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G.

Baranenkov,

B. Drm;dovich

V.

Epmenko, S. Kogan,

G.

Lunt~) E. Por~hnlva, E. ~!/(:h(ta, S. fl0lCJv, R. ~ho~takt

 

A. Yanpolsky

 

PROBLEMS

IN

MATHEMATICAL

ANALYSIS

Under

the editorship

of

B.

DEMI DOVICH

Translated

/rorn

the Russian.

by

G. YANKOVSKY

MI~ PUBLISHERS

Moscow

TO THE

READER

M/R

opinion

book.

of

Publishers

would

be

the

translatton

and

glad

the

to

have yo"r

of

this

design

P lease send your suggest tons to 2. Pervy Rlzh~kg

Mo~(.ow, u. S. S. R.

Pereulok,

Second PrintiRR

Printed

In

the

Union of Soviet Socialist

Republics

CONTENTS

Preface

9

.

Cizapter 1.

INTRODUCTION TO ANALYSIS

Sec.

1. Pu nctions

.

.

.

.

.

 

11

Sec.

2

. Graphs of Elementary Functions

16

Sec.

3

Li mits

.

22

Sec.

4

Infinitely Small and Large Quantities.

 

33

Sec. 5. Continuity of Functions

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

36

Chapter II

DIFFERENTIATION Of ·FUNCTIONS

 

Sec

1. Calculating Derivatives Directly

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

42

Sec

2

Tabular Differentiation

46

Sec.

3

The

Dprivat'ves of Functions Not Represented Explicitly

 

56

Sec. 4. Geometrical and Mechanical Applications of the Derivative

.

60

Sec

5

DeflvatlveC) of H ig ler Orders

.....

 

66

Sec

6

DifTerE:'ntials of First and

Higher Orders

 

11

Sec

7

Mean Value Theorems

.

15

Sec.

8

Taylor'\) Formula

17

The L'Hospital-Bernoulli Rule Forms

Sec

9

for

Evaluating

Indeterminate

• ..

... THE EXTREMA OF A FUNCTION AND THE GEOMETRIC

,.

.

Chapter III

78

APPLICATIONS OF A DER IVATIVE

 

Sec.

1.

The

Extrema of a Function of One Argument

 

83

Sec.

2

The Dirfct ion of Concavity

Points

 

of Inflection

 

91

Sec

3

AsymptoteC)

 

.

.

 

93

Sec

4.

Graph Ing Functions by Characteristic

Points

 

96

Sec.

5.

DilTerential of an Arc

Curvature

 

 

101

Chapter IV I~DEFINI"E INTEGRALS

 

.

.

.

Sec.

1

Direct l ntellration

.

.

 

107

Sec

2

Inte~ration by Substitution • •

.

113

Sec 3 Integrat 1 0n by Part~

Sec.

4

. Standard I ntegral'\ ContaininR a Quadratic Trinornlal

.

.

.

.

 

.

.

116

118

Sec.

5.

Integration of Rational Functions

 

121

Contents

Sec.

6.

Init'grating Certain

IrratIonal Functions

••

125

7.

~ec. 8

1 rifonrrretric Functions

I ntegrat ion

of H Yferbolic Functions

USIng I ngonometric and

.

.

.

.

.

••

.

.

128

133

Sec

9.

Hyperbolic Substitutions

for Finding

Integrals of the Form

~ R (x.

Vaxl+bx+cl dx.

Where R

IS

a

Ra-

Sec

10

tional FunctIon

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

. I ntf,:rat ion of Varlouc; Transcendental Functions

.

.

.

.

.

.

....

133

135

Sec 11 Using Reduction

.....

 

135

Sec. 12. MIscellaneous Examples on Integration

.••••

 

136

Chapter V

DEFINITE INTEGRALS

Sec.

1.

The Denn ite

I ntegral

as

the

Limit

of

a Sunl

138

2

.

Evaluatll";~ [(tirite Intfgrals by N.eans of lndeflniteIntegrals 140

Sec.

3

Improper Integrals .

Charge

~f Vari2ble

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

143

Sec

4

in a Dffinite Integral

146

~ec. 5. In1f~ration by Parts . • • •

.

.

.

 

149

Sec

6

Mean- Value Theort'm .

.

150

Sec.

7.

The Areas of

Plant'

Fi~ures

153

Sec

8.

The Arc Length

of

a Curve

158

Sec

9

Volumes of Sol ids

.

.

.

.

161

5ec

10

The

Area of

a ~urface of RE'volution

166

Sec

11

Norrfnts

Centres of Cravity

CJuldln's Thforems •

168

12. Applyir.g [ef!r.ite Int€grals to the Solution of Physical Prcb- lems •• • •

.

.

.

.

.

.•.•

173

Chapter VI.

FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES

Sec.

1.

Basic

Notions

180

Sec. 2. Contlnulty

 

184

Sec

3

P.artlal Derivatives •

185

Sec

4

Total

DlfJerential of a Function

••

...

181

Sec

5

Dlffprpntiation of Comroslte F-unctions

••

190

Sec.

Stc.

6.

7

Dt-f1Vatlve In a GIven DirtAct10n and the Gradient of a Function 193

197

Sec

8

H I~lfel -Crder Cenvat lVfS and Differentials I ntegration of 10tal D;f;erentials

202

Sec

9

Dif.erentiation of I mpllclt functions. • •

• •

205

Sec

10

Chanf!e of Variables

..

• .......

••

211

Sec.

11.

The Tangent Plant' and the Normal

to a Surface

217

Sec

12

1 aylor'~ Formula

for

a F-un('tion of

5pveral

Variables

220

Sec.

13

The Ex tremum of a FunctIon of Several Variables

222

Sec

14

Fir dlf:~ 1ht-

Createst

and

c. n~allt"st Values of

Functions

••

227

Sec

15

Slnl'ular POInts ot

Plane Curves •

230

Sec

16

Envelope

.

2.32

Sec.

17. Arc Length

of

a Space Curve

••

,

•.

234

Contents

7

S~c. 18.

Sec.

19

The

The

Vector Function of a Scalar Argument •

·

2JS

Natural Trihedrnn of a Space Curve

238

Sec. 20. Curvature and

Torsion of a Space Curve

242

·

Chapter VII. MULTIPLE AND LINE INTEGRALS

Sec.

Sec.

Sec.

1

2

3.

The Double Integral in Rectangular Coordinates .

Com pu ti ng

Areas

.

·

..

••

246

Chan~e of Variables in a Double Integral

252

• 256

Sec.

4. Computing Volumes .••

••••••

..

258

Sec.

5.

Computing

the Areas of Surfac~s

.• ...

·

259

Sec.

6

Applications of the Double Integral in Mechanics

• 230

Sec.

7. Triple Integrals

.

262

Sec.

8.

I mproper Integrals Dependent on a Paralneter.

Improper

Multi lIe Integrals.

.

••

269

Sec.

9

Line Integrals

.

.

.

.

.

·

273

Sec. 10. Surface Integrals

.

.

.

.

.

.

Sec.

11. The Ostrogradsky-Gauss Formula

Sec.

·

·

284

• 286

12. Fundamentals of Field Theory

288

Chapter VIII. SERIES

Sec. 1. Number Series

••

·

293

Sec. 2. Functional Series

304

Sec.

3.

Taylor's Series •

....

•.

311

Sec. 4. Fourier's Series

·

318

Chapter IX

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

Sec. 1. Verifying Solutions. Forming Differential Equations

of FaOli·

lies of Curves.

Initial Conet itions

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

322

Sec.

2

First-Order Differential Equations

Sec. 3. First-Order

.

.

.

.

.

324

Diflerential Equations with Variables Separable.

Orthogonal Trajer.tories

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

327

Sec.

4

First-Order Homo~eneous Differential

Equ:Itlons

•••

330

Sec. 5. First-Order

Linear

Differential Equations. Bernoulli's ••.••.••

........

•••.•

Equation .......

3::12

Sec.

6

Exact Differential Equations. Integrating Factor

.•

335

Sec

7

.

First-Ordpr DIfferentIal Equations not Solved for the Derivative 337

Sec. 8. The Lagrange and Clairaut

Equations

.•

339

Sec. 9. Miscellaneous Exercises on First-Order Differential Equations 340

Sec.

10. I-ligher-Order Differential Equations •••••••••••. ••••

Equations •.•••••••

Sec. 11. Linear Differential

345

349

Sec.

12. LInear Differential Equations of Second Order

with Constant

Coefficients

• 351

8

Contents

Sec.

13. Linear

Differential

with Constant CoefficIents

Equations

of

.....

Order

Higher

than

Two

.

.

356

Sec

14.

Euler's Equations .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

357

Sec

Sec.

15. Systems of

16.

Diff'l'rentlal

Equa tions

. Integration of Dit'ien'ntial Equations by Means of Power Se-

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

359

ries

.

Sec

17.

. Problenls on Fourier's Method

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

361

•••••••••••••• 363

Chapter X.

APPROXIMATE CALCULATIONS

Sec.

1

Operations on Approxarnatc NUlllbers

Sec.

2.

Interpolation of Functions

.

Sec. 3. ConlputtT1f.! thc,Rcnl

Roots of

.

.

.

.

EquCltions

~ec. 4

NUlllprital, In tet!ration of FUllct ions

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Sec.

Sec.

5. f\un encal Inte~'r(ltion of Crdlrary

Dtf'1t:rtntial

6.

ApprO}dITlating P<. tlfllr'S Ccefficlents

.

.

.

"

.

Equations ••

.

367

372

376

382

384

3Q3

ANSWERS

.....

396

APPENDIX

......

I.

Grrcl< A1ph a bpt

.

11. SOlne COl1~tants .

III.

Inverse Quantities,

Powers, Roots, Lo~arithlns .

IV

Trigollollletric Funct ton~ • •

.

.

V.

EXrorel~ tIaI, 11 y ~erbolic and Trigon01l1etric Functions

VI. Some Curves

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

·

475

·

·

·

.

475

475

476

478

••••• 479

·

480

PREFACE

This collection of problems and exercises in mathematical anal- ysis covers the maximum requirements of general courses in

higher mathematics for higher technical schools.

It contains over

3,000 problems sequentially arranged in (~hapters I to X covering

all branches of higher mathematics (with the exception of ana-

lytical geometry) given in college courses.

Particular attention is

given to the most important sections of the course that require established skills (the finding of limits, differentiation techniques, the graphing of functions, integration techniques, the applications of definite integrals, series, the sol ut ion of differential equations).

Since some institutes

have

extended

courses

of mathematics,

the authors have included problems on field theory, the Fourier method, and approxima1e calculations. Experience sho\vs that

the

nunlber of problclns given in this book

not only fully satisfies

the

requirclT:€n s of the student, as far as

practical

11las~ering of

the various sections of the course goes, but also enables the in-

structor to supply a varied choIce of problems in each section and to select problenls for tests and examinations.

Each chap.er begins with a brief theoretical

introduction that

covers the basic definitions and formulas of that section of the

course. Here the rnost inlportant typical problems are worked out

in

full.

We beli('ve

that this

will

greatly

Silllplify the

work

of

the student. Answers are given to all computational problems;

one

asterisk

indicate~ that

hints

to

the

solution are

given

in

the answers, two asterisks, that the solution is given. The problems are frequently illustrated by drawings.

 

This collection of

problems

is

the

result

of

many

years of

teaching higher mathelnatics in the technical schools of the Soviet

Union.

It

includes,

in addition to original

problems

and

exam·

pies, a large nunlber of commonly used problelTIs.

Chapter I

INTRODUCTION TO ANALYSIS

Sec.

1. Functions

 

1°.

Real nurrl:ers. Rational and irrational numbers are collectively known

as real numbers

1 he ab\olutf value

of

a

real

nurnber a

IS

undt'rstood

to

be

the

nonnegative numb~r I a,

defined

by the conditions·

I a I = a

if

a

0,

and

la , = -

a if a < o.

lhe following

in(qual1ty

holds

for

all

real

numbers CJ

and

b:

 
 
 

2°. Definition of a function.

If

to every

val ue *)

of

a

variable

x,

wh ich

belongs to SOllie collect Ion (set)

E,

there corresponds one

and

onl y one

finite

value of the quantity

y,

1hen y

is

said

to

be

a funcllon

(~lnRle-valued) of x

or a dependent

1 artable

def! ned

on

the

~et E,

x

is

the

argument

or

tndepen-

dent vanable

The fact

that

II

IS

a

functIon

of

x

IS

expressed

In

brief

form

by

the

notation y =

f (x)

or

y == F (.\),

and

the I'ke

 

If

to every

value

of

x

belonging to somt» set

E there

corresponds one or

several values of the vanabl~ !i, then y is

called

a

multIple-valued

functton

of

x

defined

on

E.

Fronl

now

on

we shall

u~e the

\\ford

"functIon"

only

in

the meaning

of a ~ln[!./e-vQlupd functIon, 11 not other\vl~e stated

 
 

The domain of deltnition of a function.

The collection of values of x for

which the gIven functlon

IS dt.\Hned

IS called

the dOTnaln

01 de{tTulton

(or the

domain) of thiS function.

In the slnlplest cases,

the'

domaIn of

a

function

IS

either

a clofied Interval

[a, bl,

which is

the

set

of

nUlnbprs x

that

satisfy

the

inequal itJes a ~

 

b,

or

an open

tnterval

(a. b).

wh Ich

:s

the

set

of real

nuolhers that satisfy the In('quallLes a < x < b. AI~o pOSSible IS a ITIOre com-

plex structure of the dOllJ3111 01 defInition of 3 function leln 21)

(see, for

Instance, Prob-

 

Exanlple 1.

Determine the donlaln of definItion of the funchon

 
 

I

 

Y=

V x2-1 .

 

Solution. The function is defined if

 

x 2 -1

> 0,

that is,

if

, x I> 1.

Thus,

the

domaIn of the function

is

a

set

of

two

inter-

vals: -

00 < x < -I

~nd I < x < + 00

 

4°.

Inverse

functions.

If

the equation y = f (x) may

be solved

unIquely for

the variable x,

that

is,

if there

is

a function x =g (y)

such

that

y == f [g (y»,

*) Hencelorth

all

values will be

conSIdered

8S

real,

if

not

otherwise

stated.

12

Introduction to Analysis

(Ch.

1

then the function

x = g (y),

or.

in standard notation, y =g (x),

is

the

tnverse

of Y=f(x). Obviou~lv. g(f(x))=:x, that is, the function ,(x)

is

the

Inverse

of

g (x)

(a nd

v ice

versa).

In

11 r

J ereJ al

ca~e, tre

rquation

y =

f (x)

refines

a

multiple-valued

In-

fupct Ion

x =

f- J (y)

that

y == f If-) (y)J

for

all

Y that

are values

of

the function f (x)

 
 

I:xhn Jjle

2. Cetennine the inverse of the funchon

 
 

y= 1-2- x .

(1)

 

Solution. Solving equation (1) for x,

we have

 
 

2- x =1-y

and

 

x=- IO~~~;Y)*).

(2)

 

tl-'e dotr'ain

of

cefinition

of

the

function

(2)

Is -

co < Y < 1.

5°. Corrros it e and

ireplicit functicns.

A function Y of x defined by a ~e­

ries of equalit1t~sy=f(u).

whereu=cp(x), etc., is called a comoosite function,

or a function

of a fun~tiol,.

 
 

A function

d€fined by

an fqu~tion not

solved for

the derencent variable

is calh.:o an ImplIcit function.

For €xam~le, the

equation

x ' + yl= 1

defines

y

as

an

6°.

implicIt

function of x.

The graph of

a function.

A set

of

poi nts

(x, y)

in an xy-plane, whose

coordinates are connectEd by the

equation

y =, (x),

is

caIJed

the

graph

of

the given funct~on.

 
 

1**.

Prove that

if

a

and

b

are

real

numbers then

 

Ilal-l b II ~ la-b I ~ lal+lb

(.

  • 2. Prove the following equalities:

a)

b)

Iab I = I a 1·1 b I;

laI 2 =a 2 ;

  • 3. Solve the inequalities:

c) I~I= ::: (b =1= 0);

d)

V£i2=-.:\al.

a)

Ix-II<3;

c) 12x+ 11< I;

b)

Ix--t-1/>2;

d) Ix-II<lx+ll.

  • 4. Find /(-1), [(0),1(1), {(2), 1(3), {(4),

+ Ilx-6.

if f(x)=x ' -6x l +

5.

Find 1(0),

I( -

~), {(-x),/( ~), f~X)'if l(x)=V1+x 2

6.

f (x) =

arc cos

(log x).

Find f (~), f (1), 1(10).

and

The function {(x) is linear. Find this function, if /(-1)=2

7.

f (2) =

-

3.

•)

Log x is

the

logarithm of the

number

x 10

the

base 10.

Sec

1)

Functions

13

8.

Find the rational

integral

function f (x)

01

degree

two,

if

f(O)==1, /(1)=0

9.

Given that

and f(3)=5.

f (4) == -

2,

f (5) = 6.

1(4, 3)

if

we consider the function J (x)

Approximate the value of

on the interval

4 ~

x ~

5

linear (linear interpolation 01 a function).

  • 10. Write the function

f (x) =

{

0,

x,

~f

x

~

0,

If x>O

as a single formula using the absolute-value sign. Determine the domains of definition of the following functions:

  • a) Y= V x+ 1;

  • 11. 16.

Y= V X-Xl.

 

b)

Y= ~x+ 1.

17.

Y=

log ~+~ .

  • 12. Y-=4--2'

2

3

+2

y==log x -
13.

a)

Y =

x 2 -2;

18.

x-l-

xl

.

--

  • b) y~x

V

x 2 -2.

14**.

y=V2+x-x l

V

-

1

  • 15. -x+ Y2+x'

Y=

19.

20.

2x

y=arccos l+x'

Y= arc SIn

(

X)

log 10

  • 21. Determine the domain of definition of the function Y= Vsin2x.

  • 22. f(x)=2x 4 -3x ' -5x 2 +6x-l0.

Find

1

q> (x) = 2" (I (x) -t- I (-

x) )

and

1

'1'( x) = 2" [/ (x) -

f (-

x) J.

is

23.

A function f (x) defined

if f (- x) =

I (x)

called even

in a symmetric

and odd

region

if f (-x) == -

-l < x < I

I (x).

Determine which of the following functions are even and which

are odd:

a)

f (x) = ~ (a~+a- X

);

  • b) f (x) = VI + x +x'- Vl-x +x 2

;

  • c) I(x)= V(x+ 1)1+ V(x-I)I;

d)

f (x) =

l+x

log -1 -;

-x

  • e) l(x)=log(x+Vl+x J

).

  • 24. Prove

that

any

function

f (x)

defined

 

in

the

interval

-l < x < 1

may

be represented

in

the

fOfln

of

the SUln

of

an

even function and an odd function.

  • 14 Introduction to Analysis

(Ch.

I

  • 25. Prove that the product of two even functions or of two odd

functions is an even fl'nctlon,

and that

the

product

of

an even

function

26.

numter

for

all

by

an odd function

is

an

odd

function.

A function f (x)

T

(the period of

valres

of

x within

IS called periodic if there exists a positive

the

tunction)

such

that

f (x + T) = f (x)

of

f (x).

the de main of definition

Ce1ermine \\hirh of the rol1ewing functions are

perIodic.

and

for tLe perlcdic ft:ncticns flnd

tt.eir least

period

T:

a)

b)

c)

f (x) =

10 sin 3 x,

f (x) = a sin AX + b cos AX;

f (x) =

Vtan x;

d)

e)

f (x) =

sin l x;

/ (x) = sin (VX).

of

27.

the

A

Express the

length of the segment y.= MN and

the

area S

figure

D

AA1N as a fun~tl0n of

x= AM

(Fig

1).

Construct

the graphs of these functions.

C

28.

The

linear density (that

is,

mass per unit

length) of

a rod

AB = I

b

(Fig.

2)

CD == 1 2

is

eq ual

on

and

to

the

segments

DB == la (L \ + I"

q J'

q 2

and

q a'

AC = I"

+ La ==- l)

respec-

/3

c

~--a--~

Fig.

1

Fig.

2

tively. Express the mass

rod

as

a

function

of

x.

m

of

a variable segn;ent

AM =X of this

Construct the graph of this function.

29.

Find q;'W(x))

and ¢;q;(x)),

if <p(X)=K

and 'I'(x)=2 x

.

30.

Find

f tf If (xlI},

if

f (x) =

1 ~x

31.

Find f(x+ 1), if f(x-l)=x l

32.

Let

Show that

f (n)

be the sum

of n terms of an arithmetic progression.

/ (n + 3)-3/ (n + 2) + 3/ (n,- 1)-1 (n) = O.

33.

Show that

if

f (x) =kx+ b

and the numbers Xl'

the

nurn ters

gression.

J (Xl)'

XI'

x.

/ (XI)

form an

and

f (XI)

arithmetic

likewise

progression,

form

such

a

then

pro-

Sec.

J]

Functions

15

34.

Prove

that

if

f (x)

is

an

exponential

XI'

function,

an

form

that

is,

f (x) = aX (a > 0),

and

the numters x"

XI form

and {(x,)

arithmetic

a

geo-

progression, then the numbers f (Xl)' f (x 2 ) metric progression.

35.

Let

Show that

f(x)= log

l+x

-.

i-x

f (x) + f (y) = f ( ;:~)·

36.

Let

Show that

and

cp (x) =

1

2" (aX + a-X)

and

1

'P (x) = 2 (aX _a-X).

rp (x + y)

=

cp (x)

<p (y)

+ 'P (x)

'" (y)

'" (x + y) == cp (x) 'I' (y) +- cp (y) 'I' (x).

37.

Find /(-1), {(O), f(1)

if

f (x) =

{

arc sin x for-t

~

t"

~

0,

arctanxforO<x ':+00.

38.

Determine the roots (zeros) of the region of positivity and

of the region of negativity

of the function

y

if:

a)

b)

c)

y == I -t- x;

y =

2 -t-

x -

Xl ;

y = I-x -t- Xl;

d)

e

)

y = -

3x;

I

2x

y- og--

-

1 +x

·

39.

F:nd

the

inverse of the function

y

if:

a)

b)

c

)

y = 2x + 3;

y=x 2 -1;

.i/-l-3.

-X,

Y=v

d)

y = log ~ ;

2

c) y=arctan3x.

In

40.

what regions will

these inverse functions be defined?

Find the

inverse of the function

I X, if x~O,

y =)

Xl,

if x > o.

41.

Write

the

given

functions

as

a series

of

equalities each

member of which contains a simple elementary function (po\ver; exponential, trIgonometric, and the like):

a)

b)

y = (2x-5)10;

y =

2 cos x;

c)

y =

d)

y =

x

log tan 2

;

2

arc sin (3 -X

).

  • 16 I_n_t,_od_u_c_t,_on_t_o_A_n_a~ly:-.s_,s

.....

:[::.-C_h _._

I

  • 42. Write as a single equation the composite functions

sented

as

a series of equalities:

8) y=U',

U= sin x;

b) y=arctanu, u=Vv, v=logx;

  • c) ~

=

{

u

2u,

if

0,

y

0,

if u>O;

tt=x'-l.

repre-

  • 43. Write, explicitly, functions of y defined by the equations:

a)

b)

r -

arc cos

lOx + 1()Y =

y =---1(,;

10;

  • c) x+1YI=2y.

Find the domains of definition of the given implicit functions.

Sec.

2.

Graphs of Elementary Functions

Graphs of functions Y= f (x) are l11ajnly constructed by marking

ciently

dtln~e net of

points

Nli(xit I/i),

where

Y,=f(xj) (i==-O,

1,2,

a

...

suffi-

)

and

by connecting the pOInts with a line that takes account of intermediate pOints.

Calculations are best

done by

a

~ltde rule.

-...

...

......

y

...

..........y,

...

x

Fig.

3

Graphs of the basic eleJnentary functions (see Ap pendix

VI)

are

readily

learned through their construction. Proceeding from the graph of

Y=f (x),

(f)

we get the graphs of the following functions construct ions:

by

1)

2)

YI = -

f (x)

!I. = f (-I')

is

is

the

the

mirror

mirror

image of the graph

image of the graph

means

of

simple

r

r

about the x-axis; about the y-axis;

geometric

Sec.

2)

Graphs of Elementary P'J.nct,oni

17

3)

4)

Y. = f (x-a)

Y4 =

b +I (x)

(Fig.

3).

Is

is

the

the

r

r

graph displaced

graph

displaced

along th? x-axis

by

along

the

y-axis

an

amount a;

by an amount"

Example. Construct the graph of the function

 

y = sin (

x -

 

:

)

.

Solution. The desired

line

Is

a

sine curve g = sin x displaced along

the x-axis

to the: right by

an

amount

 

(Fig.

4)

 

x

 

Fig.

4

Construct

the

graphs

of

the

following linear functions

(straight I inps):

  • 44. if k=O,

y=kx,

I)

2,1/2, -1, -2.

 
  • 45. 1,2, -1,

Ij=x+ b,

if b=O,

-2.

 
  • 46. y = 1.5'x -}- 2.

Construct the graphs of rat ional two (parabolas).

integral

fun.tions of degree

y=ax 2 ,

  • 47. if

Q= 1,2,

1/2, -I,

-2,

O.

  • 48. x 2 + C,

Y =

if

c = 0,

1)

2,

-

1.

  • 49. y=(X-x o )2, ii xo=O,

1,2, -1.

 

Y = Yo + (x -

  • 50. 1)2,

if

Yo = 0,

1,

2,

-

I.

51*. y=axl-~-bx+c, if: I) a=l, b=-2, c=3; 2) a=-2,

b=6, c=O.

y = 2 t- x-x 2

  • 52. Fi nd

the

points ot

intersect ion of th is pa-

rabola with the x-axis.

Construct the

graphs of

the

tion~ of

53*.

degree above two:

Y = x 3

(cub ic parabola).

  • 54. y=2+-(x-I)'.

  • 55. y = x'- 3x -t- 2.

56.

57.

Y =

x 4

y=2x l -x4

..

Construct the graphs of tions (hyperbolas):

68*, y=+,

the

following rational integral tunc-

following

linear

fractional func-

  • 18 Intr,duct,on to Analysis

[eh.

1

 

1

59.

y= I-x.

x-2

60.

y= x+2.

61*.

y=y

o

x- X o

if xo=l, yo::::a-l, m=6.

 

62 *

2x-3

· Y=3x+2"

Construct the graphs of the fractional

rational

functions:

63.

1

y=x+-.

x

 

x

2

64.