CHAPTER I The Problem and Its Background

INTRODUCTION

Broadcasting has been a key ideological and avant-garde tool for helping the Filipino Children when it comes to mass education. Through years, the media is continuously working on providing not only the information and entertainment but most of all changing lives. The media uphold its commitment for educating the masses as it is stipulated in Broadcast Media Council (BMC) and Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster ng Pilipinas (KBP), moreover from the Philippine Constitution’s provisions. Broadcasting as a tool for education is undeniably efficient and effective especially when the medium television is being used. It has both visual and audal medium which made television at ease to capture the attentions of the young audiences. Thus, the idea of Educational Television has made its legacy to the Philippine History of Broadcasting as well as in the History of Educational Development. Educational Television is produced TV program formats which aim to educate certain target audience accord to a specified information and goal directives. Sometimes instructions, descriptions, narrations and expositions were used for the effectiveness of the program. Here in the Philippines, there are many ETV programs produced in different free TV stations; Sineskwela Math-tinik, Pahina, Epol Apple, Matanglawin (ABS-CBN);
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Batang Bibo, Lovely Day (GMA 7). It discerns that Philippine Broadcasting made an effort and concerns on responsible broadcasting. Here, the ETV programs follow a curriculum for subject topics and uses a “media mechanized” way of teaching the lessons. The program considers the demographics (age, location, income of the family) and psychographics (viewing habits, viewing motivations). The intellectual statuses were also considered to know if the audience could understand the depictions and intricacies of lessons being discussed in the ETV program. Consultations from education professionals were conducted to assure if the program is “child friendly” and effective tool for learning the specified subject sphere. In local setting, ETV programs focuses on the subjects like Science and Technology, Health, English and Mathematics. Moreover, it is not just merely explaining concepts, rules and theories the programs also promote essential cultural and ethical values which made ETV an excellent way of teaching. The ETV programs also received recognition from the Department of Education and Anak TV seal, the accreditation means the credibility of the programs. The advent of changes in technology which brings out new interests for children was a new challenge to the Educational Broadcasting Industry. The birth of mp3 players, PSP and other game consoles and social networking services is one of the constraints of teaching the young audience. The insufficient budget and attention for ETV programs was also an issue. Before blaming to it, the main issue is that, Do ETV programs could adjust and adapt to the new trends of media technology? Do the changes on curriculum
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could adapt to it? Do the students and the teachers needs were met on the ETV programs? What are the possible innovations have to make to produce to upgrade the ebbing education of Filipino children? This research will focus on the efficiency and affectivity of the ETV programs. It will answer the needs of the students and teachers for a specific educational program. The problems were the subjects to be taught, the curriculum basis, the strategies, the values, the entertainment aspect and lastly the impact or change of such program to the learning of the students. It is a good focus of research since nowadays the technologies and economic crisis is a big agent that hinders the learning of the students in Academics. Education is a fundamental need of a citizen to achieve the affluent life and help the economic growth of the country. Media, as a responsible institution for educating the masses should exert time, money and effort for doing quality programs for children. Here the research will provide a standard on what should an ETV programs cater to the growing and ever changing mass audience. The research will yield results that will give a status or idea that will reveal interventions for next generation media education. This will evaluate the educational television programs as basis for broadcast program development.

Statement of the Problems:

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An evaluative analysis of identified Educational Television Programs according to perceived needs as basis for Broadcast program Development has the following problems that will be answered at the end of the study.
1. What is the student’s background on patronizing ETV programs?

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Number of student’s watching ETV. Number of students with family members watching ETV program. Age the students started watching ETV program. Network they subscribe ETV program. ETV programs they have been patronizing.

2. What are the needs of the students and teachers that have to be sufficed by educational television programs in terms of; media innovations, subjects, values, and entertainment? 3. What is the current performance assessment of the students for the use of ETV program? Hypotheses: 1. There is no viewership profile of the students, thus they are not watching any of available ETV programs.

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2. The educational television programs do not suffice the need for innovations in

media technologies. Subjects to be focus must not be prioritized by ETV programs. Values in aspect of social, cultural, family and personal doesn’t need to be inculcated. Furthermore, entertainment value of such programs is not necessary for building effectiveness of the program.
3. The students who watch the identified ETV programs don’t show any recognition

to the program’s contributions. Significance of the Study The evaluative analysis for Educational television programs will help the researchers to find out what are the aspects to be improved or innovate to create an informative and effective television program. The researchers will discover the interrelated and interdependent factors use to analyze the scrutiny of variables of the study. To the future students of the researcher’s course, broadcast communication. The evaluative analysis study will scrutinize the plans of implementing and producing educational television program. It will help the students of the course to be aware and learn how to evaluate a television program. It will help them to be critical on analyzing factors and interpret the data. Moreover, it will be a starting point for initiating development in mass communication as part of responsible broadcasting in the near future. The study will also provide a ready material for future researchers relates to the topic. To the community and the country, nowadays, educational programs were current concern of responsible broadcasting in the Philippines. Programs that promote academic
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progress and cultural values were used by the media as a tool for educating the children. Nowadays, recession, insufficient teachers, school equipments, books and other deficiencies hinder the effective learning for the elementary students especially students in the elementary level. Media as institution and as it uphold its commitment to promote education and public welfare needs to do a response on it. Any results from the research will help to conceptualize possible change suitable for educational television programs.

Scope and Limitations The study will utilize 12 identified Educational TV programs from the identified VHF channels specifically, GMA7, ABS-CBN and QTV 11. The research will be guided by a needs analysis survey guide. It will also conduct a descriptive survey to 20 education students and 20 broadcast communication students. The respondent will be selected through stratified purposive sampling and the study will take 3 months, 2nd semester, 2010-2010. UE-CAS and UE-CED students will be the subject of the study.

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Conceptual Framework

Educational Television Programs

Needs Analysis Survey Guide according to Avillanoza, 2000

Evaluative Analysis

Subjects English, Mathemati cs, Science and Technolog y. History, Social Sciences Values Culture Filipino Values

Entertainm ent Audiovisual Executiona l device Content quality

Television Program Developmen t

Fig 1.1 Paradigm for Needs analysis of ETV Program The evaluative analysis for ETV programs will use this paradigm to identify the needs for the three major criteria for evaluating an ETV program. The needs specified on the diagram will modify the focus of the study. The researchers have clustered three aspects of the needs in broadcast program; subjects (prescribed by the DepEd and the station itself); values education which can be found on each episode to promote Filipino culture; the entertainment value as a motivation for its audience. The paradigm will help the researchers to scrutinize and analyze main problem and what could be its corresponding solutions.

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Independent Variable ETV program

Intervening Variable Student’s viewership profile, needs of the student from the program

Dependent Variable Program Content

The researchers considered scrutinizing the three variables for the study. ETV programs as the independent variable has the intervening variable which affects the ETV program. The dependent variable which is the program content as the needs of the students change, or the demands of the student’s towards ETV program changes. This concept treatment will help the researchers to further analyze the evaluation that will come out at the end of the study.

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Theoretical Framework
Outputs Activities Participation Inputs

Outcomes – Impact Short term Long term Medium term

Current Situation s Priorities

What are things to invest?

What do we do?

Our target audien ce

Short Term Learni ng

Mediu m Term Action

Long Term Conditi ons

Assumptions
Evaluation

External factors

Focus – Collect Data – Analyze and Interpret – Report

Fig 1.2 Program Action – (Input – Output Analysis) The researchers will utilize the paradigm of association evaluation or the input – output analysis and its impact or results. This framework has a design which effectively summarizes the process of evaluation of ETV programs. First, the researchers will identify current issues of ETV programs. Then, the current issues will initialize certain methods or inputs to be used followed by actions using tools and modifying its target audiences or respondents. Subsequently, the research outcomes will be modified and analyzed according to the levels of its effects. Lastly, results will be reported. The steps followed from Program – Action Model is transparent to the conceptual framework of the researchers.
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Definition of Terms Broadcast network is an organization, such as a corporation or other association, that provides live or recorded content, such as movies, newscasts, sports, and public affairs programs for broadcast over a group of radio or television stations. Cable channel is a television channel available via cable television. Such channels are usually also available via satellite television. Alternative terms include non-broadcast channel or programming service, the latter being mainly used in legal contexts. Closed circuit educational television Any application of educational television that does not involve broadcasting for public viewing; the programs can be seen only on specified receivers connected to the television camera by circuits, which include microwave relays and coaxial cables. Curriculum: A program of courses that meets the requirements for a degree in a particular field of study, also referred to as a major. Educational television is the use of television programs in the field of education. It may be in the form of individual programs or a dedicated television channel. Example: children’s TV series.

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Educational TV stations are television stations that are dedicated to giving information in an entertaining but still educational way. General Education (GE): A program of courses in the arts and sciences that provides students with a broad educational experience. Courses typically are introductory in nature and provide students with fundamental skills and knowledge in mathematics, English, arts, humanities, and physical, biological, and social sciences. Instructional television (ITV) is a type of television program that is designed for use in schools. Programs on instructional television may be less than one half hour long to help their integration into the classroom setting. These shows are often accompanied by teachers' guides that include material to help use this program in lessons. Open circuit educational television usage of public channels of educational television to reach large audiences and different people. Program content The content of television programs may be factual, as in documentaries, news, and reality television, or fictional as in comedy and drama. They could be primarily instructional, the intention of educational programming, or entertaining as is the case in situation comedy, reality TV, or game shows, or for income as advertisements.

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Program format is a license to produce and to broadcast a national version of a copyrighted foreign television program and to use its name. Formats are a major part of the international television market. Programming is the designing, scheduling, or planning of a program, as in broadcasting. Public affairs program, a broadcasting industry term, refers to TV programming which focuses on matters of politics and public policy. Public Service Broadcasting (PSB) is broadcasting made, financed and controlled by the public, for the public. It is neither a commercial nor a state-owned, both free from political interference and pressure from commercial forces. State Network in broadcasting industry is a term which refers to a miniature network of television stations serving an entire state or multiple states. UHF - The Ultra High Frequency spectrum is everything from 300 megahertz to 3.0 gigahertz. One of the bands within this spectrum is the TV UHF band, which goes from 470 megahertz (channel 14) to 806 megahertz (channel 69). Each of these stations occupies 6 megahertz of that spectrum. VHF - The Very High Frequency spectrum is everything from 30 megahertz to 300 megahertz. It is divided into many bands for different purposes (police, fire, aircraft, etc.)

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CHAPTER II Review of Related Literature and Study This chapter includes different literature and studies local and foreign. Each of the research gathered were selected according to its relevance to the researcher’s study. This chapter consists of facts needed by the researcher to support the study. FOREIGN LITERATURE Television is distinctive in its universal reach. No other medium can transport us simultaneously to the scene of action anywhere on earth… Television is distinctive also as a new language, a new art-in-the-making with extraordinary power to quicken the senses and focus the mind on reality (Siepmann, 1964). He connotes that television can educate everyone to an understanding of what one educational philosopher called the insistent present. The concept of public-service broadcasting in the United States has had an interesting history, which reflects both the concept and the execution of public service in
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government and industry. This has been also a history of how unique a relationship among broadcasters, advertisers, the federal government, and its agencies which has been worked out. Public-service broadcasting responds to indefinite demand that the interest of the public should be considered by all broadcasters, commercial and noncommercial the like. On commercial television channels today, public-service broadcasting represents one phase of serious television service offered either locally or via a network. Various stations have responded to the needs of their communities in different ways. Determination of exactly when these programs were to be presented and in what proportion to the total number of televised programs are issues faced by the earlier years of ETV. Types of programs Public-service programs may be sponsored (paid for by the sale of the commercial announcements) or sustaining (carried by a network or station out of its own funds). Commercial public-service programs are another matter. Although most of the time they are broadcast during Sundays or at hours before and after the “prime” evening time during the week because of the reason that their participating advertisers want some assurance of large viewing audience and mostly it is produced with healthy budgets.
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The most common seen type of public-service program in commercial channels consists of news or public affairs and may or may not be sponsored. The general lack of precision in defining exactly what kind of programs carried on commercial channels is indeed a public service or educational may in itself be a healthy state of affairs, as far as the educational function of commercial station is concerned. One of the major aims of most of these stations is to provide public-service broadcasts as these have been defined. This programming constitutes one important rationale for the encouragement of these stations by both government and the large private foundations for the reason that they were supposed to “fill the gaps” in broadly educational programming which commercial outlets will not provide. Various systems have been devised for pooling the resources of the educational stations in the United States and elsewhere. National Educational Television and Radio Center, that have its headquarters in New York, offices Washington, and a distribution center in Ann Arbor, Michigan--- these institution plays an important role in distributing instructional as well as public-service programs to educational stations. : Public-affairs programs, children’s programs, discussions of controversial issues and the like. The National Association of Educational Broadcasters, located in Washington, D.C., and Urbana, Illinois, another organization, also distributes taped programs. As of 1964, more than eighty agencies in the United States, including certain educational
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broadcasting materials are for rental, at various rates, to noncommercial television stations.

NETWORKS AND PROGRAM CONTENT 1. National news and news analysis 2. Discussion, debates and panels 3. The fine arts 4. The lively arts 5. Travel and international television 6. The world of the natural and behavioral sciences 7. Programming for young people

Public-service broadcasting has been an integral part of American radio and television for many years. No one can calculate its effects with precision. In fact during

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World War II, television and radio was used for the public-service “spot” announcements for community welfare.

A carefully constructed research volume has drawn the following curious hypothesis towards the American’s public feeling towards serious, non-formal educational television of all types. First, twice as many people prefer “light” entertainment such as comedy, game shows, domestic play lets and the likes, as prefer “heavy” entertainment which consists of serious dramas, ballet, opera, and so on. Even the college-educated viewers select such programs a mere 9 percent of the time when serious programming competes with entertainment.

The over-all effects of public-service telecasts, therefore, are likely negligible, despite the well-meaning claims concerning their importance to the communities they serve. The reasons appear to run something like this: few people watch public-service educational broadcasts on commercial channels because most people prefer light entertainment; light entertainment is given by them the most professional productions, high-end budgets, and the prime time of the day. On the other side, public-service programs were only given low budgets and sloppy productions, and presented at odd and inconvenient hours.
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The fact remains that most public-service programs on commercial channels probably do not affect the thinking of more than a small minority of the viewers served by any television station and they affect the behavior and even the smaller number.

On the other hand, the effects of public-service broadcasting on educational channels are entirely different from those on commercial stations, because of the reason that their aims and methods of operation are so different. According to Wilbur Schramm that it is quite probable that, whatever the effects of educational television’s public-service programs, they are more extensive in each individual community than the size of the audience would lead one to suspect.

The audiences for educational television are relatively small and public-service broadcasting takes an uncomfortable second place in competition with commercial broadcasting. Parting to the topic is that Wilbur Schramm observes that children in the United States are trained to think of television as a form of entertainment, and to reserve the very notion of education and learning experiences for other facets of their lives, and they look very differently on serious broadcasting---negatively or derogatory. They are

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thus discouraged from selecting such broadcasts in favor of those which are more amusing.

The use to which television will be put during the next decades by Americans will depend in part upon the attitudes toward television learned in school and as well as at home. In accordance to this observation Schramm concludes that: “ it is reasonable assumption, however, that the use the child is taught to make of serious television in the elementary school years will largely determine the extent to which he continues to use it through the teens; and if the chance is lost, then the full usefulness of educational television will not become apparent to him, if at all, until he is through school and on his own” The challenge in here is that how the public-service television will offer another method of introducing such programs in a different manner to the teachers, administrators, and parents in the United States that will not have a result of any negative issue or jargons in the future.

FOREIGN STUDIES

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In television, a medium that provides pervasive and vast information in the society that can be seen or hear, a technology that provides big potential in education. The US office of education commissioned a study of the research on educational television in 1967. Their final report noted that between 1957 and 1967 made 269 literature projects. The application of TV in education reported in 1967, and those attempted subsequently, can be categorized as follows: • Replicating teachers and televising them to several small sections of a largeenrolment college course. This is done with or without teaching assistants at section sites. • Replicating master teachers and televising them to classes in school districts where qualified teachers in certain subjects are not available. • Replicating courses and televising them at homes, allowing professionals to participate in continuing-education experiences. This approach has been used for college credit and high school equivalency diploma program. • Delivering in-service training to groups of teachers and administrators throughout a school district.

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Providing the capacity for image magnification to enhance and facilitate in-class demonstrations of all kinds.

Providing supplemental/enrichment motion picture materials, delivered by video. A teacher-operated videocassette or DVD system is markedly more convenient than the classroom use of a motion picture projection setup.

Making feasible self-confrontation-by-videotape techniques for teaching skills of all kinds. The learner’s performance is recorded and then the tape is reviewed with or without the teacher.

TV empowers individuals by amplifying their capacity to see and hear virtually anything, anywhere, but it seems that teachers are not because they are afraid to be replaced and could reach their professional security and also the fear that decrease the need of teachers. This perception lead to the existence that TV can promote and enhance their fidelity, relevancy, and accessibility of the information they are making to learners.

THE ETV EXPECTATIONS GAP ANALYZED Four primary reasons of failure 1. Television VS. Teacher’s Traditional Role

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Thompson’s views an educational television and teachers in 1969 are still valid today. “Teachers are the original! It seemed that the ETV wanted to alienate the classroom teacher!” it was imposed on the teaching community by educational administration. On the other party, television, the global master medium that daily impacts the extension of human sensory and its immediacy makes it authentic, unique, compelling, and powerful. In 1995, the official major and national higher education said to the teachers that they are still experimenting and learning which topics and modes of presentation make the most attractive alternatives to live sessions. 2. Curriculum-Specific Challenge Teachers make their own curricula based on predetermined objectives. This involves not only what to teach but when to teach it. In late 1970s, low-cost video recorders made the scene. Allowing schools to record the televised lessons made it feasible to better integrate these into the curriculum schedule in piece. 3. Faulty Adaptation There’s no doubt that TV can be adapted to a host of applications, and the degree of adaptation determines the effectiveness. Not everyone can understand the “concept of

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adaptation” with regards to the use of television in education. Often, the result has been a mismatch similar to having a farmer use a jetliner to spray a cotton field. 4. Perceiving Television as a Passive Medium The use of television is passive when effort and imagination have not been expended to make it an active, exciting, compelling medium for importing audible and visible information to teachers. The outcome depends on the users or teachers’ understanding of televisions’ versatility. According to Kathleen Kennedy Manzo on her article “Studies Support Benefits of Educational TV for Reading”, a new generation of programs, and a rigorous research effort to test its impact, is adding to the “Sesame Street” legacy and working to clarify for parents the potential benefits for television viewing, particularly for literacy development. The researchers found out that educational television has earned high praise and millions of fans for entertaining and educating young children, while learning experts surely agree that too much television and inappropriate content can have detrimental effects on children, the right kinds of programs can set them on the path toward reading. Welldesigned programs can teach distinct skills such and sound recognition, as wells as cultivate a love reading. Literacy has been a dominant theme of public-television programs since the first episodes of “Sesame Street”. Many parents since then have observed firsthand effectiveness of those lessons, there is now growing empirical evidence that such carefully crafted segments deliver an academic punch. A federally
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financed study released last month, for example, found that “World World,” a program funded under the Ready to learn initiative, helps pre-school children learn oral vocabulary and featured words. “Between the Lions,” hosted by a puppet family of lions who live in New York City Library, has been studied even more extensively. Studies on the 10-year-old program have linked it to significant gains in students’ understanding of how letters combine to make words, as well as of the purpose of the printed word. The American Academy of Pediatrics has recognized that some television programming has benefits. The academy also points to the potential for television in general to send the wrong messages about violence, drug use, and other negative behaviors, as well as its documented role in promoting sedentary behavior that can lead to childhood obesity. The best programs create a content that reflects research on how children learn and test it out on children prior to putting it on television, while public television tends to dominate the educational market, the cable stations Nickelodeon and Disney Channel have also found success in promoting children’s learning on shows such as “Blues Clues” and “Little Einstein’s.” Even as children become more accustomed to different kinds of media, from computer games to interactive Web sites, children’s television has held a large and steady audience, experts say. The newer programs, and even those now heading into middle age, are adapting their approach to engage the digital generation. Most of the shows have accompanying Web sites that provide video clips, activities, and related lessons and games.
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It is the reason why television focused on learning is a valuable asset worthy of public support, said Susan T. Zellman, the vice president for education and children’s content at the corporation for Public Broadcasting, the non-profit organization established by Congress that underwrites public television and radio services. “These characters are engaging, and the kids are drawn into [lessons] by the characters and the stories, so you motivate them to learn,” she said. “Educational television is so powerful and the research is so compelling.” LOCAL LITERATURE A written lecture on Educational Television by Purisima Katigbak-Tan was used by the researchers as sources of related literature for their research paper. The lectures contain reliable descriptions and explanations of what an educational television. Necessary information that could support the ideas of the researchers is found on the said studies. Many people give importance with education especially the Filipino people. Aside from going to school and attending classes, there are also other means of educating the people especially the young one. With its big influence to its audience, television is used as medium of instruction to impart knowledge to the viewers. There are several factors that become an urge to see the use of television as something with educational benefit. These are the population growth, shortage of
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teachers, and growing body of knowledge that students must master in schools. The first factor has something to do with the increasing number of students enrolled in elementary, high school, and college. As the population increases, there is a pressure to school administrators with regards to how they would be able to deal and supplement the required needs of their students and the demands of education. The second factor, which is shortage of teachers, is actually a dilemma that even Philippines encounters yearly. Lack of facilitators makes the learning process difficult for the students. The uneven ratio of the teachers and students tends to become worse for the increase in the population of the students is inevitable. The last factor is the growing body of knowledge that students master in schools. The lessons that are being taught in schools are developed as time passes. Together with its development is the greater demand on how information will be presented to the students. The quality of education will be at stake if the complexity of lessons to be mastered is not met with compromising actions. School administrators have seen the potentials of television as a medium of education and instruction. They are encouraged to adapt an innovation on educational system. The innovation made the teachers fear about being replaced by television sets as facilitators. Televisions are not teachers but just a medium of presentation of lessons in schools. Television makes the complex learning process easier and it offers several advantages as a teaching aid. (1) Quality of indefinite extension – the television can be an extensive medium and could cater large number of students simultaneously with one
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lecture that is prepared on a greater economy of time. (2) Sound amplification – lectures are presented with clearer audio explanation and more comprehensive demonstration unlike with traditional means of teaching such as charts, graphs, and even photographic slides. (3) Visual medium – television can give more detailed and magnified view of a given subject being projected and taught by the teacher. (4) Dynamic medium – the things being projected by the television are changing and with it, the television also becomes dynamic and attractive. (5) Immediate and personal – television makes the student feel as if he/she is the only one that his/her professor is talking with even if he/she belongs to a large class. (6) Selective and efficient – A certain lecture could be more informative on a television for it has spent a full-blown preparation for a more dramatic presentation that students are obliged to be attentive. (7) Television can bring them to students a wealth of experience and information beyond the conventional means of classroom instruction – the students will not only picture the lessons on their imagination, they could also see it with their eyes through the visuals such as video coverage or clips that television can show them. Though television might seem as effective teaching aid as it can be, it also has its limitations. Television is limited to its technical aspect and also, lectures are limited only to what is being presented. There will be a low chance of elaborating the lessons according to what the students need and find hard to comprehend.

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Educational television is more of an instructional television (ITV) that systematically utilizes television as a part of the school curriculum. In this kind of program system, conveying educational information to students is very salient. Programs have to be educational and entertaining at the same time for it has to have dramatic ways of presentation. Educational television as an ITV presents courses that students also learn in school and within their school curriculum. Through ITV, lessons are being elaborated and could give supplementary information about the lecture. In this kind of system, aside from studio teachers, classroom teachers are also needed. Classroom teachers are the ones who prepare and monitor the students on how far they comprehend from the televised discussion. Currently in the Philippines, ETV is a big help especially on areas that could not really present their lectures on a conventional way. It may not be formatted just like before; ETV is still appealing to the students especially with the young ones. Through ETV, learning becomes fun, and fun becomes learning.

LOCAL STUDIES According to Marshall McLuhan, television entertainment has been a part of culture and became an influential force. It is the main rationale why it is use for

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educational purposes because of its properties and potentials. It delivers a highly persuasive and instructive content. ETV is advertised as television that people watch “on purpose”, it has intent on selecting programs based on their educational content. ETV is television that requires participation from viewers. Like a teacher, it facilitates learning to reflect and act on what they have learned – to apply the lessons by different activities like reading and the like. It creates a simulation of a community that one must be engage rather than merely dwelling into it. Subjects like Math, Art, Science, Social Science, Technology and others. Different subjects were prepared and rendered according to the audience’ demographics and it is under a school setting under a teacher’s supervision or at home unsupervised. ETV has become one of the major teaching media nowadays. Philippines on its stage of development use the concept of ETV to educate the mass especially the children. It serves as a first aid for difficulty on understanding concepts and principles which most of students can’t understand. According to Leo Larkin, a researcher who conducted a study on ETV in Ateneo de Manila, the quantitative nature of television instruction has helped foreign institutions handle more enrollments without spending for building classrooms or hire more professors. He said that conversion of simple materials and facilities and use of teachers will work. He said that it could possible work in the Philippine scenario.

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Larkin believed that ETV gives teachers more opportunities to help individuals. He said that teachers will be freed from different constraints of class preparations or further duties or extra-curricular activities. Teachers will have freedom to devote his time to more productive things like helping individuals. Teachers will carry a lesser burden from a usual routine group instruction. Another benefit I that, using ETV will decrease the compensation for class needs which hinders teacher’s increase of salary. Wilbur Schramm, a media scholar, said that using ETV maintains a certain standard for teaching. It can supply best teaching demonstrations, it provides elf instructional materials can conduct lessons professionally and they can give otherwise be spoiled for direct observation. On Science subjects, it is really effective medium of instruction. However, there are limitations in use of ETV especially during hands-on-work with specimens. It cannot conduct effective seminar discussions. It cannot offer specific and direct personal help. The ETV system is believed to detract from student discussion. Ergo, the student does not have the opportunity to ask questions nor to receive a feedback from his output. According to the studies conducted by Center of Educational Priorities, prolonged TV viewing weakens the left-hemisphere of the brain. The left-hemisphere controls the right side of the body which focuses on language and speech functions. The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body that focuses on perception of spatial and

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non-verbal concepts. Neil Postman said that the habit of viewing will weaken the function of the left brain. ETV is also believed that it has negative effects on behavior. It promotes passivity and indifference because of the lack of required response. Viewers were la thinkers since all the information needed is conveniently available and entertaining. Leon Botstein said that education on TV in the long run will deteriorate one’s language ability. The

simplification and standardization of language restricts the range of expression and thought even silent remuneration. In this sense, eloquence and even originality, from the perspectives of the classroom here become superfluous. The oral tradition has triumphed over the written. Professor Lois DeBakey of Baylor University has a similar concern. He thinks that ETV will create semi-literacy and breakdown in the manner that people communicate with each other. Neal Postman adds that the imagery of television moves quickly. He added that television is discontinuous and logical since entertainment value is mere emotions and not concept processing. Hence, even if the curriculum of an ETV shows is difficult that nature of presentation will likely deteriorate learning rather than improvement. The issues of school integration will be challenged and also civilization because intelligence is vital in man’s progress. According to Harper’s magazine there is an alarming drop of the average 6-14 year old child’s vocabulary in US. From 25,000 words, it has dropped to 10,000 within
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fifty years. Symbols and icons are replacing words and phrases. These statistics go to show that ETV must be integrated with other teaching media for students to have balanced brain development: The query is not just how to use television but rather how to combine it on other learning experience and resources. Television is not only the teaching resource, so it can be used in other media to teach properly. Experience indicates the most effective uses of Television have been combined with other activities for a total learning situation. Educational media has been a big help for education practitioners. In the Philippines, the use of educational television has been a challenge since the country is poverty stricken. The Philippine government doesn’t have enough financial support for such framework of educating the masses. Moreover, the masses, the schools and the teachers cannot afford barely the needs for educational intervention. Manila has educational problems among these are a shortage of qualified and certified teachers, a dearth of science and mathematics courses and insufficient and illadapted audio-visuals. These problems coupled with large concentration of schools indicate that television instruction might help educator in Manila to solve some of their problems. Larkin believes ETV would be good for the Philippines. His studies show that an initial and modest educational television project does have potential here. There are two
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different schemes for ETV; the limited implementation which refers to devoting only to two channels; on the other hand, a full scale implementation refers to “nationwide interconnection of educational stations and a new system of production, evaluation and exchange of instructional television materials. Limited ETV project will be the key for improving education in the Philippines. However, it will not guarantee an avant-garde education progress for Philippine masses would have a proper attitude when it comes to TV viewing. Most of the people watch “utility programs”, social science and culture, art aesthetics, history, natural science, education and humanity. It simply implies that in the Philippines, though ETV was enforced, the most needs would not be instructed properly. There, with the unsupervised self-study form of ETV, the ignorant Philippine masses (those who cannot afford TV but cannot send their children to school) would remain ignorant (Schramm). The cost for ETV is high, making ETV even more impractical for the Philippine setting. Larkin listed different costs to worry about like equipment, installation, maintenance, operating personnel etc., and even if Philippine will follow the full force framework, the costs would be way out of the country’s league. The Philippines is not financially equipped to carry the weight of using ETV as educating media. Any intervention for media system and media technology will not be able to work at its full strength for public good (Schramm). The Philippines cannot implement ETV in full-scale due to poverty so it will not be a danger to rely on ETV that much. Moreover, some
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education is better none at all. People will buy television instead of sending their kids at school. The Philippine does have “The Knowledge Channel” on local television at the present which does people no harm. It has Math and Science programs during the day, and it is much like the “Lifestyle network” on Cable TV at night. Another local television channel available in free TV has been broadcasting. “ABS-CBN’ also offers its own educational programs like “Sineskwela (Science and health)”, “Bayani”(Philippine Heroes Anthology), “Pahina”(Philippine Literature), “Epol, Apple”(English), “Art Jam”(Arts), “Math tinik”(Mathematics) and “Hiraya Manawari”(Values Education). On the other hand, the members of the middle class may be able to appreciate the few channels dedicated to ETV. The Discovery Channel, Animal Planet and National Geographic which already offered various educational programs were available at cable channels. Some were compiled and viewed at scheduled hours at school. Simply means that the middle class can only use and benefit from ETV. Of course, this would be extremely difficult and not very practicable. First, there is no guarantee that all students have TV sets at home. Students may not have arrived home in time for the required show. They may have other engagements to attend to. Aside from that, requiring TV shows would lengthen school day by more than it has to be and it would set up precious family time or time for extra-curricular activities.

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The Philippines has been doing surprising well where ETV is concerned, considering its economic situation. Perhaps a little more pushing for ETV stations could make more a difference in the literacy of the Filipino masses. SYNTHESIS: The researchers have gathered different studies and researches for this study. They have used it according to its significance to support the study. The first related literature from George Gordon is Educational Television’s journey and continuous integration to U.S TV programming. It also discusses ETV as a Public service program as it helps to educate the mass specifically the young audiences. On the local literature, the researchers used Educational Television lecture included in the book, Philippine Mass Media in Perspective from Purisma Katigbak Tan. It elaborates how ETV was discovered and used in Philippine programming. The research also scrutinized the advantages and disadvantages of using ETV in educating the Filipino masses and moreover how the Philippine Media will respond to every factors affecting ETV implementation. The researchers also acknowledge the use of foreign studies to compare and contrast Philippine ETV from ETV abroad. They used the study of Michael T. Romano in his study on Educational Television: a 50 year perspective. The study delved on the use to television as an educational media; how it will help the teachers, students and the school; ETV’s constraints and what ETV would be on the near future. On local studies, the researchers used Leo Larkin’s study on the use of entertainment to educate the children
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considering the Philippine scenario. On his study, “Should Entertainment be used to educate, it discussed further the concept of ETV and ETV in Philippine setting. The same with the foreign studies, it also elaborated the limitations of ETV. In addition, Larkin even discussed the practicability of ETV in Philippine setting and the current situation of ETV in Philippine setting. Lastly, Larkin gave a verdict on ETV’s condition in the near future. The researchers do recommend that the study has to be student centered and or teacher centered. For, the students are the last recipient of terminal effects brought by information from ETV. The teachers also have to be considered as the teachers have an avant-garde knowledge of the best strategies and lecture according to the needs of the students. The researchers of this study must focus on assessment of children’s needs from ETV program.

CHAPTER III Methodology This chapter deals with the researcher’s data gathering methods as basis for the research findings. The researchers consider the methods and how it will be implemented.

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Research Design The researchers of the study will use a descriptive survey as tool for gathering data that will serve as the basis for research findings. The survey is designed according to the criteria of “needs analysis” as framework of forming questions. Survey questionnaires will be distributed to the selected students following certain conditions. Participants of the Study The researchers will distribute the survey questionnaires to the selected 40 University of the East, Manila students. The respondents were divided into to two groups. The first group is consisting 20 Education major students of any year level. The second group is consisting of 20 Broadcast Communication students of any year level. There were conditions for respondents in answering the questionnaire. 1. Students must be a current or have been watching ETV programs. 2. Students must have background knowledge on what are ETV programs. 3. Students must use respective learnings from their respective course to evaluate. Sampling Design The researchers will use the stratified purposive sampling design to select the data gathered. These sampling designs will both evaluations from two groups being surveyed. Results were following certain criteria inculcated by the researcher’s framework.
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Instrumentation The survey method will follow the collective questionnaire format wherein questions are prepared accordingly. It has three parts, the questions for demographics (age, gender, course and college); the questions to know the knowledge of the respondents to the ETV programs; lastly, the assessment questions. Description Questions were classified according to its importance. It is cumulative from introductory to assessment questions. The first which is demographics followed by the introductory which students have choices of answers to choose from. Lastly, the assessment questions which the answers were classified into agree, strongly agree, disagree and strongly disagree.

Development and Validation Survey questions were produced by the researchers according to criteria and research framework the researchers used. The survey questions were validated by the professor, Mrs. Adela T. Avillanoza. Administration

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The researchers supervise the distribution of the survey questionnaires. Researchers first know the respondents and apply the conditions for participants of the study. They went to College of Education and College of Arts and Sciences which is the location of data gathering. The researchers also conducted personal interactions with the respondents. Statistical Treatment of Data Frequency, percentage and ranking were used as statistical measurements for data gathered. It will also use to collate the data and have the results subject for presentation, interpretation and analysis. For percentage: P= R / N x 100 where P= percentage R= no. of respondents N = total no. of respondents 100= is constant For Weighted Mean where Wi= frequency
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Xi= rate

CHAPTER IV Data presentation, analysis and Interpretation

40

The researchers collated the answers from the survey questionnaires and come out with the results. The researchers used table for presentation of data. Researchers also analyzed and interpret the data they have gathered from the survey results. Table 1 NUMBER OF STUDENTS PATRONIZING ETV PROGRAMS INCLUDING STUDENTS WHO HAS FAMILY MEMBERS WATCHING ETV PROGRAMS CEd Students Question Frequency Yes
Number of Students who patronized ETV programs Number of students who have family members that patronized ETV programs

BroadComm Students Percentage Yes 90% No 10% Frequency Yes 20 No 0 Percentage Yes 100 No 0%

No 2

18

15

5

75%

25%

16

4

80

20%

Table 1 shows the comparison of the number of students of CED and BroadComm students who patronize ETV programs. The CED shows that 90% of the respondents patronized ETV programs and the remaining 10% doesn’t watch ETV programs. It also shows that 75% of the respondent’s family members also patronized ETV programs and the remaining 25% doesn’t watch ETV programs. On the other hand,
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the results of the survey from Broadcom students show that 100% of the respondents patronized ETV programs. It also shows that 80% of the respondents have family members’ also patronized ETV programs and the remaining 25% doesn’t watch ETV programs. The results show that most of the students from two different courses were watching ETV programs. Table 2 AGE BRACKET OF THE STUDENTS WHO STARTED PATRONIZING ETV PROGRAMS AT EARLY AGE CEd Students Age groups 6-8 yrs old 9-12 yrs old 13-15 yrs old none Frequency 14 5 0 1 Percentage 70 25 0 5 Broadcom Students Frequency 18 1 1 0 Percentage 90 5 5 0

Table 2 shows the age bracket of students who start watching ETV programs at early age. The result from the survey at CED students shows that 70% of the respondents started watching ETV programs at the age of 6-8 while 25% is for 9-12years of age and the remaining 5% says that they didn’t watch ETV programs at all. On the other hand, the survey from Broadcom students reveals that 90% of the respondents started watching ETV programs at the age of 6-8 while both 9-12 and 13-15 age brackets got 5%.

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The results shows that the CED and Broadcom students both started patronize ETV programs mostly at the 6-8 years of age. The results from CED is 70% and the Broadcom which is 90% which depicts relatively in their similar response. Table 3 NUMBERS CED AND BROADCOM STUDENTS WATCHING ETV PROGRAMS
ON THE IDENTIFIED TV NETWORKS

CEd Students TV Networks ABS-CBN 2 GMA 7 QTV 11 none Frequency 16 2 2 1 Percentage 80% 10% 5% 5%

Broadcom Students Frequency 12 7 1 0 Percentage 60% 35% 5% 0%

Table 3 shows the results of the number of students watching ETV programs on the identified TV network. The survey reveals that 80% of the respondents of the CED are watching ETV programs on ABS-CBN, 10% of CED respondents tell that they watch ETV programs on GMA. Then QTV having 5% of viewership and the respondents that don’t watch ETV programs on any network both got 5%. Broadcom students show that 90% of them were watching ETV programs on ABS-CBN. Then, 35% of them tell that they watch ETV programs on GMA and the remaining 5% tells that they watch programs on QTV. Both populations patronize most of the ETV programs on ABS-CBN network since it shows relatively close results of respondents.
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Table 4 IDENTIFIED ETV PROGRAMS PATRONIZED BY CED AND BROADCOM
STUDENTS

CEd Students ETV Programs Sineskwela Epol Apple Math-tinik Pahina Art Jam Bayani Hiraya Manawari Matanglawin Lovely Day Kap’s Amazing stories Batibot Frequency 16 7 3 6 1 4 12 8 1 6 0 Percentage 80 35 15 30 5 20 60 40 5 6 0

Broadcom Students Frequency 20 5 7 6 2 8 7 5 2 6 2 Percentage 95 25 35 30 10 40 10 35 10 30 10

Table 4 shows that 80% of the CED respondents patronized Sineskwela; 60% for Hiraya Manawari; 40% for matanglawin; 35% for Epol Apol, 30% for Pahina, 20% for Bayani, 15% for Math-tinik, 6% for Kap’s amazing stories, while Art jam and Lovely day both got 5%. On the other hand, the results from Broadcom students show that 95% of the respondents patronized Sineskwela. 40% for Bayani, 35% for both Matanglawin
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and Mathtinik, 30% for Pahina and Kap’s amazing stories, 25% for Epol apol and 10% for art jam, Hiraya manawari, Lovely day and Batibot. CED and Broadcom students have different answers regarding the program of their choice. However, Sineskwela is dominantly watched by the students followed by Hiraya Manawari and Matanglawin. Table 4.1 RANKS OF ETV PROGRAMS ACCORDING TO CED AND BROADCOM STUDENTS
ETV programs CED Students Broadcom Students

Frequency Percentage Rank 16 12 8 44 33 22 1 2 3

Frequency Percentage Rank 20 8 7 57 23 20 1 2 3

Sineskwela Matanglawin Hiraya Manawari

Table 5 SUBJECTS ACCORDING TO CED AND BROADCOM STUDENT’S OPINION THAT ETV PROGRAMS HAS TO FOCUS CEd students Subjects English Mathematics Science Frequency 11 3 3 Percentage 55 15 15
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Broadcom students Frequency 10 3 2 Percentage 50 15 10

History and Culture Music, P.E, Arts Filipino

2 1 0

10 5 0

2 2 1

10 10 5

The results show that for CED, English subject needs to be focus for having 55% followed by Mathematics and Science which is both 15% and History and Culture with 10% while Music. P.E and Arts got 5% and Filipino with no response. The Broadcom students have almost the same numbers of answers as the English subject got 50% on their list of subject to have focused. It is then followed by Mathematics having 15%; Science, History and Culture and Filipino all having 10%. Filipino got only 5%. The survey results mean that the English subject receives the highest recognition as a subject that ETV programs have to focus. Mathematics and Science is relatively the same results followed by History and Culture. Table 6 ASSESSMENTS OF CED STUDENTS TO ETV PROGRAMS

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Assessment Questions according to Moral values, Entertainment values and program performance ETV plays an important role on students moral values ETV promotes and reinforces Filipino cultural values ETV is using entertaining and recreational way of educating student Innovations on technical aspects of production as keys for effective programming ETV programs have terminal effects on students performance and studying attitudes ETV programs must be prioritized in Philippine Programming scenario

Frequency
Strongly Agree (4) Agree (3) Disagree (2) Strongly Disagree (1)

Weighted Mean
4 being the highest

8

12

0

0

3.4

10

10

0

0

3.5

5

15

0

0

3.1

5

14

1

0

3.2

6

14

0

0

3.3

2

18

0

0

3.1

3.4 weighted mean shows that CED students believe that ETV helps promotion of moral values.

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3.5 weighted mean shows that CED students believe that ETV helps on promoting Filipino cultural values

3.1 weighted mean shows that CED students agree that ETV has its usage of entertainment an recreation to educate the mass.

3.2 weighted mean shows that CED students think that innovations of the technical aspects of the program have to be implemented for effective broadcasting.

3.3 weighted mean shows that CED students believe that ETV has terminal effects on the student’s studying and learning attitude. 30% of them strongly disagree.

3.1 of the CED students believe that ETV programs must be prioritized in Philippine TV.

Table 6.1 ASSESSMENTS OF BROADCOM SUDENTS TO ETV PROGRAMS

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Assessment Questions according to Moral values, Entertainment values and program performance

Frequency
Strongly Agree(4) Agree(3) Disagree (2) Strongly Disagree (1)

Weighted Mean (4 being the highest)

ETV plays an important role on students moral values ETV promotes and reinforces Filipino cultural values ETV is entertaining and recreational way of educating student Innovations on technical aspects of production as keys for effective programming ETV programs have terminal effects on students performance and studying attitudes ETV programs must be prioritized in Philippine Programming scenario

9 10 12

11 10 8

0 0 0

0 0 0

3.45 3.5 3.6

7

8

1

0

2.7

8

12

0

0

2.4

2

18

0

0

3.1

3.45 weighted mean says that Broadcom students agree that ETV plays an important role on student’s moral values It means that the respondents think that ETV programs have its functions for values.

3.5 weighted mean of the results shows that most of the Broadcom students agree ETV helps on promoting Filipino cultural values.
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3.6 shows a relatively high agreement of the Broadcom students ETV has its usage of entertainment and recreation to educate the mass

2.7 weighted mean shows a relatively low agreement that Broadcom students think that innovations of the technical aspects of the program have to be implemented for effective broadcasting.

2.4 weighted mean result shows that Broadcom students believe that ETV has terminal effects on the student’s studying and learning attitude.

3.1% of the Broadcom students believe that ETV programs must be prioritized in Philippine TV.

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CHAPTER V Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations This chapter contains the summary of the entire conducted study. This chapter has the statement of the problems, hypotheses, summary of results, conclusion and recommendations. The study aims to have an evaluative analysis on the identified educational television programs in free TV as basis for broadcast program development. It is conducted at the University of the East, Manila Year 2009-2010. The following problems are answered after the study was conducted. 1. What are the student’s backgrounds on patronizing ETV programs? • Number of student’s watching ETV.
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• • • •

Number of students with family members watching ETV program. Age the students started watching ETV program. Network they subscribe ETV program. ETV programs they have been patronizing.

2.

What are the needs of the students and teachers that have to be

sufficed by educational television programs in terms of; media innovations, subjects, values, and entertainment? 3. What is the current performance assessment of the students for the

use of ETV program? Hypotheses: Accept the affirmative hypothesis (Ha) and reject the null hypothesis (Ho) 1. The study conducted showed results that students were watching

ETV programs at a specified TV network, specific TV program and have family members whose watching ETV programs.
2.

The educational Television programs need to suffice the media

technologies. The need for subject focus and integration is significant.
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Programs must have social, cultural, family and personal values. The consideration of entertainment values is also needed for program effectiveness.
3. The students who watch the identified ETV programs don’t show any

recognition to program’s contributions.

Summary of Findings: The study has the title “An evaluative analysis of the identified educational television programs in free TV; basis for broadcast program development” The summary of findings contains all of the results that served as the answer for the study from the administered survey questionnaires answered by 40 respondents of different course. Here are the following results. 1. Number of students patronizing ETV programs 1.1 90% of the CED students patronizing ETV programs compared to

Broadcom students which is 100%. 1.2 75% of the respondent’s family members also patronized ETV programs
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and the remaining 25% doesn’t watch ETV programs. On the other hand, the

results of the survey from Broadcom students show that 100% of the respondents patronized ETV programs. It also shows that 80% of the respondents have family members’ also patronized ETV programs and the remaining 25% doesn’t watch ETV programs. 2. Age bracket of student’s age patronizing ETV programs. 2.1 70% of the CED respondents started watching ETV programs at the age of 6-8 while 25% is for 9-12years of age and the remaining 5% says that they didn’t watch ETV programs at all. On the other hand, the survey from Broadcom students reveals that 90% of the respondents started watching ETV programs at the age of 6-8 while both 9-12 and 13-15 age brackets got 5%. 3. Number of CED and Broadcom students who watched ETV programs on the identified TV networks. 80% of the respondents of the CED are watching ETV programs on ABSCBN, 10% of CED respondents tell that they watch ETV programs on GMA. Then QTV having 5% of viewership and the respondents that don’t watch ETV programs on any network both got 5%.

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Broadcom students show that 90% of them were watching ETV programs on ABS-CBN. Then, 35% of them tell that they watch ETV programs on GMA and the remaining 5% tells that they watch programs on QTV. 4. Identified ETV programs patronized by CED and Broadcom students 80% of the CED respondents patronized Sineskwela; 60% for Hiraya Manawari; 40% for matanglawin; 35% for Epol Apol, 30% for Pahina, 20% for Bayani, 15% for Math-tinik, 6% for Kap’s amazing stories, while Art jam and Lovely day both got 5%. On the other hand, the results from Broadcom students show that 95% of the respondents patronized Sineskwela. 40% for Bayani, 35% for both Matanglawin and Mathtinik, 30% for Pahina and Kap’s amazing stories, 25% for Epol apol and 10% for art jam, Hiraya manawari, Lovely day and Batibot. CED and Broadcom students have different answers regarding the program of their choice. However, Sineskwela is dominantly watched by the students followed by Hiraya Manawari and Matanglawin Subject according that needs to be focused by ETV programs. English subject needs to be focus for having 55% followed by Mathematics and Science which is both 15% and History and Culture with 10% while Music. P.E and Arts got 5% and Filipino with no response. The Broadcom students have almost the same numbers of answers as the English subject got 50% on their list
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of subject to have focused. It is then followed by Mathematics having 15%; Science, History and Culture and Filipino all having 10%. Filipino got only 5%. The survey results mean that the English subject receives the highest recognition as a subject that ETV programs have to focus. Mathematics and Science is relatively the same results followed by History and Culture.

5. Assessment of CED and Broadcom students to the ETV programs according to According to media innovations, moral values and entertainment value. CED student’s results. • 3.4 weighted mean shows that CED students believe that ETV helps promotion of moral values. • 3.5 weighted mean shows that CED students believe that ETV helps on promoting Filipino cultural values • 3.1 weighted mean shows that CED students agree that ETV has its usage of entertainment an recreation to educate the mass.
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3.2 weighted mean shows that CED students think that innovations of the technical aspects of the program have to be implemented for effective broadcasting.

3.3 weighted mean shows that CED students believe that ETV has terminal effects on the student’s studying and learning attitude. 30% of them strongly disagree.

3.1 of the CED students believe that ETV programs must be prioritized in Philippine TV. Broadcom students survey results.

3.45 weighted mean says that Broadcom students agree that ETV plays an important role on student’s moral values It means that the respondents think that ETV programs have its functions for values.

3.5 weighted mean of the results shows that most of the Broadcom students agree ETV helps on promoting Filipino cultural values.

3.6 shows a relatively high agreement of the Broadcom students ETV has its usage of entertainment and recreation to educate the mass

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2.7 weighted mean shows a relatively low agreement that Broadcom students think that innovations of the technical aspects of the program have to be implemented for effective broadcasting.

2.4 weighted mean result shows that Broadcom students believe that ETV has terminal effects on the student’s studying and learning attitude.

3.1% of the Broadcom students believe that ETV programs must be prioritized in Philippine TV.

Conclusions of the study 1) Students background on patronizing ETV program. Most of the students were watching ETV programs and have family members whose also watching ETV programs. At an early age of 6-8 years old students has been watching ETV programs. They are watching most of the ETV programs from ABS-CBN. Most of the students from two groups like “Sineskwela”, “Matanglawin” and “Hiraya Manawari”. 2) Assessment of ETV programs as to media innovation, subjects, values and entertainment.
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Most of the students think that English subject must be a priority for literacy followed by Mathematics and Science. Most of the students agree that media innovations will help educational media like ETV to have an effective programming. It will help to educate the mass. ETV programs also promoting and reinforce the Filipino culture and moral values. Lastly, the entertainment value and recreational way of educating will help the effectiveness of programming. 3) ETV has been educating the students by helping them in their lessons and yield effects.

Recommendations: According to the conducted study the researchers would like to recommend the following.
1. To the ETV programming, ETV programs must prioritize an effort and allocation

for innovation in media. Moreover, ETV programs must be “audience centered”, specifically zero in to the student’s needs to have an effective broadcast education programming. Quality programming requires entertainment value. Responsible programming reinforces and maintains cultivation of culture.

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2. To the researchers of the study, it would be better if the researcher will delved on more specific needs of the students and teachers according to critical criteria. It will help the study to have more accurate and relevant results. 3. To the future researchers of the study, focusing on the different angle and sphere of ETV will be the key for a significant study. The use of critical analysis will yield a new research study that will help further innovations to ETV program.

Bibliography Books Feliciano, G. D., & Icban Jr., C. J. (1967) Philippine Mass Media in Perspective. Q.C., Philippine: Capitol Publishing House Inc. Romano, M. T. (2003). Empowering teachers with Technology: Making it happen. Maryland , Oxford: The Scarecrow Press, Inc. George, G. (1969) Educational Television. New York. Center for Applied Research Internet 60

Larkin, L. H. (1960). Should Entertainment be used to educate?: Towards Educational television for Greater Manila. Aurisville, N.Y. Available: http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/372917/the_practicability_of_education al_television_pg7.html?cat=2 Manzo, K.K. (n.d.). Studies Support Benefits of Educational TV for Reading. EducationWeek: Available: http://www.education.com/reference/article/studiessupport-benefits-educational-tv/

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