specific standards and discussed in AARs. Objective
evaluations provide readiness indicators and determine future training requirements.

Figure 12-5. Combat engineer integrated training strategy

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

12-13

Chapter 12

FIRE SUPPORT TEAM TRAINING STRATEGY


12-41. Figure 12-6 outlines a logical progression of events that a fire support team can adapt to their
training strategy. Individual and collective training must be evaluated against specific standards and
discussed in AARs. Objective evaluations provide readiness indicators and determine future training
requirements. Currently, there is no BFIST crew gunnery simulator; however, BFIST crews may adapt
training to accommodate some of the M7 capabilities. As an example, the unit might place a handheld
terminal unit (HTU) in the turret and a line control unit (LCU) in the crew shelter for practicing fire
missions.

Figure 12-6. Fire support team training strategy

12-14

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Gunnery Training Program

MORTAR INTEGRATED TRAINING STRATEGY


12-42. Figure 12-7 outlines a logical progression of events that a mortar platoon can adapt to their
training strategy. Mortar squads and the fire direction center (FDC) are dual-tracked to focus on their
specific training needs. Both tracks must be integrated to develop a mortar platoon that fights as one unit.
Individual and collective training must be evaluated against specific standards and discussed in AARs.
Objective evaluations provide readiness indicators and determine future training requirements.
12-43. Mortar gunnery training is covered in two manuals. FM 3-22.90 covers gunnery training for gun
crews and FM 3-22.91 covers gunnery training for the FDCs. Commanders should refer to these manuals
for more specific details on mortar gunnery. This will facilitate more effective incorporation of indirect fire
support during the collective phase of gunnery.

Figure 12-7. Mortar integrated training strategy

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

12-15

Chapter 12

SUSTAINMENT UNIT SUPPORT TRAINING STRATEGY


12-44. It is important that the brigade commander, reconnaissance squadron commander, and combined
arms battalion commanders, as well as Master Gunners, within the HBCT understand the sustainment
training strategy so they may better integrate sustainment elements into their collective gunnery training.
Figure 12-8 outlines a logical progression of events that a sustainment platoon can adapt to their training
strategy. Individual and collective training must be evaluated against specific standards and discussed in
AARs. Objective evaluations provide readiness indicators and determine future training requirements.

Figure 12-8. Sustainment training strategy

12-16

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Gunnery Training Program

SECTION III COMMANDERS GUIDANCE

TRAINING GOALS
12-45. Training goals will vary based on the assigned mission and commanders intent. The goal is to
create a training environment that is as realistic and demanding as possible with the resources available.
The following goals should be set to ensure successful training:
z
Set and enforce tough, but achievable standards. Tough standards will generate effective
training; loose standards will produce weak vehicle crews. The crews cannot be fooled; they
know when they have done well. Insist on repetition to achieve mastery.
z
Start early. All aspects of a training program must be thoroughly coordinated. Forecast
resources and maintenance assistance long before they are needed.
z
Be thorough. Avoid wasting resources and training opportunities. Give subordinates the
guidance and assets needed to train their crews, squads, sections, and platoons.
z
Be flexible. Continually update the training program to the changing needs of the unit. If
assessment and planning stop, the training program stagnates.
z
Train continually. Train at every opportunity, not just during an intensified period, to
get ready for qualification tables. Specialized high intensity training programs should be
used only to bring a unit up to a desired proficiency level; then train continually to maintain that
level.
12-46. Contingency plans and alternate methods of training should be identified in case the primary plan
cannot be executed. Training time is valuable and should not be lost due to unforeseen factors.

TRAINING REQUIREMENTS
12-47. Training must conform to Army doctrine. The training requirements listed below must be trained
and completed to standard to ensure the ultimate success of the gunnery training plan.
z
Schedule crew/squad skills training monthly, concurrently with preventative maintenance
checks and services (PMCS), prepare-to-fire checks, armament accuracy checks (AAC)
(Abrams only), and tactical training.
z
All Soldiers assigned to a vehicle and platoon alternate crew members (infantry only) must pass
all GST tasks in the 3 months (6 months for RCs) before live fire.
z
Schedule gun tube recoil exercise and borescope semi-annually (Abrams).
z
Crews must meet or exceed the prerequisites to live-fire as established by AR 350-1 STRAC,
local regulations and the unit commander. (See Gate to Live-Fire under Section II, Training
Strategy for minimum requirements by system).
z
Digitally equipped units will conduct 50% of all engagements digitally during the crew GT.
z
Crews must pass all Table I tasks before conducting Table II CPC.
z
Crews must qualify on Table II before conducting crew GTs.
z
Crews must qualify on Table VI before conducting the collective GTs.
z
Squads must qualify on Rifle Squad Table VI (Engineer Qualification Table VIII for engineer
units) before conducting the collective GTs.
z
Armor and infantry sections must qualify on Table IX prior to conducting Table XII when firing
a GT XII.
z
Armor and infantry platoons must qualify on Table XII annually.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

12-17

Chapter 12

z
z
z
z

Reconnaissance platoons must qualify either as sections on Table IX or as a platoon on Table


XII annually.
Bradley commanders and gunners must have completed the TOW gunnery program to standard
before they can fire a live TOW missile.
GST evaluators must pass all GST tasks within one month before they evaluate a particular GST
station themselves.
All vehicle crew evaluators (VCE) must certify or recertify in accordance with (IAW) the VCE
certification program in the 3 months (6 months for RC) before live-fire.

Note. Commanders will have the flexibility to conduct their advance phase of gunnery as either
pure or combined arms sections and/or platoons. The first time a platoon leader conducts
collective gunnery, it should be with a pure platoon to demonstrate basic proficiency.
12-48. The commander develops his training strategy after assessing the strengths and weaknesses of his
unit. His strategy must focus on his METL, sustain his units strengths, and correct its weaknesses. He will
find that some tasks apply to all Soldiers, some apply only to the vehicle crews, and others apply only to
the Soldiers in squads. This requires an integrated training strategy. Gunnery progresses logically to
support crew training, leading the section or platoon up to a collective, tactical, live-fire evaluation during
section or platoon qualification.

SECTION IV TRAINING PLANS


12-49. Once the commander and his staff have developed his METL and thoroughly assessed training
proficiency, he begins the detailed process of developing a training plan.

GUNNERY TRAINING
MASTER GUNNER
12-50. The mission of the Master Gunner is to train the unit for gunnery and act as subject matter expert
for all weapon system platforms in the HBCT. The Master Gunner advises commanders at all echelons and
assists with the planning, development, execution, and evaluation of all gunnery-related training
(individual, crew, and collective).
12-51. The Master Gunner duties include
z
Assist the integration of newly assigned Soldiers.

Sets up or conducts initial skills training for new VCs or gunners.

Assists in training new crew members.

Trains and certifies vehicle crew evaluators.


z
Assists all elements in the unit concerning gunnery training.
z
Forecasts and manages ammunition.
z
Manages gunnery records, GST records, and crew rosters.
z
Sets up and oversees GST training and evaluates the results.
z
Coordinates and controls training device use.
z
If senior instructor/operator (SIO) qualified, he certifies and recertifies other
instructors/operators (IO) to conduct crew gunnery simulations training.
z
Plans and manages crew gunnery simulations training.
z
Trains crews on device gunnery (installation, boresighting and troubleshooting procedures, point
of aim, and maintenance).

12-18

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Gunnery Training Program

z
z
z
z

Executes gunnery training (see Chapter 13, Range Operations).


Supervises live-fire ranges to make sure all standards are followed.
In a tactical environment, advises the commander of the tactical capabilities and limitations of
all platform weapon systems against threat systems (in coordination with the S-2).
Advises the commander on battle roster changes and crew turbulence impacts.

12-52. The Master Gunners formal training includes extensive training in vehicle maintenance; range
planning, preparation, and execution; and all phases of gunnery training. Though this chapter previously
discussed the main responsibilities of the Master Gunner, their scope changes depending on the level of
assignment.
z
Brigade Master Gunner. The Master Gunner assigned to brigade level must

Work closely with Master Gunners assigned to lower echelons to make sure standards are
uniform throughout training programs.

Develop the written certification test for VCEs.

Provide any new information on ways to improve crew training.

Coordinate with range-control personnel at the installation or major training area.

Help develop and upgrade range facilities.


z
Battalion Master Gunner. When assigned to battalion level, the Master Gunner must

Continue to train Master Gunners assigned to the battalion.

Help the battalion commander and command sergeant major select candidates for Master
Gunner School.

Develop new training techniques to improve crew training.

Coordinate with brigade for gunnery training assets.

Certify VCEs.

Certify GST evaluators IAW this manual.

Certify range safety personnel.

Manage ammunition resourcing.

Monitor company gunnery training plans.

Develop battalion level gunnery training plans.


z
Company Master Gunner. When assigned to company level, the Master Gunner must

Develop and execute the company-level gunnery training plan.

Help service the turret and weapon system as required.

Work with unit maintenance to correct turret problems.

Complete DA Form 2408-4, Weapon Record Data.

Coordinate with the battalion S-3 and battalion Master Gunner to secure company gunnery
training assets.

Train VCEs.
z
Platoon Master Gunner. When assigned to platoon level, the Master Gunner must

Make sure the platoon weapon system and turret are maintained.

Update the companys Master Gunner on the platoons crew training.

Help the companys Master Gunner with unit gunnery training.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

12-19

Chapter 12

MANAGING BATTLE ROSTER CHANGES


12-53. The greatest problem a commander must contend with in regards to gunnery when developing a
training plan is battle roster changes. The commander must plan short- or long-term solutions for reducing
it and controlling its effects. He must do this before he develops and executes his training plan.
z
Short-Term Solutions.

Change personnel as a crew rather than a single crewman. For example, if a staff sergeant
Bradley commander is promoted to platoon sergeant, then his entire crew moves with him.
This causes only one crew change rather than two.

Train an alternate for each position.


z
Long-Term Solutions.

Continually cross-train personnel for replacements. Experienced Soldiers are easier to train
than new Soldiers.

Form complete crews from new personnel who come into the unit.

LONG-RANGE TRAINING PLANS


12-54. Long-range planning synchronizes supporting units and agencies by allocating dedicated training
time for organizations and units to train on METL tasks. Long-range planning goes out to one year for AC
and three to five years for RC at the company level.
12-55. Each commander identifies training needs from his METL task-proficiency assessment. He sets
goals and forecasts or allocates resources to reach them. When considering his long-range plan, the
commander must answer several questions:
z
What is the current platoon proficiency level (crew and squad)? The answer to this question
depends on

Battle roster changes.

Performance during previous gunnery maneuver exercises and squad, section, and platoon
situational training exercises (STX) and live-fire exercises (LFX).
z
What are the performance goals for the platoons (proficiency level crews and squads must reach
to accomplish METL tasks)? Some goals include

Set a percentage of qualified marksmen, sharpshooters, and experts for AT4, Javelin, M16,
M203, M240B, M249, or other weapon systems that the unit uses.

Set a percentage of qualified, superior, and distinguished ratings for vehicle crews.

Obtain an overall rating of trained (T) on the appropriate collective GT.


z
What resources must we have, and where is the command emphasis?

Correct tasks that fall short of the standard.

Sustain proficiency in tasks that meet the standard.


z
What schools and training are needed to certify and train trainers?

Master gunners course.

Vehicle crew evaluators certification.

GST evaluator certification.

Instructor/operator courses within the unit.

Certification course for MILES or PGS device training.

12-20

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3 September 2009

Gunnery Training Program

SHORT-RANGE TRAINING PLANS


12-56. Short-range planning defines in greater detail the broad guidance on training events and other
activities outlined in the commanders training guidance and depicted on the long-range calendar. Shortrange planning looks out from three to six months for AC and 12 to 20 months for RC. Resources
identified during long-range planning are allocated and prioritized during short-range planning. Command
training guidance is published to provide trainers detailed information on the training objective.
12-57. Gunnery resource considerations are ammunition, fuel and maintenance, range and maneuver area,
and training device availability.
z
Ammunition. Master gunners must carefully manage ammunition allocations. The battalion
Master Gunner forecasts ammunition needs well before the training event. For many reasons, the
ammunition authorization could fall short of the forecasted training requirement. Device gunnery
will not train proper boresight, zero, or gun-operation procedures and should be considered when
planning non-qualification tables. Once the Master Gunner knows the yearly ammunition
authorization, he allocates ammunition based on the commanders guidance and priority.
z
Fuel and Maintenance. An intensive vehicle technical inspection program should be instituted
prior to gunnery to ensure all vehicles are fully mission capable (FMC) with the goal of each
crew qualifying on their own vehicle.
z
Range and Maneuver Area. Include target and range-support personnel.
z
Short-Range Gunnery. Considerations include

Vehicle services.

Other mandatory training, or events prescribed by higher headquarters.

No training events (holidays, leaves, installation support).

Crew and squad training priorities and expected outcomes.

Leader, individual, and collective tasks associated with the training event.

Steps required in preparing trainers and evaluators.

Integration of crew and squad training on the training calendar.


z
Training Device Availability.

Crew training. The crew practices with MILES, PGS, and/or caliber .50 inbore device.
MILES, however, is unsuitable for moving target engagements on vehicles with no
kinematic lead because it does not require the gunner to apply lead to engage a target.
MILES is also unsuitable for training burst on target (BOT), tracer on target (TOT), and
manual range index adjustment. Consequently, the commander must develop a strategy to
train with resources available. These strategies can include
Crew rehearsals and chair drills.
Conduct qualification refires and additional training.
Resource additional ammunition to new crews.
Increase device-based training.
Increase use of crew gunnery simulators.

Squad training.
Conduct weapons qualification.
Dry fire or use MILES on STX lanes.
Conduct a squad and platoon LFX.
Conduct LFX re-fires and additional training.

3 September 2009

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12-21

Chapter 12

Section and platoon training. The section and platoon practices with MILES, PGS
(primary device for BFV gunnery training), and/or caliber .50 inbore device. MILES,
however, is unsuitable for moving target engagements on vehicles with no kinematic lead
because it does not require the gunner to apply lead to engage a target. MILES is also
unsuitable for training BOT, TOT, and manual range index adjustment. Commanders may
dry fire or use 7.62mm in a subcaliber role.
Rehearse the platoon.
Qualify the platoon.

NEAR-TERM TRAINING PLANS


12-58. Near-term planning consists of scheduling and executing training specified in the short-range
training plan, providing specific guidance for training, and producing detailed training schedules. Nearterm planning covers a period of six to eight weeks prior to execution of training for AC and four months
prior to execution of training for RC.
12-59. Training meetings should be held at battalion, company, and platoon levels so all key personnel
understand detailed information.
z
Battalion meetings focus on training management.

Conduct final coordination of ranges, training areas, and ammunition.

Coordinate between units for maintenance, medical, logistical, and personnel requirements.

Lock in and publish unit-training schedules.


z
Company and platoon meetings cover the specifics of executing the training event. These
elements should be included in the gunnery operation order (OPORD).

Discuss when the training will be conducted, to include movement times, to the training
area.

Discuss personnel involved in the training event, and identify who is responsible for
conducting the training.

Discuss in detail the range setup, execution, and key individual responsibilities.

Discuss training location, uniforms, and special equipment required to conduct training.

Discuss specific personnel performance measures to be evaluated.


12-60. Commanders should require briefbacks to ensure subordinate leaders understand all aspects of the
training event.
12-61. The formal training plan culminates with the training schedule. Commanders, key leaders, and all
trainers must continue to plan and coordinate training informally with a series of pre-execution checks.
Additionally, trainers, Soldiers, and support personnel must thoroughly prepare for training.
z
Pre-execution checks systematically prepare Soldiers, trainers, and resources to ensure that
training starts properly. These checks are developed, and responsibility for them assigned, during
short-range planning. To develop an intensive pre-execution checklist, trainers should integrate
range and training area checks and considerations from Chapter 13.
z
Commanders prepare trainers to conduct performance-oriented training by providing time,
guidance, resources, and references. Each trainer rehearses his preparations and reviews the tasks
and subtasks that he must conduct. This gives him confidence in his ability to perform the task
himself, and to teach Soldiers the correct skills.
12-62. Table 12-3 outlines a sample six month gunnery training plan for an Abrams equipped unit. All
required training prior to the crew gunnery phase is included. Units may have to modify their training plan
based on time and resource constraints, provided all required training and testing is conducted.

12-22

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3 September 2009

Gunnery Training Program

Figure 12-9. Sample six month gunnery training timeline (Abrams)

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12-23

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Chapter 13

Range Operations
Chapter 13 outlines the procedures, duties, resources, and responsibilities for
establishing and operating both permanent and temporary gunnery and tactical
training facilities.

Contents
Section I Planning Range Operations 13-1
Planning Gunnery Exercises ............. 13-1
Commanders Intent ......................... 13-2
Developing Scenarios for Collective
Gunnery Tables .............................. 13-15
Planning for Range Operations....... 13-20
Section II Conducting Range
Operations ............................................. 13-24
Opening the Range and Occupying
the Training Site.............................. 13-24
During the Exercise ........................ 13-25

Closing the Range........................... 13-25


Administration and Emergency
Directions ........................................ 13-26
Section III Digital Range Set Up ........ 13-27
Data Sets ........................................ 13-27
Range Overlay ................................ 13-27
Digital Base Station ......................... 13-28
Rehearsal........................................ 13-28
Icon Management ........................... 13-28

SECTION I PLANNING RANGE OPERATIONS


13-1. This section outlines procedures, duties, and responsibilities for planning and establishing gunnery
ranges and tactical courses, to include developing scenarios for gunnery ranges to support a complete
gunnery exercise. A combat training program is conducted on training areas and conducted dry and live on
range firing complexes. It provides an opportunity to acquire targets in a realistic environment and to use
the weapon systems to engage targets. Tactical training should be integrated with gunnery training.

PLANNING GUNNERY EXERCISES


13-2. When planning a gunnery exercise the following general procedures are followed:
z
Determine the commanders intent for the end state of the exercise.
z
Make tentative plans for crew and collective gunnery.
z
Evaluate range and ammunition resources to support the plans.
z
Forecast resources necessary to execute the training event(s).
z
Develop scenarios for crew and collective gunnery tables (GT).
z
Proof all scenarios prior to execution.
z
Coordinate with supporting elements.
z
Plan range operations and personnel.
z
Execute the exercise.
z
Evaluate the exercise through after action reviews (AAR).

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13-1

Chapter 13

COMMANDERS INTENT
13-3. Planning a gunnery training exercise begins with the commanders intent for the desired end state of
the exercise. The commander will issue guidance to his staff on the training mission(s) that the unit is to
perform. The staff first plans for the collective gunnery phase to meet the commanders intent. The staff
tailors a crew gunnery training program that supports the collective training plan. The S-3 and Master
Gunner develop the crew tables using their inherent flexibility to tailor the tasks to the mission in order to
meet the commanders intent.
z
To develop the crew GTs

The S-3 and Master Gunner identify how crew tables and tasks are going to be designed to
train to the mission that will be used in the collective GTs.

The Master Gunner determines which ranges will support firing these tables and tasks and
develops scenarios for each table.
z
To develop the collective GTs

The commander and his S-3 determine which core mission(s) to conduct based on the units
mission-essential task list (METL) and specific command guidance.

The S-3 identifies the primary collective tasks to evaluate based on the core missions.

The S-3 identifies which collective tasks will be firing tasks.

The S-3 and Master Gunner develop scenarios that require the sections and platoons to
conduct designated core missions and their respective primary collective tasks. Live-fire
gunnery presentations are incorporated into the firing tasks.

SITE SELECTION
13-4. Before selecting a site, identify the training area or range(s) that will support the training event.
Make a thorough map and ground reconnaissance of areas available for firing. The range must be large
enough to accommodate all weapon systems, types of ammunition, and types of exercises to be fired. Some
considerations for site selection are
z
Sufficient maneuver area and enough targets to provide several routes and target arrays.
z
Targets in realistic arrays and, where possible, not marked by berms.
z
Enfilade and defilade firing positions.
z
Sand table layouts of the entire range area to aid rehearsals.
z
Terrain that accommodates integration of squad and vehicle fire and maneuver.

RANGE OR TACTICAL COURSE RECONNAISSANCE


13-5. The S-3 and Master Gunner conduct a reconnaissance of the ranges they will use to support their
gunnery training plan. Additionally, the officer in charge (OIC) and noncommissioned officer in charge
(NCOIC) for each range should personally conduct a reconnaissance and coordinate with range control
headquarters before the unit occupies the range or training area. The reconnaissance should provide
answers to the following questions:
z
What route to the range or training area will be used?
z
How many vehicles can run the combat course simultaneously?
z
Are enfilade and defilade positions available?
z
What control facilities are available? What is their condition?
z
Is the tower equipped with FM communication equipment?
z
Are range safety markers visible for live fire? How will they be illuminated at night?
z
How is access to the impact area controlled for live fire? What are guard requirements?
z
Does the range support firing of all types of ammunition and pyrotechnics required for the
exercise?

13-2

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Range Operations

z
z
z
z

z
z
z
z
z
z
z
z

Who furnishes targets, target supplies, or vehicle visual modification sets (3)? Where are targets
stored? Are the targets the correct type, size, shape, and color? What is the condition of target
mechanisms? Who provides the target operators and target details?
Is there a boresight panel at the recommended range?
Can boresighting and zeroing be conducted simultaneously?
What is the condition of moving targets?
Who furnishes the caliber .50 inbore devices or Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System
(MILES) equipment for the tactical course? Are all caliber .50 inbore devices or MILES
equipment accounted for and operational?
Has the range or training area been cleared of unexploded ordnance?
Who will furnish fire-fighting equipment, range flags, and range regulations?
Does the range or training area provide adequate space for maneuvering vehicles and the
weapons to be used?
Does the range provide firing positions for indirect-fire illumination?
Does the range allow reduced vehicle-to-target ranges for limited visibility?
Who will supply optics for scoring and control?
What is the digital infrastructure provided on the range (Force XXI Battle Command Brigade
and Below (FBCB2), audio/visual (A/V), and instrumentation required)?
Where are the following administrative areas:

Ammunition pad?

Clearing pit and misfire pit?

Barriers/guard posts?

Mess area?

Latrine?

Helipad?

Aid station?

Troop break and billet areas?

Maintenance area?

Briefing and debriefing tent (AAR facility)?

Track vehicle parking area?

Very important person (VIP) parking area?

Wheel vehicle parking area?

Concurrent training area?

RANGE OR TRAINING AREA LAYOUT


13-6. Generally, vehicle ranges support both crew and collective live-fire scenarios. Some ranges consist
of stationary and moving vehicle positions; however, when there is a moving vehicle position, the
maneuver box area is laid out to make sure the firing vehicle is within the firing limits of the range. When
possible, course runs will not be limited to roads or range trails, but will be designed to maneuver crosscountry.
z
Coordinate with the range facility manager to gather information about the facility. Determine if
the surface danger zone (SDZ) diagram is current; construct one, if necessary refer to DA Pam
385-63 and Technical Bulletin (TB) Med 524. As a minimum, you will need to obtain the
following information about your facility:

A scaled range diagram (preferably in 100-meter increments) that identifies target pits (by
type and number), battle positions, and firing points or map of the training area.

A fire/no-fire matrix (if available), which is the authorized list of targets allowed to be fired
within the SDZ diagram from each firing point/battle position. This is typically located in
the range standing operating procedure (SOP).

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13-3

Chapter 13

Conduct a reconnaissance of the facility to

Identify any restrictions for the facility.

Determine the best lanes that allow the most targets to be engaged.

Determine if the facility supports dual-lane scenario or only single-lane firing.

Determine the layout of course roads to identify a course speed.

Determine if the facility supports firing multiple weapons platforms simultaneously.

Plan to maximize throughput.

13-7. Answer the following questions before developing the scenario:


z
How many lanes will be firing?
z
What weapon platform types will be firing?
z
What is the maximum distance of the firing box for offensive engagements?
z
What is the course speed?
z
What is the order of tasks for each scenario?
z
Is cross-firing allowed on the range?
Note. The order of tasks is usually most influenced by the location of specific target types on
the range, typically moving targets or targets in urban clusters. Plan these engagements first
when developing a scenario.

DEVELOPING THE SCENARIO


13-8. Once planning is complete, develop the scenario, including the following:
z
Identify the first firing position and the first task to be fired.
z
For offensive tasks with delay target(s), estimate where the firing vehicle should be (based on
course speed) to determine which target(s) to select. Identify alternate targets for each
engagement.
z
If you are firing a dual-lane scenario, consider where the firing vehicles are in relation to each
other when one finishes an engagement. Neither firing vehicle should be placed in the danger
zone of the other while firing.
z
If you are firing tanks and Bradleys on the same range, take into consideration whether the
vehicles will be firing at the same targetry and the ranges at which they will be engaging those
targets. Firing positions and offensive firing points may have to be adjusted to compensate.
z
When listing target information, include the following:

Target pit number and/or target number.

Target type.

Vehicle-to-target range.

For tanks, ensure loaders targets are always to the left of the main gun-target line and the
vehicle commanders (VC) machine gun engagements are always to the right of the main
gun-target line.

Exposure time (target lift and delay time, if applicable).

Hostile fire signature (no less than 5 seconds after exposure).

Type of ammunition to be fired at the target.

Number of hits required to kill the target.


Note. If running both Abrams and Bradleys simultaneously, target hit sensors will have to be
adjusted accordingly if targets are to be engaged by both weapon platforms.

13-4

Target speed (if moving).


Target direction (if moving).

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Range Operations

Evasive moving target (plan maneuver).


Alternate target number (if applicable).

Targetry
13-9. All targets are constructed in accordance with (IAW) TC 25-8. All stationary targets should be
mounted on pop-up mechanisms to facilitate target acquisition and scoring. Moving targets should be
presented at speeds between 24 and 32 kph (15 to 20 mph). Moving, evasive targets should be presented at
speeds between 8 and 32 kph (5 to 20 mph). Currently, an evasive target can be programmed to move at
varying speeds, conduct short halts, or change direction. They must be visible from the firing position for
the entire exposure time, and must run for a minimum of 15 seconds in each step to allow for acquisition,
tracking, and engaging. Evasive targets should have the ability to change speed and direction, and alter
their appearance or thermal signature as the vehicles directions change. All target types must have thermal
target signatures for both day and night engagements IAW TC 25-8.
z
Armor. Armor targets will be presented as stationary or moving, frontal or flank threat armor
silhouettes.
z
Light Armored Vehicle. Light-armored vehicle targets will be presented as stationary or
moving, frontal or flank threat personnel carrier (PC) or fighting vehicle silhouettes.
z
Unarmored Vehicle. Unarmored vehicle targets will be presented as stationary or moving,
frontal or flank threat armed truck silhouettes.
z
Point Troop. Point troop targets are no more than three E-type silhouettes placed in line, in
depth, or in a wedge formation, no more than 5 meters apart or 10 meters in depth (if more than
one silhouette is used). These targets may be placed on a single vehicle target lifter at ranges
beyond 900 meters to allow crews to engage the target with high-explosive (HE) rounds.
z
Area Troop. Realistic arrays include no more than 7 and no fewer than 4 E-type silhouettes
placed in a linear or wedge formation. They are spread up to 5 meters apart, but the whole target
array fits in an area up to 30 meters wide by 20 meters deep.
z
Aerial. Aerial targets will be presented as stationary or moving, frontal or flank threat attack
helicopter silhouettes.

Friendly and Neutral Presentations


13-10. Realistic friendly and neutral presentations may be incorporated in all phases of gunnery to train
crews and squads in combat identification and fratricide avoidance. Presentations must appear realistic in
visual, thermal, and infrared (IR) optics. Friendly/neutral presentations will be marked as follows:
z
Friendly Vehicle. Friendly vehicle presentations will be displayed with CIP panels properly
located on the silhouette. Phoenix beacons should be used at night to provide IR optics with
friendly identification signature. Unit SOPs can also be used to develop specific identification
markings.
z
Friendly Troop. Units should use established SOPs to depict friendly troop thermal signature
combat identification for night engagements. Phoenix beacons should be used at night to
provide IR optics with friendly identification signature.
z
Neutral. Neutral presentations must be clearly identifiable as civilian vehicles and personnel.
Personnel presentations may consist of any number silhouettes dispersed in a small group.

Lateral Dispersion of Targets


13-11. Target dispersion must be used for all GTs. The intent is to ensure gunners and VCs are not able to
acquire both targets in a two-target engagement or no more than two targets in a three-target engagement
while in narrow field of view (NFOV). The minimum target dispersion on an engagement should be 1.5
times the NFOV of the platform. However, all targets presented during degraded mode engagements must
be dispersed no more than 40 mils within the field of view of the vehicles auxiliary sight. Given the

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

13-5

Chapter 13

difference in the platform optics, the Abrams and the Bradley will have different minimum lateral target
dispersions. The distance between targets can be worked out using the WORM formula.
z
Abrams. For the Abrams tanks, the thermal wide field of view (WFOV) is 15 degrees, 1.5 times
the WFOV in mils is 400 mils.
z
Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV) Integrated Sight Unit (ISU). For the BFV with ISU, the
thermal WFOV is 6.6 degrees, 1.5 times the WFOV in mils is 176 mils.
z
BFV Improved Bradley Acquisition Subsystem (IBAS). For the BFV with IBAS, the
forwarding looking, infrared (FLIR) WFOV is 13.3 degrees, 1.5 times the WFOV in mils is 355
mils.
Note. In tasks where three targets are used, the third (delayed) target may be presented
anywhere, as long as it is at the proper range.

Urban Clusters
13-12. Commanders may opt to conduct their gunnery utilizing urban clusters to replicate urban
operations on the range (see Figure 13-1). Urban clusters should consist of single and multiple story
structures in and around the targetry replicating buildings similar to those the unit expects to encounter in
their operational environment (OE). These structures should be constructed in groups of no less than three
buildings per cluster. Urban clusters must be available during all phases of gunnery for single and/or
multiple lane ranges to support the unit mission. The example below illustrates urban clusters on a multiple
lane range complex.

Figure 13-1. Urban cluster

Maneuver Boxes
13-13. The maneuver box is the maximum distance the vehicle could travel and still have the target(s)
exposed, to include vehicle acceleration and target lift time. Maneuver boxes must be clearly defined so as
to be able to accurately determine if the targets can be safely fired at for their entire presentation time and
to accurately plot surface danger diagrams as necessary. Figure 13-2a outlines various firing box lengths

13-6

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Range Operations

based on vehicle speed, number of targets within the presentation and target exposure times. Additionally,
an 8 second target lift/firing vehicle acceleration time has been built into the table to accommodate these
events, therefore the starting point for offensive engagements is the point at which the firing vehicle begins
movement, the target lifter can begin raising the target into a locked position with actual engagement
occurring at a predetermined point within the maneuver box. In-depth proofing of the range prior to
execution will determine at what point targets are in a locked position and able to be engaged. Due to
variable target lift times as determined by target type (vehicle vs. troop silhouette) and range to range
variances, this engagement point within the maneuver box will not be constant. The firing vehicle must
adhere to start and stop points. At no time, will the vehicle extend or surpass the exposure and engagement
times. Figure 13-2a through Figure 13-2d displays the step-by-step process involved in an offensive
engagement.

Figure 13-2a. Example maneuver box on an offensive engagement

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13-7

Chapter 13

Figure 13-2b. Example maneuver box on an offensive engagement (continued)

Figure 13-2c. Example maneuver box on an offensive engagement (continued)

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3 September 2009

Range Operations

Figure 13-2d. Example maneuver box on an offensive engagement (continued)


13-14. To determine the size of a maneuver box, the average vehicle speed for the course and the target
exposure time must be known. Table 13-1 shows how to determine the length of a maneuver box. If the
first number after the decimal is 5 or more, the length is rounded up to the next whole number. Table 13-1
shows how to determine the length of a delayed target maneuver box.
Table 13-1. Formula for determining length of maneuver box

FIRING VEHICLE SPEED

Target Array Type

12 MPH

SINGLE
TARGET
310 meters

DOUBLE
TARGET
310 meters

3 TGTS - 15
Sec delay
391 meters

3 TGTS - 20
Sec delay
418 meters

3 TGTS - 25
Sec delay
445 meters

13 MPH

337 meters

337 meters

424 meters

453 meters

482 meters

14 MPH

363 meters

363 meters

457 meters

488 meters

520 meters

15 MPH

389 meters

389 meters

490 meters

523 meters

557 meters

16 MPH

415 meters

415 meters

522 meters

558 meters

594 meters

17 MPH

441 meters

441 meters

555 meters

593 meters

631 meters

18 MPH

467 meters

467 meters

588 meters

628 meters

668 meters

19 MPH

493 meters

493 meters

620 meters

663 meters

705 meters

20 MPH

519 meters

519 meters

653 meters

698 meters

742 meters

Maneuver Box Length


Notes.
1. Maneuver box length is determined by converting miles per hour (mph) to meters per seconds (mps) by multiplying
using a constant value of 0.4471416.
2. Multiply the determined mps by the target exposure time + 8 seconds for target lifter time.
3. Round to the nearest whole number to obtain maneuver box length in meters.

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13-9

Chapter 13

Surface Danger Zone Diagrams


13-15. When establishing ranges, units must submit SDZ diagrams to the installation range control
facility for approval before firing. Restrictions and precautions for SDZ diagrams are found in DA Pam
385-63 and TB Med 524. SDZ diagrams show range boundaries and safety features in overlay form,
including safety limit markers for each firing position (see Figure 13-3, Figure 13-4, Table 13-2, and Table
13-3). Firing tables (FT) provide values for range, maximum ordinates, and superelevation for each
ammunition type.
Note. If you must construct an SDZ diagram, refer to DA Pam 385-63.
General Surface Danger Zone Considerations
13-16. When engaging ground targets, the unit may reduce Distance X (maximum range) to 15 degrees
elevation, provided they maintain the guns firing elevation at less than or equal to 15 degrees. If they
cannot control the weapon at or under 15 degrees, such as could happen when firing while moving over
rough terrain with inoperative stabilization, they will use the maximum range (Distance X). At 15 degrees
elevation, range equals the greatest distance the projectile can travel when fired at elevations at or under 15
degrees. The unit derives this value by evaluating ricochet and ballistic FT data.

WARNING
Laser range finders (LRF) will be used only on established lasersafe ranges. Do not fire the LRF at reflective surfaces at any
range.

Non-Eye-Safe Laser Surface Danger Zone


13-17. When non-eye-safe lasers are used, the nominal ocular hazard distance (NOHD) (an additional
buffer area) must be added to the SDZ diagram. The NOHD will vary for each type of laser device and
type of terrain. (See DA Pam 385-63, Table 19-1, for the appropriate NOHD.) For the LRF, the NOHD is 7
kilometers. Every object the laser beam strikes will reflect energy. In most cases, this energy is diffused
and is not hazardous. To prevent eye injury from a reflected laser beam, avoid shiny surfaces. Remove
mirrors, panes of glass or plastic, chrome-plated metal, or other flat mirror-like objects having a vertical or
near-vertical surface from the target area. If it is impractical to remove some surfaces, cover them with
lusterless paint. Cloth, cardboard, wood, and lusterless metal targets are acceptable for laser ranging.
Tank Main Gun Surface Danger Zone Considerations
13-18. Total range distance includes horizontal range corresponding to 10-degree quadrant elevation, and
an allowance for the maneuver area and Area B, when required. This total range distance will be decreased
only on a waiver basis. The main gun will not be fired at quadrant elevations greater than +5 degrees (+89
mils). This provides a safety factor of 5 degrees within the SDZ diagram. Firing limits for establishing
ranges can be obtained from the local range control officer.

13-10

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Range Operations

Figure 13-3. Sample SDZ diagram for 25-mm M792 ammunition


Table 13-2. Dimensions for 25-mm M792 (HEI-T) ammunition
Area A

Area B

Area W2

Angle Y

Angle Z

Distance X1

Ricochet
Range

15 Deg Elevation
Range

300m

400m

1,373m

28 deg

5 deg

6,381m

5,265m

5,244m

300m

400m

1,290m

27 deg

5 deg

6,381m

5,071m

5,244m

300m

400m

908m

19 deg

5 deg

6,381m

4,792m

5,244m

300m

400m

1,047m

19 deg

5 deg

6,381m

4823m

5,244m

Notes.
1. Firer may reduce Distance X (maximum range) to Ricochet Range when engaging ground targets at ranges up to 3,000
meters from the stationary firing positions. When firing from a moving vehicle over level terrain at ground targets up to 3,000
meters, he can use the 15 degree Elevation Range, except for armor Impact Medium, in which case he uses the Ricochet
Range distance, whichever is greater. When firing on the move over rough terrain the firer uses Distance X.
2. When firing at aerial targets with the gun elevation greater than 15 degrees, the firer need not use the Ricochet Area
defined by Area W and Angle Y.

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

13-11

Chapter 13

Figure 13-4. Sample SDZ diagram for 7.62-mm M80 (A131) ammunition
Table 13-3. Dimensions for 7.62-mm M80 (A131) ammunition
Impact
Media

Area A

Area B

Angle P

Angle Q

Area W

Left and
Right of
GTL

Distance
X

Distance
Y

Earth

N/A

N/A

43.81
deg

38.90
deg

1,461m

5 deg

4,100m

4,073m

Water

N/A

N/A

43.81
deg

38.90
deg

1,461m

5 deg

4,100m

4,073m

Steel

N/A

N/A

20.17
deg

75.54
deg

861m

5 deg

4,100m

4,073m

Concrete

N/A

N/A

20.17
deg

75.54
deg

861m

5 deg

4,100m

4,073m

Notes.
1. Firer may reduce Distance X (maximum range) to Ricochet Range when engaging ground targets at ranges up to
3,000 meters from the stationary firing positions. When firing from a moving vehicle over rough terrain the firer uses
Distance X.
2. When firing at aerial targets with the gun elevation greater than 15 degrees, the firer need not use the Ricochet Area
defined by Area W and Angle Y.

Ballistic Firing Tables


13-19. The Master Gunners and range control personnel use the ballistic data in ammunition FTs to
develop or modify surface danger area diagrams (see Table 13-4). With the Master Gunners knowledge of
the fire control system, they jointly develop realistic GTs. The following terms explain the data in all
gunnery FTs; however, the relative locations of the data columns might differ among the tables for the
various rounds of ammunition and types of weapons:
z
Angle of Fall. The angle, measured in mils, between the line of sight and the line of elevation.
z
Ballistic. The science that deals with the motion, behavior, and effects of a projectile.
z
(D=change) DH/DR. The change in height (in meters) of a projectile for a 100-meter change in
linear range on the ground, at a given range.

13-12

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Range Operations

z
z
z
z
z
z
z
z

z
z

z
z
z

(D=change) DR/DSE. The number of meters a 1-mil elevation change will move the round in
linear range, on the ground, at a given range and super elevation.
Drift. The number of mils the projectile moves to the right of the gun-target line due to the spin
caused by the rifling in the gun.
Line of Departure. A prolongation of a line running through the axis of the gun bore as the
projectile leaves the muzzle.
Line of Elevation. A prolongation of a line running through the axis of the gun bore.
Line of Sight. A straight line between the gun sight and the target.
Maximum Ordinate. The maximum height the projectile travels above the line of sight at a
given range.
Range. The distance from the vehicle to the target.
Range to Maximum Ordinate. Out to this range (the range at which the round reaches
maximum ordinate) the projectile ascends; beyond this range, it descends. This range (to the
maximum ordinate) always occurs shortly past half of the target range.
Remaining Velocity. The speed of the projectile in meters per second and at a selected range.
Super Elevation. The angle, measured, in mils, between the line of sight and a line tangent to
the trajectory at the point of impact. The additional elevation induced into the fire control system
raises the ballistic flight of a given projectile. This ensures that the projectile hits the target at a
given range.
Ten kph Crosswind Deflection. Generally, thanks to crosswind deflection, a round is most
unstable when it exits the muzzle. This effect of wind deflection assumes a crosswind speed of
10 kph. The firer applies the correction into the wind. If the wind speed is more or less than 10
kph, the firer estimates the point of aim.
Time of Flight. The time a projectile takes to reach a target at a selected range.
Trajectory. The path of the projectile from the muzzle of the weapon to the first point of
impact.
Vertical Gun Jump. The angle measured in mils between the line of departure of the projectile
and the line of elevation.

Table 13-4. Sample ballistic firing table for cartridge, APDS-T (muzzle velocity 1,345 mps)
Range

Superelevation

DR/DSE

DH/DR

Drift

Time of
Flight

1,600m

5.12 mils

263 m/mils

0.6m per
100m

0.1 mils

1.33 sec

1,700m

5.49 mils

257 m/mils

0.6m per
100m

0.1 mils

1.42 sec

1,800m

5.88 mils

252 m/mils

0.7m per
100m

0.1 mils

1.52 sec

1,900m

6.72 mils

247 m/mils

0.7m per
100m

0.1 mils

1.61 sec

10kph
Crosswind
Deflection

Maximum
Ordinate

Range to
Max Ordinate

Angle of Fall

Remaining
Velocity

Range

0.2 mils

2.2m

830m

6 mils

1,075 m/sec

1,600m

0.3 mils

2.2m

884m

6 mils

1,058 m/sec

1,700m

0.3 mils

2.2m

938m

7 mils

1,041 m/sec

1,800m

0.3 mils

2.2m

993m

8 mils

1,025 m/sec

1,900m

3 September 2009

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

13-13

Chapter 13

Scaled Ranges
13-20. Certain gunnery training can be accomplished on scaled down ranges when access to full scale
ranges is limited. Table 13-5 defines various scaled ranges to targets. For realism, if a scaled range is used,
targetry should be scaled down as well. Scaled sizes for targetry can be found in TC 25-8.
Table 13-5. Scaled ranges
SCALE OF RANGES
Combat
Range
(meters)

800

1/2 Scale
(meters)

400

1/5 Scale
(meters)

470

1/10 Scale
(meters)

80

1/20 Scale
(meters)

132

1/30 Scale
(meters)

87

1/35 Scale
(meters)

1/60 Scale
(meters)

75

44
49

900

450

592

90

148

98

84

1,000

500

660

100

165

110

94

55

1,100

550

724

110

181

120

103

60

1,200

600

792

120

198

131

113

66

1,300

650

856

130

214

142

122

71

1,400

700

924

140

231

154

132

77

1,500

750

990

150

247

164

141

82

1,600

800

1,060

160

264

176

150

88

1,700

850

1,120

170

280

186

160

93

1,800

900

1,192

180

297

198

169

99

1,900

950

1,256

190

313

208

179

104

2,000

1,000

1,320

200

330

220

188

110

2,100

1,050

1,388

210

346

230

198

115

2,200

1,100

1,450

220

363

242

207

121

2,300

1,150

1,520

230

379

250

216

126

2,400

1,200

1,588

240

396

264

226

132

2,500

1,250

1,650

250

412

274

235

137

2,600

1,300

1,720

260

429

286

245

143

2,700

1,350

1,780

270

445

296

254

148

2,800

1,400

1,850

280

462

308

264

154

2,900

1,450

1,915

290

478

318

273

159

3,000

1,500

1,980

300

495

330

282

165

PROOFING THE SCENARIO


13-21. After the scenario is approved on paper, it must be proofed on the facility using the vehicle(s) for
which the scenario was approved. It is imperative that this be conducted before the unit arrives, to prevent
lost training time.
13-22. All conditions must be the same as if actually firing, using the same type weapon platform(s) that
will be firing. If firing a dual-lane scenario, proof both lanes at the same time. Each target should be
checked for validity by making sure it can be viewed through the firing vehicle optics throughout the entire
presentation time. The range to the targets and the target presentation times should be verified. For
offensive engagements the proofing vehicle should maneuver through the entire maneuver box to ensure
that targets are not masked for any part of their presentation time. On computer-controlled ranges, Master
Gunners should proof scenarios and adjust target lift times as necessary to ensure that multiple targets are
programmed to lift simultaneously. Adjustments may also be necessary for delayed targets to ensure they
are presented with the proper lift time and have the appropriate target exposure time.

13-14

FM 3-20.21/MCWP 3-12.2

3 September 2009

Range Operations

13-23. For Abrams units, proofing should be accomplished by making sure targets can be viewed through
t