Study of the Pressure Drop of Dense Phase Gas–Solid Flow Through Nozzle

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Study of the Pressure Drop of Dense Phase Gas–Solid Flow Through Nozzle

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Powder Technology

j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w. e l s ev i e r. c o m / l o c a t e / p ow t e c

Wanjie Huang, Xin Gong , Xiaolei Guo, Zhenghua Dai, Haifeng Liu, Zhuwei Cao, Chuanhong Wang

Key Laboratory of Coal Gasication of Ministry of Education, Institute of Clean Coal Technology, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, PR China

A R T I C L E

I N F O

Article history:

Received 23 June 2007

Received in revised form 27 May 2008

Accepted 13 June 2008

Available online 19 June 2008

Keywords:

Nozzle pressure drop

Dense phase pneumatic conveying

Pulverized coal

Additional pressure drop

A B S T R A C T

Pressure drops are measured on different nozzles of various pipe sizes in dense phase pulverized coal

pneumatic conveying. From the experimental results, we conclude that the effect of the gas phase nozzle

pressure drop is negligible when comparing with the solid phase pressure drop in the experimental range.

The main inuence factors contributing to the nozzle pressure drop are gas and solid mass ow rate, solids

loading ratio, and the diameters of the nozzle inlet and outlet. A new model was developed to predict the

nozzle pressure drop in dense phase pneumatic conveying of pulverized coal based on the Barth's pneumatic

conveying theory. The pressure drop predictions from the model are in good agreement with the

experimental values. The model quantied the important inuence factors of the nozzle pressure drop.

2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Nozzles are widely used in the area of chemical industry, metallurgy and aviation eld. The prediction of nozzle pressure drop is

crucial for safe and efcient operation. Royne [1], Tuo [2], and Brignoni

[3] analyzed the nozzle pressure drop caused by water and air through

different nozzles, respectively, and found the important factors contributing to the nozzle pressure drop such as nozzle diameter and

length as well as chamfer angle. James [4] and McNeil [5] found the

inuence of different viscous air and liquid on the nozzle pressure

drop. All of these studies have shown that uid property has a

signicant effect on the nozzle pressure drop. Previous studies on gas

solid ow through the nozzle are mainly focused on the pressure

distribution inside of gassolid injector [6,7] whose geometry is much

different from the nozzle added at the end of the pipe. Peng [8,9]

developed a model to calculate the nozzle pressure drop considering

the inuence of the particle volume fraction and distribution of particle size on the ow. Unfortunately, solids loading ratio in these

researches fell in dilute phase. Because the interaction between

particle and gas changes with the solids loading ratio, the model for

dilute phase can not be used in dense phase conveying for which the

suitable pressure drop model is rarely reported. Therefore, the

development of an appropriate pressure drop model is of great signicance for coal gasication [10], blast furnace and other applications

employing the dense phase pneumatic conveying.

This paper aims to develop a nozzle pressure drop model for dense

phase pneumatic conveying. The pressure drops of air-coal ow

through nozzles of different sizes in dense phase conveying (solids

loading ratio: 129265 kg/kg) are obtained experimentally. Based on

Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 21 6425 2521.

E-mail address: gongxin@ecust.edu.cn (X. Gong).

0032-5910/$ see front matter 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.powtec.2008.06.007

13] are used to develop the model for the prediction of nozzle pressure

drop in dense phase pneumatic conveying.

2. Experimental set-up and procedure

The experimental set-up is illustrated in Fig. 1. It mainly consists of

feeder vessel, receiver vessel, pipe line, and nozzle. Pulverized coal ows

with air from feeder vessel to receiver vessel through stainless steel pipes

of internal diameters 15 and 39 mm. The nozzle is mounted at the end of

the horizontal pipe of the conveying installation [14]. In order to obtain

the nozzle pressure drop, a pressure cell is installed near the nozzle inlet.

The pulverized coal is used as transportation medium and its physical properties are shown in Table 1.

Geldart [15] characterized the powders into four groups (A, B, C

and D). The pulverized coal used in the experiment belongs to Geldart

A, and has a good uidity.

The nozzle has two parts, conical section and cylindrical section as

shown in Fig. 2. D0 is the nozzle inlet diameter which equals to the pipe

diameter numerically. D1 is the nozzle outlet diameter. The chamfer

angle = 5. L1 is the length of the conical section, and L2 is the length of

the cylindrical section which equals to the nozzle outlet diameter

numerically. The parameters acquired during the conveying trials such

as gas mass ow rate Mg, solid mass ow rate Ms, nozzle pressure drop

Pexp and feeder vessel pressure Phopper are detailed in Table 2.

3. Results and discussion

3.1. Experiment results

The typical data from these tests is presented in Table 3. It can be

seen from the data that the nozzle pressure drop increases with the

83

compared with Ps in the experiment range. Ps can be expressed by

Fanning equation [17]:

Ps ms

Fig. 1. Scheme of apparatus. 1: Air compressor; 2: drier; 3: gas distributor; 4: gas meter;

5: feeder vessel; 6: nozzle; 7: weigh cell; 8: receiver vessel, 9: dust remover; 10: pressure cell.

increasing gas mass ow rate for the same nozzle. Decrease of the nozzle

outlet diameter can also cause the increase of the nozzle pressure drop.

This is an indication that both the nozzle dimension and ow parameters are important factors inuencing the nozzle pressure drop.

3.2. Nozzle pressure drop analysis

Barth [16] divided the pressure drop of gassolid ow into two

terms, gas phase pressure drop and solid phase pressure drop, due

separately to gas alone and solid particles. Hence, the nozzle pressure

drop caused by air alone should be measured rst. Table 4 shows the

comparison of the nozzle pressure drops caused by air alone and gas

solid. un is the supercial gas velocity at the nozzle outlet.

When pure air ows through the nozzle, the nozzle pressure drop

increases with the increasing supercial gas velocity. The gas phase

pressure drop is much lower than the gassolid phase pressure drop at

the similar supercial gas velocity. This indicates that the nozzle

pressure drop is mainly caused by the solid phase, while the gas phase

pressure drop can be neglected. Therefore, a model for nozzle pressure

drop in dense phase conveying can be simplied by considering the

effect of the solid phase pressure drop only.

g u2g L

supercial gas velocity, m is solids loading ratio, D is pipe diameter, L

is pipe length.

The additional pressure drop coefcient can be calculated by many

methods. Though Eq. (3) is usually used in pipe pressure drop model, it

Table 2

Experiment parameters

D0/mm

D1/mm

Mg/kgs 1

Ms/kgs 1

Pexp/kPa

Phopper/MPa

39

39

39

15

20

17

14

7.1

0.00830.0143

0.00660.0106

0.00430.0115

0.00190.0028

2.0412.999

1.4462.214

0.9871.485

0.4390.514

70.24179.59

88.27297.50

91.42303.87

232.66343.06

0.0840.210

0.1010.310

0.0930.312

0.2620.379

Table 3

Typical data of the experiment

D0/mm

D1/mm

Mg/kgs 1

Ms/kgs 1

Phopper/MPa

Pexp/kPa

39

20

39

17

39

14

15

7.1

0.0087

0.0091

0.0128

0.0139

0.0143

0.0066

0.0087

0.0100

0.0128

0.0160

0.0043

0.0064

0.0083

0.0103

0.0115

0.0019

0.0020

0.0022

0.0025

0.0028

2.041

2.259

2.634

2.999

2.683

1.449

1.489

1.586

2.035

2.214

0.987

1.169

1.338

1.428

1.485

0.439

0.447

0.458

0.500

0.514

0.084

0.120

0.186

0.210

0.189

0.103

0.122

0.153

0.232

0.310

0.093

0.150

0.224

0.265

0.312

0.262

0.283

0.301

0.360

0.379

70.24

85.70

138.90

179.59

148.74

88.53

107.42

131.36

211.65

297.50

91.42

136.79

211.97

259.07

303.87

232.66

257.27

271.35

323.98

343.06

According to Barth's additional pressure drop [16], the total pressure drop P can be split into two parts

P Pg Ps

ow conditions and Ps is the resistance of the particulate material.

2D

Table 4

Comparison of the nozzle pressure drops caused by air alone and gassolid (D0 = 39 mm,

D1 = 20 mm)

Air alone

Table 1

Physical properties of the pulverized coal

Mean particle

diameter/m

kgm 3

kgm 3

Moisture

content/wt.%

Angle of

repose/

41

1400

2.4

54

540

Gassolid

un/ms 1

Pexp/kPa

un/ms 1

Pexp/kPa

m/kg/kg 1

36.10

55.76

74.75

92.07

107.01

1.14

2.37

3.89

5.39

7.09

23.00

24.04

33.93

36.86

37.96

70.24

85.70

138.90

179.59

148.74

236

249

206

216

188

84

is not suitable for nozzle pressure drop calculation without considering the effect of gas density because the pressure changes sharply in

the conical section of the nozzle. Therefore, Eq. (3) should be modied

into Eq. (4):

!b

ug

p

s aFr a

gD

b

!b

c

g

g c

ug

s aFr

a p

s

s

gD

b

As to dL in Fig. 3, Fanning equation can be written as

dP ms

g u2g

2D

dL:

1 c b b2 b1 c1

a g 2 mug D 2 g dL:

2 s

of = 5, L2 = D1 and Eqs. (8), (9)

A

1 c b 4 b2

as g 2

2

5

B b4

2

2B25

"

#

b2

5

1

1

1

2b4

52b4

52b5

2b 4

b2

D

P ac

g

mM

D

L

D

2 : 7

g

0

1

1

2 s

2 tan 52 b4

8

9

P AmMg 5

dP

Fig. 5. Plot of nozzle pressure drop versus gas mass ow rate (D0 = 39 mm, D1 = 0.017 mm).

5:715 B B

D0 D1 DB1 :

B

10

for the coal used in this experiment.

P 0:476mMg1:91 2:51D3:78

1:51D3:78

R2 0:98 :

1

0

11

Eq. (7) is the nozzle pressure drop model, a, b, c can be obtained after

introducing the experiment data. s can be treated as a constant

agreement with the experiment data Pexp. The error is less than 9%

for all the data except three points for which the error is less than 15%

(Fig. 4).

Fig. 6. Plot of nozzle pressure drop versus solids loading ratio (D0 = 39 mm, D1 = 0.017 mm).

Fig. 7. Effect of nozzle outlet on nozzle pressure drop (D0 = 39 mm, m = 160 kg/kg).

Eq. (11) shows that the gas mass ow rate, the solids loading ratio

and the nozzle dimension play the denitive role on nozzle pressure

drop. Figs. 5 and 6 show the contributions of the gas mass ow rate

and the solids loading ratio to the nozzle pressure drop respectively.

The nozzle pressure drop has an exponential increase with the

increasing gas mass ow rate, and has a linear increase with the

increasing solids loading ratio. The gas mass ow rate affects the

nozzle pressure drop through the solid phase, because the solid mass

ow rate will be increased with the increase of the gas mass ow rate

for the same solids loading ratio. Peng [8] thought the solids loading

ratio has no effect on the nozzle pressure drop in subsonic range. The

reason why this conclusion is different from our experiment data is

that this conveying system falls into the range of dilute phase

conveying in which solid concentration is too low to affect the gas

solid ow condition. In our experiment, the solids loading ratio has

been up to 120 kg/kg. In this case, the solids loading ratio has become

an important factor to nozzle pressure drop.

The nozzle pressure drop increases with the nozzle outlet diameter

when other parameters are set. Fig. 7. validates it. The reason is that

when the nozzle outlet diameter decreases, the nozzle will be

lengthened since the chamfer angle is constant. The increase of the

nozzle inlet diameter results in the increase of the nozzle pressure drop

for the same reason.

85

Fig. 9. Plot of nozzle pressure drop versus cylindrical section length/nozzle outlet

diameter (D0 = 39 mm, D1 = 0.017 mm, Mg = 0.01 kg/s).

nozzle pressure drop, Eq. (11) is rewritten after introducing m = Ms/Mg:

1:51D3:78

:

P 0:476Ms Mg0:912 2:51D3:78

1

0

12

It can be seen from the exponent of the solid and the gas mass ow

rate that the solid mass ow rate has a little more effect on the nozzle

pressure drop than the gas mass ow rate. The nozzle pressure drop

increases with the increase of the solid mass ow rate, Fig. 8. We

conjecture that increasing of the solid mass ow rate enhances the

collision of the granules and the friction between granule and wall.

The nozzle consists of conical section and cylindrical section.

Though properly lengthening the cylindrical section can improve the

mixing effect of solid and gas at the nozzle outlet, and the nozzle

pressure drop advances as well, which will result in the increase of the

total pressure drop and higher power consumption unfortunately. As

seen in Fig. 9, the nozzle pressure drop grows by 1.4 times when the

ratio of cylindrical section length and nozzle outlet diameter, L2/D1,

changes from 1 to 2. Therefore, the increase of power consumption

should be considered when the cylindrical section is lengthened to

improve the mixing.

4. Conclusions

In dense phase conveying, solid phase plays such a dominant role

that the effect of gas phase can be neglected. Based on the additional

pressure drop, a model for the nozzle pressure drop in dense phase

gassolid ow is developed. The pressure drop calculated by the

model agrees with the experiment data very well, which provides a

new simpler way to predict the nozzle pressure drop.

The contribution of the solids loading ratio to nozzle pressure drop

is more dominant in dense phase than in dilute phase. Lengthening

the cylindrical section improves the mixing of solid and gas. This,

however, causes higher power consumption.

Fig. 8. Plot of nozzle pressure drop versus solid mass ow rate (D0 =39 mm, D1 = 0.017 mm).

Nomenclature

A, B

Constant

a, b, c

Constant

D

Pipe diameter (m)

D0

Nozzle inlet diameter (m)

D1

Nozzle outlet diameter (m)

Fr

Froude number

L

Total nozzle length (m)

L1

Length of the conical section (m)

L2

Length of the cylindrical section (m)

86

M

Mg

Ms

Phopper

un

ug

Gas mass ow rate (kg/s)

Solid mass ow rate (kg/s)

Feeder vessel pressure (MPa)

Supercial gas velocity at cross-section of nozzle outlet (m/s)

Supercial gas velocity (m/s)

Greek letters

Particle density (kg/m3)

s

g

Gas density (kg/m3)

s

Additional pressure drop coefcient

Chamfer angle ()

L

Pipe length (m)

Pexp

Experimental nozzle pressure drop (kPa)

Pcal

Nozzle pressure drop calculated by the model (kPa)

Pg

Pressure drop due to gas only (kPa)

Ps

Pressure drop due to solid only (kPa)

Acknowledgements

This work was supported nancially by the National Natural Science

Foundation of China (No.20576038), and the National Key Program of

Basic Research in China (2004CB217700).

References

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submerged jet arrays, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 49 (2006)

800804.

[2] Y.F. Tuo, L.H. Yang, T. Guo, L.J. Zhang, A calculative formula and experimental study

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[3] L.A. Brignoni, S.V. Garimella, Effects of nozzle-inlet chamfering on pressure drop

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