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Actus Humanus (Human Act)

Proceeds from a will toward an end.

1. Freedom and Knowledge are required
2. Recognize object as good by intellect
3. Accepted object by will
4. Choice of the act by will
5. Moral acts which express good and evil
Human Acts = Moral Acts

Actus Hominis (Act of Man)

Action performed by man without thinking about it. No intelligent perception.

Ex. Breathing and blinking

Freedom: As the level of freedom increases so does the level of morality.

L Look for the facts

I Imagine the possibilities

S Seek insight beyond you own. [LISTEN (FORMATION OF ONE’S

T Turn inward.

E Except God’s help

N Name your decision

Conscience: The intellect judging on the morality of an act.

Antecedent Conscience: Conscience judging before a decision to do an action

Consequent Conscience: Conscience judging after an action has been done.

Concomitant Conscience: Conscience judging a decision as an action takes place.

Strict Conscience: A true and very precise conscience, careful respecting the rights of

Lax Conscience: A conscience, which is false because it distorts by minimizing serious

moral evils are made light, and small evils are considered to be none at all.

Scrupulous Conscience: An excessive anxiety leading to a false conscience in persistent

and irrational doubt

True Conscience (Correct): A conscience judging as evil what is really evil and as good
what is really good

False (Erroneous) Conscience: A conscience judging evil as good or vice versa.

Invincibly Erroneous: the person is in error is totally in good faith, because of invincible

Vincibly Erroneous: Implies some fault or failure on the part of the person in error, since
he would and should have known better.

Certain Conscience: A conscience without fear of error, whether true or false

Doubtful Conscience: A hesitation or suspension of judgment on the morality of some


Morality: The relation of a moral act to his norm.

Norm: Standard, rule or measure.

Criterion: a test, a means of determining whether something squares with the norm.

Law: A reasonable ordinance made by one who has charge of society and promulgated
for the common good.

1. Eternal Law---Source of all law

a. God’s Law
b. Law of the Spirit
c. Law of Love

2. Natural Moral Law of Natural Law

a. Do good, avoid evil.
b. Moral law known by reason
c. Precepts
d. Nothing other than the sharing in the eternal law by intelligent creatures.

3. Positive Law or Written Law

a. Divine Positive law: 10 commandments
b. Human Positive law: arbitrary and changeable
i. Ecclesiastical Law; code of canon law
ii. Civil law: state, federal, local

Habits: A regular pattern of acts

Virtue: a good habit: an inner readiness to accomplish a moral good.

Vice: a bad habit an inner readiness to accomplish a moral evil.

Character: What we do with our temperament and the combinations of our vices and

The Fall and the Rise of Saint Peter

1. Neglect of Prayer ---Sleeping in the garden

2. Substitution of action for prayer--- Peter drew his sword and cut off guy’s ear
3. Following the Lord from afar--- Peter drags his feet, stays behind
4. Creature Comforts---Peter warms himself with fire, puts himself before Lord
5. Creature Friends--- Peter denies Jesus three times

Three Steps of Peter’s Return to Christ

1. Peter hears the cockcrow--- gets an outside call (A reminder from the natural
order of what he ought to be
2. The Lord turns towards Peter--- Jesus turn’s towards peter, (Jesus will always
take us back)
3. Peter wept bitterly---Peter realizes what he’s done (the heart must be crushed
for conversion to occur)

Conversion as a Continual Process

1. Peter returns to the fishing business---Peter was not really fully converted
2. Appearance of the Lord---Peter swims to Jesus on the lake, but sees fire and
recalls his denial (Peter still needs strengthening in his conversion)
3. Peter’s Threefold Act of Love---For Peter’s threefold denial in the courtyard,
Christ ask for a threefold act of love from Peter

Evil: The privation of a due good...What ought not to exist.

Dualism: Mingling of good and evil in the world ex. Zoroastrianism, Gnostic Sects

Evil tends to diminish with the growth of experience: Agnostics, Atheists.

Physical Evil: Evil which is in the thing itself

1. Nature: sickness, death, and disappointment
2. Imperfect Social Organizations
i. Poverty
ii. Oppression

Moral Evil: Privation of a due order in a free act

Evil of Fault :

Evil of Penalty: the deprivation of due good, which is inflicted as a punishment of sin, the
consequence of an evil act.


Pride: An inordinate self-esteem; stuck up an overweening opinion of one’s qualities

Envy: Another’s talents or good are seen and wanted and I belittle myself in my desire to
destroy the other.

Anger: A disorderly outburst of emotions connected with the inordinate desire for

Sloth: A state of rejection that gives rise to indifference

Avarice: The love merely of possessing to buy or have what we don’t need

Gluttony: More interested in eating than in the food

Lust: Accepts any parent for momentary service, more interested in the sexual act than
the feeling or in the love.

Faith: A virtue by which we believe what God has revealed because of the authority of
the one revealing

Hope: Confidence based on God’s promise of eternal salvation

Charity: A virtue enabling us to love God for his own sake and ourselves and our

Prudence: Correct knowledge concerning things to be done.

Justice: The constant and permanent determination to give everyone his due.

Fortitude: Strength of will to do the good even in the face of danger.

Temperance: Moderation of instincts.

Grace: The favor, the free and undeserved help that God gives us to respond to his call to
become children of God.
Habitual Grace: The permanent disposition to live and act in keeping with God’s call

Actual Grace: Refers to God’s interventions whether at the beginning of conversion or in

the course of the work of sanctification

Charisms: Special graces meaning, “favor”, used by St. Paul.

“God created us without us: but he did not will to save us without us”- St Augustine

“Where sin increased, grace abounded all the more” – St. Paul

Sin: an offense against reason, truth and right conscience; it is a failure in genuine love
for god and neighbor caused by a perverse attachment to certain goods.

Mortal Sin: Destroys charity in the heart of man by a grave violation of God’s law

Venial Sin: Allows charity to subsist, even though it offense and wounds it.

Three conditions for something to be a Mortal sin:

1. Grave matter
2. Committed with full knowledge
3. Deliberate Consent

Guilt: 1. The fact or condition of having committed an offense, especially a willful

violation of a legal or moral code
2. A feeling of remorse arising from a real or imagine commission of an offense

Guilt Manipulation: Used as a tool to control one another

“Guilt and regret are necessary constituents of freedom “ – Aristotle

Shame vs. Guilt

Unhealthy Guilt Healthy

Due to low self-esteem Due to rejecting the human thing to do

Feat that others will dislike Feat that I have hurt others by my
me or think bad of me selfishness

Results in paralyzing immobility Results in my being open to God’s

grace and forgiveness
The Five Levels of Relationship
A. Rivalry
B. Tolerance (Rowdy Tots Could Be Crazy)
C. Cooperation
D. Benevolence
E. Commitment

Rivalry: A response to being threatened

i. For affection
ii. For significance
iii. For status
iv. For omnipotence

Conversion from Rivalry to Tolerance:

1. Desire to belong
2. Sense of emptiness
3. Movement from omnipotence to reality
4. Practical necessity for common good


1. Capacity to accept others who are better than thyself without being threatened
2. Capacity to accept others who are less talented
3. Capacity to accept differences
4. Capacity to live with imperfections
5. Capacity to have sympathy (for people who got cut from flog...)
6. Enemies of Tolerance
i. Persecution
ii. Negativism
III. Self-hate
iv. Narrow-mindedness

Changes from Tolerance to Cooperation:

1. Experiences the realization

2. Experience the need for friendship
3. Practical necessity for the sake of common good

Cooperation: Giving oneself to some definite task

1. Capacity to work with others
2. Capacity to overcome personality differences for the common good
3. Capacity to be responsible: to realize my actions have effects on others
4. Capacity to give myself over: self-forgetfulness

Enemies of Cooperation:
1. Individualism
2. Fear of giving in: a loss of myself self-protection

Benevolence: Capacity to care not only about the task, but also about the people

1. Capacity to identify in times of joy and sorrow

2. Capacity to feel tenderness and affection
2. Capacity for reciprocity of feelings-mutuality
4. Capacity to sacrifice time
5. Not to be confused with sentimentality
6. Caring-moved to action wallowing in one’s sentiments

Enemies of Benevolence:
1. Excessive passivity
2. Reactiveness

Commitment: Giving oneself over wholeheartedly

1. Giving oneself over to a goal purpose or cause

2. Sustained by perseverance courage and fortitude
3. A more permanent praise of self-giving
4. A step into the unknown
5. The present determines the future present decisions determine future commitment

Rivalry: God as enemy

Tolerance: God as there
Cooperation: God cares
Benevolence: God cares for me
Commitment: God cares ultimately