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Flow in ducts and in open channels

Flow in ducts:
h

driving force is the pressure difference between the ends of the pipe
no free surface
Open channel flow:
p atm
v

driving force is gravity (fluid weight)


free surface with atmospheric pressure
Universitt Stuttgart

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/gerin_F.tex

Open channel flow

. p.1/28

Velocity profiles (isolines)

0.5

2.0

0.5

2.0

1.0
1.5

1.5

1.0

2.5
2.0
2.5
1.0

1.5
0.5

2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5

Universitt Stuttgart

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/gerin_F.tex

Open channel flow

. p.2/28

One-dimensional description

hv

EGL
v2
2g
v
y
z
1

The one-dimensional analysis of open channel flows still plays an important role for
practical engineering problems.
Definition of cross-section-averaged parameters required.

Universitt Stuttgart

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/gerin_F.tex

Open channel flow

. p.3/28

One-dimensional description
Continuity condition:
x
v(x)
A(x)

v(x) A(x) = Q = const.

coordinate in channel flow direction


average flow velocity of the channel flow at point x
local cross-section area at point x

Energy balance:
H0,1 + z = H0,2 + hv

H0
hv

or

v12
v22
+ y1 + z =
+ y2 + hv
2g
2g

specific energy (related to channel bottom)


head loss between cross-sections 1 (upstream) and 2 (downstream)
(for example with the approach of Darcy and Weisbach):
2
2
x2 x1 vm
x2 x1 vm
=
hv =
dhy,m 2g
4rhy,m 2g

Universitt Stuttgart

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/gerin_F.tex

Open channel flow

. p.4/28

One-dimensional description
b0

hydraulic radius:
wetted perimeter:
equivalent water depth:
specific energy:

rhy = A/P
P (e.g., = b + 2y for rectangular cross-section)
y = A/b0
2
2
H0 = y + v2g = y + 2gQ
y
2 b2
0

Universitt Stuttgart

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/gerin_F.tex

Open channel flow

. p.5/28

Froude number - flow regimes


fixed
wave
c
still
water

111111111111111
000000000000000

c v

control
volume

111111111111111
000000000000000
g(y+ y)

gy

a)

b)

Propagation velocity of a small surface wave: c =

gy

The Froude number Fr describes the ratio of the channel flow velocity to the propagation velocity of an infinitesimal shallow-water surface wave:
Fr =

v
v
=
c
gy

Thus, Fr is a measure for the influence of inertia in comparison to gravity.


Universitt Stuttgart

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/gerin_F.tex

Open channel flow

. p.6/28

Froude number - flow regimes


Three different flow regimes can be distinguished:
Fr < 1.0

subcritical flow

Fr > 1.0

supercritical flow

Fr = 1.0

critical flow

Different flow regimes in a flow over a weir:


critical
flow

lake

energy
grade line
supercritical
flow
hydraulic
jump

subcritical
flow
specific
energy

Universitt Stuttgart

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/gerin_F.tex

Open channel flow

. p.7/28

Specific energy and discharge diagrams


Specific energy diagram for q = const.
y

Specific discharge diagram for H0 =


const.

H0

ycr = 3_2 H 0
ycr

H 0min

Universitt Stuttgart

H0

qmax

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

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Open channel flow

. p.8/28

Frictionless flow over a bump

y 1,sub

y 2,sub

subcritical flow

1,sub

2,sub

y2,sup

1111111111hsupercritical flow
0000000000
0000000000
1111111111
0000000000
1111111111
111111111111111111111111111111
000000000000000000000000000000
y

ycr
y 2,sup
y 1,sup

1,sup

Universitt Stuttgart

H 0 min H 0 2

H 01

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

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Open channel flow

. p.9/28

Hydraulic jump
Discontinuous transition from supercritical to subcritical flow.
Strong turbulence, dissipation of flow energy
e.g., purposeful construction of stilling basins

Behavior of the hydraulic jump is predominantly affected by the upstream Froude


number (in any cases: Fr > 1 !!).
subcritical
Fr < 1
hydraulic jump
supercritical
Fr > 1
v1

y2

v2

F2
y1

F1

11111111111111111111111111
00000000000000000000000000
control volume

Universitt Stuttgart

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/gerin_F.tex

Open channel flow

. p.10/28

Hydraulic jump - upstream and downstream depths


Determination of the conjugated upstream and downstream depths for constant
channel width b and horizontal bottom level (this assumption can also be taken as an
approximation for channels with not too steep bottom inclination):
Continuity (mass conservation):
y1 v1 b1 = y2 v2 b2 .
Momentum balance:

1
gb(y12 y22 ) = v1 y1 b(v2 v1 ) .
2

Conjugated upstream and downstream depths:


q
q

1
1
y2
y1
=
=
1 + 8Fr21 1
1 + 8Fr22 1
y1
2
y2
2
Loss of energy in the hydraulic jump:
H = H01 H02
Universitt Stuttgart

(y2 y1 )3
=
4y1 y2

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/gerin_F.tex

Open channel flow

. p.11/28

Discharge control
The fluid follows the principle of less constraint.
For a given channel geometry and a given level of the available energy head
the maximal possible discharge occurs.
The cross-section which can deliver the smallest Qmax (at critical flow
conditions) for a given level of the available energy, controls the discharge.
For a given discharge the minimal required energy level adapts in such a way
that the discharge can be delivered.
The discharge is controlled in that cross-section where the maximum absolute
energy head (H0 + distance to the datum line) is required to let the given discharge pass through.
The locus of discharge control is always characterized by critical flow conditions.
It is further valid:
Supercritical flow is controlled upstream.
Subcritical flow is controlled downstream.

Universitt Stuttgart

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/gerin_F.tex

Open channel flow

. p.12/28

Uniform flow with friction


In long undisturbed channels with constant bottom inclination and constant crosssection the flow conditions are uniform (normal-depth conditions).
If normal-depth conditions are given, then there is an equilibrium between the component of the gravity in flow direction and the friction-induced forces due to shear
stress.
Dependent on the flow regime at normal-depth conditions, the channel slope can be
classified:
mild: subcritical normal-depth conditions
yN > ycr
steep: supercritical normal-depth conditions
yN < ycr
critical: critical normal-depth conditions
yN = ycr

Universitt Stuttgart

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/gerin_F.tex

Open channel flow

. p.13/28

Normal-depth conditions
Chzy approach:
For normal-depth conditions the slope of the energy grade line IE is equal to the bottom
slope I0 . Then it follows:
hv = z = I0 L
Head loss according to Darcy and Weisbach
L v2
hv =
4rhy 2g

with rhy =

A
P

By combinations of both equations and algebraic transformation it follows


v0 =

8g

1/2

1/2 1/2

rhy I0

Problem:
Determination of the Chzy coefficient C = (8g/)1/2 , which is a function of the channel geometry and the bottom roughness.

Universitt Stuttgart

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/gerin_F.tex

Open channel flow

. p.14/28

Normal-depth conditions
Approach of Gauckler, Manning, and Strickler
From the empirical conclusion that the Chzy coefficient increases approximately as
the sixth root of the hydraulic radius (channel size), we can introduce with the help of
C=

8g

1/2

1/6

rhy kst

the Strickler coefficient kst .


kst is a roughness coefficient (dimension

m1/3
[ s ]).

Gauckler-Manning-Strickler equation:
2/3

1/2

v0 = kst rhy I0

Universitt Stuttgart

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/gerin_F.tex

Open channel flow

. p.15/28

Normal-depth conditions
Roughness coefficients kst for open channel flow:
1/3

River bed with firm bottom, no irregularities


Neckar near Wendlingen
River bed, covered with aquatic plants
River bed with boulders and irregularities
River with high bed load
River bed with sand and gravel, plastered banks
River bed outlayed with large stones
Smooth cement surface
Concrete, constructed with wooden formwork, without plaster

Universitt Stuttgart

kst [ m s ]
40
35
30-35
30
28
40-50
25-30
100
65-70

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/gerin_F.tex

Open channel flow

. p.16/28

Normal-depth estimation
10

Normal depth for trapezoidal crosssections


1
10

0.1

m= 0

Graphical evaluation
of the GMS equation
for given discharge Q
and trapezoidal
cross-section with
different bank
inclinations:

0.25

0.5

100 S b
1

4 5

yN
b
1

yN
0.5 b

m= 0 1 24

yN

0.2

0.1

b0
1:m
b
Sb =

0.05
Q

1/2
8/3
kst . I E . b

0.001

Universitt Stuttgart

10

0.01
Sb

0.1

0.02

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/gerin_F.tex

Open channel flow

. p.17/28

Gradually varied flow


Assumptions:
Slowly changing bottom slope, cross-section and water depth (no hydraulic
jump).
One-dimensional velocity distribution.
Pressure distribution approximately hydrostatic.

v2
2g

I E,m

I E,mdx

Differential equation:
y

I0 IE,m
dy
=
.
2
dx
1 Fr

111111111111111111111111111111111111111
000000000000000000000000000000000000000
I0
000000000000000000000000000000000000000
111111111111111111111111111111111111111
y+dy
v+dv
000000000000000000000000000000000000000
111111111111111111111111111111111111111
I 0 dx
000000000000000000000000000000000000000
111111111111111111111111111111111111111

000000000000000000000000000000000000000
111111111111111111111111111111111111111
000000000000000000000000000000000000000
111111111111111111111111111111111111111
dx
000000000000000000000000000000000000000
111111111111111111111111111111111111111
x

Universitt Stuttgart

v +d v
2g
2g

x+dx

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/gerin_F.tex

Open channel flow

. p.18/28

Gradually varied flow


For non-uniform flows the bottom slope I0 and the slope of the energy grade line IE
differ.

y < yN :
The flow velocity is larger than at normal-depth conditions. Since the losses
increase with increasing velocities, it follows that the slope of the EGL is larger
than the bottom slope.
IE > I0
y > yN :
The opposite case holds accordingly.
IE < I0
y = yN :
Normal-depth conditions, IE = I0 !!

Universitt Stuttgart

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/gerin_F.tex

Open channel flow

. p.19/28

Gradually varied flow - basic solution curves


Steep (S)
S1
yN <
I >
0

ycr
I cr

S 1 : yN < y > ycr


S 2 : yN < y < ycr
S 3 : yN > y < ycr

S2
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
S3
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
yN
000000000000000000
>
I
I111111111111111111
ycr
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
cr
0
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111

Mild (M)

M1

yN > ycr
I 0 < I cr
M 1 : yN < y
M 2 : yN > y > ycr
M 3 : yN > y < ycr
Universitt Stuttgart

M2
yN
M

3
cr
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
I 0 < I cr
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/gerin_F.tex

Open channel flow

. p.20/28

Gradually varied flow - basic solution curves


Critical (C)
yN =
I0 =

ycr
I cr

C 1 : yN < y
C 3 : yN > y

C1
C
3
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
yN = ycr
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
I 0 = I cr
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111

Horizontal (H)
8

yN

H2
I0 = 0
H 2 : yN > ycr
H 3 : yN < ycr

Universitt Stuttgart

H 3 ycr
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111

I0 = 0

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/gerin_F.tex

Open channel flow

. p.21/28

Gradually varied flow - integration of the diff. equation


Given discharge Q:

dy
=
dx

I0

Q2

Single-step approximation:
e.g., for the calculation of a backwater
curve

4/3

2 r
A2
kst
hy

Q2 b
gA3

v12
v22
+ y1 + xI0 =
+ y2 + xIE,m
2g
2g

Choose the discretization


length x or y
IE,m =
Numerical integration
Computation from upstream
to downstream for
supercritical flow
x =
Computation from
downstream to upstream for
subcritical flow
Universitt Stuttgart

y2 +

2
v2
2g

I0

2
vm
4/3

2
kst
rhy,m

y1 +
2
vm

4/3

2 r
kst
hy,m

2
v1
2g

H02 H01
I0 IE,m

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/gerin_F.tex

Open channel flow

. p.22/28

Gradually varied flow - composite flow profiles


Changing water depth in channel regions with different roughness (constant bottom
slope)
critical
flow

M2

S1

y N,1
y cr

S2

11111111111111111
00000000000000000
y N,3
mild
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
000000000000000000000000000000000
111111111111111111111111111111111
000000000000000000000000000000000
111111111111111111111111111111111
steep
00000000000000
11111111111111
000000000000000000000000000000000
111111111111111111111111111111111
00000000000000
11111111111111
mild
k st,2 > k st,1

Universitt Stuttgart

y N,2

hydraulic
jump

> k st,3

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/gerin_F.tex

Open channel flow

. p.23/28

Gradually varied flow - composite flow profiles


Changing water depth in channel regions with different bottom slope (constant roughness)

M1

y N,1

M2
y N,2

y cr

critical
flow

S2
111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
mild
y N,3
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
milder
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
steep
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
I 0,3 > I 0,1 > I 0,2

Universitt Stuttgart

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/gerin_F.tex

Open channel flow

. p.24/28

Broad-crested weirs

H1

boundarylayer
h1

y cr
ventilation

111111111111
000000000000
000000000000
111111111111
w
000000000000
111111111111
L
000000000000
111111111111
000000000000
111111111111
000000000000
111111111111
111111111111111111111111111111111111
000000000000000000000000000000000000
0

Critical flow occurs on the weir crest (position of discharge control)


Specific discharge over a broad-crested weir
1 2p
3/2
q=
2gh1
33
General weir formula:
2p
3/2
q=
2gh1
3
In general, the discharge coefficient must be determined by experiments.
Universitt Stuttgart

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/gerin_F.tex

Open channel flow

. p.25/28

Sharp-crested weirs

h1
2

2 h
1
3

ventilation
1
w0

111111111111111111111111111111111111
000000000000000000000000000000000000
Formulation of the Bernoulli equation along the streamline 12
Specific discharge over a sharp-crested weir:
2p
3/2
2gh1
q=
3
p
Rough estimation = 2/3 0.81
Poleni equation for h1 /w0 < 6:

= 0.611 + 0.075 h1 /w0


Universitt Stuttgart

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/gerin_F.tex

Open channel flow

. p.26/28

Round-crested weirs
h 1 : head on the weir
h 1a : design head on the weir
w0 : height of weir

h1

h1

w0

h 1a

w0

111111111111111111
000000000000000000
sharpcrested, ventilated weir

111111111111111111
000000000000000000
roundcrested weir

Atmospheric conditions on the weir crest for design water level h1a
h1 > h1a : Under-pressure on the weir crest, the nappe (water overflow) is
sucked to the weir crest. The discharge coefficient is increased.
h1 < h1a : Over-pressure on the weir crest, decreased discharge coefficient.
Universitt Stuttgart

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/gerin_F.tex

Open channel flow

. p.27/28

Round-crested weirs - discharge coefficient


Discharge coefficient for round-crested weirs at design head on the weir (h1 = h1a )

1.2
1.1

1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0

Universitt Stuttgart

2
h 1a /w0

Institut fr Wasserbau, Lehrstuhl fr Hydromechanik und Hydrosystemmodellierung

lehre/VL-HM/E-HYDRO-LECTURE-NOTES/HYDROFOLIEN/gerin_F.tex

Open channel flow

. p.28/28