You are on page 1of 30

# Blancia , Mary Jean R.

## Rules of Conversion from Arc to Time

To convert Arc to Time.
1) Divide degrees by 15 to obtain hours, and multiply the remainder by 4
to obtain minutes of time.
2) Divide the minutes of are by 15 to obtain minutes of time and multiply
the remainder by 4 to obtain seconds of time.
3) Divide the seconds of are by 15 to obtain seconds and tenths of
seconds of time.
4) Bring down the number of hours and add minutes and seconds of time.

Examples:
Convert the following Arc to time.
1) 15 32' 39"
15 15 =
1h
32' 15 = 2m
8s
39" 15 =
2.6s
15 32' 39" = 1h 2m 10.6s

2) 30
30
65'
15"
30

65'
15"
15 =
2h
15 = 4m 20s
15 =
1s
65' 15" = 2h 4m 21s

152 15
19' 15
30" 15
152 19' 30"

= 10h
=
9m
=
18s
= 10h 9m 18s

## 4) 303 55' 30"

303 15
55' 15
30" 15
303 55' 30"

= 20h 12m
=
3m 40s
=
2s
= 20h 15m 42s

5) 615
615
6'
36
615

6' 36"
15
15
15
6' 36"

= 41h
=
0m 24s
=
2.4s
= 41h 0m 26.4s

Example:
Convert the following Arc to time
1) 100 70' 15"

2)
3)
4)
5)

15 75' 100"
115 36' 45"
65 18' 54"

## 1) 100 70' 15"

100 15
70' 15
15" 15
100 70' 15"

= 6h
=
44m
=
41s
= 6h 44m 41s

2) 310
310
67'
45"
310

= 20h
=
44m
=
31s
= 20h 44m 31s

67' 45"
15
15
15
67' 45"

3) 15 75' 100"
15 15
= 1h
75' 15
=
5m
100" 15
=
6.67s
15 75' 100" = 1h 5m 6.67s
4) 115 36' 45"
115
15
36'
15
45"
15
115 36' 45"

= 7h
=
42m
=
27s
= 7h 42m 27s

5) 65 18' 54"
65
15= 4h
18'
15=
21m
54"
15=
15.6s
65 18' 54" = 4h 21m 15.6s

## Conversion of the following from Arc to Time

1) 360
360
99'
68"
360

99' 68"
15 = 24h
15 =
6m 36s
15 =
4.53s
99' 68" = 24h 6m 40.53s

## 2) 510 260' 100"

510 15
= 34h
260' 15
=
17m 20s

100" 15
=
6.67s
510 260' 100" = 34h 17m 26.67s
3) 488
488
66'
50"
488

66' 50"
15 = 32h 32m
15 =
4m 24s
15 =
3.33s
66' 50" = 32h 36m 27.33s

4) 270
270
15'
3"
270

15' 3"
15= 18h
15=
1m
15=
0.2s
15' 3" = 18h 1m 0.2s

5) 90 70' 36"
90
15= 6h
70'
15=
4m 40s
36"
15=
2.4s
90 70' 36" = 6h 4m 42.4s

## Conversion of Arc to Time

Example:
1) 360
360
95'
45"
360

98' 45"
15 = 24h
15 =
6m 32s
15 =
3s
98' 45" = 24h 6m 35s

2) 210
210
115'
65"
210

115' 65"
15 = 14h
15 =
7m 40s
15 =
4.33s
115' 65" = 14h 7m 44.33s

3) 85 17' 30"
85
15= 5h
17'
15= 41m
30"
15=
10s
85 17' 30" = 5h 41m 10s
4) 38 15' 65"
38
15 = 2h 32m
15'
15 =
1m
65"
15 =
4.33s
38 15' 65" = 2h 33m 4.33s
5) 45 115' 65"
45
15 = 3h
115' 15 =
7m 40s
65"
15 =
4.33s
45 115' 65" = 3h 7m 44.33s

## Example of Conversion from Arc to Time

1) 75 70' 30"
75
15= 5h
70'
15=
4m
30"
15=
24s
75 70' 30" = 5h 4m 24s
2) 235
235
115'
30"
235

115' 30"
15 = 15h
15 =
47m
15 =
42s
115' 30"=15h 47m 42s

3) 95 65' 45"
95
15 = 6h 20m
65'
15 =
4m 16s
45"
15 =
3s
95 65' 45" = 6h 24m 19s
4) 85 36' 15"
85
15 = 5h 40m
36'
15 =
2m 24s

15"
15 =
1s
85 36' 15" = 5h 42m 25s
5) 135
135
65'
30"
135

65' 30"
15 = 9h
15 =
4m 20s
15 =
2s
65' 30"= 9h 4m 22s

## Conversion of Arc to Time

Example:

1) 303
303
55'
30"
303

55' 30"
15 = 20h 12m
15 =
3m 40s
15 =
2s
55' 30" = 20h 15m 42s

2) 15 55' 30"
15
15 = 1h
55'
15 =
3m 40s
30"
15 =
2s
15 55' 30" = 1h 3m 42s
3) 75 45' 3"
75
15
45'
15
3"
15
75 45' 3"

= 5h
=
3m
=
0.2s
= 5h 3m 0.2s

4) 70 19' 7"
70
15 = 5h 40m
19'
15 =
1m 16s
7"
15 =
0.47s
70 19' 7"
= 4h 41m 16.47s

5) 360
360
65'
15"
360

65' 15"
15 = 24h
15 =
4m 20s
15 =
1s
65' 15" = 24h 4m 21s

## Conversion of Arc to Time

Example:
1) 152
152
36'
30"
152

36' 30"
15 = 10h 5m
15 =
2m 24s
15 =
2s
36' 30" = 10h 10m 26s

2) 120
120
45'
15"
120

45' 15"
15 = 8h
15 =
3m
15 =
1s
45' 15" = 8h 3m 1s

3) 405
405
215'
115"
405

215' 115"
15
= 27h
15
=
14h 20s
15
=
7.67s
215' 115" = 27h 14m 27.67s

4) 100
100
55'
15"
100

55' 15"
15 = 6h 40m
15 =
3m 40s
15 =
1s
55' 15" = 6h 43m 41s

5) 25 7' 45"
25
15 = 1h 40m
7'
15 =
28s
45"
15 =
3s
25 7' 45"
= 1h 40m 31s

## To convert time to arc:

1) Multiply the hours by 15 to obtain degrees.
2) Divide the minutes of time by 4 to obtain degrees, and multiply the
remainder by 15 to obtain minutes of arc.
3) Divide the seconds of time by 4 to obtain minutes and multiply the
remainder by 15 to obtain seconds of arc.
4) Add degrees, minutes and seconds of arc.

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

## 15h 36m 32s

34h 27m 12s
20h 15m 42s
10h 9m 18s
3h 50m 32s

Solution:
1) 15h 36m 32s
15h x 15 = 225
36m 4 =
9
32s
4=
8' 0"
15h 36m 32s = 234 8' 0"

## 2) 34h 27m 12s

34h x 15 = 510
27m 4 =
6 45'
12s 4 =
3' 0"
34h 27m 12s = 516 48' 0"
3) 20h 15m 42s

20h x 15 = 300
15m 4 =
3 45'
42s 4 =
10' 30"
20h 15m 42s = 303 55' 30"
4) 10h 9m 18s
10h
x 15 = 150
9m
4 =
2 15'
18s 4 =
4' 30"
10h 9m 18s = 152 19' 30"
5) 3h 50m 32s
3h
x 15 = 45
50m 4 = 12 30'
32s 4 =
8' 0"
3h 50m 32s = 57 38' 0"

## 1) 15h 36m 32s

15h x 15 = 225
36m 4 =
9
32s 4 =
8' 0"
15h 36m 32s = 234 8' 0"

2) 17h 32m 2s
17h x15 = 255
32m 4 =
8
2s
4=
0' 30"
17h 32m 2s = 263 0' 30"
3) 3h 15m 55s
3h
x15 = 45
15m 4 = 3 45'
55s 4 =
13' 45"
3h 15m 55s = 48 58 ' 45"
4) 5h 25m 36s
5h
x15 = 75
25m 4 = 6 15'
36s 4 =
9' 0"
5h 25m 36s = 81 24' 0"
5) 10h 18m 18s
10h x 15 = 150
18m 4 =
4 30'
18s 4 =
4' 30"
10h 18m 18s = 154 34' 30"

## Convert the following from Time to Arc

1) 6h 27m 41s
6h
x15 = 90
27m 4 = 6 45'
41s 4 =
10' 15"
6h 27m 41s = 96 55' 15"
2) 8h 32m 24s
8
x 15 = 120
32m 4 =
8
24s 4 =
6' 0"
8h 32m 24s = 128 6' 0"
3) 3h 12m 28s
3h
x15 = 45
12m 4 = 3
28s 4 =
7' 0"
3h 12m 28s = 48 7' 0"
4) 9h 4m 96s
9h
x 15 = 135
4m
4 =
1
96s 4 =
24' 0"
9h 4m 96s = 136 24' 0"
5) 10h 32m 16s
10h x 15 = 150
32m 4 =
8
16s 4 =
4' 0"
10h 32m 16s = 158 4' 0"

## Example of Conversion from Time to Arc

1) 1h 2m 10s
1h
x 15 = 15
2m
4 = 0 30'
10s
4 =
2' 30"
1h 2m 10s = 15 32' 30"

2) 2h 4m 24s
2h
x 15 = 30
4m
4 = 1
24s
4=
6' 0"
2h 4m 24s = 31 6' 0"
3) 10h 16m 32s
10h
x 15 = 150
16m
4=
4
32s
4=
8' 0"
10h 16m 32s = 154 8' 0"
4) 20h 28m 36s
20h x 15 = 300
28m
4=
7
36s
4=
9' 0"
20h 28m 36s = 307 9' 0"
5) 10h 20m 40s
10h x 15 = 150
20m
4=
5
40s
4=
10' 0"
10h 20m 40s = 155 10' 0"

## Conversion from Time to Arc

Example:

1) 7h 36m 16s
7h
x 15 = 105
36m 4 =
9
16s
4=
4' 0"
7h 36m 16s = 114 4' 0"
2) 5h 20m 28s
5h
x 15 = 75
20m 4 = 5
28s
4=
7' 0"
5h 20m 28s = 80 7' 0"
3) 11h 12m 4s
11h
x 15 = 165
12m
4=
3
4s
4=
1' 0"
11h 12m 4s = 168 1' 0"
4) 16h 4m
16m
4m
8s
16h 4m
5) 9h 8m
9h
8m
42s
9h 8m

8s
x 15 = 240
4=
1
4=
2' 0"
8s = 241 2' 0 "

42s
x 15 = 135
4=
2
4=
10' 30"
42s = 137 10' 30"

## Conversion Example from Time to Arc:

1) 6h 14m 8s
6h
x 15 = 90
14m 4 = 3 30'
8s
4=
2' 0"
6h 14m 8s = 93 32' 0"
2) 12h 16m 32s
12h
x 15 = 180
16m

4=
4
32s

4=
8' 0"
12h 16m 32s = 184 8' 0"
3) 2h 24m 32s
2h
x 15 = 30
24m
4 = 6
32s
4=
8' 0"
2h 24m 32s = 36 8' 0"
4) 8h 3m 16s
8h
x 15 = 120
3m
4=
0 45'
16s
4=
4' 0"
8h 3m 16s = 120 49' 0"
5) 5h 25m 32s
5h
x15 = 75
25m
4 = 6 15'
32s
4=
8' 0"
5h 25m 32s = 81 23' 0"

1) 24h 48m 8s
24h
x 15 = 360
48m
4 = 12
8s
4=
2' 0"
24h 48m 8s = 372 2' 0"
2) 2h 4m 24s
2h
x 15 = 30
4m
4 = 1
24s
4=
6' 0"
2h 4m 24s = 31 6' 0"
3) 6h 36m 8s
6h
x 15 = 90
36m 4 = 9
8s
4=
2' 0"
6h 36m 8s = 99 2' 0"
4) 14h 32m 28s
14h
x 15 = 210
32m
4 = 8
28s
4 =
7' 0"
14h 32m 28s = 218 7' 0"
5) 3h 27m 16s
3h
x 15 = 45
27m
4 = 6 45'
165
4=
4' 0"
3h 27m 16s = 51 49' 0"

## Local Time and Dates of two places

The difference in times and dates at two places is equal to their difference of
longitude expressed in time.

Example 1.
The Longitude of which is 615 36' E , place A , the LMT and date is
15h 25m 36s Nov. 8. Find the LMT of B, the longitude of which is 310 30'.

## Long of A = 615 36' E

Long of B = 310 30' E
DLo = 305 6' W
DLo in time = 20h 20m 24s
LMT of A = +15h 25m 36s
LMT of B = 35h 45m 60s Nov 3
= -24
+1
LMT of B = 11h 45m 60s Nov 4

Example 2.
LMT of A = 15h 25m 36s

of A = 41h 2m 24s
GMT = 56h 27m 60s Nov. 3
= -24
+1
GMT & Date = 32h 27m 60s Nov 4
of B (in time) = 20h 42m 0s
LMT & Date of B = 11h 45m 60s Nov. 4
Example 3.
Long of A = 230 65'
Long of B = 15 32'
215 33'
DLo (in time) = 14h 22m 12s
LMT of A
= +15h 36m 32s
LMT of B
29h 58m 44s
-24
+1
LMT of B
= 5h 58m 44s
Example 4.
LMT of A = 15h 36m 32s
of A
= 15h 24m 20s
GMT
= 30h 10m 52s Nov 8
= -24
+1
GMT & Date
= 06h 60m 52s Nov. 9
of B (in time) = 01h 02m 08s
LMT & Date of B = 5h 58m 44s
Example 5.
Long A = 510 56' E
B = 280 16' E
DLo
= 230 40 W
DLo (in time) = 15h 22m 40s
LMT of A
= 12h 16m 20s
LMT of B
= 27h 38m 60s Dec 8
= - 24
+1
LMT of B
= 3h 38m 60s Dec 9
Example 1.
LMT of A
= 12h 16m 20s
of A (in time) = 34h 3m 44s
GMT
= 56h 19m 64s Dec 8
= -24
+1
GMT & Date
= 32h 19m 64s Dec 9
of B in time
= 18h 4m 04s
3h 38m 60s Dec 9
Example 2.

Long A
Long B
DLo
DLo (in time)
LMT of A
=
LMT of B
=
=
LMT of B
=

= 342 68' W
= 190 16' W
= 152 52' E
= 10h 11m 28s
18h 11m 10s
28h 22m 38s Jan 7
-24
+1
4h 22m 38s Jan 8

Example 3.
LMT of A
= 18h 11m 10s
of A (in time)
= 22h 52m 32s
GMT
= 40h 63m 42s Jan 7
= -24
+1
GMT & Date = 16h 63m42s Jan 8
of B (in time)
= 12h 41m 4s
LMT & Date = 4h 22m 38s Jan 8
Example 4.
Long A
Long B
DLo
DLo in time
LMT of A
LMT of B
LMT of B

=
=
=
=
=
=

= 420 48' W
= 300 16' W
120 32 E
8h 2m 8s
16h 13m 48s
24h 15m 56s July 6
-24
+1
0h 15m 56s July 7

Example 5.
LMT of A
= 16h 13m 48s
of A (in time)
= 28h 3m 12s
GMT
= 44h 16m 60s July 6
= -24
+1
GMT & Date = 20h 16m 60s July 7
of B (in time)
= 20h 1m 4s
0h 15m 56s July 7
Example 6.
Long of A
Long of B
DLo
DLo in time
LMT of A
LMT of B
LMT of B

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

268 50'
138 23'
130 27'
8h 41m 48s
20h 16m 30s
28h 58m 18s Feb 2
-24
+1
4h 57m 18s Feb 3

Example 7.
LMT of A
= 20h 16m 30s
of A (in time)
= 17h 55m 20s
GMT
= 37h 71m 50s Feb 2
= -24h
+1
GMT & Date = 13h 71m 50s Feb 3
of b (in time)
= 9h 13m 32s
4h 58m 18s
Example 8.
Long of A
Long of B
DLo
DLo in time
LMT of A
LMT of B

=
=
=
=
=
=

175 10.5 W
32 08.0 W
143 02.5 E
9h 32m 10s E
16h 02m 03s Dec 3
25h 34m 13s Dec 3
-24h
+1
LMT & Date of B= 01h 34m 13s Dec 4

Example 9.
LMT of A
= 16h 02m 03s Dec 3
of A
= 11h 40m 42s
GMT
= 27h 42m 45s Dec 3
- 24h
+1
GMT & Date = 03h 42m 45s Dec 4
of B (in time)
= 02h 08m 32s
LMT & Date of B= 01h 34m 13s Dec 4
Example 10.
Long of A
= 180 01' 10" W
Long of B
= 100 59' 59" W
DLo
= 79 01' 11" E
DLo (in time)=
5h 16m 4.73s
LMT of A
= 21h 09m
Sept 08
LMT of B
= 26h 25m 4.73s Sept 08
- 24h
+1
LMT & Date of B= 02h 25m 4.73s Sept 09
Example 11.
LMT of A
= 21 09' Sept 08
of A (in time)
= 12 0' 4.67"
GMT
= 33h 09m 4.67s Sept 08
- 24h
+1
GMT & Date = 9h 09m 4.67s Sept 09
of B
= 6h 43m 59.93s
LMT & Date of B= 02h 25m 4.73s Sept 09
Example 12.
Long of A
= 143 47' W
Long of B
= 57 36' W
DLo
= 86 11' E
DLo (in time)= 5h 44m 44s
LMT of A
= 24h 00m 00s April 27
LMT of B
= 29h 44m 44s April 27
- 24h
+ 1
LMT & Date of B= 05h 44m 44s April 28

Example 13.
LMT of A
= 24h 00m 00s April 27
of A (in time)
= 9h 35m 08s
GMT
= 33h 35m 08s April 27
- 24h
+1
GMT & Date = 9h 35m 08s April 28
of B (in time)
= 3h 50m 24s
LMT & Date of B= 05h 44m 44s April 28
Example 14
Long of A
= 201 48' W
Long of B
= 157 24' W
DLo
= 44 24' E
DLo (in time)= 2h 57m 36s E
LMT of A
= 23h 50m 00s June 16
LMT of B
= 26h 47m 36s June 16
- 24h
+1
LMT & Date of B= 02h 47m 36s June 17

## GMT AND ZONE TIME

In converting ZT to GMT it must be remembered that the ZD is the
number of whole hours that are to be added to or subtracted from ZT to
obtain GMT and that, the plus or minus sign prefixed to the ZD indicates
whether they are to be added to or subtracted respectively from the ZT.
Example:
1) The ZT at longitude 140 65' W is 15h 19m 68s what is the GMT?
Solution:
ZT
= 15h 19m 68s
+9ZD = +9h
GMT = 24h 19m 68s
2) The ZT at longitude 188 6' 2" E is 9h 24m 30s. What is the GMT?
ZT
= 9h 24m 30s
+13ZD
= 13h
GMT = 22h 24m 30s
3) The ZT at longitude of 160 18' E is 19h 10m 30s. What is the GMT?
ZT
= 19h 10m 30s
+ZD = 11h
GMT = 30h 10m 30s
4) The ZT at longitude of 250 68' W is 10h 16m 15s. What is the GMT?
ZT
= 10h 16m 15s
+ZD = 17h
GMT = 27h 16m 15s
5) The ZT at longitude of 250 133' 5" is 13h 17m 10s. What is the GMT?
ZT
= 13h 17m 10s
+ZD = 17h
GMT = 30h 17m 10s

Example of ZT to GMT
1) The ZT at longitude of 24 30 E is 10h 20m 3s. What is the GMT?
ZT
= 10h 20m 3s
+ZD
= 1h
GMT
= 11h 20m 3s
2) The ZT at longitude of 50 36 E is 16h 13m 10s. What is the GMT?
ZT
= 16h 13m 10s
+ZD
= 3h
GMT
= 19h 13m 10s
3) The ZT at longitude of 38 18 W is 15h 16m 8s. What is the GMT?
ZT
= 15h 16m 8s
+ZD
= 3h
GMT
= 18h 16m 8s
4) The ZT at longitude of 78 58 E is 16h 10m 2s. What is the GMT?
ZT
= 16h 10m 2s
+ZD
= 5h
GMT
= 21h 10m 2s
5) The ZT at longitude of 88 65 E is 21h 18m 3s. What is the GMT?
ZT
= 21h 18m 3s
+ZD
= 6h
GMT
= 27h 18m 3s
6) The ZT at longitude of 49 36 E is 24h 16m 5s. What is the GMT?
ZT
= 24h 16m 5s
+ZD
= 3h
GMT
= 27h 16m 5s
7) The ZT at longitude of 55 48 W is 9h 18m 12s. What is the GMT?
ZT
= 9h 18m 12s
+ZD
= 4h
GMT
=13h 18m 12s
8) The ZT at longitude of 75 39 E is 26h 36m 09s. What is the GMT?
ZT
= 26h 36m 09s
+ZD
= 5h
GMT
= 31h 36m 09s

## 9) The ZT at longitude of 99 60 E is 12h 36m 20s. What is the GMT?

ZT
= 12h 36m 20s
+ZD
= 7h
GMT
= 19h 36m 20s
10)
The ZT at longitude of 45 68 W is 22h 30m 16s. What is the
GMT?
ZT
= 22h 30m 16s
+ZD
= 3h
GMT
= 25h 30m 16s
11)
The ZT at longitude of 36 26 W is 6h 43m 41s. What is the GMT?
ZT
= 6h 43m 41s
+ZD
= 2h
GMT
= 8h 43m 41s
12)
The ZT at longitude of 25 7 E is 25h 7m 45s. What is the GMT?
ZT
= 25h 7m 45s
+ZD
= 2h
GMT
= 27h 7m 45s
13)

## The ZT at longitude of 100 55 E is 8h 3m 1s. What is the GMT?

ZT
+ZD
GMT

= 8h 3m 1s
= 7h
=15h 3m 1s

GMT TO ZT
In converting GMT to ZT, a positive ZD is subtracted, and a negative
one added, but its sign the same being part of the description.
Example:
1) The GMT is 16h 23m 05s. What is ZT at longitude 156 24' 3" W
Solution:
GMT = 16h 23m 05s
+10ZD
= (-) 10h
ZT
= 6h 23m 05s
2) The GMT is 10h 30m 24s. What is ZT at longitude 95 60' 10" W
Solution:
GMT = 10h 30m 24s
+6ZD = (-) 6h
ZT
= 4h 30m 24s
3) The GMT is 9h 48m 16s. What is ZT at longitude 130 24' 18" E
Solution:
GMT = 9h 48m 16s
+9ZD = (-) 9h
ZT
= 0h 48m 16s
4) The GMT is 12h 16m 39s. What is ZT at longitude 99 55' 20" W
Solution:
GMT = 12h 16m 39s
+7ZD = (-) 7h
ZT
= 5h 16m 39s
5) The GMT is 24h 0m 0s. What is ZT at longitude 60 5' 25" E
GMT = 24h 0m 0s
+4ZD = (-) 4h
ZT
= 20h 0m 0s
6) The GMT is 15h 20m 13s. What is ZT at longitude 60 60' 50"
GMT = 15h 20m 13s
+4ZD = (-) 4h
ZT
= 11h 20m 13s
7) The GMT is 18h 6m 15s. What is ZT at longitude 93 14' 24"
GMT = 18h 6m 15s
+6ZD = (-) 6h
ZT
= 12h 6m 15s
8) The GMT is 15h 12m 2s. What is ZT at longitude 48 24' 36"
GMT = 15h 12m 2s
+3ZD = (-) 3h
ZT
= 12h 12m 2s
9) The GMT is 13h 09m 18s. What is ZT at longitude 58 60' 45"
GMT = 13h 09m 18s
+4ZD = (-) 4h

ZT
10)

= 9h 09m 18s

## The GMT is 14h 16m 20s. What is ZT at longitude 38 60' 58"

GMT = 14h 16m 20s
+3ZD = (-) 3
ZT
= 11h 16m 20s

## Conversion from ZT to Another ZT

When it is necessary to determine the ZT of a place in certain
longitude corresponding to the ZT of another place in another longitude,
convert first the given ZT to GMT and then apply to the GMT the ZD of the
other place with the sign reversed.

Example No 1
At longitude (A) 59 30' W the ZT is 1200. What is the ZT at B longitude 83
30' W?
Solution:
ZT of A
= 1200
+4 ZD = 4
GMT = 1600
+6 ZD = (-)6
ZT of B
= 1000
Example No 2
At longitude (A) 30 24' W the ZT is 1214. What is the ZT at B longitude 68
45' W?
Solution:
ZT of A
= 1214
+2 ZD = 2
GMT = 1414
+ ZD = (-) 5
ZT of B
= 0914
Example No 3
At place whose longitude is 73 29.2' W, the ZT is 20h 15m 43s or May 18.
What is the ZT at place B where longitude is 119 17' 5" W?
Solution:
ZT of A
= 20h 15m 43s May 18
+5 ZD = +5
GMT = 25h 15m 43s May 18
+8 ZD = -8
ZT of B
= 17h 15m 43s May 18
Example No 4
At place whose longitude is 93 20' E, the ZT is 18h 15m 12s on Nov 8. What
is the ZT and date at place B whose longitude is 100 27' 30s.
Solution:
ZT of A
= 18h 15m 12s Nov 8
+6 ZD = 6h
GMT = 24h 15m 12s Nov 8
+7 ZD = -7h
ZT of B
= 17h 15m 12s Nov 8

Example No 5
The ship is leaving Australia in the 10ZD at noon of Dec. 4 for the Philippines
in 10ZD, estimates that 15 days and 24 hours will be needed to make the
trip. At what ZT and date will she arrive in the Philippines.
Solution:
ZT of Departure
= Dec 4, 12h 00m 00s
+ZD
= +10h
GMT of departure = Dec 4; 22h 00m 00s
Steaming time interval
=
15d; 24h
GMT of Arrival at
Dec 19; 46h 00m 00s
Philippines
= +1 -24
Dec 20, 22h 00m 00s
-10 ZD
= Dec 20, +10
ZT of Arrival at
=
32h 00m 00s
Philippines
+1
-24h
ZT of Arrival at
Dec 21
8h 00m 00s
Philippines

## Zone Description (ZD) = The ZD indicates the number of hours to be added

to or subtracted from the ZT to find GMT
Central Meridian is a meridian whose longitude is exactly divisible by 15.
Example of finding Zone description
1) 130 E 15 = 8 40' 0"
or
ZD = -9E
2) 136 W 15 = 9 4' 0"
or
ZD = 9W
3) 68 W 15 = 4 32'
or
ZD = 5W
4) 75 E 15
ZD

= 5 0'
or
= -5 E

5) 115 W 15 = 7 40 '
or
ZD = 8W

## A. The common sources of error extant sights are:

The sextant may not be rocked properly. Tangency may not be,
judged accurately.
A false horizon may have been used.
Subnormal refraction (dip) might be present.
The height of eye may be wrong.

## Time might be in error.

The index correction may have been determined incorrectly.
The sextant might be out of adjustment.
An error may have been made in the computation.
B. Define the ff. Sextant Altitude Corrections
1.) Sextant Altitude (HS) must be corrected for errors of the
instrument and observer, and other corrections depending on the
celestial body being observed.
2.) Observed Altitude (Ho) is the Hs value corrected to read as though
the altitude had been measured with reference to the celestial
horizon at the earths center, on a perpendicular plane passing
through the observers zenith and the body.
3.) Index Error of the sextant which is subtracted from the Hs if on
the arc and added if off o the arc.
4.) Height of Eye (dip) This is the depression of the visible horizon.
5.) Refraction is the angle through which a ray of light is deflected in
passing through the atmosphere to the eye of the observer.
6.) Semi - diameter correction The altitude of a bodys center above
the rational horizon is the quantity in navigational calculation.
7.) Parallax Correction of the moon is the parallax corresponding to
its altitude at the time of observation.
8.) Horizontal Parallax (HP) of the moon is the parallax corresponding
to its altitude at the time of observation.
9.) Parallax in Altitude angle ZXE is the parallax for apparent altitude
XZM.

## Taking Sextant Altitude of Celestial Bodies

A. Sun Sights
The expression taking a sight generally means sighting a celestial
body for a sextant altitude with the purpose of establishing a sextant
altitude with the purpose of establishing a celestial line of position

(LOP). Sun sights therefore means taking the sextant altitude of the
sun.
B. Moon Sights
Sights of the moon are best made during either daylight hours or that
part of twilight in which the moon is less luminous.
C. 3 Methods or Steps of takin sextant altitude of star and planet sights
1) Set the index arm and micrometer drum on 0 and direct the line of
sight at the body to be observed
2) This is reverse of method No. 1. Instead of bringing the body down
to the horizon, bring the horizon up to the body.
3) Predict in advance the approximate altitude and azimuth of the
body by a star finder or by used of sight reduction table.

## 3 Steps in Reading a Micrometer drum sextant

First Step: Read the degrees by noting the position of the arrow on the index
arm in relation to the graduation on the arc.
Second Step: Read the minutes lay noting the position of the zero mark on
the Vernier* in the relation to the graduations on the micrometer drum.

Third Step: Read the fraction of the minutes by noting which mark on the
Vernier most nearly coincides with one of the graduations on the micrometer
drum.

## Reading On and Off the arc

One must remember that the smallest

## 1) The Classification of Sextant Errors

1) The non-adjustable error are:
Centering Errors. This is an eccentric error due to failure
to pivot the index arm exactly at the curvature of the
limb.
Prismatic Error. Prismatic error of the mirrors and shade
glasses due to lack of parallelism of the two faces, or their
non-perpendicularly to the limb.
Graduation Error. This is the error in graduation. Either the
limb or micrometer drum may have a slight imperfection
2) The adjustible errors are

## Perpendicularity error. The index mirror must be

perpendicular to the frame of the sextant.
Side error. An error resulting from the horizon glass being
parallel to the plane of the sextant.
Collimation error. An error resulting from the line of sight
through the telescope not being parallel to the plane of
the sextant.
Index error. This error remaining after the perpendicularity
error the side error and the collimation error has been
removed.

## 2) Reading the sextant

Reading a micrometer drum sextant is done in three steps.
First Step: Read the degrees by noting the position of the arrow on
the index arm in relation to the graduation on the arc.
Second Step: Read the minutes by noting the position of the zero
mark on the Vernier* in relation to the graduations on the
micrometer drum.
Third Step: Read the fraction of the minute by noting which mark on
the Vernier most nearly coincides with one of the graduations on
the micrometer drum.

## Define the following

Frame, on which the other parts are mounted. The frame is normally
made of brass, but some lightweight models are of aluminum alloy.
Limb is the lower part of the frame and carries the arc which is
Index arm - is pivoted at the center of the curvature of the arc and is
free to move around it.
Micrometer drum is used to make fine adjustment of the index arm.

## Tangent Screw It is mounted on a shaft, having a pinion gear at the

other end.
Clamping lever or release lever are spring loaded clamps that hold
the tangent screw against the teeth of the limb.
Index Mirror - is mounted or the upper end of the index arm directly
over its pivot point.
Horizon Glass is mounted on the frame.
Telescope is mounted with its axis parallel to the plane of the frame.
Index shade glasses - are of optically ground glass mounted
perpendicular to the arc, and are pivoted so that they can be swing
into or out of line of sight between the index and the horizon mirror.
Horizon shade glasses are similar to the index shades, but of lesser
density and serve to reduce the glare of the reflected sunlight on the
horizon.
Handle usually of wood or plastic, is mounted on the frame at a
location and angle for good balance and easy grip w/ right hand.
Vernier is a small movable graduated scale for obtaining fractional
parts of subdivision on a fixed scale.

## Definition of the following

1) Sextant is hand-held instrument that measures the angle between
two points by bringing the direct ray from one point and doublereflected ray from the other into coincidence.
2) Optical Principle Governing the construction of the sextant
The construction of the sextant is based on the following laws of optics.

## When a ray of light strikes a plane mirror, the angle of incidence

is equal to the angle of reflection.
The incident ray and the reflected ray arc in the same plane
which is perpendicular to the plane of the reflecting surface.
When a ray of light is reflected twice by two plane mirrors, the
angle formed by the first and the last directions of the ray is
equal of twice the angle formed by the plane of the two mirrors