You are on page 1of 6

ABSTRACT

The English word pneumatic and its associate noun pneumatics are derived from the
Greek pneuma meaning breath or air. Originally coined to give a name to the science of the
motions and properties of air. Compressed air is a vital utility- just like water, gas and
electricity used in countless ways to benefit everyday life. Pneumatics is application of
compressed air (pressurized air) to power machine or control or regulate machines. Simply
put, Pneumatics may be defined as branch of engineering science which deals with the study
of the behaviour and application of compressed air.
Pneumatic system is a system that uses compressed air to transmit and control energy. Some
applications of the system in real world is in controlling train doors, automatic production
lines and mechanical clamps. Pneumatic system is widely used due to its high durability and
reliability, simplicity, safety and high adaptability to harsh environment. Through the
experiments conducted, a pneumatic system is set up and operated, operation of a 3-way, 2position directional control valve is verified and one-cycle reciprocation system is tested.

OBJECTIVE
1. Set up and operate a pneumatic system using the Conditioning Unit, a directionalcontrol
valve and a cylinder.
2. To verify the operation of a 3-way, 2-position directional control valve.
3. Set up and operate a one-cycle reciprocation system.
PROCEDURE
*refer to attachments* (lab manual)

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


i.

Introduction to Pneumatics
1. Does the rod of the cylinder extend? Explain why.
NO, because the main supply is connected to normally open valve, hence there is
no airflow pressure.
2. Does the rod of the cylinder extend when the button is pressed?
YES.
3. Explain what happens to the cylinder when the button is released.
The cylinder retracts back to its original position as the air pressure inside is less
than the spring force.
4. Does the cylinder convert fluid energy into linear mechanical motion?
YES.

ii.

Directional Control Valves Circuit using DCV


1. Record the reading indicated by the Pressure Gauge.
0 kPa
2. Push the button on the directional control valve and record the reading indicated
by the Pressure Gauge with this position of the button.
120 kPa
3. Do your observations confirm that this flow path configuration corresponds to a
normally non-passing or a normally passing valve? Explain.
The flow path corresponds to the normally non-passing valve. When the button of
the directional control valve is not pressed, the pressure gauge indicates a reading
of 0 kPa.
4. Record the reading indicated by the Pressure Gauge.
120 kPa
5. Push the button on the directional control valve and record the reading indicated
by the Pressure Gage with this position of the button.
0 kPa
6. Does his flow path configuration correspond to a normally non-passing or
normally passing valve? Explain.

Yes, normally passing valve. When the button on the directional control valve is
not pressed, the pressure gauge readings indicate 120 kPa.
iii.

Directional Control Valves Circuit Using a DCV to Select a Branch Circuit


1. Does the air flow through the same port when the button is pressed?
NO.
2. Do your observations confirm that the directional control valve can be used to
select a branch circuit to be pressurized?
YES.

iv.

Directional Control Valves Circuit Using a DCV to Select a Power Source


1. Record the flow rate indicated by the Flowmeter.
110 L/min.
2. Record the flowrate indicated by the Flowmeter while the button is pressed.
10 L/min.

3. Do your observations confirm that the directional control valve allows selection of
a power source? Explain.
YES, because the conditioning unit is normally connected to the normally closed
of the directional control valve and the output of the directional control valve is
connected to the flowmeter. When the button of the directional control valve is
pressed, the flowmeter indicates the pressure from the control unit.

Basic Electrically Controlled Pneumatic Circuits


i.

Testing the Electrical Control Unit


1. Is pilot lamp of solenoid SOL-A turned on to indicate that the solenoid is
energized
YES
2. With your hand, pull the cylinder rod until it is fully extended. If your circuit is
operational, the pilot lamp L1 and the pilot lamp of SOL-A should turn off.
Explain why.
Because the proximity switch (PX1) detect the rod at the end of the cylinder,
therefore, it send the signal to the relay resulting the turning of the pilot lamp.

ii.

Testing the One-Cycle Reciprocation System


1. Start the cylinder cycle by momentarily depressing the START push-button PB1.
Record what the cylinder rod does.
The cylinder rod move forward and retract back for one cycle.
2. Does the cylinder rod cycle more than one time or does it stop after one cycle?
The cylinder stops after one cycle.

3. Start the cycle by momentarily depressing PB1. Is retraction automatic when the
cylinder rod becomes fully extended? Explain why by referring to the fine ladder
diagram in Figure 2-17.
The cylinder rod does not automatically retract, because the proximity switch
(PX2) send signal thus turns off the relay.
4. Start the cycle by momentarily depressing PB1. Does the cylinder continue to
extend when you release PB1? Explain why by referring to the fine ladder
diagram in Figure 2-17.
The cylinder continues to extend until its maximum. This is because the relay will
only turn off when the second proximity switch is activated.
5. Start the cycle by momentarily depressing PB1 while observing the extension of
the rod. From your observations, what can you conclude about the position of the
magnetic switch?
The position of the magnetic switch will affect the movement of the extension rod.
This is because, the proximity switch (PX1) need to detect the position of the rod
before the movement start and then, the PX2 will stop the movement by sending
signal to the relay.
6. What would happen to the circuit operation if relay contact CR1-A in rung 1 were
removed? Would you still be able to fully extend the cylinder rod? Explain.
YES. Because there are three relays in this circuit and CR1-A relay is connected
parallel to another relay, therefore removing it will not affect the circuit.

CONCLUSION
From the first experiment, that is the pneumatics experiment, the objective is to
identify and build a simple pneumatic circuits based on the given schematics. The 3-way, 2
position directional control valve has 2 outlet; the normally non-passing and the normally
passing, and an inlet. The regulator is functioned to control the air flow pressure. Air will
flow from the inlet and through the normally passing outlet. No air will flow through the
normally non-passing outlet. When the button is pressed, an opposite function will be
observed. Air flows through the normally non-passing outlet while no air should pass the
normally passing outlet. The directional control valve can be used to select a branch circuit to
be pressurized.
Moving on to the second part of the experiment, Basic Electrically Controlled
Pneumatic Circuits is practiced. Electrical circuits can be used to control pneumatic circuits.
Electrical circuits is built, the connections is observed and analysed. By connecting relays in
parallel, we can prevent the circuit from malfunctioning when one relay connection fails. The
functions of various electronic devices, such as proximity switches, relays and solenoid and
pneumatic pilot are also being applied. Therefore, the objectives of this experiment is
achieved.