14 views

Uploaded by Muhammad Adnan Laghari

nnnn

- Wilson, College Physics - Chapter 6, Exercises
- Dynamic numerical simulation of gas-liquid two-phase flows Euler/Euler versus Euler/Lagrange
- Dimensionare supape siguranta
- Experiment 6finale
- Properties of Dry Gas
- Properties of Fluids A
- Maxwell Scientificpapers Vol II Dover
- Study of Slag in Steelmaking Process
- Fluid Mechanics In Porous Media
- Dynamic Discussion Collision
- MIT8_333F13_Lec10
- am_2003 (2)
- Chap9.pdf
- maxwell-scientificpapers-vol-ii-dover.pdf
- spalart allmaras
- DIFFERENTIAL MODEL AND IMPACT RESPONSE OF A FLEXIBLE BEAM ATTACHED TO A RIGID SUPPORTING STRUCTURE
- Mr. Reynon's Physics Class Ch. 6
- Collisions
- Physics Unit 3 Practice Test Dynamics5
- Conservation of Momentum

You are on page 1of 13

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ces

coal in horizontal pipe at high pressure

Wenhao Pu a,b, Changsui Zhao b,, Yuanquan Xiong b, Cai Liang b, Xiaoping Chen b,

Peng Lu b, Chunlei Fan b

a

b

College of Energy and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210096, China

School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China

a r t i c l e in f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:

Received 23 January 2009

Received in revised form

9 October 2009

Accepted 21 December 2009

Available online 4 January 2010

A kineticfrictional model, which treats the kinetic and frictional stresses in an additive manner, was

incorporated into the two uid model based on the kinetic theory of granular ow to simulate three

dimensional ow behaviors of dense phase pneumatic conveying of pulverized coal in horizontal pipe.

The kinetic stress was modeled by the kinetic theory of granular ow, while the friction stress is from

the combination of the normal frictional stress model proposed by Johnson and Jackson [1987.

Frictionalcollisional constitutive relations for granular materials, with application to plane shearing.

Journal of Fluid Mechanics 176, 6793] and the modeled frictional shear viscosity model proposed by

Syamlal et al. [1993. MFIX documentation and theory guide, DOE/METC94/1004, NTIS/DE94000087.

Electronically available from http://www.mx.org], which was modied to t experimental data. For

the solid concentration and gas phase Reynolds number was high, the gas phase and particle phase

were all treated as turbulent ow. The experiment was carried out to validate the prediction results by

three kinds of measurement methods. The predicted pressure gradients were in good agreement with

experimental data. The predicted solid concentration distribution at cross section agreed well with

electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) image, and the effects of supercial velocity on solid

concentration distribution were discussed. The formation and motion process of slug ow was

demonstrated, which is similar to the visualization photographs by high speed video camera.

Crown Copyright & 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Kinetic theory

Pneumatic conveying

Dense phase

Friction stress

Slug ow

1. Introduction

High pressure and large-scale entrained bed gasication

technology is one of the promising coal gasication technologies

for IGCC, indirect coal liquefaction, chemical fertilizer, hydrogen

production and fuel cell, etc, while dense phase pneumatic

conveying of pulverized coal at high pressure is one of the most

important techniques in coal gasication process. Due to the

inherent complexity of dense phase pneumatic conveying in

horizontal pipe, numerical simulation can provide valuable

insights into particle ow process, which are difcult to be

obtained from experiments.

In the framework of Eulerian approach, the solid phase was

commonly modeled with the kinetic theory of granular ow,

which was adopted by some authors (Lun et al., 1984; Sinclair and

Jackson, 1989; Ocone et al., 1993; Benyahia et al., 2000) to

simulate various gas solid ows. In the past few decades, the

dilute ow had been simulated with success based on the classic

Corresponding author.

Wachem and Almstedt, 2003; Curtis and van Wachem, 2004;

Gidaspow et al., 2004) reviewed the kinetic theory of granular

ow. However, some shortcomings have been pointed out when

the dense ow was predicted by employing the classic kinetic

theory. Several researchers (Sundaresan, 2000; McKeen and

Pugsley, 2003; Makkawi et al., 2006) attributed these to the fact

that the classic kinetic theory of granular ow only accounted for

the particle kinetic stress, with no account of other possible

contact stress such as inter-particle cohesion or frictional stress.

In regions with high particle volume fractions, the dominant

stress generation mechanism is more likely to be due to long-term

and multi-particle contacts. In recent years, the modeling of dense

ow using kineticfrictional stress models (Syamlal et al., 1993;

Huilin et al., 2004; Patil et al., 2005a, 2005b) has ourished. The

frictional stress models mostly originated from geological research groups and followed a rigid-plastic rheology assumption

(Schaeffer, 1987; Johnson and Jackson, 1987; Tardos, 1997).

Following Savage (1998), the frictional stress models were simply

added to the kinetic stresses as described by kinetic theory.

Although there was no physical basis for this additive assumption,

dense-phase ow behavior over a range of solid volume fractions

0009-2509/$ - see front matter Crown Copyright & 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.ces.2009.12.025

ARTICLE IN PRESS

W. Pu et al. / Chemical Engineering Science 65 (2010) 25002512

Huilin et al. (2004) found that if the frictional stress is omitted,

the porosity in the annular zone of a spouted uidized bed is overpredicted. Makkawi et al. (2006) reached the same conclusion

when comparing the experimental data of bubbling bed with the

prediction of the MFIX code (Syamlal et al., 1993), where the

frictional stress was not included. Srivastava (2001) and Srivastava and Sundaresan (2003) developed a kineticfrictional model

based on the work of Savage (1998), and found that this model

incorrectly predicted the behavior of stagnant regions and overpredicts hopper discharge rate.

Most of these investigations discussed above shared the same

characteristic that the gravity was parallel to the ow direction,

involving bubbling beds, circulating uidized beds, spouted bed and

hoppers. In horizontal pneumatic conveying, the ow features were

very complicated because of the action of gravity perpendicular to the

ow direction (Zhu et al., 2004). Particles were suspended in the gas

in the upper portion of the pipe. At the bottom the particles deposited

forming a settled layer. In the former, the kinetic stress played an

important role, while in the latter with high solid concentration the

dominant stress generation mechanism was more likely to be due to

long-term and multi-particle contacts. In long-term contacts much

more energy will be dissipated which results in a self-enhancing

mechanism for the formation of extremely dense regions, since these

particles have hardly any energy left to escape these regions.

There were some researches on simulation of dense phase

horizontal pneumatic conveying. Tsuji et al. (1992) applied

discrete element method (DEM) for plug ow simulation in a

horizontal pipe. Due to the computation limitations, only a very

short pipe (0.6 m), large particles (10 mm) and a small amount of

particles (150) in the simulation ow were considered. Recently,

the DEM was evolved to treat large-scale powder systems (Sakai

and Koshizuka, 2009; Tsuji et al., 2008). To reduce the calculation

cost, Sakai and Koshizuka (2009) presented a coarse grain model

for large-scale DEM simulations, which was applied to a threedimensional plug ow in a horizontal pipeline. Tsuji et al. (2008)

applied discrete element method to investigated the scale effect

of the gas-uidized bed size and obtained the three-dimensional

bubble structures, in which a maximum of 4.5 million particles

were tracked by using 16 CPUs of a commodity PC cluster

computer. Zhu et al. (2007, 2008) reviewed the major theoretical

developments and the applications of DEM. It made a great

progress, but the calculation cost was still much high for the real

gas solid systems. For the dense phase pneumatic conveying of

pulverized coal at high pressure, the particle size was about tens

of micrometer and the number of the particles was far more than

millions, so this method was not suitable for our simulation.

Levy (2000) applied the two-uid theory for modeling the slug

formation and breakage processes. The results showed the slugs

increased in length along the pipeline and further downstream

they broke up in a series of short slugs being close together. The

solid phase stress was modeled using an empirical equation in his

simulations. Tardos et al. (2003) proposed a new expression for

the average solid shear stress that smoothly merged the slowintermediate regime with the rapid ow regime. Makkawi and

Ocone (2006) proposed a one-dimensional fully developed ow

model, which incorporated expressions presented by Tardos et al.

(2003) into kinetic theory, and predicted the gas solid ow in a

horizontal duct successfully. But the model was difcult to extend

to three dimensional ow simulations because of the comparison

between kinetic stress and frictional stress. However, all these

simulations were validated by qualitative comparison and lack of

the experimental data of solid volume fraction distribution.

Konrad (1986) reviewed some denitions about the dense phase.

He concluded that there was no universally accepted denition of

dense phase conveying, and pointed out that the solids loading ratio

2501

or the solid concentration could not be the criteria. When the gas

phase was insufcient to support all the particles in suspension, it

was regarded as dense phase conveying. That is to say, stratied ow,

slug ow and plug ow were all regarded as dense phase ow.

Because of the requirement of the gasier, the solid feeding was truly

continuous in our experiments. It was different from the plug ow,

which was separated by the gas phase. In experiments, the solids

loading ratio ranged from 7.54 to 15.26 and the solid concentration

was between 0.16 and 0.33. The solids loading ratio was not very

large. Compared with the pneumatic conveying at atmospheric

pressure, the transport pressure was much larger and ranged from

2.6 to 3.3 MPa. For example, when the transport pressure was

2.6 MPa, the gas density and the gas mass ow rate were 26 times

larger than those at atmospheric pressure. So the solids loading ratio

became less. But on the other hand, the ratio of solid mass ow rate to

gas volume ow rate was between 239 and 506 kg/m3 and the solid

mass ux was over 2100 kg/(m2s). These data showed the advantages

of our experimental setup. In our simulations, we focused on that

how to describe the deposited particles and the suspended particles

simultaneously.

There were almost no detailed published data on solid

concentration distribution in horizontal pipe, due to not only

their spatial and temporal complexities but also practical

difculties of the measurement. Differential pressure transducers

were usually used to measure the pressure drop; however, the

ow information was over-simplied. Traditionally, the ow

instabilities presented in the dense ow have been investigated

by the use of photography. This enabled extracting the shape of

the ow structures, but it must be remembered that particles can

remain in each others shadows and the data interpretation is

difcult (Jaworski and Dyakowski, 2002). Moreover, no information was available on the internal structure of the ow such as

solid volume fraction distribution. It is worth noting that the

Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) becomes a promising

technique to overcome these weaknesses in recent years. In order

to validate the simulation results, three kinds of measurement

methods were employed to get more useful information in

experiments.

Only a few researches (Geldart and Ling, 1990; Chen et al.,

2007; Liang et al., 2007; Pu et al., 2008) on dense phase pneumatic

conveying at high pressure have been reported in the literatures

so far. Among them, little work on simulation of slug ow in

horizontal pipe was reported. Here a kineticfrictional model,

which was revised according to the pressure gradients from

experiments, was attempted to predict the slug ow for dense

phase pneumatic conveying at high pressure. In dense phase

pneumatic conveying in horizontal pipe at high pressure, the

average solid concentration was up to 30% at the pressure of

3.3 MPa in a conned space with high transport velocity. Thus it is

necessary to consider both kinetic stress and frictional stress. At

the same time, the particle phase and the gas phase were all

treated as turbulent ow due to high gas phase Reynolds and solid

concentration. Further details can be founded in literatures

(Zheng et al., 2001; Pu et al., 2008).

A kineticfrictional model, which considered the kinetic and

frictional stresses of the particle phase and the turbulence

interaction between gas phase and particle phase, was incorporated into the two uid model based on the kinetic theory of

granular ow to simulate three dimensional ow behaviors of

dense phase pneumatic conveying of pulverized coal in horizontal

pipe. The kinetic stress was based on the kinetic theory of

granular ow. For frictional stress, a normal frictional stress

model proposed by Johnson and Jackson (1987) and the modied

frictional shear viscosity model proposed by Syamlal et al. (1993)

were used, which was modied to t experimental data. The

experiments were carried out to validate the prediction results.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

2502

experimental data. Secondly, the solid concentration distribution

at cross section was obtained and compared with the measurements by ECT. Then the effects of supercial velocity on solid

concentration distribution were discussed. Finally, the formation

and motion process of slug ow was simulated and compared

with the photographs by high speed camera.

2. Experimental setup

The experiment apparatus used in this study is illustrated in

Fig. 1. The pulverized coal with average particle diameter of

37 mm and real density of 1350 kg/m3 was conveyed between two

pressurized hoppers (3) via a 53 m long and 10 mm inside

diameter pipe. As conveying gas, the nitrogen was introduced

into the system via a header (7) connected with sixteen nitrogen

cylinders (8) and then divided into three parts: pressurizing gas

(4), uidizing gas (5) and supplemental gas (6). The pressurizing

gas (4) was to maintain the stabilization of pressure in the

sending hopper. The uidizing gas (5) uidized the pulverized

coal at the bottom of the sending hopper, and then drove the

pulverized coal into the conveying pipe. The supplemental gas (6)

was used to adjust the nitrogen ow rate in a wide range and

prevent pipe from blockage to guarantee continuous transport of

pulverized coal. The pressure in the receiving hopper was

controlled by motor-driven valve (1). Each of the three nitrogen

ow rates was measured and controlled by a metal rotor ow

meter. The dosing hopper (3) was suspended on three load cells

(2), by which the pulverized coal mass ow rate was measured.

The EJA 430A differential pressure transducers (11) were used to

measure the pressure drops of sections in horizontal pipe, vertical

pipe and two bends. A computer data acquisition system was

employed to record the data of ow rates and pressure drops.

The ECT sensor consists of eight equally spaced sensing

electrodes of 10 mm long, is shown schematically in Fig. 2 (a).

The sensor pipe is made of quartz glass with 20 mm outer

diameter. The ECT sensor can provide dynamic information on the

spatial distribution of the composite permittivity of the gas solid

phase at 40 frames per second. From the permittivity data, the

14

Fig. 2. (a) Schematic of the ECT sensor and (b) visualization section.

obtained. Further details on the ECT sensor design can be found in

Yang (2008). Sensor calibration is performed by taking the

capacitance readings for two situations: an empty pipe and the

pipe lled with pulverized coal. The high speed video camera

FASTCAM-NET-MAX3 is employed to photograph the ow

regimes through the transparent pipe during the experiments.

Two groups of 2000 W oodlights were used to enhance the photo

denition when photographing. The visualization section made of

quartz glass with 10 mm inside diameter is shown in Fig. 2(b).

3. Hydrodynamic model

The model adopted is based on the fundamental concept of

interpenetrating continua for multiphase mixtures. It is assumed

that different phases can be present at the same time in the same

computational volume. The fundamental equations of mass,

momentum, and energy conservation are solved for each

considered phase. The emerging kinetic theory of granular ow

provides a physical motivation for such an approach. Appropriate

constitutive equations have to be specied in order to describe

the physical and rheological properties of each phase and to close

the conservation equations.

3.1. Gas phase

3

2

Computer

13

@

ag rg r ag rg vg 0

@t

1

1

12

constitutive relations:

Gas phase continuity equation

1

10

@

ag rg vg r ag rg vg vg ag rpg r sg bvg vs ag rg g

@t

2

1

10

pulverized coal (1) motor-driven valve (2) weigh cells (3) hoppers (4) pressurizing

gas (5) uidizing gas (6) supplemental gas (7) header (8) nitrogen cylinder (9)

adding water apparatus (10) differential pressure transducer (11) ECT sensor (12)

visualization section (13) data acquisition system (14) computer.

density, m g is the gas phase velocity, g is the specic gravity force.

sg is the gas phase shear stress and is related to the gradients of

velocity components by

where, mg,eff is the effective gas phase viscosity and I is the unit

tensor.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

W. Pu et al. / Chemical Engineering Science 65 (2010) 25002512

interaction term is the drag force. Here b is the drag coefcient of

gassolid ow, dened as

8

3 as ag rg jvg vs j 2:65

>

>

ag ;

ag 4 0:8

>

< 4 CD

ds

b

4

2

r as

a m

>

>

> 150 s 2g 1:75 g jvg vs j; ag r 0:8

:

ds

ag ds

8

< 24 1 0:15Re 0:687 ;

s

CD Res

:

0:44;

Res Z1000

Res

ag rg ds jvs vg j

mg

S s 12 rvs rvs T 13 r vs I

pks as rs Ys 2rs 1 ess a2s g0;ss Ys

1

2

the constitutive relations are expressed as

Particle phase continuity equation

@

as rs r as rs vs 0

@t

Ys

1=2

Ys

1=2

p

2

10rs ds Ys p

4

1 1 ess as g0;ss

5

961 ess g0;ss

r

p

2

150rs ds Ys p

6

Ys

kYs

1 as g0;ss 1 ess 2a2s rs ds g0;ss 1 ess

5

p

3841 ess g0;ss

!

r

4 Ys

gYs 31e2ss g0;ss rs a2s Ys

r v s

ds p

fsg 3bYs

Table 2

Frictional stress model.

@

as rs vs r as rs vs vs as rpg r ss bvg vs as rs g

@t

8

where, ss is the particle phase stress. Following Savage (1998), it is

assumed that the particle phase stress tensor ss is simply the sum

of the kinetic stress tensor sks and the frictional stress tensor sfs ,

each contribution evaluated as if it acted alone:

ss sks sfs

Table 1

Kinetic theory of granular ow closures

Res o1000

2503

nevertheless it captures the two extreme limits of granular ow

the rapid shear ow regime where kinetic contributions dominate

and the quasi-static ow regime where friction dominates. It

produced good results for dense ow (Srivastava and Sundaresan,

2003).

3.2.1. Kinetic stress model

The kinetic stress tensor is now commonly modeled by the

kinetic theory of granular ow (Gidaspow, 1994). Solid viscosity

and pressure are derived by considering the random uctuation of

solid velocity and its variations due to particleparticle collisions.

Such a random kinetic energy, or granular temperature, can be

predicted by solving, in addition to the mass and momentum

equations, a uctuating kinetic energy equation for the particles.

The solid viscosity and pressure can then be computed as a

function of granular temperature at any time and position.

Particles are considered smooth, spherical, inelastic, and undergoing binary collisions. Closure relations for sks and kYs used here

are presented in Table 1. The solid pressure represents the normal

forces due to particleparticle interactions. The rst part of the

solid pressure represents the kinetic contribution, and the second

part represents the collisional contribution. The kinetic part

physically represents the momentum transferred through the

system by particles moving across imaginary shear layers in the

ow; the collisional part denotes the momentum transferred by

direct collisions. The solid bulk viscosity describes the resistance

of the particle suspension against compression. Where ess is the

restitution coefcient of particleparticle collision and g0,ss is the

radial distribution function expressing the statistics of the spatial

p sin f

1=n1 )

p

f

f

mf p p

nn1

pc

2as S s : S s Ys =d2s

8 p

>

3

<

r vs 4 0

2 sin f

>

: 1:03r v o 0

s

"

#n1

r vs

p

pf 1p

pc

2n sin f Ss : Ss Ys =d2s

8 24

10

>

as;max r as

10 as;max as

>

>

>

< a amin r

s

s

amin

o as o as;max

pc F

s

> as;max as s

>

>

>

:0

a r amin

n

0:1

s

maximum solid volume fraction, the radial distribution function

at contact tends to innity. It approaches the correct limit of one

as the solid volume fraction approaches zero. Van Wachem et al.

(2001) compared four forms of the radial distribution function.

Here the expression of Sinclair and Jackson (1987) is adopted.

Particle phase pseudo-temperature equation of the conservation of particles uctuating energy is given by

3 @

rs as Ys r rs as vs Ys sks : rvs r kYs r Ys gYs fsg

2 @t

10

where Ys is the particle pseudo-temperature, kYs is the transport

coefcient of pseudo-thermal energy. The rst term on the righthand side of this equation represents the production rates of

pseudo-thermal energy by shear. The second one represents the

diffusive transport of pseudo-thermal energy. The third term gYs

in the equation represents dissipation of pseudo-thermal energy

through inelastic collisions, whereas the fourth term Fsg denotes

the exchange of uctuating energy between gas and particles.

At high solid volume fraction, individual particle interacts with

multiple neighbors through sustained contact. The resulting

frictional stress must be accounted for in the description of the

solid phase stress. The frictional stress is expressed in Table 2. For

detailed information, please refer to Syamlal et al. (1993) and

Srivastava and Sundaresan (2003).

Various expressions had been proposed for the normal

frictional stress pc (Johnson and Jackson, 1987; Johnson et al.,

ARTICLE IN PRESS

2504

and Jackson (1987) has been widely adopted and was used

in present simulations. In Johnson and Jacksons equation,

frictional interaction between particles does not occur at as o

0:5). In fact both frictional and kinetic stresses exist

0.5(amin

s

0:5 is not appropriate especially for

at 0.1 o as o 0.5. Thus amin

s

dense phase pneumatic conveying in horizontal pipe. In this

is equal to 0.1. Slug ow could be divided into three

paper amin

s

parts: dilute regime, intermediate regime and dense regime.

Dilute regime locates at the upper part of the pipe and dense

regime locates at the lower part of the pipe. Traditionally, the

dilute ow in the so-called rapid granular ow regime is

modeled based on the classic kinetic theory (Gidaspow, 1994),

while the dense ow in the so-called quasi-static regime is

modeled based on frictional stress model (Srivastava and

Sundaresan, 2003). In the former the particles experience short

and fast collisions, while in the latter the particles experience

enduring contacts giving rise to frictional stress. The intermediate regime is expected to exist at the interface between

those regimes, where the mass and momentum of particle

phase exchange violently. Both kinetic stress and frictional

stress play an important role. Therefore frictional stress cannot

be omitted in the intermediate regime. In dilute regime, the

particles cannot enduringly contact so that frictional stress

could be omitted compared with kinetic stress. The expression

for the normal frictional stress proposed by Johnson and

Jackson (1987) is a semi-empirical equation and F, r, s are

material dependent constants. Constant F is adjusted by

comparing the experimental data with the pressure gradients

predicted.

The boundary conditions for gas phase and particle phase

applied in the simulations are given as follows:

Gas phase boundary conditions:

At the inlet, a non-uniform axial velocity distribution was

specied:

vgz;in r

Ug

Gg

is the solid volume fraction at inlet.

Turbulent energy:

kg;in 0:004v2g;in

eg;in 2k3=4

=kD

g;in

ml;t

m

ra bU l U i i;t rai

al sl l

ai si

11

m

@

e

ai ri ei r ai ri U i ei r ai i;t rei i C1e ai Gk;i C2e ai ri ei

se

ki

@t

m

m

e

C3e i bCli kl Cil ki bU l U i l;t ral bU l U i i;t rai

ki

al sl

ai si

12

where Ui is the phase-weighted velocity, and Gk,i is the generation

of turbulent kinetic energy. The gas or particle phase turbulent

viscosity is dened as

mt;i ri Cm

k2i

ei

13

C2e = 1.68, C3e = 1.2.

17

At the outlet, the gas-phase pressure was ambient and all other

variables were subjected to the Newmann boundary conditions

@j/@z =0(j =vg, kg, eg).

At the wall a no slip boundary condition was used and the

standard wall functions were specied for the gas phase.

Particle phase boundary conditions:

At the inlet, uniform distributions in axial velocity, solid

granular temperature, and solid volume fraction were provided.

as;in

16

m

@

ai ri ki r ai ri U i ki r ai i;t rki ai Gk;i ai ri ei

sk

@t

14

15

pD2 =4

vsz;in

In the kinetic theory of granular ow, the granular temperature describes the particleparticle collisions and is introduced as

a measure of single particle velocity uctuation. Actually, particle

cluster is one of the most signicant features in dense phase

pneumatic conveying. Thus it is necessary to consider both smallscale uctuation due to particleparticle collision and large-scale

particle uctuation due to particle turbulence (Pu et al., 2008).

Gas/particle turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent kinetic energy

dissipation rate equation (i= gas, solid, l ai) are given by

60 Ug

12r=D1=7

49 1as;in

Ms

18

as;in rs pD2 =4

Ms

Mg

rs

rg

Ms

rs

!1

19

ks;in 0:004v2s;in

20

3=4

es;in 2ks;in

=kD

21

Ys;in 0:004v2s;in

22

ow rate.

At the outlet all other variables were subjected to the

Newmann boundary conditions qj/qz= 0 (j = vs, ks, es, Ys).

At the wall, the partial slip boundary conditions proposed by

Johnson and Jackson (1987) [20] were applied in the present

study.

p

a p

3

ssw

prs g0;ss f0 s

Ys vsw mps

23

6

as;max

qw

p

p

a p

a

3

3

prs g0;ss j s

Ys jvsw j2

prs g0;ss 1e2w s Y3=2

6

4

as;max

as;max s

24

total momentum transferred to the wall when particle collides

with it. qw is the ux of granular temperature toward the wall; m

is the particlewall friction coefcient; and ew is the restitution

coefcient of particlewall collision. As an initial condition, an

empty pipe is assumed.

The set of coupled conservation equations were discretized

into systems of linear equations using the nite-volume method.

The power-law interpolation scheme of discretization was used

ARTICLE IN PRESS

W. Pu et al. / Chemical Engineering Science 65 (2010) 25002512

between that obtained from rst- and second-order schemes.

Compared with other higher-order schemes, this method was

more robust and less computationally intensive. Taking advantage of the strong coupling between pressure and velocity, the

phase-coupled SIMPLE iterative algorithm was used for the

pressure-velocity coupling.

Under relaxation factors were necessary to obtain convergent

solutions with the iterative scheme used. Relaxation factors used

in the current study had typical values of 0.2 for all the variables.

The solution is assumed to converge when the sum of normalized

P

jR j

PCV F o d

CV jFj

25

corresponding local quantity and subscript CV denotes the control

volume. The time step used is 1 10 6 s. In the present study, d

was assigned as 0.001. The simulations were carried out in

supercomputer Sunway-2000A in Wuxi Supercomputing Center

using software package Fluent. In the present study, the length of

horizontal pipe is 5 m with the inside diameter of 10 mm.

16

16

Ms = 0.167kg/s

experiment fitting curve

experimental data

prediction fitting curve

prediction

experimental data

prediction

2505

12

12

8

Ug (m/s)

10

12

10

12

Ug (m/s)

Fig. 3. Pressure gradient vs. supercial velocity: (a) transport pressure 3.3 MPa and (b) transport pressure 2.6 MPa.

Fig. 4. Solid volume fraction distribution at cross section and central vertical plane (a) ECT image of solid volume fraction, (b) solid volume fraction contours simulated and

(c) solid volume fraction contours simulated at central vertical plane.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

2506

4.1. Comparison of experiment data with prediction of pressure

gradient

Fig. 3 shows the comparison of the predicted pressure gradient

with the experimental data at two transport pressures. It is

obvious that a good agreement between them is reached. It can be

seen that when the solid mass ow rate is kept constant and as

the supercial velocity increases, the pressure gradient rst

decreases, then goes through a minimum point, and

subsequently starts to increase. The resistance property shown

in Fig. 3(a) is not comprehensive because it is difcult to keep the

gas ow rate constant with high level at high pressure in

experiments. But the resistance property shown in Fig. 3(b) is

experiment. At low supercial velocity, the pulverized coal

deposits in the pipe with high settled layer. The friction

between the settled layer and wall is the main contributor to

the pressure gradient. The settled layer becomes thinner with

increasing supercial velocity, so the pressure gradient decreases.

At high supercial velocity, the particles are assumed to y with a

uniform distribution over the pipe cross-section. This state is

referred to as fully suspended ow. In this conveying state, the

pressure gradient increases with increasing supercial velocity,

because the friction between the gas and wall increases with Ug2 .

There is no sharp transition from suspended ow to slug ow. The

transition is gradual. So there exists a point where the pressure

gradient is the minimum.

Table 3

Experimental conditions and parameters used in simulations.

Description

Symbol

Values

Units

Receiving hopper pressure

Solid mass ow rate

Pipe inside diameter

Supercial velocity

Particle diameter

Particleparticle restitution coefcient

Particlewall restitution coefcient

Specularity coefcient

Angle of internal friction

Maximum solid fraction

Psend

Prec

Ms

D

Ug

ds

ess

ew

3.6

2.8

0.227

10

6.37

80

0.8

0.6

0.02

28.5

0.55

MPa

MPa

kg/s

F0

F

as,max

mm

m/s

mm

dimensionless

dimensionless

dimensionless

dimensionless

sectional solid volume fraction distribution in the pipe, and Fig. 4b

shows the simulated solid volume fraction contours. The

parameters used in simulations are listed in Table 3. The ECT

image shows that the pulverized coal layer deposits in the pipe

and the top surface of the settled layer takes on a distinct concave.

the particles above the settled layer are transported in a disperse

state. Jaworski and Dyakowski (2002) and Zhu et al. (2004)

applied ECT systems to study dense phase pneumatic conveying

in horizontal pipe and inclined riser, respectively. From their ECT

images, it can be found that the top surface of the settled layer

had the same shape. The simulation results agreed well with the

ECT image. According to the prediction of particle concentration

5.50E-01

5.21E-01

4.92E-01

4.63E-01

4.34E-01

4.05E-01

3.76E-01

3.47E-01

3.18E-01

2.89E-01

2.61E-01

2.32E-01

2.03E-01

1.74E-01

1.45E-01

1.16E-01

8.68E-02

5.79E-02

2.89E-02

1.00E-06

5.50E-01

5.21E-01

4.92E-01

4.63E-01

4.34E-01

4.05E-01

3.76E-01

3.47E-01

3.18E-01

2.89E-01

2.61E-01

2.32E-01

2.03E-01

1.74E-01

1.45E-01

1.16E-01

8.68E-02

5.79E-02

2.89E-02

1.00E-06

Ug = 4.82m/s

Ug = 8.15m/s

5.50E-01

5.21E-01

4.92E-01

4.63E-01

4.34E-01

4.05E-01

3.76E-01

3.47E-01

3.18E-01

2.89E-01

2.61E-01

2.32E-01

2.03E-01

1.74E-01

1.45E-01

1.16E-01

8.68E-02

5.79E-02

2.89E-02

1.00E-06

Ug = 9.52m/s

Fig. 5. Prediction of solid volume fraction at different supercial velocity: (a) Ug = 4.82 m/s, (b) Ug =8.15 m/s and (c) Ug = 9.52 m/s.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

W. Pu et al. / Chemical Engineering Science 65 (2010) 25002512

in Fig. 4b, the cross section can be divided into three parts: the

dilute regime (a), the intermediate regime (b) and the dense

regime (c). The dilute regime (a) locates at the upper part of the

pipe, where the particles experience short and fast collisions.

The dense regime (c) locates at the lower part of the pipe, where

the particle concentration is high and the particles experience

enduring contacts giving rise to frictional stress. For horizontal

pneumatic conveying in a conned volume, the intermediate

regime (b) is typically expected to exist at the interface between

the dense regime and the dilute regime, where both collision and

frictional stresses might be present. It is commonly believed that

there exists erce mass and momentum exchange of particle

phase both between the intermediate regime and the dilute

regime and between the intermediate regime and the dense

regime. Some particles in the dilute regime enter into

the intermediate regime due to gravity, at the same time some

particles in the intermediate regime enter into the dilute regime

due to particleparticle collisions or dragging by gas. The same

case happens between the intermediate regime and the dense

regime. It also can be founded that there are no clear boundaries

among these regimes. It indicates that the particle movement in

the pipe is very complex and affected by many factors. Fig. 4c

shows the simulated solid volume fraction contours at central

vertical plane. From the picture, it can be seen that the ow type

predicted belongs to stratied ow.

Fig. 5 shows the predicted solid volume fraction contours at

different supercial velocity. Here the solid mass ow rate is

0.177 kg/s with the particle diameter of 37 mm, the supercial gas

velocity Ug is 4.82 m/s, 8.15 m/s and 9.52 m/s, respectively. It is

clearly observed that as the supercial velocity increases, the

settled layer becomes thinner, which ts common sense. Two

factors may contribute to the phenomenon. For the solid mass

ow rate constant, the particle velocity increases with the

supercial velocity increasing. It leads to the solid volume

fraction decrease. On the other hand, the gas velocity

uctuations become stronger at higher supercial velocity,

which enhances the mass and momentum exchange of particle

phase between the dilute regime and dense regime and leads to

the settled layer decrease.

result, it is impossible to comprehensively validate the predictions of the model, and so it is decided to compare the similarity

between the characteristics of the predicted ow eld and the

experimentally determined ow elds. Thus, a qualitative

comparison is presented.

The prediction of the single slug movement along a 5 m

horizontal pipe is presented in Fig. 7. Here the solid mass ow rate

Although the number of experimental studies describing the

characteristics of the ow eld has grown over the last few years,

only partial information has been collected and published. As a

1.2

1.0

as/as,in

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Time(s)

1.0

1.2

1.4

2507

1.6

ARTICLE IN PRESS

2508

Pulverized coal is fed into the pipe inlet during a time interval

of 0.3 s. During that period, a long slug with high particle layer is

formed near the pipe inlet in Fig. 7. After the rst 0.3 s, only gas

ow enters into the pipe inlet. Thus, a long slug built articially

during the rst 0.3 s of the numerical simulation is formed. As

time proceeds, the slug moves from the right to the left (t= 0.3

0.7 s). Finally the slug moves away from the pipe (t = 0.71.0 s). In

addition, moving slug leaves a thinner layer behind it and short

afterwards the layer is carried away by gas until the pipe becomes

empty (t= 1.11.5 s).

Fig. 8 shows the pressure history at Z =2500 mm. The pressure

at Z =2500 mm keeps constant until the slug does not arrive

10000

Pressure (Pa)

8000

6000

4000

2000

0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Time (s)

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

direction

t = 0s

t = 0.016s

t = 0.032s

t = 0.048s

t = 0.064s

t = 0.08s

Fig. 7. (Continued)

Ug is 4.26 m/s and the solid volume concentration is 29.3%. Fig. 6

shows the solid feeding rate changing with time.

t = 0.096s

Fig. 9. Visualization photos of single slug ow in the horizontal pipe with high

speed camera.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

W. Pu et al. / Chemical Engineering Science 65 (2010) 25002512

2509

(t =00.4 s). When the forehead of the slug arrives the pressure

begins to increase (t = 0.40.7 s), then the pressure reaches a

constant value when the tail of the slug leaves (t =0.70.8 s). After

the slug arrives at the outlet of the pipe, the pressure begins to

decrease with the outow of the slug (t= 0.81.5 s). The simulation

results are similar to the description of the pressure change of

single slug by Fan (2002).

During the initial visualization test it was difcult to get the

clear photographs in the horizontal visualization section for the

pulverized coal with a diameter of 37 mm because of its strong

wall adhesion. In order to eliminate the particlewall adhesion,

the pulverized coal with a diameter of 300 mm was used. Fig. 9

shows a series of seven photographs illustrating a passage of

single slug through the visualization section in the horizontal

pipe. By comparing Fig. 9 with Fig. 7, it can be seen that the

simulation results are similar to the characteristics of the

experimental ow elds. As the slug passes through the pipe

gradually, there is a thin layer left behind, as seen in Fig. 9

(t =0.096 s) which is similar to the prediction results in Fig. 7

t =1.1 s.

To illustrate the continuous slug ow, the simulation of slug

ow was carried out. The simulation conditions are the same as

the single slug ow. The pulsed solid feeding rate was given in

Fig. 10.

Fig. 11 shows side view of the predicted slug ow pattern. As

an initial condition, the pipe is empty. The ow is from right to

left. It is clearly observed that the slug moves like wave motion.

Fig. 12 shows a set of four photographs illustrating a passage of

slug through the visualization section in the horizontal pipe.

Due to electrostatic force and the wall adhesion, it is difcult to

obtain the clear photographs for the ne pulverized coal (37 mm).

The simulation of slug ow was carried out. Here the solid mass

ow rate is 0.214 kg/s with a diameter of 300 mm, the supercial

gas velocity Ug is 5.92 m/s and the solid volume concentration is

25.45%. Fig. 13 shows side view of the predicted results. From

Fig. 13, it is obvious that the ow proceeds in the form of wave

and the ow pattern in Fig. 13(a) is very realistic. The simulation

results in Fig. 13(b) resemble the ow as the photographs

obtained by high speed camera in the experiments.

1.6

1.4

as/as,in

1.2

Fig. 11. Prediction of slug ow movement over central vertical plane.

1.0

0.8

5. Conclusions

0.6

0.4

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5 0.6

Time (s)

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

pulverized coal in horizontal pipe was predicted employing a

three dimensional model in which a kineticfrictional stress

model for particle phase was included. This model assumed that

the frictional and kinetic stresses are additive. A normal frictional

stress model of Johnson and Jackson (1987) and a modied

frictional shear viscosity model of Syamlal et al. (1993) were used

ARTICLE IN PRESS

2510

Direction

t = 0s

t = 0.016s

t = 0.032s

t = 0.048s

Fig. 12. High speed camera visualization of slug ow in the horizontal pipe.

for friction stress. The gas phase and particle phase were treated

as turbulent ow, respectively. The experiment was carried out to

validate the prediction results. The solid concentration distribution at cross section was obtained and compared with the

measurement by ECT. Then the effects of supercial velocity on

solid concentration distribution were discussed. The formation

and motion process of slug ow was simulated and compared

with the photographs by high speed camera. Simulation results

are in good agreement with experimental data. Based on the

presented results, the following conclusions may be drawn:

gradient are in good agreement with the experimental data.

In dense phase pneumatic conveying in horizontal pipe at high

pressure, the pulverized coal deposits in the pipe and the top

surface of the settled layer has a distinct concave. The

predictions are validated by ECT image.

The formation and motion process of slug ow is demonstrated and the slug moves like wave motion, which is similar

to the photographs obtained by high speed camera in the

experiments.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

W. Pu et al. / Chemical Engineering Science 65 (2010) 25002512

Notation

CD

ds

D

ess

ew

g0,ss

g

Gg

Gk,i

kg

ks

kYs

M

n

pc

pf

pg

pks

Res

Ss

Ug

Ui

vg

vs

Acknowledgments

drag coefcient, dimensionless

diameter of solid particle, m

pipe inside diameter, m

particleparticle collision restitution coefcient,

dimensionless

particlewall collision restitution coefcient,

dimensionless

radial distribution function, dimensionless

gravitational constant, m s 2

the gas volume ow rate, m3 s 1

generation of turbulent kinetic energy of phase i,

kg m 1 s 3

gas phase turbulent kinetic energy, m2s 2

solid phase turbulent kinetic energy, m2s 2

transport coefcient of pseudo-thermal energy,

kg m 1 s 2

solid mass ow rate, kg s 1

exponent on the shape of yield surface,

dimensionless

critical state pressure, N m 2

frictional pressure in solid phase, N m 2

gas phase pressure, N m 2

kinetic pressure in solid phase, N m 2

particle Reynolds number, dimensionless

particle strain rate tensor, s 1

supercial velocity, m s 1

phase-weighted velocity of phase i, m s 1

gas velocity, m s 1

solid velocity, m s 1

Greek letters

ag

as

b

gYs

e

Ys

lks

mf

mg

mg,eff

mks

rg

rs

sg

ss

sfs

sks

us

f

f0

Fsg

solid phase volume fraction, dimensionless

Gassolid inter-phase drag coefcient,

dimensionless

dissipation of pseudo-thermal energy through

inelastic collisions, kg m 1 s 3

rate of dissipation of turbulent energy, m2 s 3

granular temperature, m2 s 2

solid phase bulk viscosity, kg m 1 s 1

frictional viscosity in solid phase, kg m 1s 1

gas phase viscosity, kg m 1 s 1

effective gas phase viscosity, kg m 1 s 1

kinetic viscosity in solid phase, kg m 1 s 1

gas phase density, kg m 3

solid phase density, kg m 3

stress tensor of gas phase, kg m 1 s 2

stress tensor of solid phase, kg m 1 s 2

frictional stress tensor, kg m 1 s 2

kinetic stress tensor, kg m 1 s 2

solid phase kinetic viscosity, m2 s 1

angle of internal friction

specularity coefcient, dimensionless

exchange of uctuating energy between gas and

particles, kg m 1 s 3

Subscripts

g

s

max

min

2511

gas phase

solid phase

maximum

minimum

the National Key Program of Basic Research in China

2004CB217702 and the nancial support from natural science

fund for colleges and universities in Jiangsu Province

09KJD610003. The authors are grateful to Dr. Yang Daoye for

the cooperation of the project.

References

Benyahia, S., Arastoopour, H., Knowlton, T.M., Massah, H., 2000. Simulation of

particles and gas ow behaviour in the riser section of a circulating uidized

bed using the kinetic theory approach for the particulate phase. Powder

Technology 12, 2433.

Chen, X.P., Fan, C.L., Liang, C., Pu, W.H., Lu, P., Zhao, C.S., 2007. Investigation on

characteristics of pulverized coal dense-phase pneumatic conveying under

high pressure. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering 24 (3), 499502.

Curtis, J.S., van Wachem, B., 2004. Modeling particle-laden ows: a research

outlook. A.I.Ch.E. Journal 50 (11), 26382645.

Fan, C., 2002. Plug ow dense phase pneumatic conveying. Advances in Mechanics

32, 599612.

Geldart, D., Ling, S.J., 1990. Dense phase conveying of ne coal at high total

pressure. Powder Technology 62, 243252.

Gidaspow, D., 1994. Multiphase Flow and Fluidization: Continuum and Kinetic

Theory Descriptions. Academic Press, New York.

Gidaspow, D., Jung, J., Raj, K.S., 2004. Hydrodynamics of uidization using kinetic

theory: an emerging paradigm 2002 Flour-Daniel lecture. Powder Technology

148, 123141.

Huilin, L., Yurong, H., Wentie, L., Ding, J., Gidaspow, D., Bouillard, J., 2004.

Computer simulations of gassolid ow in spouted beds using kinetic

frictional stress model of granular ow. Chemical Engineering Science 59,

865878.

Jaworski, A.J., Dyakowski, T., 2002. Investigations of ow instabilities within the

dense pneumatic conveying system. Powder Technology 125, 279291.

Johnson, P.C., Jackson, R., 1987. Frictional-collisional constitutive relations for

granular materials, with application to plane shearing. Journal of Fluid

Mechanics 176, 6793.

Johnson, P.C., Nott, P., Jackson, R., 1990. Frictionalcollisional equations of motion

for particulate ows and their application to chutes. Journal of Fluid Mechanics

210, 501535.

Konrad, K., 1986. Dense-phase pneumatic conveying: a review. Powder Technology 49, 135.

Levy, A., 2000. Two-uid approach for plug ow simulations in horizontal

pneumatic conveying. Powder Technology 112, 263272.

Liang, C., Zhao, C.S., Chen, X.P., Pu, W.H., Lu, P., Fan, C.L., 2007. Flow characteristics

and Shannon entropy analysis of dense-phase pneumatic conveying of

pulverized coal with variable moisture content at high pressure. Chemical

Engineering and Technology 30, 926931.

Lun, C.K., Savage, S.B., Jeffrey, D.J., 1984. Kinetic theories for granular ow: inelastic

particles in coquette ow and slightly inelastic particles in a general ow eld.

Journal of Fluid Mechanics 140, 223256.

Makkawi, Y., Ocone, R., 2006. A model for gassolid ow in a horizontal duct with a

smooth merge of rapid-intermediate-dense ows. Chemical Engineering

Science 61, 42714281.

Makkawi, Y.T., Wright, P.C., Ocone, R., 2006. The effect of friction and inter-particle

cohesive forces on the hydrodynamics of gassolid ow: a comparative

analysis of theoretical predictions and experiments. Powder Technology 163,

6979.

McKeen, T., Pugsley, T., 2003. Simulation and experimental validation of freely

bubbling bed of FCC catalyst. Powder Technology 129, 139152.

Ocone, R., Sundaresan, S., Jackson, R., 1993. Gasparticle ow in a duct of arbitrary

inclination with particleparticle interaction. A.I.Ch.E. Journal 39,

12611271.

Patil, D.J., van Sint Annaland, M., Kuipers, J.A.M., 2005a. Critical comparison of

hydrodynamic models for gassolid uidized bedsPart I: bubbling gassolid

uidized beds operated with a jet. Chemical Engineering Science 60, 5772.

Patil, D.J., van Sint Annaland, M., Kuipers, J.A.M., 2005b. Critical comparison of

hydrodynamic models for gassolid uidized bedsPart II: freely bubbling

gassolid uidized beds. Chemical Engineering Science 60, 7384.

Pu, W.H., Zhao, C.S., Xiong, Y.Q., Liang, C., Chen, X.P., Lu, P., Fan, C.L., 2008. Threedimensional numerical simulation of dense pneumatic conveying of pulverized coal in a vertical pipe at high pressure. Chemical Engineering and

Technology 31, 215223.

Sakai, M., Koshizuka, S., 2009. Large-scale discrete element modeling in pneumatic

conveying. Chemical Engineering Science 64, 533539.

Savage, S.B., 1998. Analyses of slow high-concentration ows of granular

materials. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 377, 126.

Schaeffer, D.G., 1987. Instability in the evolution of equations describing

incompressible granular ow. Journal of Differential Equations 66, 1950.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

2512

Sinclair, J.L., Jackson, R., 1989. Gas-particle ow in a vertical pipe with particle

particle interactions. A.I.Ch.E. Journal 35, 14731486.

Srivastava, A., 2001. Dense-phase gassolid ows in circulating uidized beds.

Ph.D. Thesis, Deptartment of Chemical Engineering, Princeton University.

Srivastava, A., Sundaresan, S., 2003. Analysis of a frictional-kinetic model for gas

particle ow. Powder Technology 129, 7285.

Sundaresan, S., 2000. Modeling the hydrodynamics of multiphase ow reactors:

current status and challenges. A.I.Ch.E. Journal 46, 11021105.

Syamlal, M., Rogers, W.A., OBrien, T.J., 1993. MFIX documentation and theory

guide, DOE/METC94/1004, NTIS/DE94000087. Electronically available from

/http://www.mx.orgS.

Tardos, G.I., 1997. A uid mechanistic approach to slow, frictional ow of powders.

Powder Technology 92, 6174.

Tardos, G.I., McNamara, S., Talu, I., 2003. Slow and intermediate ow of frictional

bulk powder in the coquette geometry. Powder Technology 131, 2339.

Tsuji, T., Yabumoto, K., Tanaka, T., 2008. Spontaneous structures in threedimensional bubbling gas-uidized bed by parallel DEM-CFD coupling

simulation. Powder Technology 184, 132140.

Tsuji, Y., Tanaka, T., Ishida, T., 1992. Lagrangian numerical simulation of plug ow

of cohesionless particles in a horizontal pipe. Powder Technology 71,

239250.

Van Wachem, B.G.M., Schouten, J.C., Van den Bleek, C.M., 2001. Comparative

analysis of CFD models of dense gassolid systems. A.I.Ch.E. Journal 47,

10351051.

Van Wachem, B.G.M., Almstedt, A.E., 2003. Methods for multiphase computational

uid dynamics. Chemical Engineering Journal 96, 8198.

Yang, D.Y., 2008. Study on electrical capacitance tomography with thick pipeline in

gas/solid two-phase ow. Ph.D. Thesis, Southeast University.

Zheng, Y., Wang, X.T., Zhen, Q., Wei, F., Jin, Y., 2001. Numerical simulation of the

gasparticle turbulent ow in riser reactor based on k-e-kp-ep two-uid model.

Chemical Engineering Science 56, 68136822.

Zhu, H.P., Zhou, Z.Y., Yang, R.Y., Yu, A.B., 2008. Discrete particle simulation of

particulate systems: a review of major applications and ndings. Chemical

Engineering Science 63, 57285770.

Zhu, H.P., Zhou, Z.Y., Yang, R.Y., Yu, A.B., 2007. Discrete particle simulation of

particulate systems: theoretical developments. Chemical Engineering Science

62, 33783392.

Zhu, K.W., Wong, C.K., Rao, S.M., Wang, C.H., 2004. Pneumatic conveying of

granular solids in horizontal and inclined pipes. A.I.Ch.E. Journal 50,

17291745.

- Wilson, College Physics - Chapter 6, ExercisesUploaded byJohnatan Agudelo
- Dynamic numerical simulation of gas-liquid two-phase flows Euler/Euler versus Euler/LagrangeUploaded byamin_zargaran
- Dimensionare supape sigurantaUploaded bycatalin200
- Experiment 6finaleUploaded byCynthia Tobias Torres
- Properties of Dry GasUploaded byChia Boon Chung
- Properties of Fluids AUploaded byGlenn Frey Layug
- Maxwell Scientificpapers Vol II DoverUploaded byNorla Escoto Vargas
- Study of Slag in Steelmaking ProcessUploaded byRoberto Wallis
- Fluid Mechanics In Porous MediaUploaded byGiovanni Benvegna
- Dynamic Discussion CollisionUploaded byIvan Ng
- MIT8_333F13_Lec10Uploaded bywasim sajjas
- am_2003 (2)Uploaded byBernice Johnson
- Chap9.pdfUploaded byMehmet Alp Albayraktaroğlu
- maxwell-scientificpapers-vol-ii-dover.pdfUploaded byjanalacerda
- spalart allmarasUploaded byIlie Viorel
- DIFFERENTIAL MODEL AND IMPACT RESPONSE OF A FLEXIBLE BEAM ATTACHED TO A RIGID SUPPORTING STRUCTUREUploaded byRodrigo Marin
- Mr. Reynon's Physics Class Ch. 6Uploaded bySangHyuk Kim
- CollisionsUploaded bychiragjn120
- Physics Unit 3 Practice Test Dynamics5Uploaded byStephanie
- Conservation of MomentumUploaded bywscience
- week6-2Uploaded byKrishnaJaiswal
- Physical Sciences P1 Feb-March 2015 EngUploaded byMREACE Elijah
- Impulse and MomentumUploaded byBrian Umandap
- Section 1 Momentum & Impulse -Phpapp01Uploaded byvenkateshyadav2116
- MOD 3Uploaded byS M Akash
- momentum q´sUploaded byIain Gardner
- DLL-DLPUploaded byBerith Grace Magcalas
- Scaling LawsUploaded byIsraa Yheaa
- Particle Tracking NotesUploaded byPejman Sho
- Plugin Tl1Uploaded bysklux

- Teaching Philosophy Statement.docxUploaded byMuhammad Adnan Laghari
- Teaching Philosophy Statement.docxUploaded byMuhammad Adnan Laghari
- C_Plus_Plus_and_Object_Oriented_Numeric_Computing_for_Scientists_and_Engineers_Daoqi_Yang(www.ebook-dl.com).pdfUploaded by_HG7_
- troubleshootingUploaded byMuhammad Adnan Laghari
- loop sealUploaded bykaeng2k4
- Radial Voidage Profiles in Fast Fluidized Beds of Different DiametersUploaded byMuhammad Adnan Laghari
- Numerical Methods for Engineers, 6th Edition 2009 Chapra CanaleUploaded byFish Shuang
- zhou et alUploaded byMuhammad Adnan Laghari
- ojha2004Uploaded byMuhammad Adnan Laghari
- thesis 4444.pdfUploaded byMuhammad Adnan Laghari
- The Anti-Drug MaterialsUploaded byMuhammad Adnan Laghari
- two phase fluid solid flow.pdfUploaded byMuhammad Adnan Laghari
- Application Form for BS 17 and AboveUploaded byMuhammad Adnan Laghari
- Challan FormUploaded byTahir Akbar Malik
- asmaabroUploaded byMuhammad Adnan Laghari
- 1-s2.0-S0032591012002410-main.pdfUploaded byMuhammad Adnan Laghari
- Pablo Aguayo - 66.pdfUploaded byMuhammad Adnan Laghari
- Pablo Aguayo - 66.pdfUploaded byMuhammad Adnan Laghari
- C++ Weekend Crash CourseUploaded bypurgedsoul
- Journal of Solid State Chemistry 233 (2016)Uploaded byMuhammad Adnan Laghari
- Journal of Solid State Chemistry 233 (2016)Uploaded byMuhammad Adnan Laghari
- PAPQERUploaded byMuhammad Adnan Laghari
- 1-s2.0-S0032591012002410-mainUploaded byMuhammad Adnan Laghari
- types of choking in pneumatic conveying sytems.pdfUploaded byMuhammad Adnan Laghari
- CFD Multiphase Modeling of Fluidized Bed Using Fluent SoftwareUploaded byAnonymous P8Bt46mk5I
- Dr. Naeem AkhtarUploaded byMuhammad Adnan Laghari
- Pec Registration SlipUploaded byMuhammad Adnan Laghari
- cfdpreUploaded byHüseyin Cihan Kurtuluş
- Challan FormUploaded byTahir Akbar Malik
- Thesis-pdf_format.pdfUploaded byMuhammad Adnan Laghari

- JJ205 Engineering Mechanics - Case Study 2 - Different Between Ac Motor and DC MotorUploaded byabidsufian
- 4Uploaded bydrmazhar1
- Compressible Flow EqnUploaded byAnkur Bhatnagar
- Axioms of Newtonian MechanicsUploaded byJaime
- IITJEE Physics Centre of Mass BookUploaded byKeshav
- Hibb 11e Dynamics Lecture Section 15-01 rUploaded byNikkei Pfeiffer Tadili
- 1710.09904Uploaded bypippoa
- Applying the Energy-Momentum Method to Radial Gate Discharge CalibrationUploaded byshahrokhnour
- PhysicsUploaded byCresencio Genobiagon Jr
- PYL100_Lec12Uploaded byShabeel HamNaf
- Review of the Application of Newton's Third Law in PhysicsUploaded bylawlietcullen
- CFD Modelling of River FlowUploaded bysinghkamalp
- What is the significance of E = mc2_ And what does it mean_ - Scientific American.pdfUploaded byHanna Awoke
- Conservation of Momentum-Spring 2010Uploaded byShenella Williams
- Matter and Interaction Chapter 03 SolutionsUploaded bylangemar
- lab2.docxUploaded byLavin Lavin
- PHYSIC 1 MidtermUploaded byRajan Sinnathamby
- CNX_Physics_SSM_v05_20151005.docxUploaded byHarish
- Fluid Mechanics Formulas ShortcutsUploaded by9444583008
- As CT2 (2) - Mechanics, Waves - DONEUploaded byShabbir H. Khan
- Physics Syllabus 2012-13 Online CopyUploaded bykaraweisenburger
- Matter and Interaction Chapter 04 SolutionsUploaded bylangemar
- Phy a2 Teacher GuideUploaded byridminj
- sci20 unitb 2 3Uploaded byapi-207957230
- Accident StudiesUploaded byAravind Viswanathan
- ALLEN KOTA TEST PAPERS(MEDICAL)Uploaded byDr Awesome
- 349-353physics-xiUploaded byapi-259591583
- 2013 year 12 exercise science biomechanics teaching programmeUploaded byapi-240062513
- Neet2016 Ph2 SolUploaded byAakash Kashyap
- Capitulo 4 WhiteUploaded bygabo2008